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Sample records for clinic south africa

  1. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  2. Hearing screening procedures and protocols in use at immunisation clinics in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Petrocchi-Bartal; Katijah Khoza-Shangase

    2014-01-01

    Background: There exists a need for context-relevant research aimed at facilitating the efficacious provision of early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the hearing screening procedures and protocols as well as referral protocols in use at maternal child woman’s health (MCWH) immunisation clinics in South Africa.Method: Thirty primary health care immunisation clinic managers or acting managers were interviewed in two South Af...

  3. White Clinical Psychology Trainees' Views on Racial Equity within Programme Selection in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Craig M.; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The issue of diversity in both physical and epistemological access to programmes in higher education is an important concern worldwide. In South Africa, as elsewhere, access to professional clinical psychology training programmes is extremely competitive, and there is an important imperative to diversify the student profile. Perspectives of black…

  4. Hearing screening procedures and protocols in use at immunisation clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Petrocchi-Bartal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There exists a need for context-relevant research aimed at facilitating the efficacious provision of early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the hearing screening procedures and protocols as well as referral protocols in use at maternal child woman’s health (MCWH immunisation clinics in South Africa.Method: Thirty primary health care immunisation clinic managers or acting managers were interviewed in two South African sample groups. An exploratory, non-experimental,qualitative research design was employed incorporating both quantitative and qualitative information. An interview using a questionnaire was administered with all participants. The questionnaire encompassed areas such as work contexts, hearing screening contexts and information management systems, as well as quality control measures in place at these clinics.Content analysis was then used to code emergent themes into specific categories. Frequency calculations of these themes were calculated and results described qualitatively.Results: No primary health care (PHC clinics placed within the identified sites provided formalised new-born/infant hearing screening and none of these facilities had equipment to do so. Most sites attributed the lack of formalised hearing screening to budgetary and human resource issues, staff training in particular. Non-formalised hearing screening protocols in place demonstrated inconsistencies in application across districts and none complied with Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA clinic guidelines or any international guidelines.Conclusion: Results from the current study have assisted in identifying procedural and logistical assets and barriers to implementation of HPCSA clinic guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI at immunisation clinics in South Africa.

  5. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  6. Collaborative action research to reduce persistently long patient wait times in two public clinics in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A Sastry, PhD; K N G Long, MSPH; A de Sa, MBChB; H Salie, MBChB; S Topp, PhD; S Sanghvi, MBA; L van Niekerk, MBChB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lengthy waiting times are problematic for patients and health-care workers alike. In clinics and hospitals across Africa, persistently long wait times have been linked to poor medication compliance, skipped appointments, delayed implementation of clinical programmes, and low healthcare worker morale. This collabortiave action research study explores practical methods to reduce patient waiting time in high-volume urban primary care public health facilities in South Africa. Metho...

  7. Inherited retinal disorders in South Africa and the clinical impact of evolving technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L; Goliath, R; Rebello, G; Bardien, S; September, A V; Bartmann, L; Loubser, F; Greenberg, L J; Ramesar, R S

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degenerative disorders (RDDs) encompass a group of inherited diseases characterised by vision loss. The genetic and clinical complexity poses a challenge in unravelling the molecular genetic aetiology of this group of disorders. Furthermore, the population diversity in South Africa (SA) presents researchers with a particularly complicated task. Rapid advances in the development of cutting-edge technological platforms over the past two decades, however, have assisted in overcoming some of the challenges. The RDD research team has utilised these escalating technologies, which has facilitated a corresponding increase in molecular diagnoses. A biorepository has been established and comprises ~3 200 patient DNA samples archived with many forms of RDD (including retinitis pigmentosa, macular dystrophies, Stargardt disease, Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome and Bardet Biedl syndrome). A comprehensive review is presented of the SA journey spanning 25 years, into elucidating the molecular genetic basis of various forms of RDD in SA. PMID:27245521

  8. Developing a new mid-level health worker: lessons from South Africa's experience with clinical associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-level medical workers play an important role in health systems and hold great potential for addressing the human resource shortage, especially in low- and middle-income countries. South Africa began the production of its first mid-level medical workers – known as clinical associates – in small numbers in 2008. Objective: We describe the way in which scopes of practice and course design were negotiated and assess progress during the early years. We derive lessons for other countries wishing to introduce new types of mid-level worker. Methods: We conducted a rapid assessment in 2010 consisting of a review of 19 documents and 11 semi-structured interviews with a variety of stakeholders. A thematic analysis was performed. Results: Central to the success of the clinical associate training programme was a clear definition and understanding of the interests of various stakeholders. Stakeholder sensitivities were taken into account in the conceptualisation of the role and scope of practice of the clinical associate. This was achieved by dealing with quality of care concerns through service-based training and doctor supervision, and using a national curriculum framework to set uniform standards. Conclusions: This new mid-level medical worker can contribute to the quality of district hospital care and address human resource shortages. However, a number of significant challenges lie ahead. To sustain and expand on early achievements, clinical associates must be produced in greater numbers and the required funding, training capacity, public sector posts, and supervision must be made available. Retaining the new cadre will depend on the public system becoming an employer of choice. Nonetheless, the South African experience yields positive lessons that could be of use to other countries contemplating similar initiatives.

  9. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  10. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  11. Providing a USSD location based clinic finder in South Africa: did it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Annie Neo; Timler, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    A new mHealth service, Clinic Finder, was designed to provide a location-based service for any cellphone user in South Africa dialing a dedicated USSD string to find the nearest public primary health care facility. The service was funded by a European Union grant to Cell-Life to support the National Department of Health. Clinic Finder's aims were to provide a reliable and accurate service, and to assess both the most effective means of advertising the service as well as interest in the service. Users dialing the USSD string are asked to agree to geo-location (Vodacom and MTN users) or asked to enter their province, town and street (virtual network users and those choosing not to geo-locate). The service provider, AAT, sends the data to Cell-Life where an SMS with details of the nearest public primary health care facility is sent to the user by Cell-Life's open-source Communicate platform. The service was advertised on 3 days in 2014 using two different means: a newspaper ad on 20 May 2014 and Please Call Me ads on 30 July 2014 and 14 August 2014. 28.2% of unique users on 20 May 2014, 10.5% of unique users on 30 July 2014 and 92.8% of unique users on 14 August 2014 who agreed to geo-location successfully received SMSs. However, only 4.2%, 0.5%, and 2.4% of unique users responding to each advertisement who did not geo-locate then received an SMS. A small survey of users following the 20 May 2014 newspaper ad found overall interest in the idea of Clinic Finder, though unsuccessful users were more likely to dislike the service. The overall experience of using location based services and USSD for Clinic Finder suggests a need in the field of mHealth for wider availability of data on service usability and effectiveness. PMID:25365670

  12. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  13. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  14. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  15. Gangrenous ergotism in cattle grazing fescue (Festuca elatior L. in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1st outbreak of fescue toxicosis in South Africa was recently confirmed in a Brahman herd at Perdekop, near Standerton, in Mpumalanga province, SouthAfrica.Within 3 weeks of being placed on a fescue pasture in mid-winter, 50 of 385 cattle developed lameness and / or necrosis of the tail. The farmer had established Festuca elatior L. (tall fescue, Iewag variety on c. 140 ha for winter grazing. Fescue may be infected by an endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces ergot alkaloids, in particular ergovaline. Ergovaline concentrations in basal leaf sheaths and grass stems collected during the outbreak ranged from 1720-8170 ppb on a dry-matter basis.

  16. Post Apartheid South Africa; Evaluating South Africa's Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hopper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.

  17. South Africa : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...

  18. Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use Predict HIV Transmission Risks: Prospective Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients, Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness; Jooste, Sean; Vermaak, Redwaan; Cain, Demetria

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is related to HIV risk behaviors in southern Africa and these behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking personality and alcohol outcome expectancies. Here we report for the first time the associations among sensation seeking, substance use, and sexual risks in a prospective study in Africa. Sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa (157 men and 64 women) completed (a) baseline measures of sensation seeking, sexual enhancement alcohol outcome expect...

  19. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  20. Treatment outcomes of HIV-positive patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in private versus public HIV clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo F; Chasela C; Brennan AT; Ebrahim O; Sanne IM; Long L.; Evans D

    2016-01-01

    Faith Moyo,1 Charles Chasela,2,3 Alana T Brennan,1,4 Osman Ebrahim,5 Ian M Sanne,1,6 Lawrence Long,1 Denise Evans1 1Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3Epidemiology and Str...

  1. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The external current account in South Africa has strengthened significantly in 1999, mainly owing to a large decline in imports. Compared with a deficit of about 1.5 percent of GDP in recent years, it is close to balance during the first three quarters of 1999. A resumption of investor confidence has led to an increase in international reserves and facilitated a decline in the net open forward position (NOFP). The external current account deficit has declined to 0.2 percent of GDP during the ...

  2. Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between

  3. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  4. Assessment of service quality of public antiretroviral treatment (ART clinics in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinkel Hans F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the ever increasing demand for antiretroviral treatment (ART runs the risk of leading to sub-optimal care in public sector ART clinics that are overburdened and under resourced. This study assessed the quality of ART services to identify service areas that require improvement. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at 16 of 17 public ART clinics in the target area in greater Pretoria, South Africa. Trained participant observers presented as ART qualifying HIV positive patients that required a visit to assess treatment readiness. They evaluated each facility on five different occasions between June and November 2009, assessing the time it took to get an appointment, the services available and accessed, service quality and the duration of the visit. Services (reception area, clinician’s consultation, HIV counselling, pharmacy, nutrition counselling and social worker’s assessment were assessed against performance standards that apply to all clinics. Service quality was expressed as scores for clinic performance (CPS and service performance (SPS, defined as the percentage of performance standards met per clinic and service area. Results In most of the clinics (62.5% participant observers were able to obtain an appointment within one week, although on the day of their visit essential services could not always be accessed. The median CPS of the assessed facilities was 68.5 with four clinics not meeting minimum standards (CPS > 60. The service areas that performed least well were the clinician’s consultation (SPS 67.3 and HIV counselling (SPS 70.7. Most notably, clinicians performed a physical examination in only 41.1% of the visits and rarely did a complete TB symptom screening. Counsellors frequently failed to address prevention of HIV transmission. Conclusions Overall public sector ART clinics in greater Pretoria were easily accessible and their services were of an acceptable quality. However

  5. South Africa and SADC : South Africa, a benevolent regional hegemon?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Summary: With the fall of apartheid Mandela and his Government expressed the need to commit itself to the Southern African region arguing that South Africa cannot prosper in a continuous underdeveloped region. Mandela s Government expressed the importance of not dominating or using power strength towards its neighbours. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether South Africa can be said to act as a benevolent regional hegemon in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). F...

  6. Follow-up survey of the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Lobetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirocercosis is an important disease in South Africa. The object of this study was to determine if there had been a change in the prevalence, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi over a 14-year period. A questionnaire was sent to 577 veterinary practices throughout South Africa in 2012. Of responders, 76% indicated that S. lupi occurred in their area, whilst 24% indicated that it did not; 84% considered S. lupi not to be a new phenomenon, whereas 16% considered it to be new. Monthly or seasonal distribution of the disease was not reported, and 76% of responders reported it to occur in no specific breed of dog, whereas 24% reported a breed risk, most considering large breeds to be at greater risk. No specific age or sex was identified as at higher risk. Common owner complaints were vomiting, weight loss, cough, or regurgitation. Reported clinical findings tended to mirror the clinical signs reported by owners. Most common diagnostic methods used were radiology, endoscopy, faecal flotation, and post mortem examination. Forty-four percent did not report seeing asymptomatic cases, 40% reported asymptomatic cases and 16% did not know. Associated complications were reported by 85% of responders, and included oesophageal neoplasia, hypertrophic osteopathy and acute haemothorax. Four different drugs were used as therapy: doramectin, ivermectin, milbemycin and Advocate®, with 9% of the responders using a combination of these four; 85% considered treatment to be effective and 15% ineffective. Treatment was considered more effective if the disease was diagnosed early and there were no complications. Two important conclusions were that more cases are being seen and that efficacy of therapy has increased, with a decrease in the mortality rate.

  7. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  8. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  9. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  10. Incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and impact of HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis John Haddow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART, but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 498 adults initiating ART in Durban, South Africa were followed prospectively for 24 weeks. IRIS diagnosis was based on consensus expert opinion, and classified by mode of presentation (paradoxical worsening of known opportunistic infection [OI] or unmasking of subclinical disease. 114 patients (22.9% developed IRIS (36% paradoxical, 64% unmasking. Mucocutaneous conditions accounted for 68% of IRIS events, mainly folliculitis, warts, genital ulcers and herpes zoster. Tuberculosis (TB accounted for 25% of IRIS events. 18/135 (13.3% patients with major pre-ART OIs (e.g. TB, cryptococcosis developed paradoxical IRIS related to the same OI. Risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline viral load >5.5 vs. 30 days of OI treatment prior to ART (2.66; 1.16-6.09. Unmasking IRIS related to major OIs occurred in 25/498 patients (5.0%, and risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline C-reactive protein ≥25 vs. 12 g/dL (3.36; 1.32-8.52, ≥10% vs. <10% weight loss prior to ART (2.31; 1.05-5.11 and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on pre-ART chest x-ray (9.15; 4.10-20.42. IRIS accounted for 6/25 (24% deaths, 13/65 (20% hospitalizations and 10/35 (29% ART interruptions or discontinuations. CONCLUSION: IRIS occurred in almost one quarter of patients initiating ART, and accounted for one quarter of deaths in the first 6 months. Priority strategies to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity and mortality in ART programmes include earlier ART initiation before onset of advanced immunodeficiency, improved pre-ART screening for TB and cryptococcal infection, optimization of OI therapy prior to ART

  11. South Africa; Selected Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995–96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...

  12. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  13. Retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary diabetes clinic in Durban, South Africa: Clinical, biochemical and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Pirie

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Hyperglycemia, duration of diabetes and proteinuria are associated with DR in Indian and African patients in South Africa, whereas NOS3 and VEGF gene polymorphisms were not associated with DR.

  14. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  15. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  16. Coaltrans South Africa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: overview of the South African coal industry; South African economy and coal reserves; black economic empowerment and new mining legislation; and transport logistics. Most of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads. Three papers which are not overheads have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  17. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  18. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  19. Implications of the introduction of laboratory demand management at primary care clinics in South Africa on laboratory expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozayr H. Mahomed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic health laboratory services are regarded as an integral part of the national health infrastructure across all countries. Clinical laboratory tests contribute substantially to health system goals of increasing quality of care and improving patient outcomes.Objectives: This study aimed to analyse current laboratory expenditures at the primary healthcare (PHC level in South Africa as processed by the National Health Laboratory Service and to determine the potential cost savings of introducing laboratory demand management.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of laboratory expenditures for the 2013/2014 financial year across 11 pilot National Health Insurance health districts was conducted. Laboratory expenditure tariff codes were cross-tabulated to the PHC essential laboratory tests list (ELL to determine inappropriate testing. Data were analysed using a Microsoft Access database and Excel software.Results: Approximately R35 million South African Rand (10% of the estimated R339 million in expenditures was for tests that were not listed within the ELL. Approximately 47% of expenditure was for laboratory tests that were indicated in the algorithmic management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. The other main cost drivers for non-ELL testing included full blood count and urea, as well as electrolyte profiles usually requested to support management of patients on antiretroviral treatment.Conclusions: Considerable annual savings of up to 10% in laboratory expenditure are possible at the PHC level by implementing laboratory demand management. In addition, to achieve these savings, a standardised PHC laboratory request form and some form of electronic gatekeeping system that must be supported by an educational component should be implemented.

  20. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  1. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  2. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  3. Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspan Heather B; Myer Landon; Madhi Shabir A; Violari Avy; Gibb Diana M; Stevens Wendy S; Dobbels Els; Cotton Mark F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, laboratory diagnosis of HIV in infants is not readily available. We aimed to develop a clinical algorithm for HIV presumptive diagnosis in infants < 10 weeks old using screening data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral therapy (CHER) study in South Africa. HIV-infec...

  4. Barriers to Participate in Support Groups for People Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study with Men Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in a HIV Clinic in Mthatha, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Support groups are the most common and popular way of providing social support for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHI). Nevertheless, HIV positive men are reluctant to attend support groups, and in most mixed gender support groups, women outnumber men. The study used a sample of men accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) from a HIV clinic in South Africa, to examine their perceptions of support groups and explore their reasons for nonparticipation in such groups. Five focus groups inter...

  5. Soybeans production in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Thula Sizwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are a small but important and growing component of South Africa’s agricultural economy. Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the late 1990s in South Africa, and area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Rising yields supported by a favourable agricultural policy environment backing the commercialisation and use of agricultural biotechnologies, has facilitated a smooth transition of commercial farmers from the production of traditional grains to soybean production and to be able to rotate soybeans with other grain crops to maximise profits. Although soybeans are produced in nearly all the 9 provinces in South Africa, there is significant variation in output from one province to the other. Using data from the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF, this paper examines the production efficiency of each province with respect to area under production, output and yield per hectare for the past 25 years. Despite the potential of the former homelands in soybean production, there is little progress owing to infrastructural problems and unfamiliarity with the crop. In order to improve production and consumption of soybeans in these areas of South Africa, it may help to set up soybean out-grower schemes, which will encourage smallholder farmers to pool their output and earn income from soybeans whilst learning the food value of the crop.

  6. Treatment outcomes of HIV-positive patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in private versus public HIV clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyo F

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faith Moyo,1 Charles Chasela,2,3 Alana T Brennan,1,4 Osman Ebrahim,5 Ian M Sanne,1,6 Lawrence Long,1 Denise Evans1 1Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3Epidemiology and Strategic Information (ESI, HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, South Africa; 6Right to Care, Helen Joseph Hospital, Westdene, Johannesburg, South Africa Background: Despite the widely documented success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, stakeholders continue to face the challenges of poor HIV treatment outcomes. While many studies have investigated patient-level causes of poor treatment outcomes, data on the effect of health systems on ART outcomes are scarce.Objective: We compare treatment outcomes among patients receiving HIV care and treatment at a public and private HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of ART naïve adults (≥18.0 years, initiating ART at a public or private clinic in Johannesburg between July 01, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to identify baseline predictors of mortality and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for the last scheduled visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of failure to suppress viral load (≥400 copies/mL while the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the median absolute change in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months post-ART initiation.Results: 12,865 patients initiated ART at the public clinic compared to 610 at the private

  7. Mining in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewis, T.

    1992-09-01

    Poor metals prices, high inflation, rapid political change and (in the case of gold) hot, deep mines all pose challenging problems. Nevertheless, mining plays an essential role in the South African economy and the long-term outlook is positive. The article discusses recent developments in technology and gives production figures for mining of gold, coal, platinum, diamonds, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and industrial minerals. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

  8. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  9. Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Chantal T; Pazzi, Paolo; Nagel, Salome; McClure, Vanessa; Christie, Jevan; Troskie, Milana; Dvir, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a piroplasma of the genus Theileria that can causeanaemia and thrombocytopenia. Its clinical importance for dogs' remains poorly understood,as only some develop clinical signs. In this study, physical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcomes of six client-owned diseased dogs presented at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital are described retrospectively. In the dogs, Theileria species (n = 4) and Theileria equi (n = 2) were detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-reverse blothybridisation assay in blood samples, whilst PCR for Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were negative. The most common physical findings were pale mucous membranes (five out of six dogs), bleeding tendencies (five out of six dogs) and lethargy (three out of six dogs). All dogs were thrombocytopenic [median 59.5 x 10(9)/L (range 13-199)] and five out of six dogs were anaemic [median haematocrit 18% (range 5-32)]. Bone marrow core biopsies performed in two dogs showed myelofibrosis. Theileriosis was treated with imidocarb dipropionate and the suspected secondary immune-mediated haematological disorders with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five dogs achieved clinical cure and post-treatment PCR performed in three out of five dogs confirmed absence of circulating parasitaemia. An immune-mediated response to Theileria species is thought to result in anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in diseased dogs with theileriosis. A bleeding tendency, most likely secondary to thrombocytopenia and/or thrombocytopathy, was the most significant clinical finding in these cases. The link between thrombocytopenia, anaemia and myelofibrosis in theileriosis requires further investigation and theileriosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in endemic tick-borne disease areas. PMID:25685903

  10. Magnetic Separation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Corrans, Ian James; Svoboda, Jan

    1985-01-01

    The use of magnetic separators in the various mineral processing facilities in South Africa is described. A large number are used to recover medium in dense medium plants. The manufacture of various types of magnetic separation machines by three local suppliers is highlighted. The potential use of highgradient and/or high–intensity magnetic separation in the recovery of gold, uranium, and phosphate minerals is discussed.

  11. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  12. Quality Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanten, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...

  13. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  14. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  15. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published ...

  16. South Africa; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africa’s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the world’s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...

  17. High Uptake of Systematic HIV Counseling and Testing and TB Symptom Screening at a Primary Care Clinic in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Annelies Van Rie; Kate Clouse; Colleen Hanrahan; Katerina Selibas; Ian Sanne; Sharon Williams; Peter Kim; Jean Bassett

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV is important to reduce morbidity and mortality, and break the cycle of ongoing transmission. METHODS: We performed an implementation research study to develop a model for systematic TB symptom screening and HIV counseling and testing (HCT) for all adult clients at a primary care clinic and prospectively evaluate the 6-month coverage and yield, and 18-month sustainability at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Afr...

  18. Local Economic Development Debates in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.

  19. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  20. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  1. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  2. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  3. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  4. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  5. More doctors and dentists are needed in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, B; Zabow, T; van der Spuy, Z

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND. An aim of the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA) project 'Strengthening Academic Medicine and Specialist Training' was to research the number and needs of specialists and subspecialists within South Africa. METHODS. Data were collected from several sources: Deans of the 8 Faculties of Health Sciences and the Presidents of the 27 constituent Colleges of the CMSA completed a survey; and the HPCSA's Register of Approved Registrar Posts for Faculties of Health Sciences was examined and the results tabulated. RESULTS. South Africa compares unfavourably with middle-income countries on the ratios of medical and dental professionals; many districts have limited access to specialists and subspecialists. The unacceptable ratio of doctors, dentists and other health professionals per capita needs to be remedied, given South Africa's impressive reputation for its output of health professionals, including the areas of medical training, clinical practice and clinical research. The existing output from South Africa's 8 medical schools of MB ChB and specialist graduates is not being absorbed into the public health system, and neither are other health professionals. CONCLUSION. Dynamic leadership and policy interventions are required to advocate and finance the planned increase of medical, dental and other health professionals in South Africa. PMID:21920124

  6. Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brett; Kruger, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This innovative interdisciplinary study focuses on the history, science, and policy of tree planting and water conservation in South Africa. South Africa’s forestry sector has sat—often controversially—at the crossroads of policy and scientific debates regarding water conservation, economic development, and biodiversity protection. Bennett and Kruger show how debates about the hydrological impact of exotic tree planting in South Africa shaped the development of modern scientific ideas and sta...

