WorldWideScience

Sample records for climbing lanes

  1. Lupino Lane

    OpenAIRE

    Couderc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Henry George Lupino est né à Londres le 16 juin 1892 d’une famille d’acteurs d’origine italienne : les Lupino, célèbre troupe de smarionnettistes, avaient émigré dès le xviie siècle, puis s’étaient illustrés au music-hall. Le père, Henry Charles, épousa une Lane, famille célèbre de la scène anglaise, et eut deux fils : Henry George qui adopta comme pseudonyme les noms de ses deux géniteurs (Lupino Lane) et Wallace qui comme son frère fit une carrière cinématographique. Le petit Henry George s...

  2. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  3. Brick Lane Patchwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Monegato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay Brick Lane Patchwork takes its roots in the consideration that the most effective cultural representations of London Brick Lane are explicitly or implicitly linked to the nature of a patchwork. Many contemporary cultural representations made a vain and ambitious effort to portray the real soul(s of Brick Lane, without taking into consideration its complexity and, therefore, delivering a distinctive image of the area as if it was a single piece of cloth, not a whole quilt. Starting from already existing cultural representations of Brick Lane (Monica Ali's first novel Brick Lane and its filmic adaptation directed by Sarah Gavron, the poetic memoir Salaam Brick Lane - a Year in the New East End and the short film Brick Lane by Paul Makkar, which are going to be privileged squared cloths to be sewn in the above mentioned patchwork, the aim of this essay is both to detect its proper cultural representations and to sew an imaginative patchwork quilt, a new and multiple image of this London area enhancing its hybrid soul(s, its blending procedure and contemporary facets. Ali M., 2004, Brick Lane, Doubleday Black Swan, London.Gavron S., 2007, Brick Lane, Sony Pictures Classics.Hall T., 2005, Salaam Brick Lane - A Year in the New East End, John Murray Publishers, London. Makkar P., 2002, Brick Lane, Anapurna Films.

  4. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  6. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self-transcendence. Yet how adults can purposefully ascend Maslow’s pyramid through satisfying unfilled needs remains elusive. This brief article challenges this on the theory’s 70th anniversary by presenting a new image of the needs hierarchy, based on ecological design principles to support adults’ purposeful endeavors to climb the needs pyramid.

  7. Motorcycle lane-sharing : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the use of lane-sharing (also sometimes referred to as lane-splitting and filtering) nationally and internationally and includes discussions on motorcycle and driver (auto) safety, and the potential benefits of lane-sharing.

  8. Deployment strategies of managed lanes on arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report investigates issues related to planning, financing, deployment, and operation of managed : lanes on arterials. In this report, a strategy for managed lanes refers to a combination of the managed : lane type, the design and implementation,...

  9. A New Approach to Lane Guidance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eidehall, Andreas; Pohl, Jochen; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new automotive safety function called Emergency Lane Assist (ELA). ELA combines conventional lane guidance systems with a threat assessment module that tries to activate and deactivate the lane guidance interventions according to the actual risk level of lane departure. The goal is to only prevent dangerous lane departure manoeuvres. Such a threat assessment algorithm is dependent on detailed information about the vehicle surroundings, i.e., positions and motion of other...

  10. Application of a performance management framework for priced lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation and its agency partners have implemented various forms of lane : management and pricing over the past three decades, including high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, highoccupancy toll lanes, managed lanes, and tol...

  11. Diagnosis of climbing related overuse injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauser, A.; Frauscher, F.; Helweg, G.; Nedden, D. zur; Hochholzer, T.; Kramer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Sport climbing shows an enormous increase in participation, evolving to more popularity, including even school sport activity on high standards. Therefore the number of climbing related injuries is increasing and becomes a more frequently encountered medical problem. Typical climbing associated injuries involve predominantly the upper limb. Overuse injuries are the most common climbing related injuries.The clinical examination is the first line investigation, which is often limited especially in the acute phase. However, an exact diagnosis is desireable for therapeutic management. Imaging modalities have shown to be capable for detection of climbing related injuries. An overview about the current use of x-ray, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in different climbing related overuse injuries is presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Miami, FL I-95 express lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region is creating a 22-mile managed-lane facility, : including HOT lanes on I-95, between I-395 and I-595, with a longer term goal of : providing a network of managed lanes throughout the congested region. Freeflowing : cond...

  13. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  14. Climbing Mont Blanc and Scalability

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This thesis details a proposed system implementation upgrade for the CMB system, accessible at \\url{climb.idi.ntnu.no}, which profiles C/C++ code for its energy efficiency on an Odroid-XU3 board, which utilises a Samsung Exynos 5 Octa CPU, and has an ARM Mali-T628 GPU. Our proposed system implementation improves the robustness of the code base and its execution, in addition to permitting an increased throughput of submissions profiled by the system with the implementation's dispatcher whic...

  15. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  16. Efficacy of pre-ascent climbing route visual inspection in indoor sport climbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, X.; Lambert, Ph; Jones, G.; Llewellyn, D. J.

    Pre-ascent climbing route visual inspection (route preview) has been suggested as a key climbing performance parameter although its role has never been verified experimentally. We examined the efficacy of this perceptual-cognitive skill on indoor sport climbing performance. Twenty-nine male

  17. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  18. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  19. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  20. CLIMB grammars: three projects using metagrammar engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, A.S.; Avgustinova, T.; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the CLIMB (Comparative Libraries of Implementations with Matrix Basis) methodology and grammars. The basic idea behind CLIMB is to use code generation as a general methodology for grammar development in order to create a more systematic approach to grammar development. The

  1. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  2. Lane Changing and Lane Utilization Behavior for Three Lane Normal Section in Iraq Traffic Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, different programs or methods have been produced to solve the traffic problem everywhere in the world. Iraq is one of the countries which suffer from high problems in traffic operation, design and planning. Therefore, to use the sophisticated traffic programs or models such as simulation models there is an urgent need to investigate specified field parameters which correspond to calibrated parameters used in the model under study. This study has focused on studying driver behavior which represents the core stone in a traffic simulation. This behavior represents lane changing (LC and lane utilization (LU in normal sections. Three normal sections with three lanes have been selected in different sites in Iraq: two sites in Al-Najaf city and one site in Al-Muthna city. The results of data analysis show that the driver behavior in both LC and LU is similar to the behavior in the UK. The current observed data could be used for the calibration process for any traffic simulation model in order to mimic the reality of Iraqi drivers.

  3. Effects of Sport Climbing on Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steimer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS with different types of disease courses (relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, primary progressive that leads to physical as well as mental disability. The symptoms comprise paresis or/and paralysis, ataxia, bladder dysfunction, visual problems as well as effects on cognition. There is limited data regarding the possible effects of sport climbing respectively therapeutic climbing on patients with MS. Sport climbing offers many potentially beneficial effects for patients with MS since there are effects on coordination, muscular strength, and cognition to name the most relevant ones. Also, disease models in rodents point toward such positive outcomes of climbing. Therefore, we assessed the currently available research literature on general effects of physical exercise, impact of climbing on body and mind and therapeutic climbing for prevention or therapy for the treatment of MS. The sparse published controlled trials that investigated this sport activity on different groups of patients with neurological or geriatric diseases grossly differ in study design and outcome parameters. Nevertheless, it appears that climbing offers the opportunity to improve some of the symptoms of patients with MS and can contribute to an enhanced quality of life.

  4. Indoor rock climbing: who gets injured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D M; Royle, T J; Marshall, T

    2001-06-01

    To determine the frequency of overuse injury in indoor climbers, the common sites of such injury, and the factors that influence the probability that a climber will have sustained an overuse injury while climbing indoors. A semisupervised questionnaire was used to survey overuse injury in 295 spectators and competitors at the Entre-Prises World Climbing Championships held in Birmingham 3-5 December 1999. Statistical analysis included simple cross tabulations, calculation of odds ratios, and multiple logistic regression to explore the effect of several factors simultaneously. Some 44% of respondents had sustained an overuse injury, 19% at more than one site. The most common site of injury was the fingers. Univariate analysis showed that the probability of having sustained a climbing injury is higher in men (p = 0.009), those who have climbed for more than 10 years (p = 0.006), those who climb harder routes (p<0.0005), and those who boulder or lead more than they top rope (p<0.0005). The relation between lead grade and climbing injury is linear. Multivariate analysis removed the effect of sex as an independent predictor. Many climbers sustain overuse injury. The most at risk are those with the most ability and dedication to climbing. Climbers should be aware of the risk factors that influence injury and be able to spot the signs and symptoms of injury once they occur.

  5. Implementation elements for conversion of general-purpose freeway lane into high-occupancy-vehicle lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of a general-purpose freeway into a high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane is an alternative to infrastructure addition for HOV system implementation. Research indicates that lane conversion is feasible technically if sufficient HOV usage and m...

  6. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane

  7. Lane detection using Randomized Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkonyong, Peerawat; Nuthong, Chaiwat; Siddhichai, Supakorn; Yamakita, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    According to the report of the Royal Thai Police between 2006 and 2015, lane changing without consciousness is one of the most accident causes. To solve this problem, many methods are considered. Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) is considered to be one of the potential solutions. LDWS is a mechanism designed to warn the driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its current lane. LDWS contains many parts including lane boundary detection, driver warning and lane marker tracking. This article focuses on the lane boundary detection part. The proposed lane boundary detection detects the lines of the image from the input video and selects the lane marker of the road surface from those lines. Standard Hough Transform (SHT) and Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) are considered in this article. They are used to extract lines of an image. SHT extracts the lines from all of the edge pixels. RHT extracts only the lines randomly picked by the point pairs from edge pixels. RHT algorithm reduces the time and memory usage when compared with SHT. The increase of the threshold value in RHT will increase the voted limit of the line that has a high possibility to be the lane marker, but it also consumes the time and memory. By comparison between SHT and RHT with the different threshold values, 500 frames of input video from the front car camera will be processed. The accuracy and the computational time of RHT are similar to those of SHT in the result of the comparison.

  8. Amooty, a stair climbing intelligent maintenance robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Toshiba Corporation and a team from Tokyo University have jointly developed a prototype of a mobile, stair climbing intelligent robot, named Amooty, for inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Amooty, a stair climbing intelligent maintenance robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Toshiba Corporation and a team from Tokyo University have jointly developed a prototype of a mobile, stair climbing intelligent robot, named Amooty, for inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  10. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  11. Lane Determination with GPS Precise Point Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Modern intelligent transport solutions can achieve an improvement of traffic flow on motorways. With lane-specific measurements and lane-specific control, more measures are possible. Single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a newly developed and affordable technique to achieve an

  12. Robust lane detection and tracking using multiple visual cues under stochastic lane shape conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Fan, Baozheng; Song, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    As one of the essential components of environment perception techniques for an intelligent vehicle, lane detection is confronted with challenges including robustness against the complicated disturbance and illumination, also adaptability to stochastic lane shapes. To overcome these issues, we proposed a robust lane detection method named classification-generation-growth-based (CGG) operator to the detected lines, whereby the linear lane markings are identified by synergizing multiple visual cues with the a priori knowledge and spatial-temporal information. According to the quality of linear lane fitting, the linear and linear-parabolic models are dynamically switched to describe the actual lane. The Kalman filter with adaptive noise covariance and the region of interests (ROI) tracking are applied to improve the robustness and efficiency. Experiments were conducted with images covering various challenging scenarios. The experimental results evaluate the effectiveness of the presented method for complicated disturbances, illumination, and stochastic lane shapes.

  13. Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.

  14. Lane Detection on the iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feixiang; Huang, Jinsheng; Terauchi, Mutsuhiro; Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard

    A robust and efficient lane detection system is an essential component of Lane Departure Warning Systems, which are commonly used in many vision-based Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) in intelligent transportation. Various computation platforms have been proposed in the past few years for the implementation of driver assistance systems (e.g., PC, laptop, integrated chips, PlayStation, and so on). In this paper, we propose a new platform for the implementation of lane detection, which is based on a mobile phone (the iPhone). Due to physical limitations of the iPhone w.r.t. memory and computing power, a simple and efficient lane detection algorithm using a Hough transform is developed and implemented on the iPhone, as existing algorithms developed based on the PC platform are not suitable for mobile phone devices (currently). Experiments of the lane detection algorithm are made both on PC and on iPhone.

  15. Refining Lane-Based Traffic Signal Settings to Satisfy Spatial Lane Length Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional lane-based signal optimization models, lane markings guiding road users in making turns are optimized with traffic signal settings in a unified framework to maximize the overall intersection capacity or minimize the total delay. The spatial queue requirements of road lanes should be considered to avoid overdesigns of green durations. Point queue system adopted in the conventional lane-based framework causes overflow in practice. Based on the optimization results from the original lane-based designs, a refinement is proposed to enhance the lane-based settings to ensure that spatial holding limits of the approaching traffic lanes are not exceeded. A solution heuristic is developed to modify the green start times, green durations, and cycle length by considering the vehicle queuing patterns and physical holding capacities along the approaching traffic lanes. To show the effectiveness of this traffic signal refinement, a case study of one of the busiest and most complicated intersections in Hong Kong is given for demonstration. A site survey was conducted to collect existing traffic demand patterns and existing traffic signal settings in peak periods. Results show that the proposed refinement method is effective to ensure that all vehicle queue lengths satisfy spatial lane capacity limits, including short lanes, for daily operation.

  16. Understanding Traveler Behavior : The Psychology Behind Managed Lane Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analysis of Katy Freeway/Managed Lane (ML) travelers and I-394 Freeway/High : Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane traveler data has found that many travelers pay to use these HOT : lanes and MLs when adjacent toll-free lanes are operating at nearly the ...

  17. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... a collision for the full compression function of Lane-256 and Lane-512. Using a relatively sparse truncated differential path, we are able to solve for a valid message expansion and colliding lanes independently. Additionally, we are able to apply the inbound phase more than once by exploiting the degrees...

  18. Climbing plants: attachment adaptations and bioinspired innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jason N; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal

    2018-04-01

    Climbing plants have unique adaptations to enable them to compete for sunlight, for which they invest minimal resources for vertical growth. Indeed, their stems bear relatively little weight, as they traverse their host substrates skyward. Climbers possess high tensile strength and flexibility, which allows them to utilize natural and manmade structures for support and growth. The climbing strategies of plants have intrigued scientists for centuries, yet our understanding about biochemical adaptations and their molecular undergirding is still in the early stages of research. Nonetheless, recent discoveries are promising, not only from a basic knowledge perspective, but also for bioinspired product development. Several adaptations, including nanoparticle and adhesive production will be reviewed, as well as practical translation of these adaptations to commercial applications. We will review the botanical literature on the modes of adaptation to climb, as well as specialized organs-and cellular innovations. Finally, recent molecular and biochemical data will be reviewed to assess the future needs and new directions for potential practical products that may be bioinspired by climbing plants.

  19. Optimization of airport security lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Current airport security management system is widely implemented all around the world to ensure the safety of passengers, but it might not be an optimum one. This paper aims to seek a better security system, which can maximize security while minimize inconvenience to passengers. Firstly, we apply Petri net model to analyze the steps where the main bottlenecks lie. Based on average tokens and time transition, the most time-consuming steps of security process can be found, including inspection of passengers' identification and documents, preparing belongings to be scanned and the process for retrieving belongings back. Then, we develop a queuing model to figure out factors affecting those time-consuming steps. As for future improvement, the effective measures which can be taken include transferring current system as single-queuing and multi-served, intelligently predicting the number of security checkpoints supposed to be opened, building up green biological convenient lanes. Furthermore, to test the theoretical results, we apply some data to stimulate the model. And the stimulation results are consistent with what we have got through modeling. Finally, we apply our queuing model to a multi-cultural background. The result suggests that by quantifying and modifying the variance in wait time, the model can be applied to individuals with various habits customs and habits. Generally speaking, our paper considers multiple affecting factors, employs several models and does plenty of calculations, which is practical and reliable for handling in reality. In addition, with more precise data available, we can further test and improve our models.

  20. Semantic Information Extraction of Lanes Based on Onboard Camera Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Deng, T.; Ren, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the field of autonomous driving, semantic information of lanes is very important. This paper proposes a method of automatic detection of lanes and extraction of semantic information from onboard camera videos. The proposed method firstly detects the edges of lanes by the grayscale gradient direction, and improves the Probabilistic Hough transform to fit them; then, it uses the vanishing point principle to calculate the lane geometrical position, and uses lane characteristics to extract lane semantic information by the classification of decision trees. In the experiment, 216 road video images captured by a camera mounted onboard a moving vehicle were used to detect lanes and extract lane semantic information. The results show that the proposed method can accurately identify lane semantics from video images.

  1. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  2. Multi-lane Roundabout Capacity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Šarić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although two-lane roundabouts theoretically exhibit excellent operating performance, in practice, safety problems arise because of inappropriate driving behavior. Turbo roundabouts, which are characterized by a much higher level of safety, are alternatives to classic two-lane roundabouts, but the capacity-related benefits derived from such roundabouts remain an open issue. Accordingly, this study uses an equilibrium traffic flow allocation approach to evaluate multi-lane roundabout capacity based on gap acceptance theory. Capacity levels are calculated and compared for different gap acceptance parameters, including local parameters, and different traffic flow scenarios. It is found that the capacity of minor approaches on turbo roundabouts is always higher than on two-lane roundabouts, but that the main approaches on two-lane roundabouts exhibit better performance in terms of fully equilibrium traffic allocation. This state, however, cannot be achieved for every demand scenario. The results depend strongly on traffic movements and gap acceptance parameters indicating the need for local calibration processes.

  3. Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Cable-Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fengyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To inspect broken cables or a cracked protective layer on cable-stayed bridges, a cable-climbing robot has been proposed and designed. In this paper, the complex 3D obstacles that may be encountered on cables are theoretically described, in order to investigate the obstacle-climbing capability of the cable-climbing robot. A climbing model is then proposed and used to design the robot. In the climbing model, two driven wheels are independently supported with a spring. Kinematics and dynamics models are further derived for the obstacle-climbing capabilities of the driving and driven wheels of the robot. In addition, the robot's obstacle-climbing tracks and its obstacle-climbing performance are simulated. Payload and obstacle-climbing experiments were conducted on the climbing robot in the laboratory. Based on the results of the simulation and the experiments, we obtained the variation of the driving torque in obstacle climbing. The contribution of this paper is intended to provide a basis for the precise motion control of the robot.

  4. Stair Climbing in a Quadruped Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Shen-Chiang Chen; Chih-Chung Ko; Cheng-Hsin Li; Pei-Chun Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the algorithm of trajectory planning and the strategy of four-leg coordination for quasi-static stair climbing in a quadruped robot. This development is based on the geometrical interactions between robot legs and the stair, starting from single-leg analysis, followed by two-leg collaboration, and then four-leg coordination. In addition, a brief study on the robot’s locomotion stability is also included. Finally, simulation and experimental testing were executed to evaluate...