  7. Fertility Intent and Contraceptive Decision-making among HIV Positive and Negative Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Heather M.; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Daya

    2012-01-01

    We explored contraceptive decision-making among South African antenatal clinic attendees, fertility intent post-HIV diagnosis, and women’s experiences at government health facilities. Data are from in-depth interviews with HIV negative and HIV positive women. We interviewed women in Zulu; interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated. We conducted qualitative analyses of interviews. Women were the dominant decision-makers about contraceptive use, whether they involved their partners or...

  8. Clinician perceptions and patient experiences of antiretroviral treatment integration in primary health care clinics, Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maphuthego D. Mathibe; Stephen J.H. Hendricks; Anne-Marie Bergh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary Health Care (PHC) clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration.Objective: This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics.Meth...

  9. "I Have to Push Him with a Wheelbarrow to the Clinic": Community Health Workers' Roles, Needs, and Strategies to Improve HIV Care in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeliger, Kelsey B; Niccolai, Linda M; Mtungwa, Lillian N; Moll, Anthony; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2016-08-01

    With a 19.2% HIV prevalence, South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide. Despite a recent scale-up of public sector HIV resources, including community-based programs to expand HIV care, suboptimal rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and adherence persist. As community stakeholders with basic healthcare training, community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely positioned to provide healthcare and insight into potential strategies to improve HIV treatment outcomes. The study goal was to qualitatively explore the self-perceived role of the CHW, unmet CHW needs, and strategies to improve HIV care in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Focus groups were conducted in May-August 2014, with 21 CHWs working in Msinga subdistrict. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated from Zulu into English. A hybrid deductive and inductive analytical method borrowed from grounded theory was applied to identify emergent themes. CHWs felt they substantially contributed to HIV care provision but were inadequately supported by the healthcare system. CHWs' recommendations included: (1) sufficiently equipping CHWs to provide education, counseling, social support, routine antiretroviral medication, and basic emergency care, (2) modifying clinical practice to provide less stigmatizing, more patient-centered care, (3) collaborating with traditional healers and church leaders to reduce competition with ART and provide more holistic care, and (4) offsetting socioeconomic barriers to HIV care. In conclusion, CHWs can serve as resources when designing and implementing interventions to improve HIV care. As HIV/AIDS policy and practice evolves in South Africa, it will be important to recognize and formally expand CHWs' roles supporting the healthcare system. PMID:27509239

  10. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF, it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor. According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS, South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.

  11. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  12. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  13. Orf in South Africa: Endemic but neglected

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scagliarini; Silvia Piovesana; Filippo Turrini; Federica Savini; Fortune Sithole; Cheryl M. McCrindle

    2012-01-01

    A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to bet...

  14. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  15. The costs of illiteracy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...

  16. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  17. Assessment of activities performed by clinical nurse practitioners and implications for staffing and patient care at primary health care level in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Igumbor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The shortage of nurses in public healthcare facilities in South Africa is well documented; finding creative solutions to this problem remains a priority.Objective: This study sought to establish the amount of time that clinical nurse practitioners (CNPs in one district of the Western Cape spend on clinical services and the implications for staffing and skills mix in order to deliver quality patient care.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted across 15 purposively selected clinics providing primary health services in 5 sub-districts. The frequency of activities and time CNPs spent on each activity in fixed and mobile clinics were recorded. Time spent on activities and health facility staff profiles were correlated and predictors of the total time spent by CNPs with patients were identified.Results: The time spent on clinical activities was associated with the number of CNPs in the facilities. CNPs in fixed clinics spent a median time of about 13 minutes with each patient whereas CNPs in mobile clinics spent 3 minutes. Fixed-clinic CNPs also spent more time on their non-core functions than their core functions, more time with patients, and saw fewer patients compared to mobile-clinic CNPs.Conclusions: The findings give insight into the time CNPs in rural fixed and mobile clinics spend with their patients, and how patient caseload may affect consultation times. Two promising strategies were identified – task shifting and adjustments in health workerd eployment – as ways to address staffing and skills mix, which skills mix creates the potential for using healthcare workers fully whilst enhancing the long-term health of these rural communities.

  18. Prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical isolates from South Africa and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zishiri, Oliver T; Mkhize, Nelisiwe; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant public health concern around the world. The injudicious use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production for treatment, growth promotion and prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolated from South African and Brazilian broiler chickens as well as human clinical isolates. Out of a total of 200 chicken samples that were collected from South Africa 102 (51%) tested positive for Salmonella using the InvA gene. Of the overall 146 Salmonella positive samples that were screened for the iroB gene most of them were confirmed to be Salmonella enterica with the following prevalence rates: 85% of human clinical samples, 68.6% of South African chicken isolates and 70.8% of Brazilian chicken samples. All Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing with 10 antibiotics. Salmonella isolates from South African chickens exhibited resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents used, such as tetracycline (93%), trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole (84%), trimethoprim (78.4%), kanamycin (74%), gentamicin (48%), ampicillin (47%), amoxicillin (31%), chloramphenicol (31%), erythromycin (18%) and streptomycin (12%). All samples were further subjected to PCR in order to screen some common antimicrobial and virulence genes of interest namely spiC, pipD, misL, orfL, pse-1, tet A, tet B, ant (3")-la, sul 1 and sul. All Salmonella positive isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent; however, antimicrobial resistance patterns demonstrated that multiple drug resistance was prevalent. The findings provide evidence that broiler chickens are colonised by pathogenic Salmonella harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes. Therefore, it is evident that there is a need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production systems in order to

  19. Prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical isolates from South Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver T. Zishiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a significant public health concern around the world. The injudicious use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production for treatment, growth promotion and prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolated from South African and Brazilian broiler chickens as well as human clinical isolates. Out of a total of 200 chicken samples that were collected from South Africa 102 (51% tested positive for Salmonella using the InvA gene. Of the overall 146 Salmonella positive samples that were screened for the iroB gene most of them were confirmed to be Salmonella enterica with the following prevalence rates: 85% of human clinical samples, 68.6% of South African chicken isolates and 70.8% of Brazilian chicken samples. All Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing with 10 antibiotics. Salmonella isolates from South African chickens exhibited resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents used, such as tetracycline (93%, trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole (84%, trimethoprim (78.4%, kanamycin (74%, gentamicin (48%, ampicillin (47%, amoxicillin (31%, chloramphenicol (31%, erythromycin (18% and streptomycin (12%. All samples were further subjected to PCR in order to screen some common antimicrobial and virulence genes of interest namely spiC, pipD, misL, orfL, pse-1, tet A, tet B, ant (3"-la, sul 1 and sul. All Salmonella positive isolates exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent; however, antimicrobial resistance patterns demonstrated that multiple drug resistance was prevalent. The findings provide evidence that broiler chickens are colonised by pathogenic Salmonella harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes. Therefore, it is evident that there is a need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production systems in

  20. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of the HemoCue Hb 301, STAT-Site MHgb and URIT-12 Point-of-Care Hemoglobin Meters in a Central Laboratory and a Community Based Clinic in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Naicker, Rumallen; Madurai, Savathree; Brockman, Mark A; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Gelderblom, Huub C

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, various point-of-care hemoglobin meters are used. However, the regulatory framework for approval, implementation and oversight of use of point-of-care hemoglobin meters is suboptimal. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the HemoCue Hb 301, STAT-Site MHgb and URIT-12 point-of-care hemoglobin meters, compared to a central laboratory based reference assay, in a central laboratory and a community based clinic in Durban, South Africa. Differences in performance of the point-of-...

  2. Clinical Evaluation of the OneStep Gonorrhea RapiCard InstaTest for Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Symptomatic Patients from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abbai, N. S.; Moodley, P.; Reddy, T.; Zondi, T. G.; Rambaran, S.; Naidoo, K.; Ramjee, G.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a point-of-care test for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in patients attending a public health clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR and culture (95%). This test is unsuitable as a screening tool for gonorrhea.

  3. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  4. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  5. Can South Africa afford to become Africa's first welfare state?

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James

    2002-01-01

    "This paper assesses the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are compared using an applied general equilibrium model for the South African economy. The results indicate that the required changes in direct and indirect tax rates needed to finance the grant without increasing the government deficit are substantially higher than ...

  6. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  7. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  8. Clinician perceptions and patient experiences of antiretroviral treatment integration in primary health care clinics, Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maphuthego D. Mathibe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Health Care (PHC clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration.Objective: This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics.Method: An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in four city of Tshwane PHC facilities. Two urban and two rural facilities following different models of integration were included. A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended items was completed by 35 clinicians and four focus group interviews were conducted with HIV-positive patients. The data were coded and categories were grouped into sub-themes and themes.Results: Workload, staff development and support for integration affected clinicians’ performance and viewpoints. They perceived promotion of privacy, reduced discrimination and increased access to comprehensive care as benefits of service integration. Delays, poor patient care and patient dissatisfaction were viewed as negative aspects of integration. In three facilities patients were satisfied with integration or semi-integration and felt common queues prevented stigma and discrimination, whilst the reverse was true in the facility with separate services. Single-month issuance of antiretroviral drugs and clinic schedule organisation was viewed negatively, as well as poor staff attitudes, poor communication and long waiting times.Conclusion: Although a fully integrated service model is preferable, aspects that need further attention are management support from health authorities for health facilities, improved working conditions and appropriate staff development opportunities.

  9. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Ngoepe; Christine Fehlner-Gardiner; Alex Wandeler; Claude Sabeta

    2014-01-01

    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus anti...

  10. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  11. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltzer Karl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10, and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85, lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91, poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31 and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28, and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69, lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71, poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70 and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16. In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not

  12. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelein Meissner-Roloff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism – where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem

  13. The health and wealth of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopper, J M; Taylor, S P

    1987-12-01

    The per capita gross national product (GNP) in South Africa is examined as it relates to life expectancy and the infant mortality rate. Despite South Africa's relative wealth in per capita GNP terms, life expectancy at birth is 63-65 years and the national infant mortality rate according to Unicef, is unlikely to reach the target of 50/1,000 live births by the year 2000. The distribution of expenditure on health is contrasted between the former provincial administrations, the major local authorities, the national states and the homelands. The health resources allocation distribution is unlikely to ensure health for all by the year 2000. PMID:3120325

  14. Adding South Africa to The BRICS Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa’s membership in the BRICS club may bring more opportunities to the whole of Africa At their third summit,leaders from Brazil,Russia,India and China,known as the BRIC group of major emerging economies,welcomed a new member,South African President Jacob Zuma.Zuma led a high-level delegation,including South Africa’s international relations and cooperation minister,economic development minister and trade and industry minister,to attend the summit on April14in Sanya,south China’s Hainan Province

  15. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Ruth

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135L mutation in black newborns was used to estimate the carrier rate for galactosemia in black South Africans. Results A positive diagnosis of galactosemia was made in 17 patients between the years 1980 to 2001. All had very low or absent galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT activity, and normal galactokinase levels. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.1 months (range 4 days to 6.5 months. A review of 9 patients showed that hepatomegaly (9/9, and splenomegaly, failure to thrive, developmental delay, bilateral cataracts (6/9 were the most frequent features at diagnosis. Six had conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Four experienced invasive E. coli infection before diagnosis. Ten patients were submitted to DNA analysis. All 4 black patients and 2 of mixed extraction were homozygous for the S135L allele, while all 3 white patients were homozygous for the Q188R allele. The remaining patient of mixed extraction was heterozygous for the Q188R allele. The estimated carrier frequency of the S135L mutation in 725 healthy black newborns was 1/60. Conclusions In the absence of newborn screening the delay in diagnosis is most often unacceptably long. Also, carrier frequency data predict a galactosemia incidence of approximately 1/14 400 for black newborns in the Cape Metropole, which is much higher than the current detection rate. It is thus likely that many patients go undetected.

  16. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Genotype Testing at First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure for HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Levison, Julie H.; Wood, Robin; Scott, Callie A.; Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Martinson, Neil A.; Rusu, Corina; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Rochelle P Walensky

    2012-01-01

    Using a computer simulation of human immunodeficiency virus infection we project that genotype resistance testing at first-line antiretroviral therapy failure is very cost-effective in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness will depend on prevalence of wild-type virus and timely response to genotype results.

  17. Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...

  18. South Africa calling cultural tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Milena; Saayman, Melville

    2013-01-01

    Although cultural tourism is the most prevalent type of tourism in the world it still remains invisible in South Africa’s tourism landscape. Despite the country’s unique cultural heritage resource base and the fact that cultural diversity is the core feature of South African marketing strategy, absence of culture as a purpose for travel in the South African Tourism international exit survey means that the size of cultural tourism market as well as behaviour characteristics of cultural tourist...

  19. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deon Erasmus; Angus Lloyd Hornigold

    2015-01-01

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventu...

  20. SOUTH AFRICA AND IMPERIAL NAVAL DEFENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cornwell

    2012-01-01

    There are various themes which emerge in a consideration of South Africa's involvement in British naval policy. There is the expansion of the British empire itself, from its Atlantic beginnings into eastern seas and its century-long conflict with France. There is the theme of India, and the fluctuating fortunes of a trading company. There are the changes in marine technology and the world's balance of naval power. All of these broad themes must be considered if the South African contribution ...

  1. MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet

    2011-01-01

    Minimum wage legislation is central in South African policy discourse, with both strong support and strong opposition. The validity of either position depends, however, on the effectiveness of minimum wage enforcement. Using detailed matching of occupational, sectoral and locational codes in the 2007 Labour Force Survey to the gazetted minimum wages, this paper presents, we believe for the first time, estimates of minimum wage violation in South Africa. Our results give considerable cause for...

  2. Migration, Refugees, and Racism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Handmaker, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...

  3. Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills for Early Pre-ART Engagement in HIV Care among Patients Entering Clinical Care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, Laramie R.; AMICO, K. Rivet; SHUPER, Paul A.; CHRISTIE, Sarah; FISHER, William A.; CORNMAN, Deborah H.; DOSHI, Monika; MacDONALD, Susan; PILLAY, Sandy; FISHER, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding factors implicated in early engagement and retention in HIV-care among individuals not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying such factors is critical for supporting retention in pre-ART clinical care to ensure timely ART initiation and optimize long-term health outcomes. We assessed patients’ pre-ART HIV-care related information, motivation, and behavioral skills among newly diagnosed ART-ineligible patients initiating care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The survey was interviewer-administered to eligible patients who were 18 years of age or older, newly entering care (diagnosed within the last 6-months), and ineligible for ART (CD4 count >200 cells/mm3) in one of four primary care clinical sites. Self-reported information, motivation and behavioral skills specific to retention in pre-ART HIV-care were characterized by categorizing responses into those reflecting potential strengths and those reflective of potential deficits. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits sufficiently prevalent in the overall sample (i.e., ≥30% prevalent) were identified as areas in need of specific attention through intervention efforts adapted to the clinic level. Gender-based differences were also evaluated. A total of 288 patients (75% female) completed structured interviews. Across the sample, 8 information, 8 motivation, and 8 behavioral skills deficit areas were identified as sufficiently prevalent to warrant specific targeted attention. Gender differences did not emerge. The deficits in pre-ART HIV-care related information, motivation and behavioral skills that were identified suggest that efforts to improve accurate information on immune function and HIV disease are needed, as is accurate information regarding HIV treatment and transmission risk prior to ART initiation. Additional efforts to facilitate the development of social support, including positive interactions with clinic staff

  4. AIDS epidemic runs riot in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-27

    Based on current health surveys in South Africa, the HIV and AIDS epidemic there is spreading faster than health workers can develop a policy to combat it. 120 million male and 90,000 female condoms have been distributed to the areas that are most affected. According to Health Minister Nkosazana Zuma, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women in the North-West Province rose from 8.3% in 1995 to 25% in 1997. In June 1996, 1.7 million people were at risk; this number rose to 2.5 million in 1997, 90,000 of whom will develop advanced AIDS by the end of the year. According to independent researchers, 800 people are infected daily, which means that 16% of South Africa's workers are already infected. This figure could rise to 20% by the year 2000 according to Professor Ronald Green-Thompson. At that time, the cost to the South African economy would be between US$25 million and US$2.3 billion. The World Health Organization (WHO) is touring provinces for the first time to select sites for use by assessment teams in July. Dr. Liz Floyd, head of the HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases unit, states that, although US$6.1 million (US$2.3 million more than in 1996) have been designated to fight the epidemic, new measures have to be found to avoid an infection rate of 1 in 5 young women by the end of the year. The unit conducts annual surveys among women attending public prenatal clinics. Infection appears to be linked to poverty, migration, family breakdowns, and prostitution. The greatest increase has been among women aged 20-24 years. According to Floyd, "the supply of condoms is still uneven and unreliable, especially in high density peri-urban settlements and shanty towns. Primary care for the youth and home-based schemes are poorly coordinated and erratic." Zuma believes that schools should be targeted; she hopes to educate children in 7400 secondary and 13,500 primary schools. Donor agencies, churches, workers, and business people have become involved, including

  5. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  6. Timbali Technology Incubator : South Africa Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...

  7. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  9. South Africa Economic Update, February 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Promoting faster growth and poverty alleviation through competition is particularly important for South Africa, which is facing weak economic growth and limited fiscal resources and has to look to avenues outside the fiscal space to stimulate faster sustainable growth and progress towards its ultimate goal of eliminating poverty, outlined in the 2030 National Development Plan (NDP). The up...

  10. Teaching Community Psychology in Postapartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaronette M.; Potgieter, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines a community psychology course that stresses community empowerment, the myth of neutrality and objectivity in community psychology, and democratic accountability to the community. The course includes a brief history of race, class, and gender oppression in South Africa and concludes with a unit on converting social theory into practice.…

  11. When did globalization begin in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Boshoff, Willem H.; Johan Fourie

    2015-01-01

    Economic globalization is defined as the co-movement of prices across a large number of countries (O’Rourke and Williamson, 2002). This research note identifies the period when South African prices began to move in unison with those of the country’s lead trading partner or, in other words, when South Africa globalized. We find that South African wheat prices started reflecting UK trends soon after the discovery of diamonds and gold in the interior of the country. The mineral revolution, it se...

  12. Reproductive Counseling by Clinic Healthcare Workers in Durban, South Africa: Perspectives from HIV-Infected Men and Women Reporting Serodiscordant Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year and 20 HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and accessing care in Durban, South Africa. We investigated patient-reported experiences with safer conception counseling from health care workers (HCWs. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded using content analysis for conceptual categories and emergent themes. Results. The study findings indicate that HIV-infected patients recognize HCWs as a resource for periconception-related information and are receptive to speaking to a HCW prior to becoming pregnant, but seldom seek or receive conception advice in the clinic setting. HIV nondisclosure and unplanned pregnancy are important intervening factors. When advice is shared, patients reported receiving a range of information. Male participants showed particular interest in accessing safer conception information. Conclusions. HIV-infected men and women with serodiscordant partners are receptive to the idea of safer conception counseling. HCWs need to be supported to routinely initiate accurate safer conception counseling with HIV-infected patients of reproductive age.

  13. Moral Education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  14. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  15. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  16. Development and implementation of an integrated chronic disease model in South Africa: lessons in the management of change through improving the quality of clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahomed, Ozayr; Asmall, Shaidah

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Africa is facing a complex burden of disease arising from a combination of chronic infectious illness and non-communicable diseases. As the burden of chronic diseases (communicable and non-communicable) increases, providing affordable and effective care to the increasing numbers of chronic patients will be an immense challenge.Methods: The framework recommended by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex health interven...

  17. Veterinary nursing in South Africa (1977 - 2000) : historical article

    OpenAIRE

    I. Wolleschak

    2010-01-01

    The history of the university course in veterinary nursing in South Africa is reviewed from its inception in 1977 to 2000. The motivation for, and initial problems encountered in, its implementation are outlined. Selection criteria and course subjects, including clinical work, are supplied and the changes in these, following the introduction of a new curriculum in 1993/94, are highlighted. Reference is made to the legal status of the nursing profession.

  18. South Africa's "Developmental State" Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the South African ruling elite has the political will to establish a “developmental state” project early in the 21st century is popular, but is not borne out by evidence thus far. Patrick Bond reviews new information about the neoliberal project’s failures, which range from macroeconomics to microdevelopment to pro-corporate megaprojects, and which are accompanied by a tokenistic welfare policy not designed to provide sufficient sustenance or entitlements to the society. The critique by the independent left might be revised in the event that the trade unions and communist influences within the ruling Alliance strengthen, but there is a greater likelihood that the world capitalist crisis will have the opposite impact. Nevertheless, widespread grassroots protests and impressive campaigning by civil society keep alive the hope for a post-capitalist, post-nationalist politics, as bandaiding South African capitalism runs into trouble.

  19. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  20. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  1. Trade liberalisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins

    1995-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa`s trade liberalisation is that, until 1995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation was the reduction of anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalent tariffs and other duties. This distinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happened in other African liberalisations. A second distinction (and the two are in all likelihood connected) is that South Africa was not p...

  2. Orf in South Africa: Endemic but neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scagliarini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to better understand how the local farmers in rural areas relate to it. The results may contribute to better management of the disease in rural areas. By means of molecular analyses the phylogenetic relationships between field isolates from different areas have been identified. The findings gave a first important contribution to the general assessment of the economic impact of orf virus infections and the extent of the risk to human health.

  3. Personal and Corporate Saving in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Janine; Muellbauer, John

    2000-01-01

    Low domestic saving rates in South Africa may perpetuate a low-growth trap. The decline in government saving, a major reason for the overall decline in saving, is now being reversed. However, personal saving rates have fallen since 1993, and corporate rates since 1995, and both may decline further with lower real interest rates. It is important to understand both personal and corporate saving behaviour in order to formulate policies to raise the domestic saving rate in line with the needs of ...

  4. Race, Poverty, and Deprivation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gradín

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why poverty and material deprivation in South Africa are significantly higher among those of African descent than among whites. To do so, we estimate the conditional levels of poverty and deprivation Africans would experience had they the same characteristics as whites. By comparing the actual and counterfactual distributions, we show that the racial gap in poverty and deprivation can be attributed to the cumulative disadvantaged characteristics of Africans...

  5. Corporate governance and employees in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Richard; Miles, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on employees as stakeholders, we analyse corporate governance initiatives in South Africa encouraging and requiring companies to look beyond their shareholders' interests. Successive non-binding codes and the provisions of the recent Companies Act 2008 promoting this have been lauded by many commentators. The 2008 Act provides certain opportunities for employees and their representatives to exercise influence at the margins. We nevertheless question how far current corporate governan...

  6. China, South Africa and the Lewis Model

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Knight

    2007-01-01

    The paper uses the Lewis model as a framework for examining the labour market progress of two labour-abundant countries, China and South Africa, towards labour shortage and generally rising labour real incomes. In the acuteness of their rural-urban divides, forms of migrant labour, rapid rural-urban migration, and high and rising real wages in the formal sector, the two economies are surprisingly similar. They differ, however, in the dynamism of their formal sector growth of output and employ...

  7. Growth, Employment and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Hodge

    2009-01-01

    The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...

  8. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  9. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Masango

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  10. Language teaching for the New South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley G M Ridge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some of the challenges facing the language teacher as South Africa moves into a new era. The discussion is structured around three areas of change: change in the country, changes brought about by the official language policy, and changes in the school system itself. It explores the implications for language teaching of jour key words of the new era: inclusive, non-racial, democracy, and empowerment. In relation to the 11 official languages policy, it examines the status o...

  11. Social policies and redistribution in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Leubolt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of social policies on income inequalities in South Africa since the 1990s. Based on a framework of historical institutionalism, the heritage of a distributional regime based on institutional racism is highlighted. This had lasting effects on social policies which also had both liberal and conservative characteristics. Democratisation at the beginning of the 1990s led to the abolishing of institutional racism and conservative features, while the new fra...

  12. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Ruth; Leisegang Felicity; Henderson Howard; Eley Brian

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135...

  13. A human rights-based approach to assess disadvantaged mothers' experiences with a nutrition supplementation programme provided at primary health care clinics. : A study from Cape Town, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Summary A major health problem in South Africa is inadequate nutritional health among infants and young children which contributes to increased childhood morbidity and mortality. The health authorities in South Africa have implemented various health and nutrition programmes addressing this vulnerable group. However, so far there have been few evaluations of these programmes and hence the effectiveness and quality of the programmes are not certain. South Africa has, with its Bill of R...

  14. Early provenance performance of Eucalyptus citriodora in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Eleven provenances of E. citriodora (8 from Australia, 1 from the Sudan, 1 from Brazil and 1 from South Africa) were planted at 6 locations in South and South West Africa. At age 3yr there was no significant difference in height, diameter at breast height or volume production. Stem form was good. (Refs. 8).

  15. The lightning climatology of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morné Gijben

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the South African Weather Service installed a state-of-the-art cloud-to-ground lightning detection network across the country. The data recorded by this network in 2006 was utilised in the development of an initial lightning climatology of South Africa. Until 2010, this climatology was based on data from a single year. This paper updates this climatology with the lightning data for the 2006–2010 period, which is the first actual lightning climatology by the South African Weather Service based on data covering 5 years. A number of different maps were created from these lightning data. These were lightning ground flash density, median peak kiloampere, percentage positive and average flash multiplicity maps. These four maps were in turn used to develop lightning intensity risk, positive lightning risk and total lightning risk maps. Analysis of the maps showed that the highest concentrations of lightning are found over the central to northern interior of the country, with areas along the northern parts of the eastern escarpment experiencing the highest flash densities and falling within the extreme risk category. Both the positive and total lightning risks are severe for almost the entire country. Only towards the west of the country does the lightning risk decrease. This lightning climatology can now be used throughout South Africa for various disciplines. It will be especially useful for setting lightning safety standards and identifying priority areas for installing lightning conductors and conducting public awareness campaigns.

  16. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  17. The uranium industry of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  18. HIV-positive patients’ perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshifhiwa V. Ndou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART sites.Aim and setting: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district.Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech’s open coding method.Results: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers.Conclusion: Patients’ perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities.Keywords: Human Immunodeficiecy Virus, Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV positive, Limpopo

  19. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  20. Determinats and Impacts of Foreign Direct Investment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Leila Hashim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants and impacts of foreign direct investment in South Africa for the period 1970-2006. Recognising that FDI can contribute to economic growth and development of most countries, South Africa is constantly working to attract FDI and hence its demand has become highly competitive. South Africa has made considerable efforts over the past decade to improve their investment climate. They have liberalized their investment regulations and have offered incentives to fo...

  1. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based a...

  2. Understanding Apartheid in South Africa through the Racial Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Mavis B. Mhlauli; End Salani; Rosinah Mokotedi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines apartheid in South Africa and uses Mills (1992) theoretical framework of the Racial Contract to understand how this system operated and flourished in South Africa. To explicate Mills? position about racism, this paper draws from the different tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) where applicable. It begins by providing an illuminating overview of apartheid in South Africa and uses education, legislation and religion as examples to help unpack the racial inequalities that...

  3. Performance Evaluation of the Becton Dickinson FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Instrument in a Laboratory and Typical Field Clinic Setting in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindi-Marie Coetzee

    Full Text Available The BD-FACSPresto™ CD4 is a new, point-of-care (POC instrument utilising finger-stick capillary blood sampling. This study evaluated its performance against predicate CD4 testing in South Africa.Phase-I testing: HIV+ patient samples (n = 214 were analysed on the Presto™ under ideal laboratory conditions using venous blood. During Phase-II, 135 patients were capillary-bled for CD4 testing on FACSPresto™, performed according to manufacturer instruction. Comparative statistical analyses against predicate PLG/CD4 method and industry standards were done using GraphPad Prism 6. It included Bland-Altman with 95% limits of agreement (LOA and percentage similarity with coefficient of variation (%CV analyses for absolute CD4 count (cells/μl and CD4 percentage of lymphocytes (CD4%.In Phase-I, 179/217 samples yielded reportable results with Presto™ using venous blood filled cartridges. Compared to predicate, a mean bias of 40.4±45.8 (LOA of -49.2 to 130.2 and %similarity (%CV of 106.1%±7.75 (7.3% was noted for CD4 absolute counts. In Phase-2 field study, 118/135 capillary-bled Presto™ samples resulted CD4 parameters. Compared to predicate, a mean bias of 50.2±92.8 (LOA of -131.7 to 232 with %similarity (%CV 105%±10.8 (10.3%, and 2.87±2.7 (LOA of -8.2 to 2.5 with similarity of 94.7±6.5% (6.83% noted for absolute CD4 and CD4% respectively. No significant clinical differences were indicated for either parameter using two sampling methods.The Presto™ produced remarkable precision to predicate methods, irrespective of venous or capillary blood sampling. A consistent, clinically insignificant over-estimation (5-7% of counts against PLG/CD4 and equivalency to FACSCount™ was noted. Further field studies are awaited to confirm longer-term use.

  4. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  5. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  6. South Africa's Nuclear Skills Development Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's long nuclear history has enabled it to develop and explore new nuclear technologies. The country's nuclear industry is becoming innovative and will soon be able to compete within the global nuclear market. This includes projects such as the Pebble-Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), a generation IV reactor technology, whose construction is anticipated by 2009. This will put South Africa in the fore-front of new technologies. Globally, the nuclear sector is experiencing a renaissance with political support from most governments. The South African government intends to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country as a result of an energy crisis resulting from economic growth and thus high demand which will soon outstrip supply. This increased energy demand requires the country to take measures to counteract the crisis. It has been projected that an additional 40000 Megawatts of electricity will be required over the next 20 years in South Africa. Currently about 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated from coal and about 6% from nuclear. The South African electricity utility, Eskom is investigating the expansion of the utility's nuclear power capacity. These investigations are aimed at a potential increase of nuclear capacity to 20000 Megawatts by 2025. Eskom is in the initial phase of the investigation and is considering advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) with a combined capacity of around 3500 Megawatts. This planned expansion of the nuclear energy generating program has presented a challenge of developing and maintaining skills and competencies required by the program. The South African government has acknowledged that they do have a challenge and are going to have to develop an aggressive approach to acquire the necessary skills and competencies required for the program. This aggressive approach will have to accelerate the development of nuclear human capital capacity by ensuring that we utilize the current skills and

  7. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  8. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  9. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  10. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mars

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa.  Future actions are outlined.

  11. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  12. Unhappiness and Crime: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nattavudh Powdthavee

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the first of its kind to study quality of life responses of crime victims. Using cross-sectional data from the OHS97 survey of South Africa, we show that victims report significantly lower well-being than the non-victims, ceteris paribus. Happiness is lower for nonvictimized respondents currently living in higher crime areas. However, we find a strong evidence for females that criminal victimization hurts, but hurts less if the crime rate on our reference group is high.

  13. Tax Policies and Informality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane El Badaoui; Riccardo Magnani

    2015-01-01

    We use a micro-macro simulation model to evaluate the effects of labor income tax policies in South Africa. The country is characterized by a high unemployment rate while employment in the informal sector is relatively low. Our approach is based on the aggregation of the preferences of individuals who choose among (i) working in the formal sector,(ii) working in the informal sector, and (iii) not working. We quantify the effects of different tax policies on the individual's labor supply choic...

  14. Trade liberalisation in sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins; Michael Bleaney; Merle Holden

    1996-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa's trade liberalisation is that, until 2995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation wsa the reduction of the anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalnet tariffs and other duties. This ditinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happended in other African liberalisations. A seconddistinction (an the two are in in all liklihood conected) is that South Africa was no...

  15. The Challenge of South Africa to Reduce Its High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Mellet

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment rate in South Africa has been in excess of 20% for many years. Various questions can be asked about policies and probable solutions to reduce unemployment. What is wrong with South African macroeconomic policies or is it rather what is wrong with economic and political coordination of policies? What is the probability of millions of South African inhabitants to rise out of poverty? Certain policies for example ASGISA have good foundations, but the main problem in South Africa...

  16. The Feminization of Poverty in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Saranel Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of neoliberal economic policies by South Africa as it entered into its democratic era, resulted in thousands, if not millions, of poor South Africans plummeting deeper into poverty. The same people who found themselves poor under apartheid, found themselves caught in a cycle of poverty that seemed to be worsening in democratic South Africa. With the privatization of basic services, many South Africans have found that they have no access to water, electricity, or health care and t...

  17. Consumer attitudes towards radurisation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain any insight into consumer attitudes towards radurization in South Africa, it is first of all necessary to pinpoint the consumer. The consumer has to be reached at all levels and must be convinced that radurization is a harmless process. All the indications are there that South African consumer acceptance will come readily once the positive benefits of irradiated food have been adequately publicized. Label and package information create untold problems for the grocery manufacturing and packaging industry. The radiation industry cannot afford to lose consumer confidence. The question is: Must a label be attached to a radurized product or not? The results of the trial marketing campaign have shown that if the correct information is supplied at the right time, the consumer is prepared to accept irradiated food

  18. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mokgoro

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not free of scepticism. Many a time when crime and criminal activity are rife, sceptics would lament the absence of ubuntu in society and attribute this absence to what they view as the permissiveness which is said to have been brought about by the Constitution with its entrenched Bill of Rights.Firstly, I would like to take this opportunity and (attempt to demonstrate the irony that the absence of the values of ubuntu in society that people often lament about and attribute to the existence of the Constitution with its demands for respect for human rights when crime becomes rife, are the very same values that the Constitution in general and the Bill of Rights in particular aim to inculcate in our society.Secondly, against the background of the call for an African renaissance that has now become topical globally, I would like to demonstrate the potential that traditional African values of ubuntu have for influencing the development of a new South African law and jurisprudence.The concept ubuntu, like many African concepts, is not easily definable. In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a world-view of African societies and a determining factor in the formation of perceptions which influence social conduct. It has also been described as a philosophy of life.Much as South Africa is a multicultural society, indigenous law has not featured in the mainstream of South African jurisprudence. Without a doubt, some aspects or values of ubuntu are universally inherent to South Africa’s multi cultures.The values of ubuntu are therefore an integral part of that value system which had been established by the Interim Constitution.The founding values of the democracy established by this new Constitution arguably coincide with some key values of ubuntu(ism.Ubuntu(-ism, which is central to age-old African custom and tradition however, abounds

  19. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  20. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  1. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Cornelius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the concept ‘plain language’ has been hugely problematic since the origins of the so-called Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of ‘plain language’ abound, yet James (2008: 6 warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can’t yet call ourselves a coherent field, let alone a profession, while we offer such varying definitions of what we do”. Contemporary international definitions of ‘plain language’ are of three types: numerical (or formula-based, elements-focused, or outcomes-focused (Cheek 2010. In South Africa, protective legislation gave rise to a local definition of ‘plain language’ which was widely acclaimed for its comprehensiveness and practicality. From a textlinguistic angle, this article ruminates on the nature of the definition of ‘plain language’ in the National Credit Act (2005 and the Consumer Protection Act (2008, and critically appraises the value of the definition as a sharp and reliable conceptual tool for use by plain language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa.

  2. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  3. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  4. An Assessment of the Investment Climate in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George R. G.; Habyarimana, James; Ingram, Michael; Kaplan, David; Ramachandran, Vijaya

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the South Africa Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in South Africa in all its operational dimensions and to promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location-specific factors that shape opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These...

  5. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance practices of listed companies in South Africa, within the broader context of the institutional capacity needed to ensure compliance and enforcement. The diagnostic reflects the corporate governance framework as of December 2001. South Africa has a well developed equity market with a market capitalization of 154 percent of GDP. Listed companies ...

  6. Outcomes-Based Education and Educational Reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses outcomes-based education in South Africa, which has been only recently implemented to improve the quality of education and to address the demands for a skilled work force. Addresses the fundamental question: Will OBE improve the quality of education and transform schools in South Africa? (Contains 24 references.) (WFA)

  7. South Africa : Reducing Financial Constraints to Emerging Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Thyra A.

    1995-01-01

    South Africa's black enterprise sector is a residual employer with an important role to play in improving welfare and alleviating poverty. It is also a source of dynamic and potentially dynamic firms that create wealth and generate employment. The challenge facing South Africa is to design an institutional framework that accords black enterprises much broader access to financial services, ...

  8. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  9. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  10. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa...

  11. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  12. Forecasting tourist arrivals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Saayman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to model and forecast tourism to South Africa from the country's main intercontinental tourism markets. These include Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, the United States of America and France. Problem investigated: Tourism to South Africa has grown substantially since the first democratic elections in 1994. It is currently the third largest industry in the country and a vital source of foreign exchange earnings. Tourist arrivals continue to grow annually, and have shown some resilience to a number of emerging market crises, including the terrorist attacks in the USA. Business success, marketing decisions, government's investment policy as well as macroeconomic policy are influenced by the accuracy of tourism forecasts, since the tourism product comprises a number of services that cannot be accumulated. Accurate forecasts of tourism demand are paramount to ensure the availability of such services when demanded. In addition, the seasonal nature of tourism leads to a pattern of excess capacity followed by shortage in capacity. Method: Since univariate time series modelling has proved to be a very successful method for forecasting tourist arrivals, it is also the method employed in this paper. The naïve model is tested against a standard ARIMA model, as well as the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and seasonal-non-seasonal ARIMA models. Forecasting accuracy is assessed using the mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error and Theill's U of the various models. Monthly tourist arrivals from 1994 to 2006 are used in the analysis, and arrivals are forecasted for 2007. Findings: The results show that seasonal ARIMA models deliver the most accurate predictions of arrivals over three time horizons, namely three months, six months and 12 months. Value: This paper is the first tourist arrivals forecast using South African data for the country as a whole, and therefore it forms an interesting case study

  13. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  14. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO2 free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible for research and development in the

  15. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  16. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  17. The Impact of Obesity on Employment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Modeste Some, Naiefa Rashied & Abieyuwa Ohonba

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem in South Africa. This health problem could have various implications for the South African economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on employment status in South Africa with the use of household survey data. The study followed a quantitative research design that involved household survey data analysis through the use of a bivariate probit model to validate the relationship between obesity and employment. The data was gathered ...

  18. Occupational stress of nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Nursing Stress Indicator (NSI and to identify differences between occupational stressors of professional and enrolled nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of professional nurses (/V = 980 and enrolled and auxiliary nurses (N = 800 in South Africa was used. The NSI was developed as measuring instrument and administrated together with a biographical questionnaire. Five reliable stress factors, namely Patient Care, Job Demands, Lack of Support, Staff Issues, and Overtime were extracted. The most severe stressors for nurses included health risks posed by contact with patients, lack of recognition and insufficient staff. Watching patients suffer, demands of patients and staff issues were also severe stressors for professional nurses. The severity of stressors was higher for professional nurses (compared with enrolled and auxiliary nurses. Organisations that employ nurses should implement programmes to monitor and manage stress, specifically regarding staff issues and job demands.

  19. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:19119593

  20. Special report: South Africa. Coping with AIDS in apartheid's shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Vliet, V

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's 1992 antenatal blood survey revealed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate of 2.6% among clinic attendees, with a doubling time of 12 months. By the year 2010, 15-27% of the adult population is projected to be infected. The looming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic threatens to drain the country's health budget and impede social and economic recovery from apartheid. Moreover, right-wing political groups are attempting to use the threat of an AIDS epidemic in South Africa's Black community to reinstate segregation. Significant obstacles to an effective national AIDS prevention and control program include conservative opposition to sex education, low acceptance of condom use, women's inability to negotiate safe sex practices, and mistrust on the part of South African Blacks of government initiatives. Encouraging was the attendance of representatives from more than 60 organizations at a 1992 National AIDS Convention; however, the gathering was marred by political in-fighting over control of the resources allocated to AIDS activities. PMID:12179376

  1. Visual impairment in South Africa: achieve-ments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Sacharowitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in South Africa are reviewed against the existing services and limitations in the country. The magnitude1 of visual impair-ment  and  the  projected  increase  worldwide over the coming decades have been recognized as having potentially far-reaching social, eco-nomic and quality of life implications for not only the affected individuals but also for their families and communities. Two-thirds or more of all blindness is avoidable, in that the causes are  preventable  or  treatable.2,  3  Early  detec-tion, prevention and management programs are needed to reduce the impact of visual impair-ment. Approximately 80% of the South African population is indigent, relying on public hospi-tals and clinics and the remaining 20% of the population has access to private health care.4 As the majority of eye care professionals are in private practice, access to eye care services are available to only a minority of the population. This paper reviews the current services in South Africa and the challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  3. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  4. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  5. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  6. Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Christian M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tourism for local economic development (LED is a topic of critical importance for geographers. In the case of South Africa tourism is a priority sector for national economic development. The significance of research issues around tourism and LED is underlined by the ‘developmental’ mandate of local governments. Although tourism has received attention in a growing body of LED writings on South Africa issues around agritourism so far have been overlooked. Agritourism represents an evolving form of rural tourism which is targeted at mainly urban consumers. Against the background of a review of international scholarship on agritourism this article explores its potential implications for LED planning in South Africa. A national audit of agritourism is presented which shows its uneven geographical distribution. Agritourism is of special significance for small town economic development in South Africa’s intermediate tourism spaces. Policy suggestions are offered for strengthening agritourism as a driver for LED in South Africa.

  7. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  8. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit; C. A. Eksteen; M. De Waal; J. H. Owen

    2006-01-01

    No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of...

  9. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  10. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  11. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  12. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  13. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in…

  14. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 µg / m , respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.

  16. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration on drug therapy for tuberculosis is a common cause of hospital admission in Africa. Potential causes for clinical deterioration in settings of high HIV-1 prevalence include drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, co-morbid illnesses, poor adherence to therapy, tuberculosis associated-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS and subtherapeutic antitubercular drug levels. It is important to derive a rapid diagnostic work-up to determine the cause of clinical deterioration as well as specific management to prevent further clinical deterioration and death. We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration. METHOD: A prospective observational study conducted during the first quarter of 2007. We defined clinical deterioration as clinical worsening or failure to stabilise after 14 or more days of antitubercular treatment, resulting in hospital referral. We collected data on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, HIV-1 status and antiretroviral treatment, and investigated reasons for clinical deterioration as well as outcome. RESULTS: During this period, 352 TB patients met inclusion criteria; 296 were admitted to hospital accounting for 17% of total medical admissions (n = 1755. Eighty three percent of TB patients (291/352 were known to be HIV-1 co-infected with a median CD4 count of 89cells/mm(3 (IQR 38-157. Mortality among TB patients admitted to hospital was 16% (n = 48. The median duration of hospital admission was 9.5 days (IQR 4-18, longer than routine in this setting (4 days. Among patients in whom HIV-1 status was known (n = 324, 72% of TB patients (n = 232 had an additional illness to tuberculosis; new AIDS defining illnesses (n = 80 were the most frequent additional illnesses (n = 208 in HIV-1 co-infected patients (n

  17. Natural hybridization in the genus Eriosema (Leguminosae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Stirton

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Both spontaneous and introgressive hybridization occur naturally in  Eriosema in South Africa. One case of hybrid swarming is reported and a catalogue of six hybrids is presented and discussed in detail.

  18. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  19. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  20. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  1. The German Contribution to the Military History of South Africa and South-West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Botha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of South Africa is the spiritual. Cullural, econolll;c and military extension of the Occident on the Southern extremity of Africa.Situated where it is it does not only form an invaluable link between the East and the West, but at the same time it is one of the most important approaches to the Southern part of the African continent. The foundation of the white society at the Cape was laid by representatives from various Western European nations. In the course of time each one of them contributed towards the development of a young, vigorous nation in this vast land under the Southern Cross - a nation which since its birth, has always recognised the guidance of the Almighty God.

  2. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  3. Ten interesting species of aquatic Hyphomycetes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sinclair

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the foam spora of South Africa has revealed the presence of ten interesting species from nine genera, seven of which are new records for the African continent and three for South Africa. These are Anguillospora crassa Ingold,  Condylospora spumigena Nawawi,  Flabellospora verticillata Alasoadura, Lateriramulosa uni-inflata Matsushima, Lemonniera alabamensis Sinclair & Morgan-Jones, Lemonniera filiformis Petersen ex Dyko, Lunulospora cymbiformis Miura, Speiropsis irregularis Petersen, Tetrachaetum elegans Ingold and  Tricellula aquatica Webster.

  4. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B. G.; Gouws, E

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is among the highest in the world. The epidemic reached South Africa relatively recently but the prevalence of infection has increased rapidly and there are significant differences among provinces. Although few 15-year-old people are infected the prevalence increases rapidly with age thereafter, especially among women. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 exceeds tha...

  5. Same-sex marriage in South Africa: the road ahead

    OpenAIRE

    J. Swanepoel; JA Robinson

    2004-01-01

    The status of same-sex partnerships is currently a hotly debated issue in various jurisdictions and also in South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa2 prohibits unfair discrimination by the State, inter alia, on grounds of gender, sex and sexual orientation. The question that arises is whether the legal definition of marriage, being a relationship between one man and one woman, constitutes discrimination, and if so, whether such discrimi...

  6. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals:India vs South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris; Jacob; Johan; Mulder; Amarender; Singh; Puri; Duvvur; Nageshwar; Reddy

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa,nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction,safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression,creating more specialist trainees in pub...

  7. Contemporary Labour Market Policy and Poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Muzi Maziya

    1999-01-01

    The This paper outlines the recent labour market reforms in South Africa and discusses their likely impact on poverty and the working poor. Gauteng, South Africa's economic powerhouse, has long been dependent on immigration to supply its labour requirements, a phenomenon deeply rooted in the provinces early economic history and the development of mining and heavy industry. As far as possible, the analysis compared in-migrants to non-migrants and intra-Gauteng migrants in order to provide insi...