  5. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two

  6. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  7. Toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Increasing implementation of managed lanes in the : United States : Katy Freeway Managed Lanes : (KML) offers lessons learned : for other projects : First operational, multilane, : variably priced, managed facility : in Texas : Became oper...

  8. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  9. Dynamic access control for two-direction shared traffic lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; van der Zee, D.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2001-01-01

    In specific traffic situations, a single lane is available for traffic from two directions. Examples are traffic accidents or road maintenance reducing the number of available lanes on a road or, as we faced in a project on underground freight transportation, construction of a single lane for two

  10. Dynamic access control for two-direction shared traffic lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M.J.R.; van der Zee, D.J.; van der Heijden, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In specilic traflic situations, a single lane is available for traiffic from two directions. Examples are traffic accidents or road maintenance reducing thc number of available lanes on a road or, as we faced in a project on underground freight transportation, construction of a slnglc lane for two

  11. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In work-zone configurations where lane drops are present, merging of traffic at the taper presents an operational concern. In : addition, as flow through the work zone is reduced, the relative traffic safety of the work zone is also reduced. Improvin...

  12. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  13. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  14. In-transit charging lane model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Khajepour, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current electric vehicles still have a problem with a short range and long charging time compared to the internal combustion vehicles. A possible solution for this problem is to charge the batteries while driving on the highway. For this, a special traffic lane is needed with an in-transit

  15. Capacity of two-lane roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kennedy, DA

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of speed vs density, volume and percentage loop occupation are investigated. The effect of differing directional splits in traffic volumes is also examined. A method of determining the Level-of Service of two-lane roads in terms...

  16. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic; Mantel, Bruno; Boulanger, Jérémie; Hérault, Romain; Dicks, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale), as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route (H) was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route (V) afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route (D) was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector) of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion), hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion), hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion) and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion). Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D route

  17. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route (H was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route (V afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route (D was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion, hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion, hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion. Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D

  18. Tree Climbing Robot Design, Kinematics and Motion Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Tin Lun

    2012-01-01

    Climbing robot is a challenging research topic that has gained much attention from researchers. Most of the robots reported in the literature are designed to climb on manmade structures, but seldom robots are designed for climbing natural environment such as trees. Trees and manmade structures are very different in nature. It brings different aspects of technical challenges to the robot design. In this book, you can find a collection of the cutting edge technologies in the field of tree-climbing robot and the ways that animals climb. It provides a valuable reference for robot designers to select appropriate climbing methods in designing tree-climbing robots for specific purposes. Based on the study, a novel bio-inspired tree-climbing robot with several breakthrough performances has been developed and presents in this book. It is capable of performing various actions that is impossible in the state-of-the-art tree-climbing robots, such as moving between trunk and branches. This book also proposes several appro...

  19. A Star-Wheel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Bo; JIN Ai-min; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHENG Yu-fei; ZHANG Shuai

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair climb stairs function, this paper designs a star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism. Through the effect of the lock coupling, the star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism is formed to be fixed axis gear train or planetary gear train achieving flat-walking and stair-climbing functions. Crossing obstacle analysis obtains the maximum height and minimum width of obstacle which the wheelchair can cross. Stress-strain analysis in Solidworks simulation is performed to verify material strength.

  20. Stability of the car-following model on two lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Gao, Zi-You

    2005-12-01

    In the case of two-lane traffic, vehicle drivers always worry about the lane changing actions from neighbor lane. This paper studies the stability of a car-following model on two lanes which incorporates the lateral effects in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway-sensitivity space—stable, metastable, and unstable—are classified. Both analytical and simulation results show that the anxiousness about lane changing from neighbor lane indeed has influence upon people’s driving behavior and the consideration of lateral effects could stabilize the traffic flows on both lanes.

  1. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Footwear in rock climbing: Current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, R D; Arnold, G P; Wang, W; Abboud, R J

    2015-09-01

    Many rock climbers wear ill-fitting and excessively tight footwear during activity. However, there is insufficient evidence of the extent or harms of this practice. To investigate footwear use in rock climbers with a focus on issues surrounding fit. A cross-sectional study with active rock climbers of over one year of experience completing a survey on their activity and footwear. Additionally, the authors quantified foot and shoe lengths and sizes alongside demographic data. Ill-fitting and excessively tight footwear was found in 55 out of 56 rock climbers. Foot pain during activity was also commonplace in 91% of the climbers. A mean size reduction of almost 4 UK shoe sizes was found between the climbers' street shoe size and that of their climbing footwear using a calibrated foot/shoe ruler. There is an unfortunate association of climbers of higher abilities seeking a tighter shoe fit (pfootwear use amongst rock climbers, further investigation may aim to quantify its impact and seek a solution balancing climbing performance while mitigating foot injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lane detection algorithm for an onboard camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Mario; Lopez de Meneses, Yuri; Ryser, Peter; Jacot, Jacques

    2005-02-01

    After analysing the major causes of injuries and death on roads, it is understandable that one of the main goals in the automotive industry is to increase vehicle safety. The European project SPARC (Secure Propulsion using Advanced Redundant Control) is developing the next generation of trucks that will fulfil these aims. The main technologies that will be used in the SPARC project to achieve the desiderated level of safety will be presented. In order to avoid accidents in critical situations, it is necessary to have a representation of the environment of the vehicle. Thus, several solutions using different sensors will be described and analysed. Particularly, a division of this project aims to integrate cameras in automotive vehicles to increase security and prevent driver's mistakes. Indeed, with this vision platform it would be possible to extract the position of the lane with respect to the vehicle, and thus, help the driver to follow the optimal trajectory. A definition of lane is proposed, and a lane detection algorithm is presented. In order to improve the detection, several criteria are explained and detailed. Regrettably, such an embedded camera is subject to the vibration of the truck, and the resulting sequence of images is difficult to analyse. Thus, we present different solutions to stabilize the images and particularly a new approach developed by the "Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique". Indeed, it was demonstrated in previous works that the presence of noise can be used, through a phenomenon called Stochastic Resonance. Thus, instead of decreasing the influence of noise in industrial applications, which has non negligible costs, it is perhaps interesting to use this phenomenon to reveal some useful information, such as for example the contour of the objects and lanes.

  4. Reliable Stair Climbing in the Simple Hexapod 'RHex'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, E. Z; Campbell, D; Grimminger, F; Buehler, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In this paper, we describe an open loop controller that enables our small robot (Length: 51 cm, Width: 20 cm, Height: 12.7 cm. Leg length: 16 cm), to reliably climb a wide range of regular, full-size stairs with no operator input during stair climbing...

  5. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several

  6. Comparisons of mandatory and discretionary lane changing behavior on freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Vechione

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research performs comparative analyses on drivers’ behavior during mandatory and discretionary lane changes. We do this by examining the statistical properties of four lane changing decision variables that describe the gaps between the subject vehicle and the surrounding vehicles. Mandatory and discretionary lane changes in NGSIM’s I-80 Freeway and U.S. Highway 101 data collection sites were identified. First, for each variable at the same site, descriptive statistics for the two types of lane changes were compared, and hypothesis tests on the difference between two means were conducted. Then, for each decision variable at the same site, the observed cumulative distributions between the mandatory and discretionary lane changes were compared by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. This test was repeated for the fitted distributions of the same decision variable at the same site. The results show that, for the three decision variables associated with gaps in the target lane, the means and distributions between the two types of lane changes are not significantly different. The only variable found to have significant differences in means and distributions is the gap between the subject vehicle and the preceding vehicle in the original lane. This may be because this variable is not an important input in mandatory lane change decisions. This finding provides statistical justification for researchers to develop models with different inputs for mandatory and discretionary lane changes in driver assist systems, in autonomous vehicles, and in microscopic traffic simulation tools.

  7. On Climbing Scalars in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, E; Sagnotti, A

    2010-01-01

    In string models with "brane supersymmetry breaking" exponential potentials emerge at (closed-string) tree level but are not accompanied by tachyons. Potentials of this type have long been a source of embarrassment in flat space, but can have interesting implications for Cosmology. For instance, in ten dimensions the logarithmic slope |V'/V| lies precisely at a "critical" value where the Lucchin--Matarrese attractor disappears while the scalar field is \\emph{forced} to climb up the potential when it emerges from the Big Bang. This type of behavior is in principle perturbative in the string coupling, persists after compactification, could have trapped scalar fields inside potential wells as a result of the cosmological evolution and could have also injected the inflationary phase of our Universe.

  8. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  9. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H; Yoshida, T; Butsuen, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N; Nakano, T; Nakamoto, T

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  11. Effects of Potential Lane-Changing Probability on Uniform Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Shang Huayan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use the car-following model with the anticipation effect of the potential lane-changing probability (Acta Mech. Sin. 24 (2008) 399) to investigate the effects of the potential lane-changing probability on uniform flow. The analytical and numerical results show that the potential lane-changing probability can enhance the speed and flow of uniform flow and that their increments are related to the density.

  12. Optimizing traffic flow efficiency by controlling lane changes: collective, group and user optima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, S.; Knoop, V.L.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Lane changes can lead to disturbances in traffic flow, whilst the uneven distribution of traffic over different lanes as a result of lane changes can also lead to instabilities and congestion on one specific lane. Therefore, giving advice on lane change can be beneficial for both individual drivers

  13. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  14. Intelligent driving in traffic systems with partial lane discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Hamid; Emmerich, Heike

    2013-04-01

    It is a most common notion in traffic theory that driving in lanes and keeping lane changes to a minimum leads to smooth and laminar traffic flow, and hence to increased traffic capacity. On the other hand, there exist persistent vehicular traffic systems that are characterised by habitual disregarding of lane markings, and partial or complete loss of laminar traffic flow. Here, we explore the stability of such systems through a microscopic traffic flow model, where the degree of lane-discipline is taken as a variable, represented by the fraction of drivers that disregard lane markings completely. The results show that lane-free traffic may win over completely ordered traffic at high densities, and that partially ordered traffic leads to the poorest overall flow, while not considering the crash probability. Partial order in a lane-free system is similar to partial disorder in a lane-disciplined system in that both lead to decreased traffic capacity. This could explain the reason why standard enforcement methods, which rely on continuous increase of order, often fail to incur order to lane-free traffic systems. The results also provide an insight into the cooperative phenomena in open systems with self-driven particles.

  15. Promoting workplace stair climbing: sometimes, not interfering is the best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åvitsland, Andreas; Solbraa, Ane Kristiansen; Riiser, Amund

    2017-01-01

    Stair climbing is a vigorous activity and can lead to several health benefits. Studies seeking to increase stair climbing in various public locations have shown positive effects, while results from similar studies conducted in the workplace are inconclusive. This study examined stair climbing in the workplace, and monitored effects from a single- and a combined intervention. Interventions were inspired by nudging, the libertarian method of influencing behavior. By quasi-experimental design, stair- and elevator traffic in two office buildings was monitored preceding-, during- and following interventions with stair leading footprints alone, and combined with stair-riser banners. Chi square tests were applied to determine differences between baseline and the subsequent periods. Web-based questionnaires were distributed after follow-up period. Elevators and stairs were used 45 237 times, of which 89.6% was stair use. Intervention site stair climbing at baseline (79.0%) was significantly reduced with footprints (-5.1%, p   0.027). Stair climbing was significantly reduced during the intervention periods. Use of stair leading footprints alone, or combined with stair-riser banners in an attempt to influence stair climbing may be ineffective, or cause a negative reaction, when applied in a workplace with a pre-existing high amount of stair climbing.

  16. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the ‘rearing stage,’ inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the ‘rising stage,’ maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed. (paper)

  17. Evolutionary novelty versus exaptation: oral kinematics in feeding versus climbing in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A Cullen

    Full Text Available Species exposed to extreme environments often exhibit distinctive traits that help meet the demands of such habitats. Such traits could evolve independently, but under intense selective pressures of extreme environments some existing structures or behaviors might be coopted to meet specialized demands, evolving via the process of exaptation. We evaluated the potential for exaptation to have operated in the evolution of novel behaviors of the waterfall-climbing gobiid fish genus Sicyopterus. These fish use an "inching" behavior to climb waterfalls, in which an oral sucker is cyclically protruded and attached to the climbing surface. They also exhibit a distinctive feeding behavior, in which the premaxilla is cyclically protruded to scrape diatoms from the substrate. Given the similarity of these patterns, we hypothesized that one might have been coopted from the other. To evaluate this, we filmed climbing and feeding in Sicyopterus stimpsoni from Hawai'i, and measured oral kinematics for two comparisons. First, we compared feeding kinematics of S. stimpsoni with those for two suction feeding gobiids (Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor, assessing what novel jaw movements were required for algal grazing. Second, we quantified the similarity of oral kinematics between feeding and climbing in S. stimpsoni, evaluating the potential for either to represent an exaptation from the other. Premaxillary movements showed the greatest differences between scraping and suction feeding taxa. Between feeding and climbing, overall profiles of oral kinematics matched closely for most variables in S. stimpsoni, with only a few showing significant differences in maximum values. Although current data cannot resolve whether oral movements for climbing were coopted from feeding, or feeding movements coopted from climbing, similarities between feeding and climbing kinematics in S. stimpsoni are consistent with evidence of exaptation, with modifications, between these

  18. Evolutionary novelty versus exaptation: oral kinematics in feeding versus climbing in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joshua A; Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Species exposed to extreme environments often exhibit distinctive traits that help meet the demands of such habitats. Such traits could evolve independently, but under intense selective pressures of extreme environments some existing structures or behaviors might be coopted to meet specialized demands, evolving via the process of exaptation. We evaluated the potential for exaptation to have operated in the evolution of novel behaviors of the waterfall-climbing gobiid fish genus Sicyopterus. These fish use an "inching" behavior to climb waterfalls, in which an oral sucker is cyclically protruded and attached to the climbing surface. They also exhibit a distinctive feeding behavior, in which the premaxilla is cyclically protruded to scrape diatoms from the substrate. Given the similarity of these patterns, we hypothesized that one might have been coopted from the other. To evaluate this, we filmed climbing and feeding in Sicyopterus stimpsoni from Hawai'i, and measured oral kinematics for two comparisons. First, we compared feeding kinematics of S. stimpsoni with those for two suction feeding gobiids (Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor), assessing what novel jaw movements were required for algal grazing. Second, we quantified the similarity of oral kinematics between feeding and climbing in S. stimpsoni, evaluating the potential for either to represent an exaptation from the other. Premaxillary movements showed the greatest differences between scraping and suction feeding taxa. Between feeding and climbing, overall profiles of oral kinematics matched closely for most variables in S. stimpsoni, with only a few showing significant differences in maximum values. Although current data cannot resolve whether oral movements for climbing were coopted from feeding, or feeding movements coopted from climbing, similarities between feeding and climbing kinematics in S. stimpsoni are consistent with evidence of exaptation, with modifications, between these behaviors. Such

  19. Improving patient safety: lessons from rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Nic

    2012-02-01

    How to improve patient safety remains an intractable problem, despite large investment and some successes. Academics have argued that the root of the problem is a lack of a comprehensive 'safety culture' in hospitals. Other safety-critical industries such as commercial aviation invest heavily in staff training to develop such a culture, but comparable programmes are almost entirely absent from the health care sector. In rock climbing and many other dangerous activities, the 'buddy system' is used to ensure that safety systems are adhered to despite adverse circumstances. This system involves two or more people using simple checks and clear communication to prevent problems causing harm. Using this system as an example could provide a simple, original and entertaining way of introducing medical students to the idea that human factors are central to ensuring patient safety. Teaching the buddy system may improve understanding and acceptance of other patient safety initiatives, and could also be used by junior doctors as a tool to improve the safety of their practice. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  20. Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and ... sedimentary environments, such as river flood .... Sediment, sequence and facies ..... tic Archaean Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa;.

  1. Stable Stair Climbing in a Simple Hexapod Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, E. Z; Buehler, M

    2001-01-01

    .... Its ability to traverse highly fractured and unstable terrain has already been documented. In this paper, we describe open loop controllers for our small robot to climb and descend regular stairs...

  2. Climbing the health learning curve together | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Climbing the health learning curve together ... Many of the projects are creating master's programs at their host universities ... Formerly based in the high Arctic, Atlantis is described by Dr Martin Forde of St George's University ...

  3. Circulatory Markings at Double-Lane Traffic Roundabout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.; Wong, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two types of circulatory markings at a double-lane traffic roundabout: the concentric marking scheme and the Alberta marking scheme. The effects of these two marking schemes on drivers' lane choice behavior, delay, and safety, are compared based on data collected from before and

  4. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  5. Comparative multibody dynamics analysis of falls from playground climbing frames

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Rueda, Manuel A.; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of multibody dynamics in evaluating changes in injury related parameters of the head and lower limbs of children following falls from playground climbing frames. A particular fall case was used as a starting point to analyze the influence of surface properties, posture of the body at impact, and intermediate collisions against the climbing frame before impacting the ground. Simulations were made using the 6-year-old pedestrian MADYMO rigid body model and scaled he...

  6. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  7. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  8. Biomechanical Analyses of Stair-climbing while Dual-tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Tan, Chi Wei; Mukherjee, Mukul; Davidson, Austin J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Stair-climbing while doing a concurrent task like talking or holding an object is a common activity of daily living which poses high risk for falls. While biomechanical analyses of overground walking during dual-tasking have been studied extensively, little is known on the biomechanics of stair-climbing while dual-tasking. We sought to determine the impact of performing a concurrent cognitive or motor task during stair-climbing. We hypothesized that a concurrent cognitive task will have a greater impact on stair climbing performance compared to a concurrent motor task and that this impact will be greater on a higher-level step. Ten healthy young adults performed 10 trials of stair-climbing each under four conditions: stair ascending only, stair ascending and performing subtraction of serial sevens from a three-digit number, stair ascending and carrying an empty opaque box and stair ascending, performing subtraction of serial sevens from a random three-digit number and carrying an empty opaque box. Kinematics (lower extremity joint angles and minimum toe clearance) and kinetics (ground reaction forces and joint moments and powers) data were collected. We found that a concurrent cognitive task impacted kinetics but not kinematics of stair-climbing. The effect of dual-tasking during stair ascent also seemed to vary based on the different phases of stair ascent stance and seem to have greater impact as one climbs higher. Overall, the results of the current study suggest that the association between the executive functioning and motor task (like gait) becomes stronger as the level of complexity of the motor task increases. PMID:25773590

  9. Traffic flow behavior at a single-lane urban roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakouari, N.; Oubram, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Cisneros-Villalobos, L.; Velásquez-Aguilar, J. G.