  8. POVERTY, LIVELIHOOD AND CLASS IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    May, Julian; Michael R. Carter

    1997-01-01

    Using data from a national living standards survey undertaken in late 1993, this paper disaggregates and explores the economics of livelihood generation and class in rural South Africa in an effort to contribute to the ongoing and vociferous debate in South Africa about poverty and its alleviation. Pursuant to the suggestion of participants in a recent participatory poverty assessment, this paper analyzes what might be termed the class structure of poverty. After exploring the range of claimi...

  9. Land Rights in South Africa: A mechanism against poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharron Marco-Thyse

    2006-01-01

    Sharron Marco-Thyse examines how, eleven years after the arrival of democracy in South Africa, landless groupings are growing at an alarming rate. She briefly outlines the broader legislative framework for South Africa's land reform programme and discusses some of the reasons for the slow pace of land reform and its impact on the agricultural sector. Development (2006) 49, 133–137. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100290

  10. Skills requirements in the supply chain industry in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Heyns; Rose Luke

    2012-01-01

    The skills shortage in the supply chain industry in South Africa is much touted but underresearched. The research conducted attempts to identify the skills sets typically required by supply chain organisations as well as those skills areas that are the most challenging to fill, thus identifying the critical skills shortages in South Africa. The study includes benchmarking with international trends, conclusions and identification of key areas for future research.

  11. Skills requirements in the supply chain industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Heyns

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The skills shortage in the supply chain industry in South Africa is much touted but underresearched. The research conducted attempts to identify the skills sets typically required by supply chain organisations as well as those skills areas that are the most challenging to fill, thus identifying the critical skills shortages in South Africa. The study includes benchmarking with international trends, conclusions and identification of key areas for future research.

  12. The rise of South Africa's quick service restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing Maumbe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the rise of South Africa's quick service restaurant (QSR) industry by examining the structural changes and competitive strategies driving the industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses Michael Porter's Five Forces and secondary data to describe the structural reorganization of South Africa's QSR industry and market positioning strategies being used to respond to the growing industry competition and global challenges. Findings – Th...

  13. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, C J J; Puri, A. S.; Reddy, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more speciali...

  14. Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson Christian M.; Rogerson Jayne M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of tourism for local economic development (LED) is a topic of critical importance for geographers. In the case of South Africa tourism is a priority sector for national economic development. The significance of research issues around tourism and LED is underlined by the ‘developmental’ mandate of local governments. Although tourism has received attention in a growing body of LED writings on South Africa issues around agritourism so far have been overlooked. Agritourism represents an ...

  15. Unemployment and wages in South Africa: A spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    1999-01-01

    A large amount of recent evidence finds a negative relationship between local unemployment and wages in OECD countries, a relationship christened a ‘wage curve’. This contradicts the conventional model of the labour market in which high unemployment regions have higher wages to compensate for search and other costs. This paper discovers a wage curve in South Africa, a country with several times the typical unemployment rate of OECD countries. The wage curve elasticity in South Africa is simil...

  16. The Relationship Between Unemployment and Earnings Inequality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment and earnings inequality have moved closely together in South Africa in recent years, suggesting that there may not be a trade-off between them as the literature generally suggests. This article explores the relationship between unemployment and earnings inequality in South Africa, specifically investigating the extent to which changes in unemployment can account for changes in earnings inequality. Decomposing overall income inequality by factor source shows the overwhelming impor...

  17. Robust Estimates of Okun's Coefficient for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    J. Geldenhuys; M. Marinkov

    2007-01-01

    Persistently high unemployment in South Africa, especially in the face of improved economic conditions since 1994, begs the question: Does unemployment in South Africa respond to changes in output? When considering the linkages between output and unemployment, it is useful to decompose unemployment into its three components: structural, frictional and cyclical unemployment. Deficient aggregate demand gives rise to cyclical unemployment. Okun's law (1962) refers to the inverse relationship tha...

  18. Implementation of a Basic Income Grant in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Julie Lundberg; Pallesen, Josefine Eva Lilly; Jesting, Kathrine; Tewolde, Eden

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse why the Basic Income Grant (BIG) was not implemented in South Africa. During the 1990’s the BIG was discussed within academic circles and civil society organisations argued in favour of its implementation. Despite pressure, the governing party, the African National Congress (ANC) never decided to pass the proposal and introduce a universal grant. Present day South Africa is characterised as a highly uneven country facing severe numbers of unemployment and povert...

  19. South Africa in the BRICS: Last but not Least

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Shubin

    2015-01-01

    South Africa joined the BRICS in 2011, two years after the establishment of this group. This step was consonant with themain principles of the country’s foreign policy expressed by its first democratic government. South Africa regarded the groupas an association of like-minded independent countries, a political and moral force for changing the world. However, byadmitting a leading African country, the four first members of the BRICS wanted to overcome the geographical divide andinclude a coun...

  20. THE VIABILITY OF INFORMAL MICROENTERPRISE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS WOODWARD; ROBERT ROLFE; ANDRÉ LIGTHELM; PAULO GUIMARÃES

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes entrepreneurs in South Africa's informal sector. The aim is to determine the extent to which African informal retail trade spawns viable enterprises. To assess the prospects for South Africa's informal retail sector, we obtained questionnaires from owners of small-scale establishments in a random sample taken throughout the country in 2007. Owner's income and sales data provided a basis for investigating viability. Regression analysis tests hypotheses identified as crucial...

  1. Dominion reef group, Western Transvaal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dominion Reef Group, disconformably overlain by the Witwatersrand Supergroup, outcrops in four separate areas in the Western Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. It consists essentially of a basal sedimentary formation as much as 90 m thick, which contains two important uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates known as the Upper Reef and the Lower Reef; an intermediate formation of altered andesitic lava flows as much as 650 m thick with some intercalated beds of tuff; and an upper formation of altered cherty rhyolites and dacites with a thickness of at least 1500 m. The basal sedimentary formation of the Dominion Reef Group represents the earliest sedimentation in the region (>2800 million years) predating that of the Lower Witwatersrand Group (>2700 million years). This paper is devoted mainly to a description of the auriferous reefs, their depositional environment, pay streaks that are a feature of these reefs, their mineralogy, and the highly mineralized, pebbly, silicified sandstone known as the Pay Band present near the top of the Upper Reef. The relation of ore deposits to structures, and the possible source of the uranium, are discussed. Reasons are given why a hydrothermal origin for the presence of uranium in the reefs is thought to be untenable

  2. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  4. Electricity and externalities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the electricity supply sector in developing countries undergoes increasingly rapid restructuring, and technology and fuel choices widen, understanding the environmental implications of investment choices becomes ever more important. The objective of this paper is to expand previous analysis of the external costs of electric power generation in South Africa. We present a quantitative analysis of air pollution impacts on human health, damages from greenhouse gas emissions, and the avoided health costs from electrification, as well as discussing other impacts qualitatively. The central estimate of total external costs is R7.3 billion, or 4.4 cents per unit of coal-fired power generated. Relative to current electricity prices, the external costs are approximately 40 and 20 per cent of industrial and residential tariffs, respectively. We then discuss policy options for addressing these costs, including taxation, tradable permit systems, and integrated resource planning, as well as expanded regional energy trade and the possibility of accessing climate change-related funding for cleaner electricity production

  5. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : South Africa Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Shafika

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In all the different facets of the ICTs for education prism, South Africa boasts more than a...

  6. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  7. Music Therapy in South Africa: Compromise or Synthesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercédès Pavlicevic

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available My neighbour at Pretoria University Music Department is Meki Nzwei. Master drummer and music ethnologist, he speaks with passion and authority as befits an elder in Africa. We disagree on many things. And the more I listen to what it is that I disagree with, the more I think he has a point or two. Meki, who hails from Nigeria, maintains that music in Africa is healing, and what is music therapy other than some colonial import? Why is music therapy separate from music-making? Why is it calling itself thus in South Africa, instead of imbibing African music-healing traditions? My blood pressure rises instantly, and I suggest to him that perhaps African music-healing, too, might absorb something from music therapy. This is where Meki and I are at the moment. I think that this is where music therapy in South Africa - and much of Africa - is at the moment.

  8. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country's infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country's energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry

  9. Evaluation of two influenza surveillance systems in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Budgell

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation recommends outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI and inpatient severe acute respiratory illness (SARI surveillance. We evaluated two influenza surveillance systems in South Africa: one for ILI and another for SARI.The Viral Watch (VW programme has collected virological influenza surveillance data voluntarily from patients with ILI since 1984 in private and public clinics in all 9 South African provinces. The SARI surveillance programme has collected epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance data since 2009 in public hospitals in 4 provinces by dedicated personnel. We compared nine surveillance system attributes from 2009-2012.We analysed data from 18,293 SARI patients and 9,104 ILI patients. The annual proportion of samples testing positive for influenza was higher for VW (mean 41% than SARI (mean 8% and generally exceeded the seasonal threshold from May to September (VW: weeks 21-40; SARI: weeks 23-39. Data quality was a major strength of SARI (most data completion measures >90%; adherence to definitions: 88-89% and a relative weakness of the VW programme (62% of forms complete, with limited epidemiologic data collected; adherence to definitions: 65-82%. Timeliness was a relative strength of both systems (e.g. both collected >93% of all respiratory specimens within 7 days of symptom onset. ILI surveillance was more nationally representative, financially sustainable and expandable than the SARI system. Though the SARI programme is not nationally representative, the high quality and detail of SARI data collection sheds light on the local burden and epidemiology of severe influenza-associated disease.To best monitor influenza in South Africa, we propose that both ILI and SARI should be under surveillance. Improving ILI surveillance will require better quality and more systematic data collection, and SARI surveillance should be expanded to be more nationally representative, even if this requires scaling

  10. Analyzing Teaching Quality in Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapire, Ingrid; Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying the quality of mathematics teaching in 183 randomly selected sixth grade classrooms: 100 from the North West province of South Africa and 83 from South East Botswana. The teaching quality is measured by coding videotaped lessons for three different components: mathematical proficiency, level of cognitive demand,…

  11. South Africa:Fast Growth Lies in Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Liu Yun; Liu Yun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ten years ago, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, South Africa got freedom by smashing the inhuman system of apartheid after a long and arduous struggle and embarked on a new path to democracy. Ten years after the establishment of Democracy, the South African people have achieved outstanding and widely-acclaimed progress in the course of social transformation and national development.

  12. The distributional impact of fiscal policy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Inchauste, Gabriela; Lustig, Nora; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Purfield, Catriona; Woolard, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the 2010/11 Income and Expenditure Survey for South Africa to analyze the progressivity of the main tax and social spending programs and quantify their impact on poverty and inequality. The paper also assesses the redistributive effectiveness of fiscal interventions given the resources used. Because it applies the Commitment to Equity methodology, the results for South Afri...

  13. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  14. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All eig

  15. BRIC welcome South Africa as its newest member

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has recently been accepted by BRIC as a full member of the group,which currently comprises Brazil,Russia,India and China.Song Guoyou,Associate Professor with the Center for American Studies at Fudan University,shared his opinion on the significance of South Africa’s accession to this emerging economies’ club. Edited excerpts follow:

  16. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  17. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  18. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  19. Review of radioisotope use in therapeutic radiology in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the National Conference on Nuclear Energy: application of isotopes and radiation, Pretoria (1963), radiotherapy has advanced steadily as an established medical discipline in South Africa. In compiling this bibliography the author has limited the field to publications in radiotherapy by South Africans. General information an photon teletherapy, interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy, and particle beams is given in this bibliographic review

  20. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...... national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by...

  1. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  2. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  3. Language teaching for the New South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley G. M. Ridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some of the challenges facing the language teacher as South Africa moves into a new era. The discussion is structured around three areas of change: change in the country, changes brought about by the official language policy, and changes in the school system itself. It explores the implications for language teaching of jour key words of the new era: inclusive, non-racial, democracy, and empowerment. In relation to the 11 official languages policy, it examines the status of English, language development issues, linguistic standards, the role of grammar in teaching, and the politics of language and cultural identity. Three areas of teacher need arising from the multicultural classroom are highlighted: understanding ihe cultural and linguistic diversity of the class, ongoing language learning as essential experience, and developing teaching practices which accommodate diversity as an asset. In hierdie artikel word sommige van die uitdagings vir die taalonderwyser in 'n veranderende Suid-Afrika beskryf Die bespreking word om drie veranderingsgebiede gestruktureer: maatskaplike veranderinge, veranderinge meegebring deur die amptelike taalbeleid en veranderinge in die skoolste/sel. Vier sleutelwoorde van die nuwe bedeling in Suid-Afrika - inklusief, nie-rassig, demokrasie, en bemagtiging - word ontleed met die oog op hulle implikasies vir taalonde"ig. Mb.t. die 11 amptelike talebeleid, word die status van Engels, taalontwikkelingsaspekte, taalstandaarde, die rol van grammatika in die onderwys, en die politiek van taal en kulturele identiteit ondersoek . Drie behoejtes van onderwysers t. o. v. die multikulturele klaskamer word uitgelig: om die kultuur- en taalverskeidenheid van die klas te verstaan, die voortgesette aanleer van ander tale as kemondervinding en die ontwikkeling van onderrigpraktyke waarin diversiteit as 'n bate beskou word

  4. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS) in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892), the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT) was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV) was demonstrated in 1900 by M'Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV) in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production. PMID:23327123

  5. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  6. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  7. An Outbreak of Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis among Mine-Workers in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Govender, Nelesh P.; Maphanga, Tsidiso G.; Zulu, Thokozile G.; Jaymati Patel; Sibongile Walaza; Charlene Jacobs; Ebonwu, Joy I.; Sindile Ntuli; Naicker, Serisha D.; Juno Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The largest outbreak of sporotrichosis occurred between 1938 and 1947 in the gold mines of Witwatersrand in South Africa. Here, we describe an outbreak of lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis that was investigated in a South African gold mine in 2011. Methodology Employees working at a reopened section of the mine were recruited for a descriptive cross-sectional study. Informed consent was sought for interview, clinical examination and medical record review. Specimens were collected from...

  8. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  9. A sustainable marketing strategy for Dutch tourists to South Africa / by M.C. Uys

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Maria Catharina

    2003-01-01

    The Netherlands is South Africa's fifth most important market and therefore South Africa has to maintain this market potential. If South Africa can maintain a steady growth rate of between 3- 5% it would be a very sustainable growth rate for South Africa's economy. This leads to the main aim of the study, namely to develop a sustainable marketing strategy for Dutch tourists to South Africa. Only 0.64% of a Dutch population of 15 million visited South Africa in 2002 which is an ...

  10. South Africa in the BRICS: Last but not Least

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shubin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa joined the BRICS in 2011, two years after the establishment of this group. This step was consonant with themain principles of the country’s foreign policy expressed by its first democratic government. South Africa regarded the groupas an association of like-minded independent countries, a political and moral force for changing the world. However, byadmitting a leading African country, the four first members of the BRICS wanted to overcome the geographical divide andinclude a country that enjoys a high moral authority and plays important role in peacekeeping and mediating conflicts.Through the BRICS, South Africa wanted to achieve various goals: addressing poverty, inequality and job creation at home;gaining synergic support from BRICS partners to Africa; and obtaining increased support for the reform of internationalfinancial institutions and the United Nations. This article analyzes to what extent those plans have been realized during thefirst four years of South Africa’s membership in the BRICS and concludes that, all in all, South Africa is the last but not theleast member.

  11. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  12. The establishment of implicit perspectives of personality among Zulu-speaking people in South Africa / J. van Rensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rensburg, Janhendrik

    2008-01-01

    The application of personality assessment for clinical and personnel decisions has long been an activity of interest to psychologists all over the world. In South Africa, personality assessment tools are used for the purpose of hiring, for placement decisions, to guide and assess training and development, and to evaluate the performance of workers. Psychological testing in South Africa was formerly initiated with white test takers in mind. It has been found that, currently...

  13. Canine distemper infections, with special reference to South Africa, with a review of the literature : review article

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Leisewitz; Carter, A; M. Van Vuuren; van Blerk, L

    2001-01-01

    Canine distemper virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridaethat causes severe disease in dogs and a range of wild mammals. The clinical signs relate essentially to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. In South Africa, infection with Ehrlichia canis and canine parvovirus may present similarly. Many dogs will initially present with a wide range of central nervous system signs without any history of systemic disease. A recent South Africa...

  14. Meeting information needs of patients with incurable progressive disease and their families in South Africa and Uganda: multicentre qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, Lucy; Higginson, Irene J; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Anthony P.; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Panajatovic, Barbara; Harding, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the information needs of patients with progressive, life limiting disease and their family caregivers in South Africa and Uganda and to inform clinical practice and policy in this emerging field. Design Semistructured qualitative interview study. Setting Four palliative care services in South Africa and one in Uganda, covering rural, urban, and peri-urban locations. Participants 90 patients and 38 family caregivers enrolled in palliative care services; 28 patients had ca...

  15. The establishment of implicit perspectives of personality among Afrikaans speaking people in South Africa / Adélle Bester

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Adélle

    2008-01-01

    The application of personality assessment measures for clinical and personnel decisions has long been a major activity for psychologists all over the world. In South Africa personality assessment tools are often used to aid decisions relating to selection, placement, determination of job satisfaction and development. Psychological testing in South Africa was originally initiated with white test-takers in mind, and currently none of the personality questionnaires available have been found to p...

  16. SOUTH AFRICA AND THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although South Africa was never attacked by Japan during the Second World War, the threat was considered to be so great that one of our most distinguished soldiers, Brigadier (later Major General W.H. Evered Poole was recalled from the Western Desert on 26 May 1942 and appointed Fortress Commander at The Castle in Cape Town. South Africa's published Official Histories of the Second World War contain few details of South Africans who served in the Far East. Commander H.R. Gordon-Cumming's unpublished Official History of the SA Naval Forces in the Second World War 1939-1945 includes narratives of the two South African ships which served in the Far East, HMSAS BARBRAKE and HMSAS NATAL, and HMS TEVIOT and HMS SALVESTOR which were manned by the South African Naval Force (SANF.

  17. Pregnancy and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although women of reproductive age are the largest group of HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in that setting. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on virologic response to HAART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women who initiated HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 30 September 2009, and followed up until an event, death, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 31 March 2010. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study; final sample size for analysis was 5,494 women. Main exposure was incident pregnancy, experienced by 541 women; main outcome was virologic failure, defined as a failure to suppress virus to ≤ 400 copies/ml by six months or virologic rebound >400 copies/ml thereafter. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models and weighted lifetable analysis to calculate adjusted five-year risk differences. The weighted hazard ratio for the effect of pregnancy on time to virologic failure was 1.34 (95% confidence limit [CL] 1.02, 1.78. Sensitivity analyses generally confirmed these main results. CONCLUSIONS: Incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was associated with modest increases in both relative and absolute risks of virologic failure, although uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, these results reinforce that family planning is an essential part of care for HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. More work is needed to confirm these findings and to explore specific etiologic pathways by which such effects may operate.

  18. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  19. Does race matter? Children's height in Brazil and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    I examine racial differences in child stunting in mid-1990s South Africa and Brazil, two multiracial societies with different histories of legal support for racial discrimination. Using data from nationally representative household samples linked to community-level measures, the analysis shows that racial inequality in the distribution of socioeconomic resources across households and communities explains much of the racial difference in stunting in both countries. Even after these factors are controlled, however, the results indicate that in South Africa, nonwhite children are still at greater risk of growth faltering than are white children. The nature of socioeconomic and racial differences in children's growth is examined, and major determinants are discussed. These findings suggest that although state-sanctioned racism may help to explain the greater racial inequality in stunting in South Africa than in Brazil, the eradication of a disadvantage for nonwhites will depend on changes in the same fundamental socioeconomic inequalities that characterize both nations. PMID:12471853

  20. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist.  Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.

  1. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  2. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  3. Challenges of locally manufactured vehicle supply chains in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Intaher M. Ambe; Johanna A. Badenhorst-Wess

    2013-01-01

    Locally manufactured vehicles are destined (partly) for the export market and thus, global competitiveness  is  important.  This  article  explores  the  challenges  facing  supply  chains  of locally manufactured vehicles in South Africa. The automotive industry is perceived to be the most advanced in supply chain management practices in South Africa. It has embraced technology and management practices that have transformed the manufacturing environment by using cutting-edge design and visua...

  4. Confirmation of the occurrence of Mus neavei in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Newbery

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neave’s mouse, Mus neavei (Thomas, 1910, occurs in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa (Petter 1981; Musser & Carleton 1993, with the latter record based on material from owl pellets taken at Makapansgat (Pocock 1974. Pocock’s record was disputed by Swanepoel et al. (1980, and in the absence of complete voucher specimens, the occurrence of this species in South Africa was regarded as doubtful. However, it was supported by Meester et al. (1986 and accepted by Musser & Carleton (1993.

  5. Institutions, market constellations and growth: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Heise

    2007-01-01

    Post-apartheid South Africa is facing three major economic problems: (1) slack economic growth, (2) high and growing unemployment and (3) among the world¡¯s highest income inequality and poverty indices. South Africa is currently caught in a macro-economic straight-jacket of tight monetary, restrictive fiscal and a wage policy stance that raises NAIRU. The persistence of a sub-optimal ¡®market constellation¡¯ is created by an institutional setting of a non-accommodative Reserve Bank, a sector...

  6. Production, Inequality and Poverty linkages in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Ngepah

    2011-01-01

    The Kuznets inequality-development hypothesis can be tested with time-series data rather than the cross-section analyses found in earlier literature. Single-country time-series analysis cannot be done without addressing endogeneity between output and inequality. South Africa has been under-researched in this area due to a lack of data. Recent data released by the Presidency of South Africa makes such analysis possible. Besides, the use of a single inequality index in such a multiracial societ...

  7. Thoughts on future prospects for uranium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the historical production and market trends of uranium and looks at the future prospects for the metal in South Africa. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to the prediction of a sustained growth rate in the region of 5% per annum for the Republic of South Africa. At this growth rate the RSA's known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035 necessitating the use of alternative means of generating electricity to sustain the growth rate. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. 12 figs

  8. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). Report on Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabille, Eugéne; Prinsloo, Eric; Mortensen, Niels Gylling;

    The key to any good and accurate wind atlas is good quality data. To this end the 1st Verified Numerical Wind Atlas South Africa, for parts of the Northern and Eastern Capes as well as the Western Cape makes use of meteorological data from ten sites, distributed throughout the modelling domain, to...... verify the results of the meso-scale modelling. The Measurements work package (WP2) is one of six work packages that collectively make up the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) project. The measurements also provide observed wind climates at the measurement sites, which can be used by micrositing...

  9. The development of radioisotope applications in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first era of radioactive isotopes and radiation since the turn of the century was inevitably restricted to x-rays and radium, with the greatest application in medicine for diagnosis and therapy. In South Africa a second era began when the first artificial radioisotope was imported on 27 July 1948, and the medical practitioners, in particular, were ready to use this new modality also as a tracer. This article gives general information on radiation protection, isotope users, therapy and in vivo and in vitro tests with radioisotopes in South Africa

  10. Dilemma of Muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N Gabru

    2004-01-01

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently not recognised as valid marriages in terms of South African law. The courts have stated that the non-recognition of Islamic marriages is based on the fact that such m...

  11. Educational Inequality in South Africa and Its Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Kevin

    1984-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between the United States and South Africa. Examines the educational inequalities in South Africa and the contradictions of recent reforms. Concludes that United States policies reinforce the strategies of the White minority government of Pretoria. (JOW)

  12. The Existence Of Revenue Gap In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamae Retselisitsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic factors that enhance revenue gap in South Africa using the multivariate cointegration techniques for the period 1965 to 2012. The results from the cointegration analysis indicate that the revenue gap in South Africa is negatively associated with the level of imports while positively related to external debt and underground economy. The former finding is consistent with the notion that imports are subjected to more taxation than domestic activities because of certain features of international trade that tend to make tax evasion difficult. On the other hand, the positive relationship between external debt and tax gap shows that the South African government relies upon external debt to finance its budget deficit resulting from missing revenues. Furthermore, the observed negative effect of the post-apartheid dummy confirms that the tax policy reforms that South Africa introduced following the liberation in 1994 have led to a reduction in missing revenues. The results from the Granger causality test also show that there is a unidirectional causality running from imports and underground economy to revenue gap, while revenue gap on the other hand is found to Granger-cause national income and external debt in South Africa.

  13. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa. PMID:12295438

  14. Uranium Exploration, Resources and Production in South Africa 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a brief history of uranium mining in South Africa. The types of uranium deposits in South Africa are described and their distribution given. The majority of uranium is hosted as a by-product in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin with lesser amounts in tabular sandstone and coal hosted deposits. The exploration activities of companies operating in South Africa are discussed and the reserves and resources identified are presented. A substantial increase in reserves has been recorded over the last two years because of intensive investigation of known deposits. Only a marginal increase in total resources was reported because of a lack of “greenfield” exploration. Production is far down from the levels achieved in the 1970s and 1980s. The surge in the uranium market resulted in a number of companies investigating their production options. The recent decline in the market has slowed down some of these activities and forced the closure of an operating mine. However a new mine has come into production and feasibility studies are being carried out on other deposits. The recently promulgated Nuclear Energy Policy for the Republic of South Africa defines Necsa’s role in nuclear fuel cycle and the uranium mining industry emphasizing security of supply. South African uranium resources will be able to supply all local needs for the foreseeable future. (author)

  15. In-vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities, against clinical isolates of Campylobacter species and Entamoeba histolytica, of local medicinal plants from the Venda region, in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Obi, C L; Lall, N; Meyer, J J M

    2009-03-01

    In the quest for alternative treatments against Campylobacter jejuni and Entamoeba histolytica, which are both aetiological agents of diarrhoea world-wide, the in-vitro activities against the two pathogens of extracts of 18 South African medicinal plants have recently been assessed. Forty extracts from the 18 plant species were prepared and tested against 110 clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. In addition, extracts from eight of the plant species were tested against a standard strain (HM-1:IMSS) of E. histolytica, and the cytotoxicity of each of 19 extracts from 15 of the plant species was explored using Vero cell cultures and microdilution assays. At least one extract of each plant species investigated was found to be active against some of the Campylobacter isolates. Extracts of Lippia javanica and Pterocarpus angolensis had the highest antibacterial activity, each giving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 90 microg/ml. Of the extracts tested against E. histolytica, however, only those of P. angolensis and Syzigium cordatum were found to have anti-amoebic activity, with MIC of 1.2 and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively. Although most of the extracts showed little toxicity against Vero cells, with most of the median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) recorded exceeding 400 microg/ml, an extract of Bauhinia galpini was quite toxic, with an IC(50) of just 2.7 microg/ml. Acetone and methanol extracts of several of the plants show promise as templates for the design of new anti-diarrhoeal therapies. PMID:19208300

  16. Current integration of tuberculosis (TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Chehab

    Full Text Available SETTING: Public Health Facilities in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current integration of TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 49 randomly selected health facilities in South Africa. Trained interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire to one staff member responsible for TB and HIV in each facility on aspects of TB/HIV policy, integration and recording and reporting. We calculated and compared descriptive statistics by province and facility type. RESULTS: Of the 49 health facilities 35 (71% provided isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT and 35 (71% offered antiretroviral therapy (ART. Among assessed sites in February 2011, 2,512 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV infection, of whom 1,913 (76% were screened for TB symptoms, and 616 of 1,332 (46% of those screened negative for TB were initiated on IPT. Of 1,072 patients newly registered with TB in February 2011, 144 (13% were already on ART prior to Tb clinical diagnosis, and 451 (42% were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Of those, 84 (19% were initiated on ART. Primary health clinics were less likely to offer ART compared to district hospitals or community health centers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: As of February 2011, integration of TB and HIV services is taking place in public medical facilities in South Africa. Among these services, IPT in people living with HIV and ART in TB patients are the least available.

  17. Transnational entrepreneurship in the Global South: evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Jayne M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational entrepreneurship is an evolving field of research which occupies an interface between social and regional sciences. The phenomenon of transnational entrepreneurship is driven by entrepreneurs that migrate from one country to another whilst maintaining business-related linkages with their former country of origin and the adopted country. The most critical distinguishing feature of transnational entrepreneurs is bifocality or the ability to function across two different business environments. Most writings on transnational entrepreneurship concentrate on business individuals from the global South operating enterprises in the global North. Absent are empirical studies of the nature and behaviour of transnational migrant entrepreneurs who operate across or between emerging or developing economies. This South-South gap in international research concerning transnational entrepreneurship is addressed in the paper which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of transnational entrepreneurship occurring in Southern Africa using evidence of Zimbabwean transnational entrepreneurs based in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  18. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  19. Suburbanization and residential desegregation in South Africa's cities

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Population density gradients for South Africa's cities are quite small in absolute value, indicating a relatively flat population distribution across the cities. In contrast employment is less flatly distributed than the population. The relationship between employment densities and distance across South African cities has remained constant between 1996 and 2001 whilst there has been on average a slight increase in population density further away from the city centres. As per capita income of ...

  20. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    P.T. Sekoai; M.O. Daramola

    2015-01-01

    Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM) has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This ...

  1. South Africa:Fast Growth Lies in Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Liu; Yun; Liu; Yun

    2004-01-01

      Ten years ago, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, South Africa got freedom by smashing the inhuman system of apartheid after a long and arduous struggle and embarked on a new path to democracy. Ten years after the establishment of Democracy, the South African people have achieved outstanding and widely-acclaimed progress in the course of social transformation and national development.……

  2. Financial Stress Indicator Variables and Monetary Policy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raputsoane, Leroi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper analyses the relationship between financial stress indicator variables and monetary policy in South Africa with emphasis on how robust these variables are related to the monetary policy interest rate. The financial stress indicator variables comprise a set of variables from the main segments of the South African financial market that include the bond and equity securities markets, the commodity market and the exchange rate market.The empirical results show that the set of...

  3. Demythifying Contract Farming: Evidence from Rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Freguin-Gresh, Sandrine; Anseeuw, Ward; D'Haese, Marijke F.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the on-going debate about whether and how restructured agri-food markets can provide viable market opportunities for small-scale farmers in South Africa. It aims at analyzing contract farming from the small-scale farmer perspective and at better understanding the implications for small-scale farmers regarding contractual arrangements with processing and/or marketing firms. The paper, based on empirical research conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Afr...

  4. Childhood overweight and obesity patterns in South Africa: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Dorita; Hannes J.L. van der Walt

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has been rapidly increasing over the last decade in both developed and developing countries. To combat the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in South Africa, it is essential to understand the extent and intrinsic patterns of the epidemic among children in this developing country. The purpose of this study was to review the available South African literature with regard to the prevalence and intrinsic patterns of childhood overweight ...

  5. Reducing illegal immigration to South Africa: A dynamic CGE analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich R. Bohlmann

    2012-01-01

    South African authorities are attempting to limit inflows of illegal immigrants. Evidence for the United States presented in Dixon et al (2011) suggests that a policy-induced reduction in labour supply from illegal immigrants generates a welfare loss for legal residents. I use a similar labour market mechanism within a dynamic CGE model for South Africa, but take into consideration a number of well-known facts about the local economy. With high unemployment rates among low skilled workers and...

  6. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Faith Oluwajodu; Derick Blaauw; Lorraine Greyling; Kleynhans, Ewert P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduat...

  7. Unemployment in South Africa: The nature of the beast

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta G. Kingdon; John B. Knight

    2001-01-01

    Unemployment in South Africa is so widespread that it demands an explanation. This paper examines two questions about South African unemployment. Firstly, why do the unemployed not enter the informal sector, as is common in other developing countries? Secondly, why do the unemployed not enter wage employment more readily? The findings provide little support for the idea that unemployed people choose to be unemployed: the unemployed are substantially worse off, and less satisfied with their qu...

  8. The comparative advantage of South Africa soybean production

    OpenAIRE

    Bahta Yonas T.; Willemse Johan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of trade policy on the South African soybean industry is analyzed by using 4 digits Standard International Trade Classification of soybean (1201) data of 1996–2011. The Revealed comparative advantage (RCA), Hirschman index, Major export category, Effective rate of protection (ERP) and Nominal rate of protection (NRP) were calculated. The RCA of the soybean industry in South Africa has shown a revealed comparative disa...

  9. ON WINGS OF EAGLES; SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY AVIATION HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-01-01

    With this book, Major Dave Becker has addressed an important hiatus in the military aviation history of South Africa. On Wings of Eagles is the first all-inclusive history of the South African Air Force to be published since 1970, when the SAAF (mistakenly!) celebrated their golden jubilee. The 1970 publication, Per Aspera ad Astra, was nonetheless a useful brochure and embodied the first attempt to present the entire history of the SAAF within one cover. It was, however, too superficial and ...

  10. Identification of losses to follow-up in a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa using a computerized pharmacy tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker Linda-Gail; Wood Robin; Kaplan Richard; Nglazi Mweete D; Lawn Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background High rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) are undermining rapidly expanding antiretroviral treatment (ART) services in sub-Saharan Africa. The intelligent dispensing of ART (iDART) is an open-source electronic pharmacy system that provides an efficient means of generating lists of patients who have failed to pick-up medication. We determined the duration of pharmacy delay that optimally identified true LTFU. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of a comm...

  11. 78 FR 65706 - Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... imports of ferrovanadium from China and South Africa (73 FR 77609). The Commission is now conducting... and South Africa (68 FR 4168 and 4169). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United...

  12. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure

  13. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure.

  14. Rickettsia mongolotimonae Infection in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Anne-Marié; Birtles, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed case of Rickettsia mongolotimonae infection in Africa. The patient sought treatment for an eschar on his toe; lymphangitis, severe headaches, and fever subsequently developed. After a regimen of doxycycline, symptoms rapidly resolved. R. mongolotimonae infection was diagnosed retrospectively by serologic tests and molecular-based detection of the organism in biopsy specimens of eschar material.

  15. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae G4222, a South African Clinical Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    le Roux, Wouter J.; Chan, Wai Yin; De Maayer, Pieter; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative pathogen autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae G4222, a clinical isolate from South Africa.

  16. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  17. South Africa: deregulation and democracy promise energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouki, M.A. [Penspen, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    The development of energy policy in South Africa following the first widespread election is briefly discussed. The main thrusts are increasing competition by removing entry barriers and opening the economy to world trade. Nevertheless some protection of the synfuel continues although this is under review. Social and development goals are also important. (UK)

  18. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  19. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  20. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G. Diphoorn

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  1. Zimbabwean army deserters in South Africa: military bonding and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Maringira; A. Richters; D. Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of Zimbabwe's political crisis have mostly presented soldiers in the army as defenders of President Robert Mugabe's regime without any mention of the regime's victimization of its own soldiers. To escape further victimization many of these soldiers deserted and migrated to South Africa. In

  2. South Africa Economic Update : Focus on Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in global financial markets have eased since mid-2012, reflecting improvements in fiscal sustainability and the establishment of mutual support mechanisms in the European Union (EU), even as the global economic recovery remains fragile and susceptible to downside risks. South Africa's growth slowed from 3.5 percent in 2011 to 2.5 percent in 2012, reflecting primarily the sluggis...

  3. Preliminary study on employment status and fertility in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, B.; Kielkowski, D.; Heederik, D.; Wilson, K.; Vundle, Z.; Kruger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of occupational exposures in the declining fertility rate in South Africa is not known. Data on time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and important risk factors including employment was obtained from 166 African women of reproductive age by trained community interviewers. For analysis, unplanned pregnanc

  4. The Power of eLearning in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenkamp, John

    2005-01-01

    South Africa's public education system is going through massive transformation, moving away from limited educational opportunities based on race and poverty levels to social and educational inclusiveness. While there is still work to be done, the country's education officials are committed to increasing access to a quality education for all…

  5. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  6. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  7. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  8. Energy efficiency in South Africa: A decomposition exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of energy efficiency has been accepted as one of the most cost-effective approaches towards sustainable economic development and reduction of the continuously increasing energy consumption internationally. South Africa, being among the developing countries, is not an exception even though historically low energy prices and the lack of appropriate policies have created an energy intensive economy. This paper examines the factors affecting the trends in energy efficiency in South Africa from 1993 to 2006 and particularly the impact of structural changes and utilisation efficiency of the country's energy intensity. Identifying and understanding the driving forces are necessary ingredients in the development of appropriate policy-making. This paper also provides disaggregation of the energy efficiency trends in the main sectors of the economy. We determine that structural changes of the economy have played an important and negative role in the increasing economy-wide energy efficiency. On the other hand, the energy usage's intensity was a contributing factor to the decreasing trend of energy efficiency. We suggest that differentiated price policies may be required if South Africa is to create an effective energy efficiency policy. -- Highlights: ► Improving energy efficiency can lead to lower energy consumption and emissions. ► A decomposition analysis examines the factors affecting efficiency in South Africa. ► With unchanged economic structure, the energy efficiency would be 0.75 units lower. ► Intensity was a contributing factor to the decreasing trend of energy efficiency.

  9. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  10. The Education Roadmap in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    A response to the precarious state of the public education system in South Africa, the Education Roadmap and its 10 Point Programme is a multi-layered policy intervention intended to galvanise educational policymakers and practitioners into action, get schools the support they need, get teachers teaching and learners learning, and ultimately…

  11. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  12. On Outcomes-Based Education and Creativity in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakier, Mursheed; Waghid, Yusef

    2004-01-01

    This article questions the potential of Outcomes-based education (OBE) in South Africa to be rational and imaginative, that is, creative. Our contention is that the notions of outcomes seems to be trapped in a technicist orientation of deciding in advance what is good and worthwhile for learners to do in education. We argue that OBE is not a…

  13. No Easy Walk: Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSouth Africa only began accepting individual applications for political asylum in 1994. A policy designed to recognize former Mozambican refugees for the purposes of a repatriation program became the (awkward) basis of the asylum procedure up until April 2000. Criticized by some, a livel

  14. Twilight Policing. Private Security in Durban, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnography analyses the everyday policing practices of armed response officers in Durban, South Africa. Armed response officers are private security officers who patrol communities in vehicles and respond to distress calls from clients. This study considers their interactions with other actors

  15. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half…

  16. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  17. South Africa; Staff Report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    South Africa showed strong macroeconomic performance owing to its sound policies, which aimed at raising economic growth and reducing poverty, within a stable macroeconomic, social, and political environment. Executive Directors commended the strong economic performance, sustainable fiscal policies, and sound debt management that helped to reduce public debt. They appreciated the authorities' efforts on addressing major economic and social challenges while preserving macroeconomic stability. ...

  18. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  19. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  20. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  1. Extreme wind atlases of South Africa from global reanalysis data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kruger, Andries; Badger, Jake;

    2013-01-01

    Extreme wind atlases of South Africa were developed using three reanalysis data and recently developed approaches. The results are compared with the maps produced using standard wind measurements over the region. It was found that different reanalyses with the same approach provide similar spatial...

  2. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  3. Development of a numerical wind atlas for South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennard, Christopher; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake;

    2015-01-01

    Two verified wind atlases have been developed for South Africa. The first adopted a statistical-dynamical approach and the second a novel, fully dynamical approach. We verify the atlases against an observational wind atlas generated from three years of data from 10 measurement masts. The...

  4. Unlocking markets to smallholders : lessons from South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwyk, van H.D.; Groenewald, J.A.; Fraser, G.C.G.; Obi, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    This book assesses the institutional, technical and market constraints as well as opportunities for smallholders, notably, emerging farmers in disadvantaged areas such as the former homelands of South Africa. Emerging farmers are previously disadvantaged black people who started or will start their

  5. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  6. First detection of human dirofilariasis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnee Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are occasionally inadvertently infected with dirofilariae, the zoonotic nematodes. We report two cases of human dirofilariasis in South Africa, an area apparently non-endemic for this infection. Dirofilariasis is frequently misdiagnosed, so increased awareness of this entity in areas that are non-endemic is essential for prevention of inappropriate investigations and invasive therapy.

  7. Decolonizing Research in Postapartheid South Africa: The Politics of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    This article emanates from an in-depth qualitative study that examined ideological beliefs among Indigenous parents regarding school desegregation and school "choice" policies in South Africa. The author discusses the politics of qualitative research design and methodology along two primary dimensions: decolonizing research and the importance of…

  8. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  9. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  10. Plant-made therapeutics: an emerging platform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Edward P; Chikwamba, Rachel; Koch, Muffy; Rhodes, James I; Groenewald, Jan-Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The field of plant-made therapeutics in South Africa is well established in the form of exploitation of the country's considerable natural plant diversity, both in the use of native plants in traditional herbal medicines over many centuries, and in the more modern extraction of pharmacologically-active compounds from plants, including those known to traditional healers. In recent years, this has been added to by the use of plants for the stable or transient expression of pharmaceutically-important compounds, largely protein-based biologics and vaccines. South Africa has a well-developed plant biotechnology community, as well as a comprehensive legislative framework for the regulation of the exploitation of local botanic resources, and of genetically-modified organisms. The review explores the investigation of both conventional and recombinant plants for pharmaceutical use in South Africa, as well as describing the relevant legislative and regulatory frameworks. Potential opportunities for national projects, as well as factors limiting biopharming in South Africa are discussed. PMID:21839824

  11. The most critical issues facing managers in South Africa today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maritz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available South African managers today find themselves squeezed between juxtapositions, such as international competition and simultaneous skill development programmes to combat illiteracy. A second example is high unemployment and the concurrent shortage of IT specialists. Affirmative action has led to troublesome labour relations. HIV/AIDS has an enormous impact on business and must be managed. South African managers need to change their managerial approaches to cope with the increasing demands of this country. Managers must be aware of the realities facing them and know how to turn them into potential growth opportunities for their organisations and South Africa as a country.

  12. Frogs and climate change in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Minter, Leslie Rory

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between frog declines and climate change, discusses the possible impact of climate change on the South African frog fauna, and highlights the necessity for increased research and monitoring of our frog populations.

  13. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  14. The economics of wind energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery charging and water pumping has been the only applications for wind energy in South Africa till now. A conservative estimate of the wind resource indicates that approximately 5% to 6% of the South African energy demands can be supplied from wind. However the low cost of electricity due to the abundance of cheap coal has made it difficult to justify the use of grid connected wind turbines. As with other countries where wind energy is now a part of the total energy package, South Africa will also have to go through a process of wind energy having to prove itself as a viable option while at the same time have a cost disadvantage. (Author)

  15. Continental margin neotectonics in South Africa: a nuclear siting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neotectonic activity in South Africa has only recently received attention despite the fact that a rigorous knowledge of this phenomenon could have a major impact on industrial development within certain areas. Since the early 1980s the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa has addressed this specific problem in the process of detailed site investigations for the licensing of six facilities related to the nuclear industry. The data indicates that there is a general correspondence in five selected areas along the South African coast between the development of Quarternary joints/faults and the degree of seismic activity recorded in each geological domain. Finally, the results provide new data that may add to a recent survey of global tectonic stresses. 13 refs., 1 fig

  16. Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriers’ approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and...

  17. Contrasting Reasons for Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Workplace and Public-Sector HIV Programs in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dahab, Maysoon; Kielmann, Karina; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan S; Hamilton, Robin; La Grange, Lettie; Katherine L Fielding; Churchyard, Gavin J.; GRANT, Alison D

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reasons for clinical follow-up and treatment discontinuation among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a public-sector clinic and in a workplace clinic in South Africa. Participants in a larger cohort study who had discontinued clinical care by the seventh month of treatment were traced using previously provided locator information. Those located were administered a semistructured questionnaire regarding reasons for discontinuing clinical follow-...

  18. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    . This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15......From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls...... years. Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  19. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  20. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  1. Peritoneal Dialysis in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ikechi G Okpechi; Rayner, Brian L; Swanepoel, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which encompasses 70% of the least-developed countries in the world. Most people in SSA have no access to any form of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Given its ease of performance and patient independence, peritoneal dialysis (PD) should be an ideal form of RRT in SSA, but several complex and interdependent factors make PD a difficult option in SSA. The present review describes the practice of ...

  2. Energy Policies of South Africa. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive study of the South African energy sector provides policy analysis and recommendations, with detailed descriptions and data for all forms of energy. Issues such as energy supply and demand, efficiency and the environment are also examined. The IEA conducted this review at the request of the South African Government, which is preparing a new energy policy in support of its Reconstruction and Development Programme to promote social equity, economic growth and environmental sustaining. The report also identifies investment opportunities and areas for technical assistance in the energy field. (author). 21 figs., 59 tabs., 8 maps

  3. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  4. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Arnot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 μg/kg to 4946 μg/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

  5. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  6. A HISTORY OF MILITARY NOMENCLATURE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Cowling

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Military nomenclature is an important dimension of military culture and receives a high profile in some armed forces, while in others it is a relatively low priority. In South Africa nomenclature played a very understated role for a long period but was accorded a higher degree of importance over the past fifty years. In order to understand the motivation and pattern of the trends in military nomenclature in South Africa, it is essential to acquaint oneself with the policy of the South African Defence Force which has regulated and determined the provision of names since 1912. Although the history of nomenclature in the Defence Force touches on politically sensitive issues, one should to bear in mind that, like most things, the provision of names and titles does not take place inside a vacuum. The nomenclature policy has therefore always been susceptible to the political climate, which has often determined the direction it has taken in South Africa over the past eighty years.