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic cellular automata model to study the traffic behavior at a single-lane roundabout. Vehicles can enter the interior lane or exit from it via N intersecting lane, the boundary conditions are stochastic. The traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme. It has turned out that depending on the rules of insertion to the roundabout, five distinct traffic phases can appear, namely, free flow, congestion, maximum current, jammed and gridlock. The transition between the free flow and the gridlock is forbidden. The density profiles are used to study the traffic pattern at the interior lane of the roundabout. In order to quantify the interactions between vehicles in the interior lane of the roundabout, the velocity correlation coefficient (VCC) is also studied. Besides, the spatiotemporal diagrams corresponding to the entry/exit lanes are derived numerically. Furthermore, we have investigated the effect of displaying signal (PIn), as the PIn decreases, the maximum current increases at the expense of the free flow and the jamming phase. Finally, we have investigated the effect of the braking probability P on the interior lane of the roundabout. We have found that the increase of P raises the spontaneous jam formation on the ring. Thus, enlarges the maximum current and the jamming phase while the free flow phase decreases.

  10. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  11. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  12. The acute toxicity of the metaldehyde on the climbing perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida Mohamad Ismail, Syamimi; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Zakaria, Ammar; Mad Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Shukor, Mohd Yunus Abd; Khalizan Sabullah, Mohd; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab

    2018-03-01

    In Asia, Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is commonly found in paddy fields and irrigation systems. Due to its habitat, Climbing perch is exposed to toxic pesticides used in paddy fields such as metaldehyde which is one of the most widely used molluscicide. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity Lethal Concentration50 (LC50) of metaldehyde and its effect on the behaviour and physical changes of the Climbing perch. The fish mortality responses to six different metaldehyde concentrations ranging from 180 to 330 mg/L were investigated. The 96-h LC50 values were determined and analysed using three different analysis methods which is arithmetic, logarithmic and probit graphic. The LC50 values obtained in this study were 239, 234 and 232 mg/L, respectively. After 96-h of exposure to metaldehyde, the fish showed a series of abnormal behavioural response in all cases: imbalance position, and restlessness of movement. The LC50 values show that metaldehyde is moderately toxic to the Climbing perch indicating that metaldehyde is not destructive to Climbing perch. However, long term exposure of aquatic organisms to the metaldehyde means a continuous health risk for the fish population as they are more vulnerable and it is on high risk for human to consume this toxicated fishes.

  13. Therapeutic use of sport climbing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport climbing is a form of exercise that requires complex and variable movement. Because of the use of the so-called "top-rope system", this is a safe activity appropriate for individuals with physical disabilities. Therefore, climbing might prove to be an effective form of therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease that may include motor and cognitive deficits as well as affective disturbances. The illness is characterized by multifocal areas of brain damage (plaques, as consequence of autoimmune inflammation. Sport climbing might be a potentially useful activity for treating spasticity, improving a person's self image and certain aspects of cognition, such as attention and executive functions, as well as for managing emotional disturbances. All of the above are areas where patients with multiple sclerosis might be in need of assistance. The article also describes the experience of a patient with multiple sclerosis who was enrolled in our climbing program. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of climbing therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  14. Research on Dynamics and Stability in the Stairs-Climbing of a Tracked Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the functional requirement of climbing up the stairs, the dynamics and stability during a tracked mobile robot's climbing of stairs is studied. First, from the analysis of its cross-country performance, the mechanical structure of the tracked mobile robot is designed and the hardware composition of its control system is given. Second, based on the analysis to its stairs-climbing process, the dynamical model of stairs-climbing is established by using the classical mechanics method. Next, the stability conditions for its stairs-climbing are determined and an evaluation method of its stairs-climbing stability is proposed, based on a mechanics analysis on the robot's backwards tumbling during the stairs-climbing process. Through simulation and experiments, the effectiveness of the dynamical model and the stability evaluation method of the tracked mobile robot in stairs-climbing is verified, which can provide design and analysis foundations for the tracked mobile robots' stairs-climbing.

  15. Quantifying the number of lane changes in traffic : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Shiomi, Y.; Buisson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lane changes are an important aspect of freeway flow. Most lane change models are microscopic, describing whether individual vehicles/drives will change lanes, and hence are calibrated microscopically. Macroscopic validation often is restricted to the distribution of vehicles across lanes. To the

  16. A Survey of Wall Climbing Robots: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nansai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, skyscrapers, as represented by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, have been built due to the improvements of construction technologies. Even in such newfangled skyscrapers, the façades are generally cleaned by humans. Wall climbing robots, which are capable of climbing up vertical surfaces, ceilings and roofs, are expected to replace the manual workforce in façade cleaning works, which is both hazardous and laborious work. Such tasks require these robotic platforms to possess high levels of adaptability and flexibility. This paper presents a detailed review of wall climbing robots categorizing them into six distinct classes based on the adhesive mechanism that they use. This paper concludes by expanding beyond adhesive mechanisms by discussing a set of desirable design attributes of an ideal glass façade cleaning robot towards facilitating targeted future research with clear technical goals and well-defined design trade-off boundaries.

  17. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A better understanding of the merging behavior of drivers will lead : to the development of better lane-drop traffic-control plans and : strategies, which will provide better guidance to drivers for safer : merging.

  18. Comparative analysis of dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate and compare the performances of different : dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes facilities. These pricing strategies include real-time : traffic responsive methods, as well as refund options a...

  19. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  20. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  1. Research on a Micro Flip Robot That Can Climb Stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro mobile robots (MMRs can operate in rugged, narrow or dangerous regions; thus, they are widely used in numerous areas including surveillance, rescue and exploration. In urban environments, stairs are common obstacles, ones that such robots find difficult to manoeuvre over. The authors analysed the research status of MMRs, particularly in terms of difficulties when performing stair climbing and present a novel type of MMR called the micro flip robot (MFRobot. A support arm subassembly was added to the centre of a wheeled chassis; using this structure, the MFRobot can climb stairs when a flipping mode is utilized. Based on this structure, the authors established a kinematic model of the stair-climbing process and analysed the force conditions for the key status, contributing to the existing knowledge of robot design. An MFRobot prototype was produced and the stair-climbing experiments, as well as experiments on manoeuvring through rubble regions and slope surfaces, were conducted. The results show that the MFRobot can rapidly climb common stairs and can easily manoeuvre through a rubble region. The maximum slope angle the robot can climb was shown to be about 35° for concrete and wooden slope surfaces. In the case where the robot needed to be equipped with sensors, particularly a camera, the camera was equipped on the support arm of robot. The MFRobot prototype weighs 2.5 kg and is easily transportable. This structure can resolve contradictions between portability and performance in terms of overcoming obstacles; in addition, operational effectiveness can be improved using this structure.

  2. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  3. A Fuzzy Control Based Stair-Climbing Service Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Shyan

    2010-01-01

    In the chapter, we have developed a stair-climbing robot to provide service for the elders and completed two walking experiments of moving up and down stairs with the rise/depth of 120/400 mm and 175/280 mm. The third experiment of object tracking, capturing, and loading by the arm have been shown in the taped pictures from videos to verify the proposed design. In fact, we will show the arm may capture the specific object during climbing up and down in the future. In addition, the robot will ...

  4. Design and Development of a Step Climbing Wheeled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijan BHATTACHARYA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of Step Climbing Robot that can move in uneven environment and traverse a slope or staircase. The condition imposed on this new system of robot is that it will move only in linear fashion, which will reduce the demands on the physical complexity of the robot unit. A summary of the current state of research in the field of mobile robots as it relates to robot stair climbing and moving in uneven surfaces. The architecture of the robot is developed and compared with the previous design.

  5. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  6. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  7. Impacts of wireless charging lanes on travel time and energy consumption in a two-lane road system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Yang, Hai; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to compare different energy consumption models and design a strategy to study the quantitative effects of wireless charging lane (WCL) on each electric vehicle's (EV's) link travel time. We utilize the modified energy consumption model and strategy to explore electric vehicle's electricity consumption and link travel time in a two-lane system with a WCL. The numerical results show that EVs' charging behavior on WCL will cause the drivers to execute the lane-changing maneuvers frequently and that the WCL has prominent impacts on EV's energy consumption and travel time, i.e., the capacity drops by 8%-17% while the EV's energy consumption increases by 3%-14% in the two-lane road system.

  8. Nutrient composition of climbing and prostrate vegetable cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the nutrient content of different accessions of two vegetable cowpea genotypes. The mineral content of the vegetable cowpea accessions were high. Potassium content of the accessions of the climbing genotype “Akidi enu” ranged from 1.25 to 1.52% with a mean value of 1.43 ± 0.13% while in the ...

  9. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  10. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  11. Comparative multibody dynamics analysis of falls from playground climbing frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Rueda, M A; Gilchrist, M D

    2009-10-30

    This paper shows the utility of multibody dynamics in evaluating changes in injury related parameters of the head and lower limbs of children following falls from playground climbing frames. A particular fall case was used as a starting point to analyze the influence of surface properties, posture of the body at impact, and intermediate collisions against the climbing frame before impacting the ground. Simulations were made using the 6-year-old pedestrian MADYMO rigid body model and scaled head contact characteristics. Energy absorbing surfaces were shown to reduce injury severity parameters by up to 30-80% of those of rigid surfaces, depending on impact posture and surface. Collisions against components of a climbing frame during a fall can increase injury severity of the final impact of the head with the ground by more than 90%. Negligible changes are associated with lower limb injury risks when different surfacing materials are used. Computer reconstructions of actual falls that are intended to quantify the severity of physical injuries rely on accurate knowledge of initial conditions prior to falling, intermediate kinematics of the fall and the orientation of the body when it impacts against the ground. Multibody modelling proved to be a valuable tool to analyze the quality of eyewitness information and analyze the relative injury risk associated with changes in components influencing fall injuries from playground climbing frames. Such simulations can also support forensic investigations by evaluating alternative hypotheses for the sequence of kinematic motion of falls which result in known injuries.

  12. Hold design supports learning and transfer of climbing fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Being a discipline with a broad range of genres, rock climbing is an activity where participants seek to generalize the skills they learn in different performance contexts. A training strategy for achieving skill transfer was explored in a group of experienced climbers. Specifically, we tested the

  13. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  14. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The

  15. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only

  16. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  17. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olagbegi

    The groups were not significantly different (p> 0.05) in their cardiovascular parameters at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The FSC group had ... KEY WORDS: Stair climbing, blood pressure, cardiovascular endurance ... significantly greater metabolic responses compared to ... This was taken with the subject in sitting position, with the.

  18. Research on Dynamics and Stability in the Stairs-climbing of a Tracked Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Weijun; Ou, Yi; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the functional requirement of climbing up the stairs, the dynamics and stability during a tracked mobile robot's climbing of stairs is studied. First, from the analysis of its cross-country performance, the mechanical structure of the tracked mobile robot is designed and the hardware composition of its control system is given. Second, based on the analysis to its stairs-climbing process, the dynamical model of stairs-climbing is established by using the classical mechanics method. N...

  19. Changes in handgrip force and blood lactate as response to simulated climbing competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gajewski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate post-competition changes in handgrip strength and blood lactate in climbers and relationships of the studied variables with declared climbing ability of the tested athletes. Twenty one male climbers volunteered to take part in the experiment. Each subject took part in simulated lead climbing competition on the artificial wall – (difficulty 7a in French scale. The blood lactate concentration was measured pre-climbing and then 3 min and 30 min post-climbing. Grip force of both hands (dominant and non-dominant was measured twice – pre-climbing and 1 min post-climbing (semi-final. Maximum heart rate during climbing reached 181.4±7.7 beats per minute. Lactate concentration amounted to 6.35±1.50 mmol/l and 2.28±0.66 mmol/l 3 min and 30 min post-climbing, respectively. Handgrip force related to body mass (averaged for both hands decreased significantly from 7.39±1.30 N/kg pre-climbing to 6.57±1.05 N/kg 1 min post-climbing. Self reported climbing ability was correlated with lactate concentration and handgrip force, as well. It was demonstrated that athletes reporting higher climbing ability showed better lactate recovery.

  20. Activity of southeastern bats along sandstone cliffs used for rock climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.

    2018-01-01

    Bats in the eastern U.S. are facing numerous threats and many species are in decline. Although several species of bats commonly roost in cliffs, little is known about use of cliffs for foraging and roosting. Because rock climbing is a rapidly growing sport and may cause disturbance to bats, our objectives were to examine use of cliff habitats by bats and to assess the effects of climbing on their activity. We used radio-telemetry to track small-footed bats (Myotis leibii) to day roosts, and Anabat SD2 detectors to compare bat activity between climbed and unclimbed areas of regularly climbed cliff faces, and between climbed and unclimbed cliffs. Four adult male small-footed bats were tracked to nine day roosts, all of which were in various types of crevices including five cliff face roosts (three on climbed and two on unclimbed faces). Bat activity was high along climbed cliffs and did not differ between climbed and unclimbed areas of climbed cliffs. In contrast, overall bat activity was significantly higher along climbed cliffs than unclimbed cliffs; species richness did not differ between climbed and unclimbed cliffs or areas. Lower activity along unclimbed cliffs may have been related to lower cliff heights and more clutter along these cliff faces. Due to limited access to unclimbed cliffs of comparable size to climbed cliffs, we could not thoroughly test the effects of climbing on bat foraging and roosting activity. However, the high overall use of climbed and unclimbed cliff faces for foraging and commuting that we observed suggests that cliffs may be important habitat for a number of bat species. Additional research on bats' use of cliff faces will improve our understanding of the factors that affect their use of this habitat including the impacts of climbing.

  1. Effectiveness and cost of two stair-climbing interventions-less is more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Ellinor K; Eves, Frank F

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared two interventions for promotion of stair climbing in the workplace, an information-based intervention at a health information day and an environmental intervention (point-of-choice prompts), for their effectiveness in changing stair climbing and cost per employee. Interrupted time-series design. Four buildings on a university campus. Employees at a university in the United Kingdom. Two stair-climbing interventions were compared: (1) a stand providing information on stair climbing at a health information day and (2) point-of-choice prompts (posters). Observers recorded employees' gender and method of ascent (n = 4279). The cost of the two interventions was calculated. Logistic regression. There was no significant difference between baseline (47.9% stair climbing) and the Workplace Wellbeing Day (48.8% stair climbing), whereas the prompts increased stair climbing (52.6% stair climbing). The health information day and point-of-choice prompts cost $773.96 and $31.38, respectively. The stand at the health information day was more expensive than the point-of-choice prompts and was inferior in promoting stair climbing. It is likely that the stand was unable to encourage stair climbing because only 3.2% of targeted employees visited the stand. In contrast, the point-of-choice prompts were potentially visible to all employees using the buildings and hence better for disseminating the stair climbing message to the target audience.

  2. Physiological responses to indoor rock-climbing and their relationship to maximal cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, A William; Seddon, Nicholas; Knight, Andrew; McKenzie, Donald C; R Warburton, Darren E

    2003-07-01

    To quantify the cardiorespiratory responses to indoor climbing during two increasingly difficult climbs and relate them to whole-body dynamic exercise. It was hypothesized that as climbing difficulty increased, oxygen consumption ([V02] and heart rate would increase, and that climbing would require utilization of a significant fraction of maximal cycling values. Elite competitive sport rock climbers (6 male, 3 female) completed two data collection sessions. The first session was completed at an indoor climbing facility, and the second session was an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. During indoor climbing subjects were randomly assigned to climb two routes designated as "harder" or "easier" based on their previous best climb. Subjects wore a portable metabolic system, which allowed measurement of oxygen consumption [V02], minute ventilation ([V02]E), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate. During the second session, maximal values for [V02], [V02]E, RER, and heart rate were determined during an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Heart rate and [VO2], expressed as percent of cycling maximum, were significantly higher during harder climbing compared with easier climbing. During harder climbing, %HR(max) was significantly higher than %[V02] (2max) (89.6% vs 51.2%), and during easier climbing, %HR(max) was significantly higher than %[V02] (2max) (66.9% vs 45.3%). With increasing levels of climbing difficulty, there is a rise in both heart rate and [V02]. However, there is a disproportional rise in heart rate compared with [V02], which we attribute to the fact that climbing requires the use of intermittent isometric contractions of the arm musculature and the reliance of both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.

  3. Dislocation climb models from atomistic scheme to dislocation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaohua; Luo, Tao; Lu, Jianfeng; Xiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a mesoscopic dislocation dynamics model for vacancy-assisted dislocation climb by upscalings from a stochastic model on the atomistic scale. Our models incorporate microscopic mechanisms of (i) bulk diffusion of vacancies, (ii) vacancy exchange dynamics between bulk and dislocation core, (iii) vacancy pipe diffusion along the dislocation core, and (iv) vacancy attachment-detachment kinetics at jogs leading to the motion of jogs. Our mesoscopic model consists of the vacancy bulk dif...

  4. CLIMBING.CREACIÓN DE UNA MRCA DEPORTIVA

    OpenAIRE

    MESEGUER SANCHEZ, RAQUEL

    2017-01-01

    El presente TFG plantea el desarrollo de la imagen de marca de una empresa de ropa deportiva y la adaptación a sus productos, esta imagen plantea las connotaciones de fuerza y juventud y adaptable a cualquier tipo de deporte. Se estudian todos los valores implícitos en el branding y el proceso de elaboración. Meseguer Sanchez, R. (2017). CLIMBING.CREACIÓN DE UNA MRCA DEPORTIVA. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/92805 TFGM

  5. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  6. Investigating the value of time and value of reliability for managed lanes : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Managed lanes employ various operational and design strategies to improve highway : efficiency by moving traffic to lanes that are restricted, for example, to drivers with one or : more passengers or to drivers that pay a fee. A drivers decision t...

  7. Permanent Magnetic System Design for the Wall-Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Shen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of the permanent magnetic system for a wall-climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks. Based on the behaviour of gecko lizards, the architecture of the robot was designed and built, including the structure of the adhesion mechanism, the mechanical architecture and the anti-toppling mechanism. The permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism and the tracked locomotion mechanism were employed in this kind of wall-climbing robot. Through static and dynamic force analysis of the robot under different situations, design requirements for the adhesion mechanism were derived. Two different types of structures were put forward for the permanent magnetic units and are further discussed in this paper. These two types of structures are also analysed in detail. In addition, a finite-element method was used to verify the results of magnetic units. Finally, two wall-climbing robots, equipped with different magnetic systems described previously, are explained and their applications are discussed in this paper.

  8. On the static structural design of climbing robots: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ausama Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    This manuscript is the first of two parts of a work investigating optimal configurations of legged climbing robots while loitering on vertical surfaces. In this part 1, a mathematical model of a climbing robot based on the finite element method (FEM), specifically the stiffness method, is generated. A number of parameters, namely the height of the robot, the length of its body and the position of its legs, are investigated to assess their effect on the adhesion requirements needed for the robot to stay attached to a wall. Predictions of the developed mathematical model are validated using FEM commercial software. The body and the legs are assumed to be perpendicular to each other in this part 1. The effect of their inclination is investigated in the subsequent part 2 of our work. In part 2, the model is also used to predict postures that ants have while standing on vertical surfaces. The model is validated by comparing the predicted results to images of loitering ants. The parameters investigated provide guidelines to design legged climbing robots.

  9. Dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth under cascade damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Semenov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling temperature regime), the concentration of freely migrating vacancies is much higher than that of the interstitials, owing to the evaporation from the primary vacancy clusters (i.e. those produced by intracascade clustering). It is not immediately obvious how the dislocations can be net interstitials sinks, and hence that the observed nucleation and growth of the interstitial loops at elevated temperatures can be correctly predicted as in the conventional theory. To address these basic questions, a rate theory model is formulated in this paper, which describes the dislocation climb and loop growth in the presence of intracascade primary clusters. Within this model, conservation equations for the concentrations and average radii of the two kinds of primary cluster are derived, and the corresponding steady-state concentrations and average radii are calculated. From this, the dislocation climb velocity and interstitial loop growth rate are calculated. On the basis of the results of this calculation, some of the basic questions of production bias are discussed. (Author)

  10. Towards End-to-End Lane Detection: an Instance Segmentation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, Davy; De Brabandere, Bert; Georgoulis, Stamatios; Proesmans, Marc; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Modern cars are incorporating an increasing number of driver assist features, among which automatic lane keeping. The latter allows the car to properly position itself within the road lanes, which is also crucial for any subsequent lane departure or trajectory planning decision in fully autonomous cars. Traditional lane detection methods rely on a combination of highly-specialized, hand-crafted features and heuristics, usually followed by post-processing techniques, that are computationally e...

  11. Evolutionary Novelty versus Exaptation: Oral Kinematics in Feeding versus Climbing in the Waterfall-Climbing Hawaiian Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Joshua A.; Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Blob, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Species exposed to extreme environments often exhibit distinctive traits that help meet the demands of such habitats. Such traits could evolve independently, but under intense selective pressures of extreme environments some existing structures or behaviors might be coopted to meet specialized demands, evolving via the process of exaptation. We evaluated the potential for exaptation to have operated in the evolution of novel behaviors of the waterfall-climbing gobiid fish genus Sicyopterus. T...

  12. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers—An Image-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J.; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing. PMID:26924947

  13. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers-An Image-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing.

  14. Lane changing and speed interaction on freeways : An analytical microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Grebert, V.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of lane changing manoeuvre on the capacity, stability, and breakdown of traffic flows is a crucial issue. In a recent study, four distinct lane change strategies on freeways have been empirically found: (1) Speed Leading; (2) Speed Leading with Overtaking; (3) Lane

  15. A high accuracy vehicle positioning system implemented in a lane assistance system when GPS Is unavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The use of lane assistance systems can reduce the stress levels experienced by drivers and allow for better lane : keeping in narrow, bus-dedicated lanes. In 2008, the Intelligent Vehicles (IV) Lab at the University of Minnesota : has developed such ...

  16. ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.

  17. Blind spot detection & passive lane change assist systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surovtcev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The project goal was design and implementation of proof-of-concept for two systems that aim to tackle the blind spot problem of for the commercial vehicles: Blind Spot Detection and Passive Lane Change Assist functions. The system implementation was done using Rapid Control Prototype (RCP) hardware.

  18. Teaching "The Children of Willesden Lane." [DVD Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This unique set of multimedia resources for middle and high school teachers of history, literature, social studies, and the arts, provides background, lessons, and ideas for studying and discussing the book "The Children of Willesden Lane" (2002). This book is based on the true story of Lisa Jura, a young girl who escaped Nazi persecution, as told…

  19. Evaluating transit preferential measures : Priority lanes, boarding and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bus service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors and headway-based holding control ideally requires a simulation model that combines features of both classical analytical models and microscopic simulation. However, as the usage of such models has been

  20. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Researchers at the National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, recently studied a segment of I-95 between Ft. Lauderdale and Miami to investigate the impacts of high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes on air quality. The project simula...

  1. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Kissling, W Daniel; Condamine, Fabien L; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rowe, Nick P; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height, and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity, mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analyses of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habits may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high-stature dipterocarps in Asian TRFs.

  2. Finding paradise: cues directing the migration of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian gobioid Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, G; Maie, T; Moody, K N; Schrank, G D; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L

    2012-07-01

    A series of waterfall-climbing trials were conducted to identify cues that direct the climbing of juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni. In the first experiment, whether climbing juveniles preferentially ascend water sources with conspecifics or whether the presence of just stream water is sufficient to attract fish to ascend a climbing path were assessed. In the second experiment, whether climbing juveniles create a trail of mucus that facilitates the ability of conspecifics to follow their lead was determined. The results indicate that juvenile S. stimpsoni are less likely to climb in waters devoid of organic cues but are strongly attracted to stream water with or without the odour of conspecifics. Once climbing, performance did not differ for juveniles climbing in differing water choices, suggesting an all-or-nothing commitment once climbing commences. Climbing S. stimpsoni did produce a mucous trail while climbing that was associated with a mucous gland that dramatically increases in size just prior to juveniles gaining the ability to climb. The trail was not followed closely by subsequent juveniles traversing the same channel, however, suggesting only weak trail-following in waterfall climbing S. stimpsoni. Previous genetic studies suggest that juvenile S. stimpsoni do not home to natal streams in the face of strong near-shore oceanic currents. Instead, these fish appear primarily to rely on cues that suggest the presence of organic growth in streams, a factor that may indicate suitable habitat in an ever-changing stream environment but which may also be vulnerable to interference through human activity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  4. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  5. The climb of dissociated dislocations in a quenched Cu-13.43 at.% Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decamps, B.; Cherns, D.; Condat, M.

    1983-01-01

    The weak-beam electron microscopy technique has been used to study the climb of dissociated dislocations in a Cu-13.43 at.% Al alloy under conditions of supersaturation of vacancies introduced by quenching. The results are similar to those obtained under electron irradiation (interstitial climb) in the same alloy (Cherns, Hirsch and Saka 1980) in that climb may proceed by the nucleation of prismatic loops on the individual partials. The nature of the loops is such as to minimize the total energy of the configuration (partial plus loop) and to maximize their edge component. Interaction with the other partial has been observed, causing the entire dislocation to climb. Additional features observed suggest that climb under quenching is initiated by the nucleation of Frank loops. The detailed configurations also enable climb by absorption of vacancies and interstitials to be distinguished. (author)

  6. Amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing in stroke inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuji; Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Otsuki, Koji; Tozato, Fusae

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing in stroke patients. This study included 111 stroke inpatients. Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted to establish the association between the FIM ® instrument scores for transfer or stair-climbing and Berg Balance Scale. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to elucidate the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed that the FIM ® instrument scores for transfer and stair-climbing were strongly associated with Berg Balance Scale. On comparison of the independent and supervision-dependent groups, Berg Balance Scale cut-off values for transfer and stair-climbing were 41/40 and 54/53 points, respectively. On comparison of the independent-supervision and dependent groups, the cut-off values for transfer and stair-climbing were 30/29 and 41/40 points, respectively. The calculated cut-off values indicated the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing, with and without supervision, in stroke patients. Berg Balance Scale has a good discriminatory ability and cut-off values are clinically useful to determine the appropriate independence levels of transfer and stair-climbing in hospital wards. Implications for rehabilitation The Berg Balance Scale's (BBS) strong association with transfer and stair-climbing independence and performance indicates that establishing cut-off values is vitally important for the established use of the BBS clinically. The cut-off values calculated herein accurately demonstrate the level of balance necessary for transfer and stair-climbing independence, with and without supervision, in stroke patients. These criteria should be employed clinically for determining the level of independence for transfer and stair-climbing as well as for setting balance training

  7. The effectiveness of chocolate milk as a post-climbing recovery aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J; Fuller, B

    2015-12-01

    Recovery is essential to effective performance in climbing competitions which often involve repeated bouts, and sport climbing where climbers may work a route over a number of days prior to a complete ascent. This study employed a cross-over design to compare water with chocolate milk as recovery aids following an exhaustive bout of high intensity endurance climbing. Ten male climbers (age: 22±1 years; height: 178.5±7.9 cm; mass: 74.7±11.3 kg) climbed a Tredwall (Brewer Ledge M6) until volitional exhaustion. The participants consumed either water or chocolate milk 20 minutes after the climb and then again with their evening meal. The exercise protocol was repeated 24 hours after the original climb. The second condition was completed 7 days later. Workload indicators of heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and muscle soreness scores were recorded alongside climbing performance measures of duration and distance of the climb. A improved performance was found after the consumption of chocolate milk, with both a greater distance climbed (F(1,9)=11.704, P=0.008) and duration (F(1,9) =10.922, P=0.009), there were no differences in end of climb heart rate or RPE. Muscle soreness scores were lower three days after exercise following chocolate milk (t(8)=3.773, P=0.005). Chocolate milk as a recovery drink resulted in further sustained climbing, a decrease in muscle soreness, compared to water. It may be pertinent for climbers to consider its use as a recovery aid during repeated climbing bouts. Chocolate milk is a relatively unexplored recovery aid and warrants further attention.

  8. A Kinect-sensor-based Tracked Robot for Exploring and Climbing Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    I-Hsum Li; Wei-Yen Wang; Chien-Kai Tseng

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the stair-climbing problem for a tracked robot. The tracked robot designed in this paper has the ability to explore stairs in an unknown indoor environment, climbing up and down the stairs, keeping balance while climbing, and successfully landing on the stair platform. Intelligent algorithms are proposed to explore and align stairs, and a fuzzy controller is introduced to stabilize the tracked robot's movement during the exploration. An inexpensive Kinect depth sensor is...

  9. A Wheel-based Stair-climbing Robot with a Hopping Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Koki; Bushida, Naoki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Saito, Yusuke; Hirano, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Shunya

    2010-01-01

    We introduced a wheel-based stair-climbing robot with a hopping mechanism for stairclimbing. The robot, consisting of two body parts connected by springs, climbed stairs quickly, softly, and economically by using the vibration of a two-degrees-of-freedom system. In the future, we intend to shorten the required tread length by controlling the wire tension and minimizing the body length to realize a practical stair-climbing robot.

  10. Effect of bike lane infrastructure improvements on ridership in one New Orleans neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathryn M; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Ruley, Jennifer; Spriggs, Aubrey; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Incorporating cycling into daily life is one way to increase physical activity. This study examined the impact of building new bike lanes in New Orleans to determine whether more people were cycling on the street and with the flow of traffic after bike lanes were built. Through direct observation of one intervention and two adjacent streets, observers counted cyclists riding on the street and sidewalk, with and against traffic, before and after installation of the lanes. Data were tallied separately for adults, children, males, females, and by race for each location. There was an increase in cyclists on all three streets after the installation of the bike lanes, with the largest increase on the street with the new lane. Additionally, the proportion of riders cycling with traffic increased after the lanes were striped. Bike lanes can have a positive impact in creating a healthy neighborhood.

  11. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  12. A Precise Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Top View Image Transformation and Least-Square Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byambaa Dorj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The next promising key issue of the automobile development is a self-driving technique. One of the challenges for intelligent self-driving includes a lane-detecting and lane-keeping capability for advanced driver assistance systems. This paper introduces an efficient and lane detection method designed based on top view image transformation that converts an image from a front view to a top view space. After the top view image transformation, a Hough transformation technique is integrated by using a parabolic model of a curved lane in order to estimate a parametric model of the lane in the top view space. The parameters of the parabolic model are estimated by utilizing a least-square approach. The experimental results show that the newly proposed lane detection method with the top view transformation is very effective in estimating a sharp and curved lane leading to a precise self-driving capability.

  13. Distributed mechatronics controller for modular wall climbing robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available - climbing robot for inspection in nuclear power plants.”, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 409-1414. (Chen 2001) Chen, D-. J., 2001, “Architecture for Systematic Development of Mechatronics Software Systems”, Licentiate Thesis... provide a more cost effective solution to the problem (Luk et al 1991). Such robots are termed service robots by the International Service Robot Association (ISRA) (Pransky 1996). They are defined as machines that sense, think, and act to benefit (or...

  14. Engineers find climbing techniques work well for dam inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shea, M.; Graves, A. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Climbing techniques adopted by the Bureau of Reclamation to inspect previously inaccessible or difficult to reach features at dams are described. Following the failure of the steel radial-arm gate at Folsom Dam, engineers mounted an effort to reach and inspect the dam`s seven other spillway gates. This close-up examination was performed to: (1) determine the condition of these gates; and (2) gather clues about the failure of the one gate. The access techniques described involved mountaineering techniques, as opposed to high scaling techniques, performed with dynamic and static nylon kermantle ropes.

  15. A Kinect-sensor-based Tracked Robot for Exploring and Climbing Stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsum Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the stair-climbing problem for a tracked robot. The tracked robot designed in this paper has the ability to explore stairs in an unknown indoor environment, climbing up and down the stairs, keeping balance while climbing, and successfully landing on the stair platform. Intelligent algorithms are proposed to explore and align stairs, and a fuzzy controller is introduced to stabilize the tracked robot's movement during the exploration. An inexpensive Kinect depth sensor is the only equipment needed for all the control modes. Finally, experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for climbing stairs.

  16. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  17. Biomechanics and functional morphology of a climbing monocot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Linnea; Wagner, Sarah T.; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plants with a climbing growth habit possess unique biomechanical properties arising from adaptations to changing loading conditions connected with close attachment to mechanical supports. In monocot climbers, mechanical adaptation is restricted by the absence of a bifacial vascular cambium. Flagellaria indica was used to investigate the mechanical properties and adaptations of a monocot climber that, uniquely, attaches to the surrounding vegetation via leaf tendrils. Biomechanical methods such as three-point bending and torsion tests were used together with anatomical studies on tissue development, modification and distribution. In general, the torsional modulus was lower than the bending modulus; hence, torsional stiffness was less than flexural stiffness. Basal parts of mature stems showed the greatest stiffness while that of more apical stem segments levelled off. Mechanical properties were modulated via tissue maturation processes mainly affecting the peripheral region of the stem. Peripheral vascular bundles showed a reduction in the amount of conducting tissue while the proportion and density of the bundle sheath increased. Furthermore, adjacent bundle sheaths merged resulting in a dense ring of fibrous tissue. Although F. indica lacks secondary cambial growth, the climbing habit is facilitated by a complex interaction of tissue maturation and attachment. PMID:26819259

  18. Step-Climbing Power Wheelchairs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S. Andrea; Wang, Hongwu; Ding, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Power wheelchairs capable of overcoming environmental barriers, such as uneven terrain, curbs, or stairs, have been under development for more than a decade. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the scientific and engineering literature to identify these devices, and we provide brief descriptions of the mechanism and method of operation for each. We also present data comparing their capabilities in terms of step climbing and standard wheelchair functions. Results: We found that all the devices presented allow for traversal of obstacles that cannot be accomplished with traditional power wheelchairs, but the slow speeds and small wheel diameters of some designs make them only moderately effective in the basic area of efficient transport over level ground and the size and configuration of some others limit maneuverability in tight spaces. Conclusion: We propose that safety and performance test methods more comprehensive than the International Organization for Standards (ISO) testing protocols be developed for measuring the capabilities of advanced wheelchairs with step-climbing and other environment-negotiating features to allow comparison of their clinical effectiveness. PMID:29339886

  19. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... to the reconstruction process need to be taken into account to make the reasoning process more stable. The results are shown on a publicly available data set....

  1. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control s...

  2. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33 rd questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36 th week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36 th week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  3. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  4. High lane density slab-gel electrophoresis using micromachined instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papautsky, I; Mohanty, S; Weiss, R; Frazier, A B

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, micromachined pipette arrays (MPAs) and microcombs were studied as a means of enabling high lane density gel electrophoresis. The MPA provide a miniaturized format to interface sub-microliter volumes of samples between macroscale sample preparation formats and microscale biochemical analysis systems. The microcombs provide a means of creating sample loading wells in the gel material on the same center-to-center spacing as the MPAs. Together, the two micromachined instruments provide an alternative to current combs and pipetting technologies used for creating sample loading wells and sample delivery in gel electrophoresis systems. Using three designs for the microcomb-MPA pair, center-to-center spacings of 1.0 mm, 500 microm, and 250 microm are studied. The results demonstrate an approximate 10-fold increase in lane density and a 10-fold reduction in sample size from 5 microL to 500 pL. As a result, the number of theoretical plates has increased 2.5-fold, while system resolution has increased 1.5-fold over the conventional agarose gel systems. An examination of changes in resolution across the width of individual separation lanes in both systems revealed dependence in the case of the conventional gels and no dependence for the gels loaded with the micromachined instrumentation.

  5. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  6. Reliability and Validity of Finger Strength and Endurance Measurements in Rock Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail Lubomirov; Baláš, Jirí; Tanev, Stoyan Kolev; Andonov, Hristo Stoyanov; Kodejška, Jan; Brown, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: An advanced system for the assessment of climbing-specific performance was developed and used to: (a) investigate the effect of arm fixation (AF) on construct validity evidence and reliability of climbing-specific finger-strength measurement; (b) assess reliability of finger-strength and endurance measurements; and (c) evaluate the…

  7. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sports climbing on muscle performance and balance for patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Met...

  9. Stair climbing is more detrimental to the cement in hip replacement than walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, J.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Stair climbing may be detrimental to cemented total hip arthroplasties, because it subjects the reconstruction to high torsional loads. The current study investigated how stair climbing contributes to damage accumulation in the cement around a femoral stem compared with walking, taking into account

  10. Muscle fiber type distribution in climbing Hawaiian gobioid fishes: ontogeny and correlations with locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Roberto A; Blob, Richard W; Schrank, Gordon D; Plourde, Robert C; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Hawaiian amphidromous gobioid fishes are remarkable in their ability to climb waterfalls up to several hundred meters tall. Juvenile Lentipes concolor and Awaous guamensis climb using rapid bursts of axial undulation, whereas juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni climb using much slower movements, alternately attaching oral and pelvic sucking disks to the substrate during prolonged bouts of several cycles. Based on these differing climbing styles, we hypothesized that propulsive musculature in juvenile L. concolor and A. guamensis would be dominated by white muscle fibers, whereas S. stimpsoni would exhibit a greater proportion of red muscle fibers than other climbing species. We further predicted that, because adults of these species shift from climbing to burst swimming as their main locomotor behavior, muscle from adult fish of all three species would be dominated by white fibers. To test these hypotheses, we used ATPase assays to evaluate muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian climbing gobies for three anatomical regions (midbody, anal, and tail). Axial musculature was dominated by white muscle fibers in juveniles of all three species, but juvenile S. stimpsoni had a significantly greater proportion of red fibers than the other two species. Fiber type proportions of adult fishes did not differ significantly from those of juveniles. Thus, muscle fiber type proportions in juveniles appear to help accommodate differences in locomotor demands among these species, indicating that they overcome the common challenge of waterfall climbing through both diverse behaviors and physiological specializations.