  7. The quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedine K. Coetzee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level.Objective: To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students.Method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12, faculty (N = 50; n = 26, doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26 and students (N = 106; n = 63 at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15 were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys.Results: Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified.Conclusion: These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.

  8. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hesseling Anneke C; Whitelaw Andrew; Marais Ben J; Schaaf H Simon; Eley Brian; Hussey Gregory D; Donald Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children ...

  9. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg; Abrahams, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND) and associated risk factors whichin fluence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention.Setting: The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC) in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa.Objectives: Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional ...

  10. Maternal and congenital syphilis programmes: case studies in Bolivia, Kenya and South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Deperthes, Bidia D.; Meheus, André; O'Reilly, Kevin; Broutet, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Preventing congenital syphilis is not technically difficult, however operational difficulties limit the effectiveness of programmes in many settings. This paper reports on programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa. All three countries have established antenatal syphilis control programmes. Early antenatal syphilis screening and management of positive cases were difficult to implement since most women presented for their first antenatal clinic visit after 6 months of pregnancy. Most women...

  11. Delivering PrePex Medical Male Circumcision Services Through a Mobile Clinic: The Experience From a Pilot Project in North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufa, Tendesayi; Chetty-Makkan, Candice; Maraisane, Mpho; Charalambous, Salome; Chihota, Violet; Toledo, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    We describe the implementation of a pilot project to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of providing PrePex circumcision from a mobile clinic. We analyzed available project diary entries and staff meeting minutes to identify challenges encountered. The main challenges identified were (1) daily time constraints because of setting up procedures, (2) transportation logistics for clients when the mobile clinic had moved to a different location, (3) integration and coordination of staff responsibilities, and (4) recruitment for PrePex services in the mobile clinic. The provision of PrePex device circumcision through a mobile clinic was feasible but careful planning and review of operational procedures were needed to resolve the implementation challenges. PMID:27331594

  12. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Victoire Ticha; Lorraine P. Fakude

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE) of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape inc...

  13. Dilemma of Muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gabru

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently not recognised as valid marriages in terms of South African law. The courts have stated that the non-recognition of Islamic marriages is based on the fact that such marriages are potentially polygamous. In South Africa, marriages may be dissolved by the death of one of the spouses or by divorce. In terms of the Divorce Act, a decree of divorce will be granted by a court of law. Islam grants the husband the right of divorce and also grants the wife the right to request and apply to dissolve the marriage through what is known as Khula, the woman also has the right to a delegated divorce. If the husband dissolves the marriage by divorcing his wife, he cannot retrieve any of the gifts he has given her. Islam further makes provision for the "reasonable maintenance" of divorced women.The non-recognition of Islamic marriages has the effect that a person married in terms of Shari'ah only, has no right to approach a court of law for a decree of divorce and, unless a husband divorces his wife in terms of the Shari'ah, the wife is trapped in a marriage, even if the marriage has broken down irretrievably. Thus a custom in South Africa has developed, whereby Muslim husbands refuse to divorce their wives in terms of Islamic law, so as to punish the wife. The wife in turn cannot make use of the South African judiciary to obtain a divorce, because of the non-recognition of her marriage. This is a burden, which is in direct conflict with Islamic law.In 2000 a Bill was drafted by the South African Law Commission. This act will recognise Islamic family law within a constitutional framework. This article deals with the dilemma that a Muslim

  14. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  15. Strengthening of safeguards - Remote monitoring in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa voluntarily removed its nuclear capability before acceding to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1991. The Safeguards Agreement between South Africa and the IAEA (INFCIRC/394) was signed in 1991 and the Convention on Physical Protection (INFCIRC/225) was signed in 1981. Following the 37th Regular Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in 1993, South Africa informed the Director General by letter, dated 20 December 1993, of its preparedness to consider proposals from the IAEA on the further strengthening of Safeguards for High Enriched Uranium (HEU). This was intended to provide additional confidence building measures and enhance transparency. Remote Monitoring (RM) as a Safeguards tool was being actively developed and tested on an international level during this time. Clearance to build an RM system in South Africa was obtained in August 1996. User specifications and technical specifications were drawn up and co-operation established between Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Aquila Technology Group (ATG), US Department of Energy (DoE), IAEA and the South African National Safeguards Authority, which until February 2000 was the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) and since March 2000 it was delegated to the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Limited (NECSA). Equipment was procured from items available on the industrial market. Installation was completed during April 1997 and a testing phase was started. An extension of the Remote Monitoring System (RMS) to Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (2 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units) and the Thabana pipe store (Safari Reactor spent fuel storage) was accepted by NECSA. Data transmission (encryption, transmission line, electronic hardware and software) problems were resolved over a period of time. Equipment related problems included neutron induced failures of the digital processing part of the camera hardware. A key success factor in resolving these technical problems with the RMS

  16. Achieving "decent work" in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Cohen; Luendree Moodley

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO ar...

  17. Mutual Fund Performance: Evidence From South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Tan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the performance of South African equity funds between January 2009 and November 2014. This study period overlaps with the study period of quantitative easing during which developing economies in financial markets have been influenced severely. Thanks to the increase in the money supply directed towards the capital markets, a relief was experienced in related markets following the crisis period. During this 5-year 10-month period, in which the relevant quantitative easing continued, Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE yielded approximately %16 compounded on average, per year. In this study, South African equity funds are examined in order to compare these funds' performance within this period.Within this scope- 10 South African equity funds are selected. In order to measure these funds' performances, the Sharpe ratio (1966, Treynor ratio (1965, Jensen's alpha (1968 methods are used. Jensen's alpha is also used in identifying selectivity skills of fund managers. Furthermore, the Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis methods are applied to ascertain the market timing ability of fund managers. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis method is applied for market timing ability of fund managers.

  18. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

  19. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Oluwajodu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduateunemployment in South Africa and across the globe, but few studies have beenconducted on the causes of graduate unemployment. There appear to be some gaps in theliterature; therefore, other problems and solutions to graduate unemployment have to beexploredResearch approach, design and method: The researchers followed a survey design. Questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used as research instruments to identify theperceived causes of graduate unemployment in the banking sector of South Africa. Researchparticipants were unemployed graduates, recently employed graduates and graduaterecruitment managers in the banking sector.Main findings: The study shows that several factors are perceived to be the causes of graduateunemployment in the South African banking sector. These include: skills, institution attendedby graduate and differences in expectations from employers and graduates.Practical/managerial application: The findings have implications for educational institutionsand companies that are encouraged to consider possible solutions to resolving the causes ofgraduate unemployment.Contribution/value-add: This study is one of the first papers to investigate the causes ofgraduate unemployment in the South African banking sector. It provides a rich platform forfurther studies and replication in other sectors, especially within the African context.

  20. Treating HIV in rural South Africa “Successes and Challenges"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the first testimony of a unique collaboration between Ndlovu Medical Centre (NMC) in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, and the University Medical Centre in Utrecht (UMCU), The Netherlands. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region most affected by HIV, and South Africa is the count

  1. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ...-Saharan Africa's water resources pass through Zambia, creating significant untapped hydropower potential... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Mission to South Africa and Zambia November 26--November 30, 2012, to help U.S. firms find...

  2. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  3. HIV/AIDS in South Africa: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Gilbert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the development of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, taking into consideration the social context and analyzing the factors most likely to have influenced its spread as well as the societal response to it. The authors argue that macro factors such as social and political structures, in addition to behavioral ones, have combined to shape the course of the epidemic. Since various factors linked to social inequalities have combined to shape the pattern and growth of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is inappropriate to focus on only one dimension in an attempt to combat the epidemic. Following the psycho-socio- environmental model, all potential contributing elements need to be addressed simultaneously. This calls for a true interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial approach. It also requires great commitment as well as strong political will.

  4. HIV/AIDS in South Africa: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Leah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the development of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, taking into consideration the social context and analyzing the factors most likely to have influenced its spread as well as the societal response to it. The authors argue that macro factors such as social and political structures, in addition to behavioral ones, have combined to shape the course of the epidemic. Since various factors linked to social inequalities have combined to shape the pattern and growth of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is inappropriate to focus on only one dimension in an attempt to combat the epidemic. Following the psycho-socio- environmental model, all potential contributing elements need to be addressed simultaneously. This calls for a true interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial approach. It also requires great commitment as well as strong political will.

  5. Apartheid medicine. Health and human rights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J

    Human rights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Human rights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by human rights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of human rights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078

  6. Rethinking responsibility in radiography: Some ethical issues in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of radiography in South Africa is complex and presents a multitude of ethical issues. The discipline is often regarded as a supporting function in the healthcare chain, and a stepping-stone in the diagnostic process. This status of the discipline seems to have left many radiographers in a position of substantial confusion. In the course of numerous bioethics presentations for radiographers in South Africa, several ethical and legal issues have recurrently come to my attention. This article aims to address some of these issues and to offer ethically and legally acceptable solutions. The proposed solutions are not absolute – they are based on personal discussions and experiences – and their practicability needs to be scrutinised. Consequently, this article should be seen as a starting point only.

  7. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana seroprevalence in HIV-positive, HIV-negative and clinically healthy volunteers in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia N. Trataris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella is a genus of opportunistic, Gram-negative bacilli transmitted from animals to human hosts. Bartonellae are newly emerging pathogens that can cause a variety of clinical manifestations in both immunocompromised and healthy persons.The aims were to determine the IgG and IgM seroprevalences of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA.A total of 382 HIV-positive outpatients of the Chris Hani Baragwanth HIV-clinic, 382 retrospective residual samples from HIV-negative antenatal patients, and 42 clinically healthy volunteers were tested using a commercially available IFA kit to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana.The IgM and IgG seroprevalences for the HIV-positive patients were 14% (53/382 and 32% (121/382, respectively, compared to 18% for both IgM (62/342 and IgG (63/342 in the HIV- negative antenatal patients. Similarly, the prevalence for IgM was 17% (7/42 and IgG was 19% (8/42 for the clinically healthy volunteers.HIV-positivity appears to be a significant risk factor for Bartonella infection, compared with healthy subjects. Although IFAs have a high sensitivity for Bartonella antibody detection, they have various limitations including cross-reactivity with other closely-related human pathogens.

  8. "Visualizing" Apartheid: Contemporary Art And Collective Memory During South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Mosely

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines contemporary artwork in South Africa in orderto understand its role within the larger process of transitional justice taking place in the country. How has contemporary art contributed to and/or shaped the construction of a 'collective memory' about Apartheid? How has this art interacted with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC? The author argues that South African artists have played a significant role in the overall social transformation of the country, undertaking projects which continue to negotiate the legacies of Apartheid.

  9. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  10. Differential Electricity Pricing and Energy Efficiency in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Kohler

    2013-01-01

    By international standards the economy of South Africa is extremely energy intensive with only a few countries having higher intensities. SA’s primary energy use per unit of GDP is amongst the highest in the world. The high energy and electricity intensity of the economy partly reflects SA’s resource endowments (in particular the abundance of coal) but is also a function of the historical under-pricing of coal and electricity by the authorities. South African mining & industrial electrici...

  11. Shell makes big solar PV push in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the launch of a joint initiative in South Africa with Shell International Renewables (SIR) to be electricity to homes in the Eastern Cape Province which has enabled SIR to increase its share of the South African market for photovoltaic (PV) systems. Details are given of the Shell manufactured 'Powerhouse' system comprising a solar cell linked to a pre-payment meter, which is leased to the homeowner at the same cost as they are already paying for batteries, candles, kerosene etc. The market structure for the Powerhouse system, the provision of power for householders, and the commitment to the major electrification programme are discussed

  12. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries' that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether South Africa can learn any lessons from them. In general, it can be said that although New Zealand law does not expressly recognise a right to privacy, it has a data protection regime that functions well and that goes a long way to providing adequate data protection as required by the EU Directive on data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has not made a finding to that effect as yet. The New Zealand data protection act requires a couple of amendments before New Zealand might be adjudged ‘adequate’. South Africa’s protection of the right to privacy and identity is better developed and more extensive than that of New Zealand. Privacy is recognised and protected in the law of delict and by the South African Constitution. Despite South Africa’s apparently high regard for the individual’s right to privacy and identity and our well-developed common and constitutional law of privacy, South Africa does not meet the adequacy requirement of the EU Directive, because we do not have a data protection Act. This means that South African participants in the information technology arena are at a constant disadvantage. It is argued that South Africa should follow New Zealand’s example and adopt a data

  13. Using ICTs to become a competitive SME in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Modimogale, Lloyd; Kroeze, Jan H

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) within the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) sector in South Africa. It looks at the current state of affairs regarding the use of ICT by South African SMEs, including possible benefits to SMEs as well as stumbling blocks to adopting ICT. ICT plays a very important role in the current "knowledge economy". It is vital for SMEs to become a part of this economy in order to compete and thrive in the future. The ...

  14. Decommissioning of fuel cycle facilities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in South Africa on the decommissioning of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is briefly summarized with emphasis on the lessons learned. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) has consolidated its nuclear decommissioning and waste management activities at Pelindaba and introduced a comprehensive, all-embracing nuclear liability management approach. The paper describes the experience gained on various aspects of decommissioning and waste management including the social impacts of the decommissioning and waste related activities during the decade from 1995 to 2005. Certain technological difficulties arose during this period and the approaches adopted to resolve these difficulties are also addressed. (author)

  15. ON WINGS OF EAGLES; SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY AVIATION HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With this book, Major Dave Becker has addressed an important hiatus in the military aviation history of South Africa. On Wings of Eagles is the first all-inclusive history of the South African Air Force to be published since 1970, when the SAAF (mistakenly! celebrated their golden jubilee. The 1970 publication, Per Aspera ad Astra, was nonetheless a useful brochure and embodied the first attempt to present the entire history of the SAAF within one cover. It was, however, too superficial and far too 'commemorative', and, by 1994, had become hopelessly outdated.

  16. Culture, language and niche publications in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Diederichs

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about culture in South Africa, we as South Africans tend to emphasise the wide variety of peoples that make up our population. We like to point out how different we are, but at the same time how we accept that we are all South Africans. And sooner or later we go on a bit about the Rainbow Nation and how successfully we integrated. We usually end discussions on this topic with how we find unity in our variety: as if this is a great achievement and unique to South Africa alone. But let us remember that we are not that unusual.
    If we look at languages as one of the integral parts of any nation’s culture, our 11 official languages are not doing too well when it comes to creating unity amongst us. Especially as one of them, Afrikaans, is branded as the language of the oppressor, thereby arousing emotions of hate and pride in different sections of the population. As a compromise, we have opted for English as the country’s lingua franca to bridge this problem, which is strange, indeed, from a cultural viewpoint as English was the language of the oppressor of all South Africans in colonial times.

  17. Assessment of Pollutant Loads of Runoff in Pretoria, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Josiah Adeyemo; Folasade Adeyemo; Fred Otieno

    2010-01-01

    Pollutants in stormwater are detrimental to the receiving water bodies. The study of pollutants in stormwater is important to know the appropriate management techniques to remove these pollutants. This paper presents an explorative study of runoff in Pretoria, South Africa. Common pollutants in stormwater are studied to determine their correlation with total suspended solids found in four different sites in Pretoria. The metals are strongly correlated with total suspended solids. It is sugges...

  18. A study about Securitization Processes in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Løvenstein, Kasper Bruun; Rasmussen, Tone Louise; Iversen, Lone; Szpisjak, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this project is on the private security industry in contemporary society of South Africa, with comparative elements of the societal aspects in England. With the industry experiencing an increase in the available market in Western society the question of its legitimacy as provider of law enforcement rises. The project bases its theoretical framework on the theory of Securitization by the Copenhagen School to describe the change in the need for security, Ontological Security by Ant...

  19. Challenges of locally manufactured vehicle supply chains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Locally manufactured vehicles are destined (partly for the export market and thus, global competitiveness  is  important.  This  article  explores  the  challenges  facing  supply  chains  of locally manufactured vehicles in South Africa. The automotive industry is perceived to be the most advanced in supply chain management practices in South Africa. It has embraced technology and management practices that have transformed the manufacturing environment by using cutting-edge design and visualisation tools. However, the industry has fragilities and faces new and emerging supply chain challenges. A survey research design was employed and  the  data  was  collected  through  face-to-face  semi-structured  interview  questionnaires based on the purposive sampling technique. Data analysis and interpretation was based on descriptive  statistics  using  SPSS  software.  The  findings  revealed  that  there  are  challenges hindering  best  supply  chain  practices  of  local  vehicle  manufacturers.  The  research  also revealed that there is a perceived difference in supply chain challenges between the different manufacturers of different origins in South Africa. Asian manufacturers felt much stronger about the adequacy of their information systems compared to the European manufacturers. Asian  manufacturers  tended  to  agree  more  than  their  European  counterparts  that  labour problems were a challenge. European manufacturers, on the other hand, tended to agree more that rail transport is unreliable. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on supply chain practices in South Africa

  20. Who's the alien? Xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duponchel, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In May 2008, South Africa became the theatre of widespread violent attacks against undesirable 'outsiders'. Over 60 were killed, hundreds wounded, and tens of thousands displaced. This analysis aims at identifying the characteristics of the victims in an attempt to portray the 'alien' using household data collected in February 2009 in the Johannesburg inner city and in Alexandra township. Results confirm that foreigners face a higher probability of being victimized on the ground of xenophobia...

  1. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  2. Factors associated with employee engagement in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiaan Rothmann; Sebastiaan Rothmann Jr

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Knowledge of the factors associated with employee engagement is important for practitioners and researchers in industrial/organisational psychology in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with employee engagement using two models, namely the personal engagement model of Kahn (1990), and the work engagement model of Schaufeli and Bakker (2004).Motivation for the study: Scientific knowledge is needed regarding the fact...

  3. The high frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, M R; Macgregor, J M; Saffer, D S; Beighton, P H

    1982-01-01

    During a national investigation concerning all patients with Huntington's chorea in South Africa, 17 affected children, comprising 7·7% of the patients in the survey, were identified. Although the frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in the white community was equal to that reported from around the world, the frequency was much higher in the population of mixed ancestry. It is possible that this unique situation is related to the genetic constitution of this latter group.

  4. Celebrating 15 Years of Music Therapy Training in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Brenda Oosthuizen

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Music Therapy Master’s training course at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, celebrated its 15th anniversary. To mark the occasion, two showcases held in Gauteng and Port Elizabeth celebrated the work that is being done by music therapists and community musicians across the country, both those with many years of experience, students and recent graduates. This report of the showcases highlights the calibre of exciting music therapy projects that are emerging and developing ...

  5. Catchment Management Agencies for poverty eradication in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Barbara; Van Koppen, Barbara

    This paper discusses the changes in water law in South Africa since the new dispensation. The focus is on the poverty dimensions of the early experiences of implementation of one of the components of the National Water Act: the establishment of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs). From a diversity of recent experiences in decentralizing integrated water resources management, key areas emerge where future actions by the government are crucial to establish pro-poor, developmental CMAs.

  6. Impact of cash grants on multidimensional poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pasha, Atika

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is estimated to allocate approximately US $12 billion for the 2014/15 fiscal year for social grants (Bhorat and Cassim, 2014). With an extensive coverage and budget, it is one of the most progressive social security schemes among low and even middle income countries. It helps mitigate income poverty and inequality, and has been shown to have a positive effect on household socioeconomic outcomes such as health and education, employment and other demographic outcomes. However, no s...

  7. Income convergence in South Africa: Fact or measurement error?

    OpenAIRE

    Lechtenfeld, Tobias; Zoch, Asmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether income mobility in South Africa over the last decade has indeed been as impressive as currently thought. Using new national panel data (NIDS), substantial measurement error in reported income data is found, which is further corroborated by a provincial income data panel (KIDS). By employing an instrumental variables approach using two different instruments, measurement error can be quantified. Specifically, self-reported income in the survey data is shown to suffer fro...

  8. Poverty Transitions among Older Households in Brazil and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos; Julia Mase

    2012-01-01

    Using a panel data set of older people and their households in Brazil and South Africa, the article provides estimates of changes in the poverty status transitions of older people and their households over time, assessing the extent to which some panel households managed to escape from poverty, while others fell into poverty, and others remained persistently poor or persistently non-poor. It also provides an exploratory analysis of the factors associated with poverty transitions. The article ...

  9. Human Rights Education and Curricular Reform in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Keet; Nazir Carrim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we chronicle the development of Human Rights Education (HRE) in South Africa within contemporary structures and processes of curricular reform in the country. We argue that human rights have been constituted as a discursive regime within education that traverses all education policy texts: laws, white papers, guidelines, recommendations and regulations. As such it has found a distinct expression in the new schools' curricula for General Education and Training (GET) and Further E...

  10. The impact of tourism on poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krugell, Willem Frederik; Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of tourism on poverty in South Africa on the basis of recent survey data on international tourism spending patterns. It looks at three scenarios, using an applied general equilibrium model. The main finding is that the poor benefit very little in the short term from additional tourism income. A further finding is that domestic and international tourist expenditure affect the economy differently; both markets are therefore important. In essence, the re...

  11. General equilibrium modelling in South Africa: What the future holds

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott; Punt, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main research contributions of the past decade using general equilibrium models to analyse agricultural issues in South Africa. The methodological developments since the change to democracy ten years ago are viewed in the context of developments in this area of research carried out internationally. It will be shown in this paper that the modelling and computing techniques have vastly improved during the past decade, both in an ongoing attempt to refine e...

  12. Investment Appraisal of an Animal Feed Plant in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; ANDREY KLEVCHUK

    2002-01-01

    Limpopo Province of South Africa has been successful in recent years in attracting domestic and foreign investors. One of the priority sectors favored by the provincial development strategy is agriculture, and the proposed animal feed plant is a commercial project falling under the umbrella of those projects encouraged by the Provincial Government. At the same time, this project is owned and financed by a foreign investor, hence, making it eligible for the direct foreign investment (FDI) supp...

  13. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries') that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in term...

  14. Description Of Leadership In South Africa: Organisational Context Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Shokanie; K.J. Stanz; J. A. Slabbert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the nature of leadership in organisations in pursuit of ‘world class’ competitive status. ‘Analysis of Variance’ (ANOVA) was used for analysis and interpretation of data. The sample of convenience consisted of 534 senior leaders. The difference between transactional and transformational leadership dimensions was determined. The results showed that the nature of leadership in South Africa is diversified between transactional leadership and transformational...

  15. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    OpenAIRE

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  16. An emerging vision for education management development in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Westhuizen, P C; M.J. Mosoge

    1998-01-01

    In this article an overview is given of an emerging vision for education management development in South Africa. The draft documents for education management before the election in 1994 will be stated briefly, after which a more detailed discussion will follow of the events that led to the proposed Institute as formulated in the Report of the Task Team on Education Management Development in December 1996. This Report will be discussed in more detail. In conclusion, some information on the mos...

  17. Water Poverty and Rural Development: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matshe, Innocent; Moyo-Maposa, Sibonginkosi; Zikhali, Precious

    2013-01-01

    Using household data from the 2009 General Household Survey, this paper examines the role of natural resource scarcity in rural development in South Africa, with a particular focus on water scarcity. It seeks to examine whether there is a direct link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use, ...