  11. Climbing fibers predict movement kinematics and performance errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Martha L; Popa, Laurentiu S; Ebner, Timothy J

    2017-09-01

    Requisite for understanding cerebellar function is a complete characterization of the signals provided by complex spike (CS) discharge of Purkinje cells, the output neurons of the cerebellar cortex. Numerous studies have provided insights into CS function, with the most predominant view being that they are evoked by error events. However, several reports suggest that CSs encode other aspects of movements and do not always respond to errors or unexpected perturbations. Here, we evaluated CS firing during a pseudo-random manual tracking task in the monkey ( Macaca mulatta ). This task provides extensive coverage of the work space and relative independence of movement parameters, delivering a robust data set to assess the signals that activate climbing fibers. Using reverse correlation, we determined feedforward and feedback CSs firing probability maps with position, velocity, and acceleration, as well as position error, a measure of tracking performance. The direction and magnitude of the CS modulation were quantified using linear regression analysis. The major findings are that CSs significantly encode all three kinematic parameters and position error, with acceleration modulation particularly common. The modulation is not related to "events," either for position error or kinematics. Instead, CSs are spatially tuned and provide a linear representation of each parameter evaluated. The CS modulation is largely predictive. Similar analyses show that the simple spike firing is modulated by the same parameters as the CSs. Therefore, CSs carry a broader array of signals than previously described and argue for climbing fiber input having a prominent role in online motor control. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates that complex spike (CS) discharge of cerebellar Purkinje cells encodes multiple parameters of movement, including motor errors and kinematics. The CS firing is not driven by error or kinematic events; instead it provides a linear representation of each

  12. Non-synaptic signaling from cerebellar climbing fibers modulates Golgi cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietz, Angela K; Vaden, Jada H; Coddington, Luke T; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I

    2017-10-13

    Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission. The interplay of excitatory and inhibitory conductances provides flexible control over Golgi cell spiking, allowing either excitation or a biphasic sequence of excitation and inhibition following single climbing fiber stimulation. Together with prior studies of spillover transmission to molecular layer interneurons, these results reveal that climbing fibers exert control over inhibition at both the input and output layers of the cerebellar cortex.

  13. Penyelesaian Masalah 8-Puzzle dengan Algoritma Steepest-Ascent Hill Climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 8 puzzle merupakan salah satu implementasi dari Artificial Intelegence. Dalam proses penyelesaiannya banyak terdapat algoritma-algoritma pencarian yang dapat diterapkan. Solusi 8 puzzle akan lebih cepat diperoleh jika digunakan prinsip array dengan variasi algoritma Steepest-Ascent Hill Climbing (Hill Climbing dengan memilih kemiringan yang paling tajam / curam dengan parameter heuristik posisi yang benar dan heuristik jarak serta dikombinasikan dengan LogList sebagai penyimpanan state state yang pernah dilalui untuk menanggulangi permasalah pada algoritma hill climbing itu sendiri dan terhindar dari looping state yang pernah dilalui. Metode-metode yang termasuk ke dalam teknik pencarian yang berdasarkan pada fungsi heuristik salah satu diantaranya adalah Hill Climbing, Best First Search, A* (A Bintang. Loglist merupakan tempat penyimpanan setiap kunjungan dari state-state puzzle yang telah dilakukan untuk menghindari looping atau pengulangan terhadap state yang pernah dilalui. Untuk menanggulangi permasalahan pada SteepestAscent Hill Climbing.

  14. Irradiation creep by climb-enables glide of dislocations resulting from preferred absorption of point defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-04-01

    A mechanism of irradiation creep arising from the climb-enabled glide of dislocations due to stress-induced preferred absorption of radiation-produced point defects is proposed. This creep component is here termed preferred absorption glide, PAG. PAG-creep operates in addition to the previously studied components of creep from climb by stress-induced preferred absorption, (SI) PA-creep, and the climb-enabled glide due to excess absorption of interstitials on dislocations during swelling, I-creep. A formulation of the various climb and climb-enabled glide processes which includes earlier results is presented. PAG-creep is comparable in magnitude to PA-creep in the parameter range of applications. While the PSA-creep rate and the I-creep rate are linear in stress, the PAG-creep rate is quadratic in stress and thus dominates at high stresses.

  15. On the static structural design of climbing robots: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ausama Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    This manuscript is the second of two parts of a work investigating optimal configurations of legged climbing robots while loitering on vertical surfaces. In this Part 2, a structural analysis based on the finite element method, specifically the stiffness method, is performed to address the problem. Parameters that are investigated in this Part 2 include the inclination of both the body and the legs of the robot. Outcomes of the performed study are validated by analyzing the posture of 150 ants when loitering on vertical surfaces. The obtained validation ensures the predictions of the developed structural model are correct and can be used to identify optimal configurations of legged robots when loitering on vertical surfaces.

  16. Performance and scaling of a novel locomotor structure: adhesive capacity of climbing gobiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2012-11-15

    Many species of gobiid fishes adhere to surfaces using a sucker formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. Juveniles of many amphidromous species use this pelvic sucker to scale waterfalls during migrations to upstream habitats after an oceanic larval phase. However, adults may still use suckers to re-scale waterfalls if displaced. If attachment force is proportional to sucker area and if growth of the sucker is isometric, then increases in the forces that climbing fish must resist might outpace adhesive capacity, causing climbing performance to decline through ontogeny. To test for such trends, we measured pressure differentials and adhesive suction forces generated by the pelvic sucker across wide size ranges in six goby species, including climbing and non-climbing taxa. Suction was achieved via two distinct growth strategies: (1) small suckers with isometric (or negatively allometric) scaling among climbing gobies and (2) large suckers with positively allometric growth in non-climbing gobies. Species using the first strategy show a high baseline of adhesive capacity that may aid climbing performance throughout ontogeny, with pressure differentials and suction forces much greater than expected if adhesion were a passive function of sucker area. In contrast, large suckers possessed by non-climbing species may help compensate for reduced pressure differentials, thereby producing suction sufficient to support body weight. Climbing Sicyopterus species also use oral suckers during climbing waterfalls, and these exhibited scaling patterns similar to those for pelvic suckers. However, oral suction force was considerably lower than that for pelvic suckers, reducing the ability for these fish to attach to substrates by the oral sucker alone.

  17. WITHIN-POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CLIMBING PLANTS AND TREES IN A TEMPERATE FOREST IN CENTRAL CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The climbing habit is a key innovation in angiosperm evolution: climbing plant taxa have greater species richness than their non-climbing sister groups. It is considered that highly diversified clades should show increased among-population genetic differentiation. Less clear is the expected pattern regarding within-population genetic diversity in speciose lineages. We tested the hypothesis of greater within-population genetic diversity in climbing plants compared to trees in a temperate fores...

  18. An extended two-lane car-following model accounting for inter-vehicle communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hui; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel car-following model with inter-vehicle communication to explore each vehicle's movement in a two-lane traffic system when an incident occurs on a lane. The numerical results show that the proposed model can perfectly describe each vehicle's motion when an incident occurs, i.e., no collision occurs while the classical full velocity difference (FVD) model produces collision on each lane, which shows the proposed model is more reasonable. The above results can help drivers to reasonably adjust their driving behaviors when an incident occurs in a two-lane traffic system.

  19. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  20. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  1. Valgus-varus motion of the knee in normal level walking and stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B; Stuart, M J; Kienbacher, T; Growney, E S; An, K-N

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The knee valgus-varus moment and the knee angles were compared between normal level walking and stair climbing. DESIGN: Ten healthy subjects were tested for ascent, descent, and level walking. BACKGROUND: An understanding of the normal valgus-varus motion of the knee during stair climbing is needed to apply biomechanical analysis of stair climbing as a evaluation tool for knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: A motion analysis system, three force plates, and a flight of stairs were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. The knee angles and moments were calculated from the collected kinematic and kinetic data. RESULTS: The knee varus angle for the maximum knee valgus moments in stair climbing was significantly greater than that in level walking. The knee valgus moment was significantly correlated to ground reaction forces and knee valgus-varus angle during stair climbing and level walking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a coupling between the knee valgus-varus motion and flexion-extension motion. Ground reaction forces are the major contributors to the within-subject variation in the knee valgus-varus moment during stair climbing and level walking. The knee valgus-varus angle is a major contributor to the between-subject variation in the knee valgus moment during stair climbing and level walking.

  2. The Mechanical Properties of a Wall-Climbing Caterpillar Robot: Analysis and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds the kinematic model of a wall-climbing caterpillar robot to reveal the validity and the benefits of the closed-chain kinematics of the four-linkage mechanism to a crawling gait. The caterpillar robot can climb on a vertical wall by coordinating the rotations of one active joint and three passive joints. The mechanical property of the closed-chain kinematics of the four-linkage model is analysed. Furthermore, the relation between the driving joint torque and joint angle in the wall-climbing process is deduced based on the coplanar arbitrary force system. Afterwards, the joint control method is discussed in order to coordinate the rotation of the four joints so as to realize a reasonable wall climbing gait. To testify to the availability of the closed-chain four-linkage model, a wall-climbing caterpillar robot is developed with three different adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. A successful wall-climbing test confirms both the practicality of the four-linkage model and the validity of the adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. The results also show the reasonableness of the driving joint selection rule for ensuring a safe and reliable wall-climbing procedure.

  3. The evolution of vertical climbing in primates: evidence from reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jandy B; Granatosky, Michael C; Rana, Pooja; Schmitt, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared with those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical climbing, and this makes them an ideal taxa in which to compare these locomotor forms. Additionally, primates exhibit unusual limb mechanics compared with most other quadrupeds, with weight distribution biased towards the hindlimbs, a pattern that is argued to have evolved in response to the challenges of arboreal walking. Here we test an alternative hypothesis that functional differentiation between the limbs evolved initially as a response to climbing. Eight primate species were recorded locomoting on instrumented vertical and horizontal simulated arboreal runways. Forces along the axis of, and normal to, the support were recorded. During walking, all primates displayed forelimbs that were net braking, and hindlimbs that were net propulsive. In contrast, both limbs served a propulsive role during climbing. In all species, except the lorisids, the hindlimbs produced greater propulsive forces than the forelimbs during climbing. During climbing, the hindlimbs tends to support compressive loads, while the forelimb forces tend to be primarily tensile. This functional disparity appears to be body-size dependent. The tensile loading of the forelimbs versus the compressive loading of the hindlimbs observed during climbing may have important evolutionary implications for primates, and it may be the case that hindlimb-biased weight support exhibited during quadrupedal walking in primates may be derived from their basal condition of climbing thin branches. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  5. Extended-Search, Bézier Curve-Based Lane Detection and Reconstruction System for an Intelligent Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the real-time performance and detection rate of a Lane Detection and Reconstruction (LDR system, an extended-search-based lane detection method and a Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The extended-search-based lane detection method is designed to search boundary blocks from the initial position, in an upwards direction and along the lane, with small search areas including continuous search, discontinuous search and bending search in order to detect different lane boundaries. The Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm is employed to describe a wide range of lane boundary forms with comparatively simple expressions. In addition, two Bézier curves are adopted to reconstruct the lanes' outer boundaries with large curvature variation. The lane detection and reconstruction algorithm — including initial-blocks' determining, extended search, binarization processing and lane boundaries' fitting in different scenarios — is verified in road tests. The results show that this algorithm is robust against different shadows and illumination variations; the average processing time per frame is 13 ms. Significantly, it presents an 88.6% high-detection rate on curved lanes with large or variable curvatures, where the accident rate is higher than that of straight lanes.

  6. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF TREE-CLIMBING MANGROVE SESARMID CRABS FROM LUZON, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  7. The effects of therapeutic climbing in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbert, Kai; Weber, Michaela

    2011-05-15

    A randomized controlled study investigated the effects of therapeutic climbing in patients with chronic low back pain. Before and after 4 weeks of training, physical and mental well-being were measured by two questionnaires (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]; Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for measuring back pain-related disability [FFbH-R]). Therapeutic climbing has been suggested to increase muscular strength and perceived physical and mental well-being. This study focused on the psychological effects of therapeutic climbing and compared it with standard exercise therapy. Therapeutic climbing has become increasingly popular in rehabilitation and its effects on muscular strengthening have been shown. Therapeutic climbing has also been suggested to yield psychological effects such as changes in attentional focus from pain to physical capabilities. To date, no controlled clinical trial has investigated these psychological effects and it is unclear whether therapeutic climbing is comparable or superior to other forms of exercise. Twenty-eight patients with chronic low back pain conducted either a therapeutic climbing or a standard exercise regime. Each program took 4 weeks, including four guided training sessions per week. Before and after the program, patients answered two questionnaires assessing their physical and mental well-being. For the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for measuring back pain-related disability, there was no difference before versus after or between the treatments. For the SF-36, both treatments showed significant improvements in 3/8 subscales of the SF-36. In 2/8 subscales, only the participants of the therapeutic climbing improved and in 1/8 subscales the converse was true. Comparing both groups, significantly larger improvements were found after therapeutic climbing in two subscales of the SF-36: physical functioning and general health perception. The benefits of therapeutic climbing were comparable with those of

  8. Characteristics of the scientific researches in sport climbing (review of the articles, theses, programs, methodical works.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedliar Yu.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The general estimation of the condition of the scientific developments will presented in sport climbing and on this base is specified the most perspective ways of scientific searching for in this area. Analysis publication reflecting different questions of preparation sport climbing athletes was organized. On base of the analysis of the special literature and coming from generally accepted in home science structure of the knowledge, was ascertained degree of the development different theoretical and practical aspect in this sphere. Discovered increase amount of the experimental studies in sport climbing.

  9. Policy options evaluation tool for managed lanes (POET-ML) users guide and methodology description : Federal Highway Administration HOV lane performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Users guide for a sketch planning tool for exploring policy alternatives. It is intended for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes...

  10. Effective public communication and marketing of high-occupancy-vehicle lanes : an agency perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) opened the Southeast Expressway high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane on November 15, 1995. The 6-mi (9.6-km) contraflow lane, open to vehicles with at least three occupants, was MassHighways third at...

  11. Nonlinear model predictive control of a passenger vehicle for automated lane changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, A.F.; Marquez-Ruiz, A.; Espinosa, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) for lane changes, based on a simplified Single Track Model (STM) of the vehicle. The STM includes the position of the vehicle in global coordinates as a state so that the position of the target lane can be specified to the MPC for

  12. Work zone simulator analysis : driver performance and acceptance of Missouri alternate lane shift configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The objective of this project is to evaluate MoDOTs alternate lane shift sign configuration for work zones. The single sign proposed by MoDOT provides the traveler with enough information to let them know that all lanes are available to shift arou...

  13. Accelerated Lane-Changing Trajectory Planning of Automated Vehicles with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of lane changing using automated vehicles and the frequency of turning lanes in city settings, this paper aims to generate an accelerated lane-changing trajectory using vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration (V2VC. Based on the characteristics of accelerated lane changing, we used a polynomial method and cooperative strategies for trajectory planning to establish a lane-changing model under different degrees of collaboration with the following vehicle in the target lane by considering vehicle kinematics and comfort requirements. Furthermore, considering the shortcomings of the traditional elliptical vehicle and round vehicle models, we established a rectangular vehicle model with collision boundary conditions by analysing the relationships between the possible collision points and the outline of the vehicle. Then, we established a simulation model for the accelerated lane-changing process in different environments under different degrees of collaboration. The results show that, by using V2VC, we can achieve safe accelerated lane-changing trajectories and simultaneously satisfy the requirements of vehicle kinematics and comfort control.

  14. Human factors study of driver assistance systems to reduce lane departures and side collision accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the human factors issues related to the implementation of lane departure warning systems (LDWS) to reduce side collision and run-off-road crashes for heavy trucks. Lane departures can be either intentional (e.g., to pass anoth...

  15. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-365] Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy...

  16. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  17. Assisted overtaking : An assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing

  18. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9631-3] Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance... (``DOJ'') on behalf of EPA, in connection with the Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun...

  19. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  20. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-06

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2013-05-21

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  2. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed.

  3. Design of a Multi-layer Lane-Level Map for Vehicle Route Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent transportation system, there occurs further demand for high precision localization and route planning, and simultaneously the traditional road-level map fails to meet with this requirement, by which this paper is motivated. In this paper, t he three-layer lane-level map architecture for vehicle path guidance is established, and the mathematical models of road-level layer, intermediate layer and lane-level layer are designed considering efficiency and precision. The geometric model of the lane-level layer of the map is characterized by Cubic Hermite Spline for continuity. A method of generating the lane geometry with fixed and variable control points is proposed, which can effectively ensure the accuracy with limited num ber of control points. In experimental part, a multi-layer map of an intersection is built to validate the map model, and an example of a local map was generated with the lane-level geometry.

  4. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  5. Grain-size distribution of surface sediments of climbing and falling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    45

    The climbing and falling dunes distributing in the wide valleys of China's Yarlung. 64. Zangbo River ...... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2006. The state of ... Global land use change, economic globalization, and. 450 the looming ...

  6. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  7. Design and Implementation of Autonomous Stair Climbing with Nao Humanoid Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    With the development of humanoid robots, autonomous stair climbing is an important capability. Humanoid robots will play an important role in helping people tackle some basic problems in the future. The main contribution of this thesis is that the NAO humanoid robot can climb the spiral staircase autonomously. In the vision module, the algorithm of image filtering and detecting the contours of the stair contributes to calculating the location of the stairs accurately. Additionally, the st...

  8. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  9. A two-Lane model with anomalous slow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Dan; Richards, Trevor; Pleimling, Michel

    2011-10-01

    It is known that in one-dimensional equilibrium systems with short range interactions a phase transition cannot exist at finite, non-zero temperatures. However, far from equilibrium, one-dimensional systems with local interactions can exhibit a phase transition. The ABC model, a three species model defined on a chain characterized by non-symmetric exchanges between particles, is known to possess a non-equilibrium phase transition. This model exhibits anomalous slow dynamics that we investigate in some detail using two-time quantities. In addition we discuss an extension of this model to a case where this single lane is coupled to a one-dimensional particle bath. This coupling yields an additional phase transition that we discuss in some detail.

  10. Benzole still reflux system - Dawes Lane Coke Ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a project carried out at Dawes Lane coking plant (in Scunthorpe, UK) to access current performance of the batch reflux system with respect to the operation of personnel and to recommend a solution to eliminate naphthalene blockage and problems previously caused by the use of hot debenzolised oil (DBO) as make-up. A successful solution was found and implemented. The benzole product now being produced is within specification and regularly achieves the composition produced by the previous hot reflux system (83% benzole, 7% naphthalene) with an addition reduction in wash oil usage of 20%. Problems of naphthalene blockages in reflux pipework have been cured. The expenses on the project were small. The paper was presented at a COMA meeting at Monckton Coke Ovens on 19 May 2005. 6 figs.

  11. Development of a lane change risk index using vehicle trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Oh, Cheol; Moon, Jaepil; Kim, Seongho

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework. Vehicle interactions between a subject vehicle and adjacent vehicles in the starting lane and the target lane are evaluated in terms of crash potential during lane change. Vehicle trajectory data obtained from a traffic stream, photographed using a drone flown over a freeway segment, is used to investigate the applicability of the proposed methodology. This study compares the characteristics of compulsory and discretionary lane changes observed in a work zone section and a general section of a freeway using the LCRI. It is expected that the outcome of this study will be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness of various traffic operations and control strategies in terms of lane change safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of managed lanes on freeway facilities in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sajjadi

    2017-02-01

    The results of the study indicate that the percent drop in capacity for the one-lane FP site is 7.6% while the flow did not substantially change after the breakdown in the two-lane FP site. The research findings also include guidelines for simulating the breakdown events and calibrating one-lane and two-lane managed lane facilities in VISSIM microsimulation software. The Wiedemann car-following parameters (CC0 = 3.9 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 26.25 ft, CC4 = −0.35, and CC5 = 0.35 provided the best fit for the one-lane FP site, while the combination (CC0 = 4.92 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 39.37 ft, CC4 = −0.7, and CC5 = 0.7 parameters is recommended for the two-lane FP site.

  13. A mathematical model for predicting lane changes using the steering wheel angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim; Beggiato, Matthias; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Krems, Josef F

    2014-06-01

    Positive safety effects of advanced driver assistance systems can only become effective if drivers accept and use these systems. Early detection of driver's intention would allow for selective system activation and therefore reduce false alarms. This driving simulator study aims at exploring early predictors of lane changes. In total, 3111 lane changes of 51 participants on a simulated highway track were analyzed. Results show that drivers stopped their engagement in a secondary task about 7s before crossing the lane, which indicates a first planning phase of the maneuver. Subsequently, drivers start moving toward the lane, marking a mean steering wheel angle of 2.5°. Steering wheel angle as a directly measurable vehicle parameter appears as a promising early predictor of a lane change. A mathematical model of the steering wheel angle is presented, which is supposed to contribute for predicting lane change maneuvers. The mathematical model will be part of a further predictor of lane changes. This predictor can be a new advanced driver assistance system able to recognize a driver's intention. With this knowledge, other systems can be activated or deactivated so drivers get no annoying and exhausting alarm signals. This is one way how we can increase the acceptance of assistance systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  15. Video-based lane estimation and tracking for driver assistance: Survey, system, and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, J C; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2006-01-01

    Driver-assistance systems that monitor driver intent, warn drivers of lane departures, or assist in vehicle guidance are all being actively considered. It is therefore important to take a critical look at key aspects of these systems, one of which is lane-position tracking. It is for these driver-assistance objectives that motivate the development of the novel "video-based lane estimation and tracking" (VioLET) system. The system is designed using steerable filters for robust and accurate lan...

  16. Design of a lane departure driver-assist system under safety specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehener Daniel; Huang Geng; Del Vecchio Domitilla

    2016-01-01

    We use a controlled invariance approach to design a semi-autonomous lane departure assist system that is guaranteed to keep the vehicle in the lane. The controlled invariant safe set is the set of system states from which an input exists that can keep the vehicle in the lane. First we provide theoretical conditions under which this set has a simple characterization and can be computed in real-time. We then use this characterization to derive a feedback strategy that keeps the vehicle in the l...

  17. A multistage controlled intervention to increase stair climbing at work: effectiveness and process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellicha, Alice; Kieusseian, Aurélie; Fontvieille, Anne-Marie; Tataranni, Antonio; Copin, Nane; Charreire, Hélène; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-11

    Stair climbing helps to accumulate short bouts of physical activity throughout the day as a strategy for attaining recommended physical activity levels. There exists a need for effective long-term stair-climbing interventions that can be transferred to various worksite settings. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate short- and long-term effectiveness of a worksite stair-climbing intervention using an objective measurement of stair climbing and a controlled design; and 2) to perform a process evaluation of the intervention. We performed a controlled before-and-after study. The study was conducted in two corporate buildings of the same company located in Paris (France), between September, 2013 and September, 2014. The status of either "intervention site" or "control site" was assigned by the investigators. Participants were on-site employees (intervention site: n = 783; control site: n = 545 at baseline). Two one-month intervention phases using signs (intervention phase 1) and enhancement of stairwell aesthetics (intervention phase 2) were performed. The main outcome was the change in stair climbing, measured with automatic counters and expressed in absolute counts/day/100 employees and percent change compared to baseline. Qualitative outcomes were used to describe the intervention process. Stair climbing significantly increased at the intervention site (+18.7%) but decreased at the control site (-13.3%) during the second intervention phase (difference between sites: +4.6 counts/day/100 employees, p levels at the intervention site, but a significant difference between sites was found (intervention site vs. control site: +2.9 counts/day/100 employees, p level after the end of the study. This study shows a successful stair-climbing intervention at the worksite. The main barriers to adoption and implementation were related to location and visibility of posters. Process evaluation was useful in identifying these barriers throughout the study, and in

  18. How do Continuous Climb Operations affect the capacity of a Terminal Manoeuvre Area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casan, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Continuous climb operations are the following step to optimise departure trajectories with the goals of minimizing fuel consumption and pollutants and noise emissions in the airports neighbourhood, although due to intrinsic nature of these procedures, the integration of these procedures need to develop a new framework for airline operators and air traffic control. Based on the BADA model developed by EUROCONTROL, three activities have been carried out: simulation of several continuous climbs for three aircraft types (Light, Medium and Heavy), analysation of different applied separations throughout the climb from the runway up to cruise level and, as third activity, definition of new separation minima to ensure that the minimum separations are not violated with this new procedures along the climb. In this work are presented the results of modelling three continuous climb type (constant true airspeed, constant climb angle and constant vertical speed) and new time-based separations for most used models in Palma TMA, which will be the case-study scenario. Finally, this theoretical analysis has been applied to a real scenario in Palma de Mallorca TMA in order to compare how the capacity deals with the introduction of this new procedure to standard departures, standard departures are understood as a departure with a level-off at a determined altitude and with the possibility to be affected by any ATC action. First outcomes are promising because capacity, theoretically, would not be grossly diminished, which could initially be expected based on previous studies on continuous descent approaches, although these results should be considered cautiously due to the fact that the model lacks several factors of associated uncertainty for a real climb. (Author)

  19. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  20. Does perceived steepness deter stair climbing when an alternative is available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Lewis, Amanda; Taylor-Covill, Guy A H

    2014-06-01

    Perception of hill slant is exaggerated in explicit awareness. Proffitt (Perspectives on Psychological Science 1:110-122, 2006) argued that explicit perception of the slant of a climb allows individuals to plan locomotion in keeping with their available locomotor resources, yet no behavioral evidence supports this contention. Pedestrians in a built environment can often avoid climbing stairs, the man-made equivalent of steep hills, by choosing an adjacent escalator. Stair climbing is avoided more by women, the old, and the overweight than by their comparators. Two studies tested perceived steepness of the stairs as a cue that promotes this avoidance. In the first study, participants estimated the steepness of a staircase in a train station (n = 269). Sex, age, height, and weight were recorded. Women, older individuals, and those who were heavier and shorter reported the staircase as steeper than did their comparison groups. In a follow-up study in a shopping mall, pedestrians were recruited from those who chose the stairs and those who avoided them, with the samples stratified for sex, age, and weight status. Participants (n = 229) estimated the steepness of a life-sized image of the stairs they had just encountered, presented on the wall of a vacant shop in the mall. Pedestrians who avoided stair climbing by choosing the escalator reported the stairs as steeper even when demographic differences were controlled. Perceived steepness may to be a contextual cue that pedestrians use to avoid stair climbing when an alternative is available.

  1. Analysis of sociodemographic, sport and psychological profile in a rock-climbing experience on university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Morilla Portela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among several psychological factors in rock climbing was proved a long time ago, nevertheless, most researches are limited to very artificial situations, far away from nature. There are few studies which have carried out this kind of investigation in the natural environment and have combined data collection with real rock climbing practice. The instruments used for this data collection were two questionnaires: CSAI-2 and another one specifically designed to gather the necessary information about sociodemographic characteristic and sport habits. In our work we have studied various individuals’ features (sociodemographic, general sport and outdoor profiles and we have confirmed how they are interrelated and their influence on several psychological factors (cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Through this article we show that there are higher percentages of women than men participants who climb IV-V grade, whereas in higher grades the percentages equalize. Regarding psychological factors, we can notice how on the one hand those participants who climb higher grades and are more interested in rock climbing, feel lower cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety, while on the other hand they feel higher self-confidence levels

  2. Enhancing the Trajectory Generation of a Stair-Climbing Mobility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocoteco, Jose Abel

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile robotic technologies have enabled significant progress to be made in the development of Stair-Climbing Mobility Systems (SCMSs) for people with mobility impairments and limitations. These devices are mainly characterized by their ability to negotiate those architectural barriers associated with climbing stairs (curbs, ramps, etc.). The development of advanced trajectory generators with which to surpass such architectural barriers is one of the most important aspects of SCMSs that has not yet been appropriately exploited. These advanced trajectory generators have a considerable influence on the time invested in the stair climbing process and on passenger comfort and, consequently, provide people with physical disabilities with greater independence and a higher quality of life. In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear trajectory generator for an SCMS. This generator balances the stair-climbing time and the user’s comfort and includes the most important constraints inherent to the system behavior: the geometry of the architectural barrier, the reconfigurable nature of the SCMS (discontinuous states), SCMS state-transition diagrams, comfort restrictions and physical limitations as regards the actuators, speed and acceleration. The SCMS was tested on a real two-step staircase using different time-comfort combinations and different climbing strategies to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed approach.

  3. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  4. The Sight Distance Issues with Retrofitted Single-Lane HOV Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongren Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that obstruction inside a highway horizontal curve will lead to impaired sight distance. Highway alignment design standards in terms of the minimum horizontal curve radius are specified to allow for adequate stopping sight distance at given design speeds. For a single-lane HOV facility, inside curve obstruction may occur no matter when the facility curves to the left (per travel direction or right. A unique situation that calls for special attention is that the adjacent mixed-flow lane traffic, once queued, may become sight obstruction. Calculations indicated that such obstruction may govern the minimum curve radius design as long as the left shoulder is not less than 0.92 m, when the HOV lane is contiguous to the mixed-flow lanes. Such governance may necessitate design speed reduction, horizontal and cross-section design adjustment, or both.

  5. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  6. Open Access!: Review of Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study by David Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Tunstall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available David M. Lane (project leader. Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/ Also: David M. Lane (primary author and editor, with David Scott, Mikki Hebl, Rudy Guerra, Dan Osherson, and Heidi Zimmer. Introduction to Statistics. Online edition (http://onlinestatbook.com/Online_Statistics_Education.pdf, 694 pp. It is rare that students receive high-quality textbooks for free, but David Lane's Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study permits precisely that. This review gives an overview of the many features in Lane's online textbook, including the Java Applets, the textbook itself, and the resources available for instructors. A discussion of uses of the site, as well as a comparison of the text to alternative online statistics textbooks, is included.

  7. Investigating the value of time and value of reliability for managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents a comprehensive study in Value of Time (VOT) and Value of Reliability (VOR) analysis in : the context of managed lane (ML) facilities. Combined Revealed Preference (RP) and Stated Preference (SP) : data were used to understand tr...

  8. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  9. A self-adaptive toll rate algorithm for high occupancy toll (HOT) lane operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increasing travel demands and insufficient traffic facility supplies have resulted in severe : traffic congestion. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane operations have been proposed as one of the most : applicable and cost-effective countermea...

  10. Safety effects of cross-section design for two-lane roads. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    This study was intended to quantify the benefits and costs resulting from lane widening, shoulder widening, shoulder surfacing, sideslope flattening, and roadside improvements. Detailed traffic, accident, and roadway data were collected on 4,951 mile...

  11. Lane assignment traffic control devices on frontage roads and conventional roads at interchanges : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The intersection and mandatory movement lane control signs placed on intersection approaches are critical to : safe and efficient intersection operations. Ramp, frontage road, and cross-street approaches to interchanges : often widen at intersections...

  12. Briefing paper : toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Over the past two decades, agencies : have increasingly implemented managed : lanes (MLs) to mitigate growing urban traffic : congestion in the United States. Multiple operating : projects : representing a combination : of HOV-to-HOT conversions a...

  13. On the origin of the dust lane in the active radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    A simple explosion model leading to the extragalactic extended radio sources is developed to understand the origin of the dust lane seen in the active radio galaxies. The point explosion in a spheroid with inhomogeneous density distribution is investigated by taking account of the cooling effect induced by radiative energy loss. It is suggested that the morphological relation between the dust lane and double radio sources is well explained on the basis of explosion model. (author)

  14. Driver assistance system for lane departure avoidance by steering and differential braking

    OpenAIRE

    MINOIU-ENACHE, N; MAMMAR, S; GLASER, S; LUSETTI, B

    2010-01-01

    Lane departure avoidance systems assist actively the driver during inattention or drowsiness and increase driving safety. Most of the lane departure avoidance systems use for the lateral control of the vehicle in closed loop a DC motor similar to the electrical powered steering (EPS) assistance. Important difficulties and limits of this approach are the shared control with the driver on the steering wheel and the vehicle handling at limits. In this paper a combined lateral control using a DC ...

  15. Modelling of lane-changing behaviour integrating with merging effect before a city road bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Song, Wei-guo; Fang, Zhi-ming; Ma, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Merging behaviour is a compulsive action in a discretionary lane-changing traffic system, especially in a system with a bottleneck. This paper aims to investigate the generic lane-changing behaviour considering the merging effect before a city road bottleneck. Thus firstly the merging behaviour is distinguished from other generic lane-changing behaviour. Combining discretionary lane-changing and compulsive merging, we developed an integrative traffic model, in which a method to calculate the lane-changing probability and the merging probability was proposed. A simulation scenario derived from real life was conducted to validate the proposed programming algorithm. Finally, a discussion on the simulation findings shows that the merging influence can be expanded and the merging behaviour can increase the probability of local traffic jamming in its affected area of the adjacent lane. The distribution of the merging distance provides fundamental insights for actual traffic management. The result of the clearance time implies the position of the incident point has a significant effect on the clearing time and it is important to ensure the end (exit) of the road is unimpeded in traffic evacuation.

  16. Image processing-based framework for continuous lane recognition in mountainous roads for driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Kodeeswari; Daniel, Philemon

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a robust lane detection technique for roads on hilly terrain. The target of this paper is to utilize image processing strategies to recognize lane lines on structured mountain roads with the help of improved Hough transform. Vision-based approach is used as it performs well in a wide assortment of circumstances by abstracting valuable information contrasted with other sensors. The proposed strategy processes the live video stream, which is a progression of pictures, and concentrates on the position of lane markings in the wake of sending the edges through different channels and legitimate thresholding. The algorithm is tuned for Indian mountainous curved and paved roads. A technique of computation is utilized to discard the disturbing lines other than the credible lane lines and show just the required prevailing lane lines. This technique will consequently discover two lane lines that are nearest to the vehicle in a picture as right on time as could reasonably be expected. Various video sequences on hilly terrain are tested to verify the effectiveness of our method, and it has shown good performance with a detection accuracy of 91.89%.

  17. Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle depends on the centroid position and the pitch angle of stairs, and the numerical formula is developed about the relationship between the maximal stability-keeping angle and the centroid position and pitch angle of stairs. The experiment demonstrates the trustworthy and correction of the method in the paper.

  18. An Omni-Directional Wall-Climbing Microrobot with Magnetic Wheels Directly Integrated with Electromagnetic Micromotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an omni-directional wall-climbing microrobot with magnetic wheels. The integral design with an actuator and adhesive is realized by integrating stators and rotors of an MEMS-based electromagnetic micromotor with a magnetic wheel. The omni-directional wall-climbing mechanism is designed by a set of steering gears and three standard magnetic wheels. The required torque and magnetic force for microrobot movement are derived by its static analysis. The size of the magnetic wheel is optimized, with consideration of its own design constraints, by ANSOFT and Pro/Engineer simulation so as to reduce unnecessary torque consumption under the same designed load. Related experiments demonstrate that the microrobot (diameter: 26mm; height: 16.4; mass: 7.2g; load capacity: 3g we have developed has a good wall-climbing ability and flexible mobility, and it can perform visual detection in a ferromagnetic environment.

  19. Dynamic analysis of a bio-inspired climbing robot using ADAMS-Simulink co-simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Dikshit, H.; Majumder, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Maity, A.

    2018-04-01

    Climbing robot has been an area of interest since the demand of inspection of pipeline, nuclear power plant, and various big structure is growing up rapidly. This paper represents the development of a bio-inspired modular robot which mimics inchworm locomotion during climbing. In the present paper, the climbing motion is achieved only on a flat vertical plane by magnetic adhesion principle. The robot is modelled as a 4-link planar mechanism with three revolute joints actuated by DC servo motors. Sinusoidal gait pattern is used to approximate the motion of an inchworm. The dynamics of the robot is presented by using ADAMS/MATLAB co-simulation methodology. The simulation result gives the maximum value of joint torque during one complete cycle of motion. This torque value is used for the selection of servo motor specifications required to build the prototype.

  20. Embedded star formation in S4G galaxy dust lanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Efremov, Yuri N.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; De Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 μm and Hα but not in the u, g, r, i, z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ∼3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ∼5 × 10 4 M ☉ . These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ∼10 7 M ☉ . The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral-shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous appearance of equally spaced complexes suggests that the dust lanes, and perhaps the arms too, are relatively young.