  18. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in black infants in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, A. D.; Alexander, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections in black infants in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa, was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Between 1983 and 1986, 14 different RNA electrophoretic patterns were observed for children with acute gastroenteritis. These electrophoretypes showed a sequential pattern of appearance, with a limited number being present at any one time. In contrast, for neonates only one RNA electrophoretype was detected, which persisted for at least 3 years.

  19. Some comments on water rights in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N Gabru

    2005-01-01

    Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependant upon fresh water. Water is not only needed to grow food, generate power and run industries, but it is also needed as a basic part of human life. Human dependency upon water is evident through history, which illustrates that human settlements have been closely linked to the availability and supply of fresh water. Access to the limited water resources in South Africa has been historically dominated by...

  20. Organisational inertia: Contrasting results in Australia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Roodt; Carli Kinnear; Ronel Erwee

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the similarities of scores on the Organisational Inertia Survey in executive samples in Australia and South Africa. The study builds on previous research on the metric qualities of the Organisational Inertia Survey and problems associated with assuming cross-cultural equivalence of measuring instruments. The sample for this study included a SA sample of 617 executives from different companies and 340 Australian executives from the Australian Institute of Management who...

  1. Local Government and Traditional Leadership in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kurahashi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    There have been arguments whether traditional leadership is needed for rural development in democratic local governance. Arguments about traditional leadership in South Africa often result in the one whether customs based on traditional values are democratic. It is possible to lose the traditional value which has been historically produced in the society if the criterion to judge political meaning of traditional leadership is based on election. The influence which traditional leadership exerc...

  2. THE DETERMINANTS OF MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Bhorat, Haroon; Kanbur, Ravi; Mayet, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of non-compliance or violation of minimum wage legislation in South Africa, a country where violation is high, at just under 50 percent. The number of labour inspectors per capita is used as a proxy for enforcement, whilst non-compliance is measured using an index of violation that measures both the proportion of individuals violated, as well as the depth of violation of an individual. Due to the potential simultaneity between enforcement and complianc...

  3. Tenure reformed: planning for redress or progress in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    James, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the contradictory and contested but closely interlocking efforts of NGOs and the state in planning for land reform in South Africa. As government policy has come increasingly to favor the better-off who are potential commercial farmers, so NGO efforts have been directed, correspondingly, to safeguarding the interests of those conceptualized as poor and dispossessed. The article explores the claim that planned “tenure reform” is the best way to provide secure land rights,...

  4. Land reform in South Africa : a contemporary analysis / Bester JC

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Jan Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Land reform is a historical issue in South Africa dating back to 1652. Land issues are at the core of political struggles and dynamism in many countries, more specifically those with a colonial history (Duvenhage, 1998:4). Political power is concerned with the capacity to mobilize and organize support within the society and to consolidate that power. Such power allows the taking of binding decisions, for example on the allocation of land to disadvantaged groups. The Nativ...

  5. Land politics in the new state organisation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, Thorvald

    2009-01-01

    Article in the periodical DSA In a study of land politics carried out from 2001 to 2005 in the two western provinces of South Africa, the Northern and the Western Cape, a high degree of distrust was recorded between institutions in the provincial government. This article attempts to explain the distrust and how it affected the role of the land state in land reform in the two provinces. The analysis is developed from an institutional political science (IPS) perspective. The findings are tha...

  6. Agricultural Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Herault, Nicolas; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    South Africa has rapidly reduced trade barriers since the end of Apartheid, yet agricultural production and exports have remained sluggish. Also, poverty and unemployment have risen and become increasingly concentrated in rural areas. This paper examines the extent to which remaining price distortions, both domestic and foreign, are contributing to the underperformance of the agricultural sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. We draw on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) and micro-sim...

  7. Formal-informal economy linkages and unemployment in South Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Rob; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    South Africa's high involuntary unemployment and small informal sector are attributed to an underperforming formal sector and barriers to entry in the informal sector. This paper examines the economywide linkages between the formal and informal economies while accounting for different types of informal activities. A multiregion empirically calibrated general equilibrium model is developed capturing both product and labor markets. Three policy options are considered. First, results indicate th...

  8. Youth unemployment, firm size and reservation wages in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Neil A.; Roberts, Gareth A.

    2010-01-01

    Youth unemployment in South Africa is high. We investigate whether one of the reasons may be that the wages young people want or need are above those that they could reasonably expect to earn given their characteristics. Unlike previous work on the relationship between reservation wages and unemployment we differentiate between wages in different sizes of firms. Larger firms pay more and thus, even if reservation wages are similar to average predicted wages they may be above wages that young ...

  9. Disequilibrium in the Labor Market in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bankim Chadha

    1995-01-01

    Unemployment in South Africa is decomposed into a cyclical and a structural component. The estimates suggest that unemployment is largely structural. Alternative explanations for the persistence of deviations of market wages from full-employment levels are examined. Three models that are empirically capable of generating the observed wage and employment gaps are presented. The predictions of the models for wages and employment are discussed in light of recent and prospective developments in S...

  10. Why Has Unemployment Risen in the New South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Banerjee; Sebastian Galiani; Jim Levinsohn; Zoë McLaren; Ingrid Woolard

    2007-01-01

    We document the rise in unemployment in South Africa since the transition in 1994. We describe the likely causes of this increase and analyze whether the increase in unemployment is due to structural changes in the economy (resulting in a new equilibrium unemployment rate) or to negative shocks (that temporarily have increased unemployment). We conclude the former are more important. Our analysis includes a multinomial logit approach to understanding transitions in individual-level changes in...

  11. SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND VIOLENCE IN CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Seekings; Kai Thaler

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the causes of violence around the world, one which goes beyond the analysis of conflict to consider the dynamics of community behavior and the importance of economic and behavioral factors. South Africa competes with Colombia, Venezuela, and a number of Central American countries for the unwelcome distinction of having among the world’s highest homicide rates, and high prevalence of other forms of violence, including domestic and sexual violence, are also app...

  12. South Africa; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that South Africa’s growth has slowed in recent years, specifically relative to other emerging markets. Although weak trading partners’ growth contributed to the slowdown, increasingly binding structural constraints, such as protracted strikes and electricity constraints, have been important factors. Unemployment remains high at 25.5 percent. Notwithstanding expenditure discipline, the general government budget deficit was 4.5 percent of GDP in...

  13. EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC POLICY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Hittler, Candice

    2009-01-01

    Since 1994 South Africa has been unable to sustainably achieve the rates of economic growth necessary to decrease its very high level of unemployment. Inadequate growth has been exacerbated by a structural increase in the share of private non-tradables (skill-intensive) employment alongside a parallel decline in tradable (low-skill) employment. Against this backdrop the concept of “The Developmental State” has resurfaced in policy discussions. The 2009 Manifesto of the African National Congre...

  14. Achieving Higher Growth and Employment: Policy options for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Faulkner, Christopher Loewald and Konstantin Makrelov

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, the paper provides some direction on the areas of policy reform that could generate strong growth, employment and poverty reduction in South Africa. The core requirements for more rapid and sustained growth are greater saving, investment, more productive use of capital by better skilled workers, reduction in the skill constraint and moderation in unit labour costs. Higher labour productivity growth will in its own right increase the labour...

  15. Social entrepreneurship in South Africa: exploring the influence of environment

    OpenAIRE

    Littlewood, David; Holt, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environment on social entrepreneurship requires more concerted examination. This paper contributes to emerging discussions in this area through consideration of social entrepreneurship in South Africa. Drawing upon qualitative case study research with six social enterprises, and examined through a framework of new institutional theories and writing on new venture creation, this research explores the significance of environment for the process of social entrepreneurship, for s...

  16. Safety Valve or Sinkhole? Vocational Schooling in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pugatch, Todd

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional academic schooling, vocational schooling in South Africa may serve as a safety valve for students encountering difficulty in the transition from school to work. Yet if ineffective, vocational schooling could also be a sinkhole, offering little chance for success on the labor market. After defining the terms "safety valve" and "sinkhole" in a model of human capital investment with multiple schooling types, I test for evidence of these characteristics using a pa...

  17. South Africa Economic Update : Focus on Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    In its National Development Plan 2030 and its New Growth Path (2011), South Africa identifies the export sector as an engine for faster, more inclusive, and job-intensive growth. The National Development Plan is targeting export volume growth of 6 percent a year, to achieve an annual increase in real Gross Domestic Product, or GDP growth of about 5.5 percent and to help generate 11 million...

  18. Student Leadership Perceptions in South Africa and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Laura M. Getz; Roy, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined high school and college students’ perceptions of leadership traits necessary foroutstanding leaders to possess in South Africa and the United States. Students (N =124) indicated traits that bothinhibited and facilitated outstanding leadership using modified Project GLOBE (House et al., 2004, Culture,leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies, SAGE Publications) questionnaires. Resultsshowed that: 1) Overall valence of trait dimensions remained co...

  19. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in South Africa and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wubs, Annegreet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of this dissertation were to study intimate partner violence among adolescents in Tanzania and South Africa, particularly prevalences and associated factors. Furthermore, to examine the relation between violent attitudes and violent behaviour, and the importance of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in predicting sexual debut. Intimate partner violence is the most common form of violence against women and girls. About one third of all women worldwide will experience violen...

  20. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage.Objective: This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization’s six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa.Methods: Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of th...

  1. Responsible Mothering in Limpopo, South Africa: Perspectives of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Spjeldnæs, Ingrid Onarheim

    2013-01-01

    Mothering is recognized as important in shaping adolescent children’s identity cross-culturally, but how people understand and practice mothering varies between social contexts. In postapartheid South Africa, the institution of the family is undergoing changes that affect mothering. This study aimed to explore how 22 adolescents in the Mankweng area in the impoverished Limpopo Province understand mothering. Through focus group discussions, diaries, photographs and interviews, w...

  2. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis) in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results) and...

  3. A survey of indoor exposure to radon in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon is the major contributor to the natural radiation dose of the general population. The results of a survey of indoor exposure to radon in South Africa are presented. The study conducted in the Western Cape and the Witwatersrand shows average indoor radon concentrations of 20 Bq/m3 and 40 Bq/m3 in two small samples of approximately 70 and 100 houses, respectively. 5 refs., 1 tab

  4. The safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is given a general look on the safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa. This include general information on the history and applications of radioisotopes. The main development of industrial nuclear techniques has been in the use of radioactive tracers for process dynamics studies. Nuclear techniques for elemental analysis have also been used successfully in the monitoring of those mining and industrial processes where concentration of specific elements are needed as control parameters

  5. Staging transition: the Oresteia in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Weyenberg, van, S.J.B.; Bal, M; Hernández-Navarro, M.Á.

    2011-01-01

    Aeschylus' Oresteia dramatizes the meaning and political deployment of justice, concluding with the transformation of justice as vengeance into the legal justice of Athens's new democracy. In this essay, I examine two dramatic texts that draw on the Oresteia within another context of transitional justice: post-apartheid South Africa. In Mark Fleishman's In the City of Paradise and Yael Farber's Molora the distorted family relations within the house of Atreus come to represent the distorted re...

  6. Antioxidants in Sutherlandia frutescens, a medicinal plant in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens (syn. Lessertia frutescens)has been used as traditional medicine in South Africa for numerous ailments. In this study, plant material was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH) in a Soxhlet apparatus. And then the methanol extract was partitioned into ethyl acetate (EtOAc), 1-butanol (BuOH) and water. The dichloromethane extract, the ethyl acetate extract and the butanol extracts were subjected to further separation; several compounds were isolated by V...

  7. Urine diverting vermicomposting toilets for Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdefors, Carolina; Mahmoudi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Although being the third largest city in South Africa, the outskirts of Durban are scarcely populated. Due to economic limitations, the drainage and fresh water pipes from the city are not extended to the outskirts. One of the most important issues concerning human health is that of sanitation and waste management. Lack of sanitation leads to the spreading of pathogens and often results in outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as cholera; one outbreak motivated eThekwini Municipality to inst...

  8. SOUTH AFRICA'S FLYING CHEETAHS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On 25 June 1950, the army of North Korea crossed the thirty-eighth parallel to attack their southern neighbours. Western Powers responded quickly and despatched a multinational task force, under a United Nations banner, to the conflict area. The United Nations Forces (UNF included a South African contingent of one fighter bomber squadron (No 2 Squadron SAAF, a liaison headquarters and ten army officers attached to 1st Commonwealth Division. By October, the North Koreans were routed. However, the intervention of Communist China resulted in a prolonged war which eventually ended in a stalemate at Panmunjom on 27 July 1953.

  9. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Bram [Institute of Social Studies, Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-10-15

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected. (author)

  10. The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Flisher, Alan J; Lalloo, Umesh G; Sitas, Freddy; Tollman, Stephen M; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2009-09-12

    15 years after its first democratic election, South Africa is in the midst of a profound health transition that is characterised by a quadruple burden of communicable, non-communicable, perinatal and maternal, and injury-related disorders. Non-communicable diseases are emerging in both rural and urban areas, most prominently in poor people living in urban settings, and are resulting in increasing pressure on acute and chronic health-care services. Major factors include demographic change leading to a rise in the proportion of people older than 60 years, despite the negative effect of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy. The burden of these diseases will probably increase as the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy takes effect and reduces mortality from HIV/AIDS. The scale of the challenge posed by the combined and growing burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases demands an extraordinary response that South Africa is well able to provide. Concerted action is needed to strengthen the district-based primary health-care system, to integrate the care of chronic diseases and management of risk factors, to develop a national surveillance system, and to apply interventions of proven cost-effectiveness in the primary and secondary prevention of such diseases within populations and health services. We urge the launching of a national initiative to establish sites of service excellence in urban and rural settings throughout South Africa to trial, assess, and implement integrated care interventions for chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases. PMID:19709736

  11. Same-sex marriage in South Africa: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Swanepoel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The status of same-sex partnerships is currently a hotly debated issue in various jurisdictions and also in South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa2 prohibits unfair discrimination by the State, inter alia, on grounds of gender, sex and sexual orientation. The question that arises is whether the legal definition of marriage, being a relationship between one man and one woman, constitutes discrimination, and if so, whether such discrimination is unfair. The legal position has become acute in South Africa. Legal uncertainty prevails with regard to the legal status of such couples. Various applications have been brought before branches of the High Court and the Constitutional Court for relief relating to particular personal and patrimonial consequences of marriage. In some cases the respective courts had to establish on an ad hoc basis whether a long term relationship indicative of a marriage-like relationship existed in order to bestow the particular relief requested by the applicant couple. The very fact that an ad hoc determination has to be made because, of course, there is no celebration of a valid marriage creates an untenable situation for such couples. The question posed above, forms the focal point of serious, and often insulting, legal debate. This contribution endeavors to give a brief overview of the various viewpoints, and thereafter to add to the debate.

  12. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected.

  13. Rainwater harvesting in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Water paucity remains a major threat to poverty, hunger alleviation as well as sustainable development. Innovative water technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) have the potential to improve rural water supply and contribute to the provision of the first 6 kl of water consumed monthly. RWH can also be the solution to South Africa food security by increasing water productivity of dryland agriculture and enabling homestead gardening. Although used for decades in South Africa, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is still far from being utilised to its full potential as unresolved challenges prevent its wide scale adoption. The paper presents the challenges and opportunities to the upscaling of RWH in South Africa. Key challenges preventing the nationwide expansion of RWH are the current water related legislations, the lack of finances and the absence of a national umbrella body that coordinates. While opportunities lie in the worth of knowledge gathered by research projects, funded over the last two decades, on the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of RWH.

  14. Natural products research in South Africa: 1890–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried E. Drewes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.

  15. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Ticha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios.Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs.Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used.Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE.Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  16. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, Joel, E-mail: jkrupa@mstar-ca.com [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Burch, Sarah [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: > Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. > Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. > Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  17. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: → Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. → Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. → Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  18. Non-proliferation and safeguards in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa, being a country with a nuclear weapons capability was prepared to remove this capability before acceding to the NPT, is very much dedicated to the prevention of Nuclear Weapons through controlling Nuclear Material, Nuclear Equipment and Dual-Use Related Materials and Equipment. To comply with the requirements of the various non-proliferation treaties, regimes and suppliers groups, local legislation was published in the South African Government Gazette. According to this legislation the Minister of Minerals and Energy is the National Authority for the implementation of Safeguards within South Africa. The minister delegated certain activities of this function to NECSA. To ensure that all the IAEA safeguards requirements are met, the Division Safeguards as National Authority, within NECSA, designed a State's System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material based on the ISO 9001:2000 International Standard. To comply with the ISO International Standard requirements various procedures, instructions, technical specifications and lists were prepared. A management Review was also performed to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of the Quality Management System. The objective of the Quality Management System is to provide assurance to the National Authority that it can state, with a high level of confidence, that the information and products provided to the IAEA are formally and technically correct and that no diversion of significant quantities of material occurred. In future the South African National Authority would like to measure the performance of the SSAC and to enhance continual improvement by benchmarking. Therefore one of our objectives is to measure South Africa's SSAC's performance against that of other member states. (author)

  19. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724

  20. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozesky, Leon; Neser, Johan; Meissner, Heinz; Botha, Kenneth; Jacobs, Lubbe; Shepstone, Craig; Viljoen, Hannes; Köster, Hinner; De Brouwer, Chris; Van Zyl, Jan; Van der Veen, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882-1912). This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance-related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate) rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis) manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012-2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27543146

  1. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  2. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  3. Applied Ethics and tertiary education in South Africa: Teaching Business Ethics at the University of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Kretzschmar; Wessel Bentley

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa). This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dile...

  4. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  5. No Easy Road to Freedom: The New South Africa. Classroom Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Diane L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Contends that stereotypical views about South Africa are commonly held by teachers and students. Presents information on South Africa's history, geography, population distribution, and environment. Includes demographic charts, natural resource and population maps, and an annotated chronology of significant events in South African history. (CFR)

  6. Fish Hoek Middle School: Issues of Education Reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Darryn

    Education in South Africa has mirrored the inequality and socio-political upheaval that has marked that country's history since the official establishment of apartheid in 1948. This paper provides a brief summary of some of the main issues impacting education in South Africa, a description of Fish Hoek Middle School just south of Capetown, an…

  7. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South... Sectors sections of the Notice of the Executive- Led Mission to Zambia and South Africa, 77 FR 31574, May... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY:...

  8. Exploring ubuntu discourse in South Africa: Loss, liminality and hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L.B. Eliastam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the current state of the social value of ubuntu. The notion of ubuntu seems to offer possibilities for nation building and social cohesion in post-Apartheid South Africa.However, this is contested by scholars who argue that the concept is vague and open to abuse.Interviews reveal that, whilst core elements remain, the meaning of ubuntu has been eroded,and is subject to distortion and even abuse. Ubuntu exists tightly interwoven with un-ubuntu. The notion of liminality is introduced to understand the current state of both ubuntu and South African society in transition. A liminal space offers possibilities for the creative re-imaginingand recovery of ubuntu as a social value that can drive social transformation in South Africa.The lens of discursive leadership offers insight into the ways in which leaders can stimulate and shape ubuntu discourse and facilitate the construction of new meaning in society.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article forms part of broader research into perceptions of difference and threat, and prejudice on the part of South Africans towards foreigners. Ubuntu is a social value that should challenge prejudice and xenophobia and shape social relationships. Research in a rural and urban context in the Eastern Cape suggests that ubuntu discourse has been eroded and is in need of reinvigoration.

  9. Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa are sub-Saharan African countries that stand out for their development progress. Each of these countries has succeeded against the odds, against expectations. This paper synthesizes the common ingredients of these countries' success, and derives lessons. It concludes that smallness, landlockedness, tropical location, distance from world markets, racism, colonialism and other challenges can be overcome through appropriate institutions, governance and...

  10. Adolescent HIV treatment issues in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, H

    2015-11-01

    Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased rapidly, but implementation of interventions has been slow in resource-limited settings. In particular, interventions such as antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission were hindered owing to lack of access to antiretroviral drugs. This resulted in ongoing HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infections. Notwithstanding the current progress in HIV prevention and treatment, challenges remain in preventing new infections in adolescents and supporting and treating HIV-infected adolescents. Barriers to successful treatment of infection in adolescents include denial of diagnosis, poor understanding or perception of future benefits of treatment and current-orientated thinking that may contribute to non-adherence to ART. Side-effects that lead to stigmatisation, such as lipoatrophy (stavudine, zidovudine), diarrhoea and flatulence (lopinavir/ritonavir) and gynaecomastia (efavirenz), maybe intolerable and prevent adherence to treatment. This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting. PMID:26937511

  11. Pebble red modular reactor - South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the South African Electricity Utility, ESKOM, was convinced of the economical advantages of high temperature gas-cooled reactors as viable supply side option. Subsequently planning of a techno/economic study for the year 1996 was initiated. Continuation to the construction phase of a prototype plant will depend entirely on the outcome of this study. A reactor plant of pebble bed design coupled with a direct helium cycle is perceived. The electrical output is limited to about 100 MW for reasons of safety, economics and flexibility. Design of the reactor will be based on internationally proven, available technology. An extended research and development program is not anticipated. New licensing rules and regulations will be required. Safety classification of components will be based on the merit of HTGR technology rather than attempting to adhere to traditional LWR rules. A medium term time schedule for the design and construction of a prototype plant, commissioning and performance testing is proposed during the years 2002 and 2003. Pending the performance outcome of this plant and the current power demand, series production of 100 MWe units is foreseen. (author)

  12. Commercially Important Medicinal Plants of South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Street

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in natural plant-based remedies as a source for commercial products. Around 80% of the South African population use traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs; however, only a few South African medicinal plants have been exploited to their full potential in terms of commercialization. The opportunity for bioprospecting of plant compounds for novel pharmaceuticals remains largely untapped. Certain renowned medicinal plants of international acclaim including buchu and rooibos are currently contributing to local enterprise; however, other exciting opportunities exist for commonly used plants which have not yet reached the international arena. This paper focuses on the key research and development contributions of 10 commercially important medicinal plants of South Africa. Traditional uses, scientific validation, commercialisation developments, as well as both potential opportunities and setbacks are discussed.

  13. The depletion of the human resources pool in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Du Preez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain drain has become one of the dominant realities within the South African economy. The official emigration statistics from South African sources inadvertently minimizes the seriousness of the threat, but emigration figures received from foreign countries are indicative of the size of the problem. Emigration, however, is not the only cause for the depletion of the human resource pool. Internal migration, pseudo-emigration and the influx of unskilled workers also negatively effect the composition of the human resource provision in the country. Murder, HIV/AIDS and related diseases severely impact industry and will increasingly contribute to the brain drain. A radical reduction of the skilled work force and a dramatic shift in the composition of the human resource pool towards unskilled labour negatively impact on industry and inhibits South Africa's ability to compete effectively in an increasingly global market.

  14. Demand for antenatal care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M; Lambo, E; Sambo, L G

    2000-01-01

    On May,24 1994, the then South African president, Mr. Nelson Mandela, declared that all health care for children under the age of 6 years, and pregnant women would be free. Unfortunately, there has been no significant decrease in maternal, perinatal and infant mortality. Thus, there is a need of research into the factors that influence the demand for antenatal services. The objectives of this paper are to (a) establish the determinants of individual pregnant women's choice to seek antenatal care; and (b) deal with potential endogeneity bias in the relationship between the decision to seek pre-natal care and perceived health status. The joint determination of consumption of antenatal care and pregnant woman's health status requires estimation of a simultaneous system. To help mitigate the simultaneity bias and avoid the inconsistency inherent in the application of Ordinary least Squares (OLS) method to simultaneous equations systems, we used Two-Stage Probit Maximum Likelihood Estimator Method. In the antenatal structural-form equation, the coefficients for TOILET, AGE, OCCUPATION, EMPLOYMENT, SMOKER, METHODS and QUALITY were statistically significant at P risk-lovers or risk-neutral are unlikely to consume preventive and promotive health care, including antenatal care. Thus, there is need to put in place incentives that would convert seemingly risk-lovers to risk-averters. (2) Programmes aimed at reducing women unemployment and general working conditions would improve use of pre-natal care. (3) Improvements in perceived quality of care at the health facilities that offer antenatal care is needed to boost the consumption of antenatal care and probably other forms of health care. PMID:17650027

  15. Airborne DOAS in South Africa: escaping flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccardo, S. P.; Heue, K.; Piketh, S.; Platt, U.

    2010-12-01

    The satellite instruments SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 show high average tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over the South African Highveld, a region with a high density of coal-fired power stations and other heavy industries. A pushbroom-imaging DOAS spectrometer was flown over the Highveld and surrounding areas in order to further investigate this feature of the satellite record. The wavelength range of the instrument includes differential absorption structures of gases relevant to air quality such as NO2 and SO2. The high spatial resolution of the instrument allows individual sources to be distinguished, while the mobility of the airborne platform allows larger-scale measurements to be made. Emissions fluxes for individual facilities are calculated. An NO flux for the city of Johannesburg is derived from the nadir DOAS column measurements. Similarly, a flux for the entire Highveld region is derived and compared to a satellite-derived flux. The Highveld provides an excellent outdoor laboratory for development of trace-gas remote sensing instrumentation. The greater Johannesburg conurbation and nearby industrial point sources are surrounded by rural areas for several hundred kilometers on all sides. Flat topography and a stable atmosphere in winter lead to plumes with high trace-gas concentrations that are easy to measure and distinguish from the background. A lightweight scanning multi-axis spectrometer is being built to measure industrial plumes from an ultra-light aircraft. Using a tomographic inversion, this instrument will give a vertical cross-section of the plume, allowing validation of dispersion models and direct comparison with in-situ measurements. Using a suitable flight path, a three dimensional representation of the plume can be built up.

  16. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  17. Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Goliath-Yarde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa’s unique cultural diversity provides a constant challenge about the fair and unbiased use of psychological measures in respect of their cross-cultural application.Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company.Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question.Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions.Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa.Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.

  18. The impact of apartheidon urban poverty in South Africa: What we can learn from history

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Viljoen; Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu

    2013-01-01

    South Africa's present day configuration of poverty and inequality bears overriding racial and gender dimensions as a result of the country's history. The distortions created by the now defunct apartheid system are still visible and continue to perpetuate poverty in South Africa, reducing people’s ability to improve their standard of living. This article provides a historical review of the impact which the apartheid system had on urban poverty in South Africa. Three aspects of apartheid polic...

  19. Health Research Ethics Committees in South Africa 12 years into democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Myer Landon; Moodley Keymanthri

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the growth of biomedical research in South Africa, there are few insights into the operation of Research Ethics Committees (RECs) in this setting. We investigated the composition, operations and training needs of health RECs in South Africa against the backdrop of national and international guidelines. Methods The 12 major health RECs in South Africa were surveyed using semi-structured questionnaires that investigated the composition and functions of each REC as we...

  20. Radiation biology – An important science for an advanced nuclear nation like South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of radiation biology (radiobiology) is under threat in South Africa because of underdevelopment in the discipline, despite the fact that South Africa has been a user of radiation since radioactivity and X-rays were discovered. The widespread use of radiation in medicine, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and other sophisticated nuclear facilities in South Africa makes it imperative that the interaction of radiation with biological systems is understood. For example, r...

  1. A critical assessment of sport consumption at endurance events in South Africa / Madelien Ferreira

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Madelien

    2015-01-01

    Sport and sport events contribute a big percentage to the growth of sport tourism in South Africa. South Africa also hosts some of the most significant endurance events such as the Cape Argus, Cape Epic, Midmar Mile, Two Oceans Marathon and the Comrades Marathon. These endurance events have the potential to enhance endurance sport in South Africa and can also be used as a tool for tourism. It is important however, to determine the endurance sport consumption behaviour for parti...

  2. Proposed framework legislation for renewable energy in South Africa / David Frederik van der Merwe

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, David Frederik

    2015-01-01

    It is common-cause that South Africa can be regarded as a country that is rich in diversity of natural resources. Moreover, it is generally accepted that South Africa has the best legislation with regard to the regulation of the environment in various fields such as water, air, biodiversity and waste management. However, there is to date, no specific legislation regulating renewable energy in South Africa. As a result of the high unemployment rate, poverty and the rural populat...

  3. Growth, Employment and Poverty in South Africa: In Search of a Trickle-Down Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the dynamic causal relationship between economic growth, employment, and poverty reduction in South Africa – using the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure. The study attempts to answer one critical question: does economic growth in South Africa trickle down to the poor through job creation? The study uses two proxies to measure the incidence of poverty in South Africa, namely household consumption per capita and infant mortality. The em...

  4. Excess co-movement in asset prices: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ocran, Mathew; Mlambo, Chipo

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates excess co-movement in asset prices in South Africa between 1995 and 2005 using the definition of excess comovement as correlation between two asset prices beyond what could be explained by key economic fundamentals. The results of the study suggest that there is excess co-movement between returns on equities and bonds in South Africa. The findings suggest that there are considerable noise traders on the financial market in South Africa. The result of this behaviour woul...

  5. Measuring and Understanding the Well-Being of South Africans: Everyday Quality of Life in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Neil T.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has a Gini co-efficient of 62, one of the world's highest (Finmark: Project FinScope 2004 and 2005, FinMark Trust, Johannesburg). Hence, measures of wealth are ubiquitous social indicators in South Africa. However, a growing emphasis in government towards measurable service delivery targets and remedial action to redress the…

  6. Approaches to tenofovir and abacavir drug shortages in South Africa: A guide for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Schowalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortages of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI abacavir and tenofovir have been reported recently at health facilities across South Africa. The Society issued the following clinical advice to healthcare providers experiencing shortages on 29 March 2012. These recommendations are intended only as a guide to clinical therapy, based on expert consensus and best available evidence. Treatment decisions for patients should be made by their responsible clinicians, with due consideration for individual circumstances. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:56-57.

  7. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patter...

  8. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country. PMID:27480475

  9. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. The comparative advantage of South Africa soybean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahta Yonas T.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of trade policy on the South African soybean industry is analyzed by using 4 digits Standard International Trade Classification of soybean (1201 data of 1996–2011. The Revealed comparative advantage (RCA, Hirschman index, Major export category, Effective rate of protection (ERP and Nominal rate of protection (NRP were calculated. The RCA of the soybean industry in South Africa has shown a revealed comparative disadvantage from 1996–2011. Hirschman index indicates that the soybean industry shows lower concentration throughout 16 years. Lower concentration reduces the impact of international trade risk due to the possibility of price fluctuation of the soybean product. MEC measurement also indicates that South Africa does not rely its international trade from the soybean industry. ERP and NRP were also calculated, using an enterprise budget for soybean production. The result shows that the ERP is negative, which indicates that the weighted input tariffs on soybean inputs amount are more than the output tariffs; that is an indication producers of soybean would be better off, everything else being equal, by not being protected through tariffs. The NRP is higher than the ERP which implies that the tariff applied on the output is higher than the tariff applied on inputs. The structure of the tariff schedule may have an important bearing on efficiency. Thus, the study recommended that an extremely dispersed and ill-chosen tariff structure implies that protection remains uneven and gains from openness may still be confined.

  11. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  12. A vision for a Reformed Christian college for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes D. Froneman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A yawning gap has existed in the South African educational landscape since the effective termination of the Potchefstroom University (PU for Christian Higher Education (CHE by the government in 2004. The North-West University, which was formed through the merger of the PU for CHE and the University of North West, has been positioned as a value-driven university, but for all its good intentions and successes, it cannot (and never was intended to continue the PU for CHE’s tradition of Christian higher education. Given the growth of Christian schools in South Africa after 1994, it is clear that pupils from these and other schools have no Reformed option when they choose an institution of higher education. It is therefore suggested in this article that the concept of a new Christian college should find favour amongst Reformed Christians from all denominations, races, ethnic groups and languages in South Africa. The author argues that obstacles simply have to be overcome. A balanced Reformed approach which eschews extreme fundamentalism as well as attempts at undermining the fundamentals of the Christian faith is needed. Therefore, the formation of an inclusive pilot committee to investigate the idea is proposed.

  13. Status of Seismotectonic and seismic hazard studies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.

  14. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Armstrong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective: This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods: Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results: South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC. Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion: Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection.

  15. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Serfontein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a democracy 'for the people, by the people'. The aim of this article is to determine whether South African public education is safe from the corruption 'bogey', where reflection is made on professional public school management, which is the responsibility of school principals. Our objectives include designing an education-specific definition of corruption to advance accountable and transparent leadership; establishing the degree to which corruption has infiltrated the public education sphere; and making recommendations to fight corruption in public schools at professional public school management level. Among other findings, we found that even though some principals actively advocate upholding high morals, their conduct proves differently.

  16. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Van de Poel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet these particular students’ needs and provide a communication support tool, the concept of a paper-based pocket-size multi-lingual illustrated dictionary was introduced as an additional component in a blended learning approach, to complement online materials called MoM-SA. The dictionary, to which students are invited to add material, has word lists in English, Afrikaans and Spanish, and offers links to the online materials. Students can add terminology, translations into other African languages and images, so that the dictionary grows and reflects the everyday needs of the students, who, at the same time, become co-owners of the dictionary; thus, process has become content and, as a result, learner motivation has increased.

  17. SAYNPS Participation in Nuclear Public Education in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Khathi, N.F.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has an objective to help inform and educate the public about the importance and benefits of nuclear science and technology. In South Africa, the government hosts annual national science campaigns to promote science and technology. These include the National Science Week, Science Olympiads and Energy week. SAYNPS encourages its members to participate in these campaigns through exhibitions and schools outreach programmes. Through these campaigns, schoolteachers and learners are educated about the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology and about different careers in the nuclear industry. Through participation in the different campaigns it was acknowledged that participation of young professionals in public education will help preserve nuclear knowledge in the country. It was concluded that public education is still a task that needs to be intensified in order for the public to know the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology. Scope: This paper presents the role that SAYNPS has played in nuclear public education in South Africa in 2006 and 2007. (authors)

  18. SAYNPS Participation in Nuclear Public Education in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has an objective to help inform and educate the public about the importance and benefits of nuclear science and technology. In South Africa, the government hosts annual national science campaigns to promote science and technology. These include the National Science Week, Science Olympiads and Energy week. SAYNPS encourages its members to participate in these campaigns through exhibitions and schools outreach programmes. Through these campaigns, schoolteachers and learners are educated about the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology and about different careers in the nuclear industry. Through participation in the different campaigns it was acknowledged that participation of young professionals in public education will help preserve nuclear knowledge in the country. It was concluded that public education is still a task that needs to be intensified in order for the public to know the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology. Scope: This paper presents the role that SAYNPS has played in nuclear public education in South Africa in 2006 and 2007. (authors)

  19. Review of blackfly (Diptera : Simuliidae control in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Myburgh

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The medical, veterinary and economic importance of blackflies in South Africa, and the historical development of blackfly control programmes in various South African rivers, are reviewed in this paper. In 1996 it was estimated that blackflies can cause more than R 88 million damages per annum along the middle and lower Orange River where Simulium chutteri is considered the main pest species. A clear link between the construction of dams and the spread of the blackfly problem was shown. Four phases characterize the development of blackfly control in South Africa: (1 during the 1960s blackflies in the Vaal River were controlled with DDT; (2, during the 1970s and into the 1980s blackflies were controlled using water-flow manipulation; (3 when used at strategic times, water-flow manipulation could be used to enhance the effect of natural predator populations; and (4 during the 1990s the organophosphate temephos and toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were tested for their efficacy against blackflies. The larvicides temephos and B. thuringiensis proved to be effective and are still used in several control programmes. The latest research focuses on the factors that influence adult blackfly survival and annoyance, as well as the development of methods that can be used to protect sheep from blackfly attacks.

  20. The Crisis of the Left in Contemporary South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale T. McKinley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The left in South Africa, fourteen years into the post-apartheid era, needs to face harsh realities: despite a long and often courageous left history, there does not exist an anti-capitalist and socialist vision that has the potential to challenge fundamentally, and to change, South African capitalism and to unite left forces. The practical result is a strategic crisis in which an unnecessary dichotomy has been erected between anti-capitalist mass struggle and action, and the need for a socialist organizational form to give politically strategic expression to such struggles. Dale McKinley argues that it is the left’s responsibility to work towards a political alternative that emanates from, and is grounded in, the ongoing and linked struggles of the mass of organized workers and poor against the impact and consequences of neoliberalism. Not to undertake this task is to condemn class struggle and left politics in South Africa to the realm of cyclical mitigation and crisis.

  1. Reflections on Apartheid in South Africa: Perspectives and an Outlook for the Future. A Curriculum Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnsley, Johnnye R.

    This curriculum unit is designed for students to achieve a better understanding of the South African society and the numerous changes that have recently occurred. The four-week unit can be modified to fit existing classroom needs. The nine lessons include: (1) "A Profile of South Africa"; (2) "South African Society"; (3) "Nelson Mandela: The…

  2. Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

  3. The Survival Benefits of Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    April, Michael D; Wood, Robin; Berkowitz, Bethany K.; Paltiel, A David; Anglaret, Xavier; LOSINA, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Background.  We sought to quantify the survival benefits attributable to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa since 2004. Methods.  We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications–International model (CEPAC) to simulate 8 cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients initiating ART each year during 2004–2011. Model inputs included cohort-specific mean CD4+ T-cell count at ART initiation (112–178 cells/µL), 24-week ART suppressive efficacy (78%), secon...

  4. Red meat, processed meat and cancer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies around the world were analysed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, demonstrating a positive correlation between consumption of red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer. In South Africa (SA) there is a great variation in the incidence of this type of cancer between various ethnic groups, related to diet and other risk factors. Strengthening the SA cancer registry and co-ordinated research on diet and cancer are required to provide specific answers for our population. PMID:26792320

  5. Aspects of medium-energy nuclear physics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cowley

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has participated in basic research on medium-energy nuclear physics for the past eight years since the completion of the cyclotron facility of the National Accelerator Centre. The research projects that have been conducted during this period have had a major influence on the development of the discipline of nuclear physics. This review of a selection of projects that have been completed to date illustrates the advance of knowledge and how this work has contributed towards a further understanding of the atomic nucleus. The possible impact of these studies on future application is alluded to by means of two important illustrative examples.

  6. WiN-Global 2007 Country Report for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using the

  7. Celebrating 15 Years of Music Therapy Training in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brenda Oosthuizen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Music Therapy Master’s training course at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, celebrated its 15th anniversary. To mark the occasion, two showcases held in Gauteng and Port Elizabeth celebrated the work that is being done by music therapists and community musicians across the country, both those with many years of experience, students and recent graduates. This report of the showcases highlights the calibre of exciting music therapy projects that are emerging and developing within diverse contexts and communities throughout our country.

  8. Poverty, inequality, and prices in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Arden; Leibbrandt, Murray; Oosthuizen, Morné

    2014-01-01

    Post-apartheid poverty and inequality trends have been the subject of intensive analysis, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to the impact of differential price movements on the measurement of poverty and inequality. This paper aims to tell the story of the evolution of both money-metric and non-money-metric poverty and inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to assess the effect of prices on this story. Our results show that inflation over the latter half of the 2000s ha...

  9. FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT TO SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legislation enabling effect to be given to the International Convention for regulating air navigation, and to make provision for the control, guidance and encouragement of flying within the Union of South Africa and for other purposes incidental thereto, for all purposes known as the Union Aviation Act [No. 16 of 1923], was passed on the 23rd of May 1923 to allow effect to be given to the International Air Navigation Convention of 1919, and to make the provisions referred to above.

  10. Forecasting Investment Needs in South Africa's Electricity and Telecom Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Bogetic; Johannes Fedderke

    2005-01-01

    The paper uses a 52-country panel-data for the period 1980-2002 to estimate demand for electricity and telecom services and, based on these estimates, project investment needs in South Africa through 2010 for two growth scenarios. Projections of average annual investment needs in electricity and telecom for the current growth scenario (3.6% per annum) are of the order of 0.2% and 0.75% of GDP, respectively. An alternative, accelerated growth scenario (6% per annum) implies approximate doublin...

  11. Forecasting Investment Needs in South Africa's Electricity and Telecommunications Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetić, Željko; Fedderke, Johannes W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors use a panel-data set for the period 1980-2002 to estimate demand for electricity and telecommunications services and project investment needs in South Africa through 2010 for two growth scenarios. Projections of average annual investment needs in electricity and telecommunications for the current growth scenario (3.6 percent a year) are of the order of 0.2 percent and 0.75 percent of GDP, respectively. An alternative, accelerated growth scenario (6 percent a year) implies approxi...

  12. Guidelines for the marketing of independent schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaan Immelman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of the study is to recommend marketing guidelines for independent primary schools, with the focus on product and people in the marketing mix. This objective was achieved by identifying choice factors influencing parents’ selection of independent primary schools, identifying the most important choice factors and demographic differences regarding the importance parents attached to these factors.Problem investigated: Some independent schools in South Africa find it difficult to market themselves effectively as a result of a lack of information pertaining to the choice factors identified by parents when selecting independent primary schools. A comprehensive set of choice factors will provide a more accurate picture of the criteria parents perceive as important in independent school selection.Methodology: The methodological approach followed was exploratory and quantitative in nature. The sample consisted of 669 respondents from 30 independent schools in Gauteng in South Africa. A structured questionnaire, with a five-point Likert scale, was fielded to gather the data. The descriptive and factor analysis approaches were used to analyse the results.Findings and implications: The main finding is that a total of 29 different choice factors were identified that parents perceive as important when selecting an independent primary school. The most important factor for parents when making a choice is the small size of the classes, followed by the religious ethos of the school as well as qualified and committed educators. This indicates that parents have a comprehensive set of choice factors and implies that a better understanding of these factors by independent schools may assist them to focus their marketing efforts more optimally in order to attract new learners.Originality and value of the research: Very little research exists with specific reference to independent school marketing in South Africa

  13. Role of nuclear technology in South Africa / Frederick Bieldt

    OpenAIRE

    Bieldt, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is in the critical process of determining the profile of its power composition for the next 30 years and beyond. From the IRP2010 it seems that too much emphasis is placed on renewable energy, coal and other technologies and too little on nuclear power. In the revision of the IRP2010, the renewable portion of the energy composition has been increased substantially from 11.4 to 17.8GW, where nuclear remains on 9.6GW (DME, 2011). The purpose of this research is to investigate and c...

  14. [The cases of teratology in Mallophaga of South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M

    2001-01-01

    The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959

  15. HIV Status and Labor Market Participation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Levinsohn; Zoë McLaren; Olive Shisana; Khangelani Zuma

    2011-01-01

    Because individuals with HIV are more likely to fall into poverty, and the poor may be at higher risk of contracting HIV, simple estimates of the effect of HIV status on economic outcomes will tend to be biased. In this paper, we use two econometric methods based on the propensity score to estimate the causal effect of HIV status on employment outcomes in South Africa. We rely on rich data on sexual behavior and knowledge of HIV from a large national household-based survey, which included HIV...

  16. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria Situation: In South Africa, 10% of the population is at risk and transmission is seasonal. Reported cases peaked to 60,000 in 1999. Epidemiology: The high risk areas are found in the NE part of the country and An. arabiensis is the major vector. An. funestus was eradicated using DDT; but it returned following the switch to pyrethroids as it was resistant to this class of insecticides. Malaria Control: The mosquito control programme targets the parasite and the vector. Vector control uses residual house spraying and larviciding in winter or in emergencies. Insecticide treated bednets are also being used.

  17. Radioactive fallout over South Africa during 1974-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUCOR is routinely monitoring air and rainwater for radioactive fallout from atmospheric sources. Air humidity is continuously collected and analysed for tritium. Milk samples are obtained from a number of places throughout the country. These samples are analysed to detect timeously any build-up of radionuclides in soil and plants. Only a few atmosperic nuclear tests have been conducted (by China) since the previous report period of 1965 to 1973. The fallout from these sources over South Africa is extremely small and it is mainly cosmogenic radioactivity, viz 3H and 7Be, that is detected

  18. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  19. WiN-Global 2007 Country Report for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, Kameshni [South African National Nuclear Regulator, 17 Atlantic Road, Duynefontein, 07441 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using

  20. Correlation of uranium geology between South America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acting upon the recommendation of an Advisory Group Meeting held in 1980, the IAEA organized a Working Group on the Correlation of the Uranium Geology between South America and Africa because of the tremendous geological potential for uranium and the interest showed by the Member States of the regions concerned. The report of this Working Group is now presented. The aim of this report is to provide the nuclear industry and, in particular, the countries of the region with a broad but updated outline of current development in the uranium geology and the uranium potential of Africa and South America. The scope is such that it will provide, for those not directly involved in uranium exploration in the area, a general technical summary on the regional geology and tectonics of these two continents in order that the geodynamic setting of their uranium occurrences may be correlated. With respect to the area to be covered and bearing in mind the purpose of this study, the Working Group surveyed the most relevant parts of western Gondwanaland, of which the two continents form a part. The area covered by the report extends from north of the West African Craton and the Guiana Shield to the southern end of South America and Africa; from the Amazonian Province in western Brazil and western Argentina to the central part of the West African Craton, Congo-Kasai Craton. The Andean Chain in South America and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, which were formed by continental accretion in recent geological time and post-dated the split and drift of the two land masses, were not considered. Some of the inner portions of those cratons distant from the coastlines and for which the correlation features do not apply have also been omitted. However, certain areas of important uranium mineralization outside the main study area have been described in order to offer comparative models for future exploration elsewhere. The subject of the report is discussed under six headings: cratonic areas