  1. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  2. SOCIO-SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE BACK LANE OF HOUSING AT BANDAR BARU NILAI: PRIVACY AND COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI F. M. LIAS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban informal spaces in the form of back lane tend to promote socio-spatial integration between neighbourhood communities. The Back Lane Planning Design Guidelines issued in 2014 by Town and Country Planning Department of Malaysia identified back lane as such a place to encourage communal lifestyle whereas an area of owns residents privacy. In reality, back lane portrays as the wasted unfavourable paths thus several social concerns of safety, security, health issues as well as invading privacy and sense of deficiency community bonding issues arise. This study quantitatively analyses dwellers perception focusing to level of visual privacy and level of spiritual neighbourhood interaction towards effectiveness of newly landscape back lane (LBL in contemporary urban dwellings. Comparison of socio-spatial integration between two types of back lane design in grid-linear housing scheme ; the pleasing greenery landscape back lane (LBL and the plain empty bare paved back lane (PBL in residential area of Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan . Structured questionnaire distributed to 115 respondents to assess on privacy and comfort level, neighbourhood activities and communal lifestyle, back -lane usage, resident’s perception and expectation.The study proved the landscape design back lane (LBL is ensuring own right privacy lacking in promoting community interaction among the residents due to contemporary urban lifestyles.

  3. Development of Vmax III. Magnetic wall climbing robot with holonomic and omni-directional mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Kiyoshi; Hirose, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Wall-climbing robots having holonomic and omni-directional mobility would enhance the manipulation performance of the mounted arm and enable it to execute various tasks on the surface of large structures. This study focuses on the wall-climbing robots having permanent magnet attractive units to stick to the surface of iron structure such as atomic reactors and discuss the development of a specific holonomic and omni-directional wall-climbing mechanisms. Basic driving mechanism of the wall-climbing robot is based on our former invention named Omni Disk which consists of multiple rollers attached to one side of a rotating disk and having a mechanism to direct the rollers to the same direction. We firstly discuss about the mechanical improvements of the Omni Disk to make it lightweight and low cost. We next discusses about four types of methods to attach permanent magnets to the wall-climbing robot and generates attractive force on the iron wall and select the best type based on the motion experiments about the constructed models. As the result of these considerations, we developed a holonomic and omni-directional wall-climbing robot named Vmax III which consists of three Omni Disks having permanent magnet at their center having the function to change the magnetic attractive force. By using the Vmax III, we studied about the relation among the magnetic attractive force of three Omni Disks, posture of the Vmax III and inclination angle of the iron wall and clarified the optimized distribution of the magnetic attractive force of the Omni Disks in different inclination of the iron wall. (author)

  4. Using a body sensor network to measure the effect of fatigue on stair climbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Jeroen H M; Smith, Ian C H; Mayagoitia, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    In terms of self-rated health, the most important activities of daily living are those involving mobility. Of these activities stair climbing is regarded as the most strenuous. A loss of stair climbing ability with age is normally associated with a loss of muscle strength and power, while other factors that influence muscle function, such as fatigue, are often not taken into account. So far no research has been published on how long-lasting fatigue affects activities of daily living, despite the fact that it has been repeatedly proven, in laboratory settings, to influence muscle force production over long periods of time. Technological advances in body sensor networks (BSNs) now provide a method to measure performance during complex real-life situations. In this study the use of a BSN was explored to investigate the effects of long-lasting fatigue on stair climbing performance in 20 healthy adults. Stair climbing performance was measured before and after a fatiguing protocol using a BSN. Performance was defined by temporal and spatial parameters. Long-lasting fatigue was successfully induced in all participants using an exercise protocol. The BSN showed that post-exercise fatigue did not influence stair climbing times (p > 0.2) and no meaningful changes in joint angles were found. No effect on overall stair climbing performance was found, despite a clear presence of long-lasting fatigue. This study shows that physiological paradigms can be further explored using BSNs. Ecological validity of lab-based measurements can be increased by combining them with BSNs. (paper)

  5. Climbing for preventing and treating health problems: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechtelpeter, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the best available evidence on effectiveness of therapeutic or sport climbing in preventing or treating health problems. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTseeker and SportDiscus for randomized controlled trials published up to December 26, 2010. We included all trials assessing patient-relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. Quality of evidence was rated using the GRADE system. Data were entered into RevMan 5 to calculate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals where appropriate.Results: Eligible for inclusion were four RCTs studying the effectiveness of climbing in (a geriatric patients, (b adults with multiple sclerosis, (c adults with chronic low-back pain and (d children with disabilities and poor motor function. The sample sizes ranged between 20 and 95. All trials had major methodological limitations. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing may improve activities of daily living in geriatric patients compared to physiotherapy as measured by the Barthel index (difference in mean change score: 2.32 [95%-CI: 0.45 to 4.19]. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing compared to standard exercise therapy may improve physical functioning (difference in mean change score: 16.15 [95%-CI: 4.45 to 27.85] and general physical health (13.14 [95%-CI: 3.61 to 22.67] as measured by the SF-36 in adults with chronic low back-pain. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of therapeutic climbing is limited to small trials at high risk of bias. The effects of therapeutic climbing are therefore unclear.

  6. Climbing Up the Technology Ladder? High-Technology Exports in China and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Kevin P.; Porzecanski, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we determine the “dynamic revealed competitiveness position” (DRCP) of nations for high technology exports between 1980 and 2005. We find that the developed world has lost significant market share in high technology and that China has climbed the high technology ladder during this period. In 1980 China was ranked 99th of all nations in terms of the percentage of global exports in high technology. By 2005 China climbed to second place in the world, first place if high technology ...

  7. Biologically-inspired synthetic dry adhesives for wall-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    Animals such as insects, spiders, and lizards are capable of clinging to and climbing on a variety of surfaces, from rough stone to smooth silicon. Hairy microscale arrays of structures on their feet conform to surface roughness to create millions of points of contact, creating a large overall contact area. Weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) between each fiber tip and the surface sum to large overall forces due to the high number of contacts. In this work we present the fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of synthetic polyurethane fibrillar adhesives inspired by these animals. Angled polymer micro-fiber arrays are fabricated and characterized. A tip modification technique is presented which enables fabrication of fibers with flat mushroom shaped tips which greatly increase the adhesion of the fibers, up to 5N/cm 2 (normal direction), and with a magnitude within the range of geckos (10 N/cm2) in the shear direction on smooth surfaces. We present a fabrication technique to create fibers with angled flat mushroom-shaped tips which replicate the directional characteristics of geckos, gripping in one direction (within the range of gecko adhesion) and releasing easily in the other. Multilevel hierarchical structures with specialized tips for roughness adaptation are also presented. Fiber hierarchies from the millimeter scale to the sub-micron scale are demonstrated, including three-level fiber fabrication with specialized tips. Hierarchical structures demonstrate up to 5 times the adhesion of an unstructured sample, and requiring up to 10 times the detachment energy. Finally, an agile, wireless, palm-sized wall climbing robot which uses the synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives to climb is presented. Waalbot , named after the van der Waals forces it uses to climb, exploits the attachment and detachment characteristics of the developed dry adhesives, capabilities include climbing smooth surfaces such as glass in any orientation on any surface slope

  8. Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in Lower-Limb Amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    de Laat FA, Rommers GM, Geertzen JH, Roorda LD. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in lower-limb amputees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1396-401. Objective: To investigate the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs

  9. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  10. Climbing performance of Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) with added load: Implications for muscle mechanics and for radiotracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.

    1989-01-01

    Two Harris' hawks were trained to fly along horizontal and climbing flight paths, while carrying loads of various masses, to provide data for estimating available muscle power during short flights. The body mass of both hawks was about 920 g, and they were able to carry loads up to 630 g in horizontal flight. The rate of climb decreased with increasing all-up mass, as also did the climbing power (product of weight and rate of climb). Various assumptions about the aerodynamic power in low-speed climbs led to estimates of the maximum power output of the flight muscles ranging from 41 to 46 W. This, in turn, would imply a stress during shortening of around 210 kPa. The effects of a radio package on a bird that is raising young should be considered in relation to the food load that the forager can normally carry, rather than in relation to its body mass.

  11. The evaluation of high occupancy vehicle lanes on Sun Yat-Sen freeway in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, R.C. [National Chi Nan Univ., Nantou, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Weng, M.C. [Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.C. [National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)

    2005-06-30

    Travel demand in Taiwan, particularly intercity trips, has changed in response to the significant increase in domestic trade and economic activities. Most of Taiwan's population lives and works along the western corridor because there is a mountain range running north-south along the eastern coast. The existing transportation system includes highways, freeways, rail and aviation. The average travel time from Taipei to Koahsiung by the Sun Yat-Sen freeway can vary from 4 to 8 hours or more on weekends and holidays. The current capacity of the freeway is insufficient to accommodate the increasing travel demand. Many traffic management strategies such as ramp metering control, no tolls, and no tolls for high occupancy vehicles (HOV) have been proposed to alleviate traffic congestion. The government plans to reallocate one inner lane as an HOV lane in each direction at all times. However, this would require a preference survey to assess the drivers' decisions to use these HOV lanes at all times on the highway. In this study, 2 types of latent attributes, perceptions and attitudes were defined to analyze their effects on travelers' choice of HOV lanes. Revealed preference and stated preference data were collected and considered simultaneously to fully utilize the strength of each type. Travelers' decisions were found to be a function of socio-economic attributes, travel characteristics and perceptions of alternatives. A model system was developed to comprise a discrete choice model and the latent variable model's structural and measurement equations. It was concluded that the preferred choice was for the HOV lane to be used toll-free, by vehicles with 4 or more passengers, in which the HOV lane is separated from regular lanes with a guardrail. 8 tabs.

  12. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  13. The effects of lane width, shoulder width, and road cross-sectional reallocation on drivers' behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-demographic impacts on lane-changing response time and distance in work zone with Drivers' Smart Advisory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lane-changing behavior is an important component of traffic simulation. A lane-changing action is normally confined to a decision-making process of the task, and the action itself is sometimes assumed as an instantaneous event. Besides, the lane-changing behavior is based mostly on observable positions and speeds of other vehicles, rather than on vehicles' intentions. In practice, changing one lane requires about 5–6 s to complete. Existing lane-changing models do not comprehensively consider drivers' response to work zone lane-changing signs (or other related messages, if any. Furthermore, drivers' socio-demographics are normally not taken into account. With regard to this, fuzzy logic-based lane-changing models that consider drivers' socio-demographics were developed to improve the realism of lane-changing maneuvers in work zones. Drivers' Smart Advisory System (DSAS messages were provided as one of the scenarios. Drivers' responses, including reactions to work zone signs and DSAS messages, and actions to change lane, were investigated. Drivers' socio-demographic factors were primary independent variables, while Lane-Changing Response Time (LCRT and Distance (LCRD were defined as output variables. The model validation process yielded acceptable error ranges. To illustrate how these models can be used in traffic simulation, the LCRT and LCRD in work zones were estimated for five geo-locations with different socio-demographic specifications. Results show that the DSAS is able to instruct all drivers to prepare and change lanes earlier, thereby shortening the duration of changing lanes. Educational background and age are essential variables, whereas the impacts of gender on the output variables are indistinctive.

  15. Analysis of Relations between Spatiotemporal Movement Regulation and Performance of Discrete Actions Reveals Functionality in Skilled Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Kerr, Graham; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    In this review of research on climbing expertise, we focus on different measures of climbing performance, including spatiotemporal measures related to fluency and activity states (i.e., discrete actions), adopted by climbers for achieving overall performance goals of getting to the end of a route efficiently and safely. Currently, a broad range of variables have been reported, however, many of these fail to capture how climbers adapt to a route whilst climbing. We argue that spatiotemporal measures should be considered concurrently with evaluation of activity states (such as reaching or exploring) in order gain a more comprehensive picture of how climbers successfully adapt to a route. Spatial and temporal movement measures taken at the hip are a traditional means of assessing efficiency of climbing behaviors. More recently, performatory and exploratory actions of the limbs have been used in combination with spatiotemporal indicators, highlighting the influence of limb states on climbing efficiency and skill transfer. However, only a few studies have attempted to combine spatiotemporal and activity state measures taken during route climbing. This review brings together existing approaches for observing climbing skill at performance outcome (i.e., spatiotemporal assessments) and process (i.e., limb activity states) levels of analysis. Skill level is associated with a spatially efficient route progression and lower levels of immobility. However, more difficult hold architecture designs require significantly greater mobility and more complex movement patterning to maintain performance. Different forms of functional, or goal-supportive, movement variability, including active recovery and hold exploration, have been implicated as important adaptations to physiological and environmental dynamics that emerge during the act of climbing. Indeed, recently it has also been shown that, when climbing on new routes, efficient exploration can improve the transfer of skill. This

  16. Analysis of Relations between Spatiotemporal Movement Regulation and Performance of Discrete Actions Reveals Functionality in Skilled Climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review of research on climbing expertise, we focus on different measures of climbing performance, including spatiotemporal measures related to fluency and activity states (i.e., discrete actions, adopted by climbers for achieving overall performance goals of getting to the end of a route efficiently and safely. Currently, a broad range of variables have been reported, however, many of these fail to capture how climbers adapt to a route whilst climbing. We argue that spatiotemporal measures should be considered concurrently with evaluation of activity states (such as reaching or exploring in order gain a more comprehensive picture of how climbers successfully adapt to a route. Spatial and temporal movement measures taken at the hip are a traditional means of assessing efficiency of climbing behaviors. More recently, performatory and exploratory actions of the limbs have been used in combination with spatiotemporal indicators, highlighting the influence of limb states on climbing efficiency and skill transfer. However, only a few studies have attempted to combine spatiotemporal and activity state measures taken during route climbing. This review brings together existing approaches for observing climbing skill at performance outcome (i.e., spatiotemporal assessments and process (i.e., limb activity states levels of analysis. Skill level is associated with a spatially efficient route progression and lower levels of immobility. However, more difficult hold architecture designs require significantly greater mobility and more complex movement patterning to maintain performance. Different forms of functional, or goal-supportive, movement variability, including active recovery and hold exploration, have been implicated as important adaptations to physiological and environmental dynamics that emerge during the act of climbing. Indeed, recently it has also been shown that, when climbing on new routes, efficient exploration can improve the transfer

  17. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to... the Next Level,'' will be chaired by NTSB Chairman Deborah A. P. Hersman and all five Board Members...

  18. 135 tf climbing crane for the construction of large scale plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a larger capacity, wider working radius and higher lift climbing crane was in demand since the large block construction method become common in plant construction. At first, scaling up of the conventional climbing crane was planned. But, it turned out that the deflection at the top of the jib would cause the load to drift at takeoff in crane operation. Therefore, the crane was newly designed to solve the problem. Some of its advantage are as follows. (1) This crane can be used as either a climbing or a nonclimbing type depending on installation locations and objective plants. (2) Accurate and easy operation is achieved because of little deflection at the top of the jib. (3) Efficient crane operation is possible through high speed hoisting and slewing motions in frequent auxiliary hoisting operations. (4) The construction time can be shortened by adopting pin joints between the blocks and by reducing the number of assembling parts at the site. A nonclimbing type crane is now in operation at the nuclear power plant in Kashiwazaki and a climbing type will be in operation at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima this year. The report presents an outline of the specifications, structures and advantages. (author)

  19. Transition Analysis and Its Application to Global Path Determination for a Biped Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifei Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biped climbing robots are considered good assistants and (or substitutes for human workers carrying out high-rise truss-associated routine tasks. Flexible locomotion on three-dimensional complex trusses is a fundamental skill for these robots. In particular, the capability to transit from one structural member to another is paramount for switching objects to be climbed upon. In this paper, we study member-to-member transition and its utility in global path searching for biped climbing robots. To compute operational regions for transition, hierarchical inspection of safety, reachability, and accessibility of grips is taken into account. A novel global path rapid determination approach is subsequently proposed based on the transition analysis. This scheme is efficient for finding feasible routes with respect to the overall structural environment, which also benefits the subsequent grip and motion planning. Simulations are conducted with Climbot, our self-developed biped climbing robot, to verify the efficiency of the presented method. Results show that our proposed method is able to accurately determine the operational region for transition within tens of milliseconds and can obtain global paths within seconds in general.

  20. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Cordier, Romain; Orth, Dominic; Courtine, Yoan; Croft, James L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b

  1. Dislocation Climb Sources Activated by 1 MeV Electron Irradiation of Copper-Nickel Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, Torben

    1977-01-01

    Climb sources emitting dislocation loops are observed in Cu-Ni alloys during irradiation with 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. High source densities are found in alloys containing 5, 10 and 20% Ni, but sources are also observed in alloys containing 1 and 2% Ni. The range of ...

  2. A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing

    2011-01-01

    A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…

  3. Conservation of a medieval climbing stem by freeze-drying and resin impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1985-12-01

    The conservation of a climbing stem originating from a medieval mining adit is described. The fragile wet object was preserved by a combined process consisting of freeze-drying after a polyethylene glycol bath and consecutive resin impregnation with curing by gamma irradiation. The whole conservation process took 1 year. The result is discussed. (Author)

  4. Cerebellar motor learning versus cerebellar motor timing: the climbing fibre story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Theories concerning the role of the climbing fibre system in motor learning, as opposed to those addressing the olivocerebellar system in the organization of motor timing, are briefly contrasted. The electrophysiological basis for the motor timing hypothesis in relation to the olivocerebellar system is treated in detail. PMID:21486816

  5. Fuel management optimization in pressure water reactors with hexagonal geometry using hill climbing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres Diaz, J.; Quintero, Ruben; Melian, Manuel; Rosete, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    In this work the general-purpose optimization method, Hill Climbing, was applied to the Fuel Management Optimization problem in PWR reactors, WWER type. They were carried out a series of experiments in order to study the performance of Hill Climbing. It was proven two starting point for initialize the search: a reload configuration by project and a reload configuration generated with the application of a minimal knowledge of the problem. It was also studied the effect of imposing constraints based on the physics of the reactor in order to reduce the number of possible solutions to be generated. The operator used in Hill Climbing was defined as a binary exchange of fuel assemblies. For the simulation of each generated configuration, the tridimensional simulator program SPPS-1 was used. It was formulated an objective function with power peaking constraint to guide the search. As results, a methodology ws proposed for the In-core Fuel Management Optimization in hexagonal geometry, and the feasibility of the application of the Hill Climbing to this type of problem was demonstrated. (author)

  6. Wall Climbing Robot Using Electrostatic Adhesion Force Generated by Flexible Interdigital Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic adhesion technology has broad application prospects on wall climbing robots because of its unique characteristics compared with other types of adhesion technologies. A double tracked wall climbing robot based on electrostatic adhesion technology is presented including electrode panel design, mechanical structure design, power supply system design and control system design. A theoretical adhesion model was established and the electrostatic potential and field were expressed by series expansions in terms of solutions of the Laplace function. Based on this model, the electrostatic adhesion force was calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor formulation. Several important factors which may influence the electrostatic adhesion force were analysed and discussed by both FEM simulation and theoretical calculation. In addition, experiments on the adhesion performance of the electrode panel and the climbing performance of the robot on various wall materials were carried out. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the feasibility of electrostatic adhesion technology being applied on wall climbing robots. The theoretical model and calculation method for the electrostatic adhesion force proposed in this paper are also justified.

  7. Robot-assisted practice of gait and stair climbing in nonambulatory stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan; Tomelleri, Christopher; Bardeleben, Anita; Werner, Cordula; Waldner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A novel gait robot enabled nonambulatory patients the repetitive practice of gait and stair climbing. Thirty nonambulatory patients with subacute stroke were allocated to two groups. During 60 min sessions every workday for 4 weeks, the experimental group received 30 min of robot training and 30 min of physiotherapy and the control group received 60 min of physiotherapy. The primary variable was gait and stair climbing ability (Functional Ambulation Categories [FAC] score 0-5); secondary variables were gait velocity, Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and leg strength and tone blindly assessed at onset, intervention end, and follow-up. Both groups were comparable at onset and functionally improved over time. The improvements were significantly larger in the experimental group with respect to the FAC, RMI, velocity, and leg strength during the intervention. The FAC gains (mean +/- standard deviation) were 2.4 +/- 1.2 (experimental group) and 1.2 +/- 1.5 (control group), p = 0.01. At the end of the intervention, seven experimental group patients and one control group patient had reached an FAC score of 5, indicating an ability to climb up and down one flight of stairs. At follow-up, this superior gait ability persisted. In conclusion, the therapy on the novel gait robot resulted in a superior gait and stair climbing ability in nonambulatory patients with subacute stroke; a higher training intensity was the most likely explanation. A large randomized controlled trial should follow.

  8. Stair-climbing capabilities of USU's T3 ODV mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Reed; Wood, Carl G.

    2001-09-01

    A six-wheeled autonomous omni-directional vehicle (ODV) called T3 has been developed at Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS). This paper focuses on T3's ability to climb stairs using its unique configuration of 6 independently driven and steered wheels and active suspension height control. The ability of T3, or any similar vehicle, to climb stairs is greatly dependent on the chassis orientation relative to the stairs. Stability criteria is developed for any vehicle dimensions and orientation, on any staircase. All possible yaw and pitch angles on various staircases are evaluated to find vehicle orientations that will allow T3 to climb with the largest margin of stability. Different controller types are investigated for controlling vertical wheel movement with the objective of keeping all wheels in contact with the stairs, providing smooth load transfer between loaded and unloaded wheels, and maintaining optimum chassis pitch and roll angles. A controller is presented that uses feedback from wheel loading, vertical wheel position, and chassis orientation sensors. The implementation of the controller is described, and T3's stair climbing performance is presented and evaluated.

  9. A life to risk: cultural differences in motivations to climb among elite male mountaineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Maher; Tom G. Potter

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the cultural differences and motivations to climb of elite, male mountaineers. The purpose of the study was to first determine the motivations of elite male mountaineers and then link these motivations to the culture in which the mountaineer lives or grew up in. Five co-researchers participated in the study: two Canadians, two Americans, and one...

  10. Comparison of Genetic Algorithm and Hill Climbing for Shortest Path Optimization Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronita Mona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is an optimization to find the shortest path to reach several destinations in one trip without passing through the same city and back again to the early departure city, the process is applied to the delivery systems. This comparison is done using two methods, namely optimization genetic algorithm and hill climbing. Hill Climbing works by directly selecting a new path that is exchanged with the neighbour’s to get the track distance smaller than the previous track, without testing. Genetic algorithms depend on the input parameters, they are the number of population, the probability of crossover, mutation probability and the number of generations. To simplify the process of determining the shortest path supported by the development of software that uses the google map API. Tests carried out as much as 20 times with the number of city 8, 16, 24 and 32 to see which method is optimal in terms of distance and time computation. Based on experiments conducted with a number of cities 3, 4, 5 and 6 producing the same value and optimal distance for the genetic algorithm and hill climbing, the value of this distance begins to differ with the number of city 7. The overall results shows that these tests, hill climbing are more optimal to number of small cities and the number of cities over 30 optimized using genetic algorithms.

  11. Goffman Goes Rock Climbing: Using Creative Fiction to Explore the Presentation of Self in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon K.; Pike, Elizabeth C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education literature has a recent history of examining its practice through a variety of sociological, philosophical, psychological, and anthropological lenses. Following this trend, this paper explores the face-to-face social interaction of a fictional introductory rock-climbing course. The analysis of this creative fiction draws on…

  12. Ask Dr. Sue: Tree Climbing and Care of Sand Play Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses safety aspects of tree climbing and the use of sand in outdoor play areas at day care centers. Specifies ways to prune trees so that they are unclimbable and methods for maintaining sand areas. Includes a recipe for sand disinfectant. (MDM)

  13. Psychological profile of Turkish rock climbers: an examination of climbing experience and route difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Demirhan, Giyasettin; Dinç, S Cem

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and intrinsic and extrinsic motives of rock climbers and to compare these psychological constructs with respect to their years of climbing experience and the difficulty of their climbing routes. 64 climbers (M age=29.1 yr., SD=6.4) voluntarily participated in this study. The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) were administered to the rock climbers. Analysis indicated that the mean score of rock climbers on the Novelty subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was 33.9 (SD= 3.6) and mean value on the Intensity subscale was 29.2 (SD=5.2). The mean scores of rock climbers on the PSDQ ranged between 3.9 (SD= 1.0, Physical Activity) and 5.1 (SD= 1.1, Body Fat). Descriptive analysis indicated that the highest mean score of rock climbers on the SMS was obtained in Intrinsic motivation to Experience Stimulation (5.7, SD= 0.9). The independent sample t test showed no significant differences in sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and sport motivation with regard to years of climbing experience and route difficulty (p>.05). It may be concluded that sensation seeking in climbers is high, and they have internal motivational orientation and positive physical self-perception; their competence in climbing has no obvious relationship to these variables.

  14. Specific effects of a calorie-based intervention on stair climbing in overweight commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda L; Eves, Frank F

    2011-10-01

    Point-of-choice prompts consistently increase stair climbing; a greater increase in overweight than normal weight individuals was reported in a multi-component worksite campaign. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of a multi-component campaign, on stair climbing, in a public access setting. In an interrupted-time-series-design, baseline observations (2 weeks) preceded a 2-week point-of-choice prompt. An additional message, positioned at the top of the climb for a further 6-week period, summarised the calorific consequences of a single ascent. Inconspicuous observers recorded traveller's methods of ascent, coded by sex and weight status, twice a week between 08:00 and 09:59. At baseline, the overweight chose stairs less than normal weight individuals. The multi-component campaign targeting weight control reversed this bias, increasing stair climbing only in overweight individuals. The specificity of the effect confirms the appeal of this lifestyle activity for the overweight. The discussion focuses on how intentions to control weight may be converted into behaviour.

  15. Modeling Lane-Changing Behavior in Freeway Off-Ramp Areas from the Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate lane-changing characteristics in freeway off-ramp areas using Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study (SH-NDS data, considering a four-lane freeway stretch in various traffic conditions. In SH-NDS, the behavior of drivers is observed unobtrusively in a natural setting for a long period of time. We identified 433 lane-changing events with valid time series data from the whole dataset. Based on the logit model developed to analyze the choice of target lanes, a likelihood analysis of lane-changing behavior was graphed with respect to three traffic conditions: free flow, medium flow, and heavy flow. The results suggested that lane-changing behavior of exiting vehicles is the consequence of the balance between route plan (mandatory incentive and expectation to improve driving condition (discretionary incentive. In higher traffic density, the latter seems to play a significant role. Furthermore, we found that lane-change from the slow lane to the fast lane would lead to higher speed variance value, which indicates a higher crash risk. The findings contribute to a better understanding on drivers’ natural driving behavior in freeway off-ramp areas and can provide important insight into road network design and safety management strategies.

  16. Lane-Level Road Information Mining from Vehicle GPS Trajectories Based on Naïve Bayesian Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luliang Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining lane-level road network information from low-precision vehicle GPS trajectories (MLIT, which includes the number and turn rules of traffic lanes based on naïve Bayesian classification. First, the proposed method (MLIT uses an adaptive density optimization method to remove outliers from the raw GPS trajectories based on their space-time distribution and density clustering. Second, MLIT acquires the number of lanes in two steps. The first step establishes a naïve Bayesian classifier according to the trace features of the road plane and road profiles and the real number of lanes, as found in the training samples. The second step confirms the number of lanes using test samples in reference to the naïve Bayesian classifier using the known trace features of test sample. Third, MLIT infers the turn rules of each lane through tracking GPS trajectories. Experiments were conducted using the GPS trajectories of taxis in Wuhan, China. Compared with human-interpreted results, the automatically generated lane-level road network information was demonstrated to be of higher quality in terms of displaying detailed road networks with the number of lanes and turn rules of each lane.

  17. Criterion-related validity of self-reported stair climbing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Gasque, Pablo; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David

    2018-02-01

    Stair climbing is an activity of daily living that might contribute to increase levels of physical activity (PA). To date, there is no study examining the validity of climbing stairs assessed by self-report. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine the validity of estimated stair climbing from one question included in a common questionnaire compared to a pattern-recognition activity monitor in older adults. A total of 138 older adults (94 women), aged 65-86 years (70.9 ± 4.7 years), from the IMPACT65 + study participated in this validity study. Estimates of stair climbing were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) PA questionnaire. An objective assessment of stair climbing was obtained with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) monitor. The correlation between both methods to assess stair climbing was fair (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.008 for PA energy expenditure and ρ = 0.26, p = 0.002 for duration). Mean differences between self-report and the IDEEA were 7.96 ± 10.52 vs. 9.88 ± 3.32 METs-min/day for PA energy expenditure, and 0.99 ± 1.32 vs. 1.79 ± 2.02 min/day for duration (both Wilcoxon test p < 0.001). Results from the Bland-Altman analysis indicate that bias between both instruments were -1.91 ± 10.30 METs-min/day and -0.80 ± 1.99 min/day, and corresponding limits of agreement for the two instruments were from 18.27 to -22.10 METs-min/day and from 3.09 to -4.70 min/day, respectively. Our results indicate that self-reported stair climbing has modest validity to accurately rank old age participants, and underestimates both PAEE and its duration, as compared with an objectively measured method.

  18. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  19. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikovych Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  20. Does the Walker Lane extend through the Nevada test site region?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, C.; O'Leary, D.

    1993-01-01

    The southeastern terminus of the Walker Lane is poorly defined and poorly understood. Recent work in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) suggests the presence of a structural zone that may be an extension of the Walker Lane, and that may be continuous with the Las Vegas valley shear zone farther to the southeast. Unlike the Walker Lane, large through-going strike-slip faults have not been found in the NTS zone. Instead, the strike-slip faults present are few, are relatively short, commonly consist of diffuse fault zones, are interconnected poorly if at all, and largely appear to represent zones of accommodation between domains in which extension occurred at different times and to different degrees. However, the majority of these right-slip and left-slip faults are northwest-trending and northeast-trending, respectively, suggesting that plate motions may have played a role in the creation of these accommodation zones. An obstacle to understanding the NTS zone is that major ignimbrite sheets and calderas of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SNVF) formed in this zone at the height of late Tertiary tectonic activity, possibly burying much of the structural evidence. The NTS zone could represent an intersection of the Walker Lane with another major structural feature, a significant bend in the Walker Lane, or a transtensional tear that localized accommodation structures as well as the prominent late Miocene calderas of the SNVF. Ongoing field work is aimed at determining which of these and competing interpretations is best

  1. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  2. Multi-lane Changing Model with Coupling Driving Intention and Inclination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of drivers’ psychology and behaviour, a multi-lane changing model coupling driving intention and inclination is proposed by introducing two quantitative indices of intention: strength of lane changing and risk factor. According to the psychological and behavioural characteristics of aggressive drivers and conservative drivers, the safety conditions for lane changing are designed respectively. The numerical simulations show that the proposed model is suitable for describing the traffic flow with frequent lane changing, which is more consistent with the driving behaviour of drivers in China. Compared with symmetric two-lane cellular automata (STCA model, the proposed model can improve the average speed of vehicles by 1.04% under different traffic demands when aggressive drivers are in a higher proportion (the threshold of risk factor is 0.4. When the risk factor increases, the average speed shows the polarization phenomenon with the average speed slowing down in big traffic demand. The proposed model can reflect the relationship among density, flow, and speed, and the risk factor has a significant impact on density and flow.

  3. A new shared control for lane keeping and road departure prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, Abdelkader; Hartani, Kada; Draou, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the driver's active assistances have become important features in commercialised vehicles. In this paper, we present one of these features which consists of an advanced driver assistance system for lane keeping. A thorough analysis of its performance and stability with respect to variations in driver behaviour will be given. Firstly, the lateral control model based on visual preview is established and the kinematics model based on visual preview, including speed and other factors, is used to calculate the lateral error and direction error. Secondly, and according to the characteristics of the lateral control, an efficient strategy of intelligent electric vehicle lateral mode is proposed. The integration of the vehicle current lateral error and direction error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function to design the sliding surface. The control variables are adjusted according to the fuzzy control rules to ensure that they meet the existence and reaching condition. A new fuzzy logic-based switching strategy with an efficient control law is also proposed to ensure a level of continuous and variable sharing according to the state of the driver and the vehicle positioning on the roadway. The proposed control law acts either at the centre of the lane, as a lane keeping assistance system to reduce the driver's workload for long trips, or as a lane departure avoidance system that intervenes for unintended lane departures. Simulation results are included in this paper to explain this concept.

  4. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  5. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  6. Controller Design and Evaluation of Lane-Keeping-Assistance System for Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Nozomi; Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This study seeks to design a lane keeping controller for motorcycles and to evaluate it by computer simulation with a four-degree-of-freedom model and a rider control model. We applied the optimal control theory to the lane keeping controller as a model-based control. By examining the computer simulation with the rider-in-the-loop system consisting of the motorcycle, the controller, and the rider control model, good lane following performance is achieved without interference between the control input and the rider's input. In addition, the virtual point regulator, which compensates the lateral displacement at the virtual point ahead of the vehicle, corresponds to not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance by choosing the distance to the virtual point.

  7. The role of multiple dopamine receptors in apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine-induced climbing and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N A; Axton, M S

    1990-03-20

    Apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were compared for their ability to induce stereotyped cage climbing and hypothermia in mice. Climbing behavior was produced by similar doses of apomorphine and NPA (0.625-2.5 mg/kg s.c.), whereas NPA was 43 times more potent than apomorphine in inducing a hypothermic response. SKF38393 caused a shift to the left in the dose-response curve for NPA-induced climbing, the ED50 changing from 0.98 to 0.014 mg/kg. SKF38393 had no effect on apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour. The climbing response produced by apomorphine was antagonised by both D-1 and D-2 antagonists. Climbing behaviour induced by NPA (2.5 mg/kg) could be antagonised by SCH23390 but not by clebopride, however climbing behaviour induced by a low dose of NPA (0.06 mg/kg) plus SKF38393 could be blocked by both D-1 and D-2 receptor antagonists. The hypothermic responses produced by either apomorphine or NPA could only be reversed by the selective D-2 antagonist, clebopride. These results demonstrate that dopamine agonist-induced stereotyped cage climbing requires both D-1 and D-2 receptor stimulation, whereas the hypothermic response is D-2-mediated. The results also show that it is possible to assess the relative activity of a dopamine agonist at D-1 or D-2 receptors in vivo by comparing the ability of the compound to induce hypothermia and climbing behaviour.

  8. Lane Changing Control to Reduce Traffic Load Effect on Long-Span Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Caprani, Colin C; Enright, Bernard; Carey, Colm

    2012-01-01

    Long span bridges are critical parts of a nation’s infrastructure network and congested traffic loading is the governing form of traffic loading. Groups of trucks travelling in conveys are created when fast-er moving vehicles, such as cars, change lane. In this research the authors investigate how the control of these lane-changing events can help reduce the traffic load effects on long span bridges. Real traffic data is used to simulate a traffic stream on a virtual road and bridge using a m...

  9. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  10. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  11. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...

  12. The CLIMB Geoportal - A web-based dissemination and documentation platform for hydrological modelling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Gerken, Daniel; Ludwig, Ralf; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Geoportals are important elements of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) that are strongly based on GIS-related web services. These services are basically meant for distributing, documenting and visualizing (spatial) data in a standardized manner; an important but challenging task especially in large scientific projects with a high number of data suppliers and producers from various countries. This presentation focuses on introducing the free and open-source based geoportal solution developed within the research project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins, www.climb-fp7.eu) that serves as the central platform for interchanging project-related spatial data and information. In this collaboration, financed by the EU-FP7-framework and coordinated at the LMU Munich, 21 partner institutions from nine European and non-European countries were involved. The CLIMB Geoportal (lgi-climbsrv.geographie.uni-kiel.de) stores and provides spatially distributed data about the current state and future changes of the hydrological conditions within the seven CLIMB test sites around the Mediterranean. Hydrological modelling outcome - validated by the CLIMB partners - is offered to the public in forms of Web Map Services (WMS), whereas downloading the underlying data itself through Web Coverage Services (WCS) is possible for registered users only. A selection of common indicators such as discharge, drought index as well as uncertainty measures including their changes over time were used in different spatial resolution. Besides map information, the portal enables the graphical display of time series of selected variables calculated by the individual models applied within the CLIMB-project. The implementation of the CLIMB Geoportal is finally based on version 2.0c5 of the open source geospatial content management system GeoNode. It includes a GeoServer instance for providing the OGC-compliant web services and comes with a metadata catalog (pycsw) as well

  13. Flexible Structural Design for Side-Sliding Force Reduction for a Caterpillar Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to sliding force arising from the closed chain mechanism among the adhering points of a climbing caterpillar robot (CCR, a sliding phenomenon will happen at the adhering points, e.g., the vacuum pads or claws holding the surface. This sliding force makes the attachment of the climbing robot unsteady and reducesthe motion efficiency. According to the new bionic research on the soft-body structure of caterpillars, some flexible structures made of natural rubber bars are applied in CCRs correspondingly as an improvement to the old rigid mechanical design of the robotic structure. This paper firstly establishes the static model of the sliding forces, the distortion of flexible bars and the driving torques of joints. Then, a method to reduce the sliding force by exerting a compensating angle to an active joint of the CCR is presented. The analyses and experimental results indicate that the flexible structure and the compensating angle method can reduce the sliding forces remarkably.

  14. Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2009-09-01

    No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production.

  15. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM). Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes'), whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels') in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  16. The Effect of Climbing as a Recreational Event on Adoles ent ’ s Locus of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü ÖZEN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experience of the secondary education ( class 10th and 11th students‟ participation on artificial wall climbing refe r r ed to experiential learning education and defined as high activity on th eir locus of control . Artifical wall climbing is a learning point beyond the sport act ivity that give an opportunity to participants recognize their own limits and others and do they active not passive . This study was done as pretest - posttest control group with quasi - experimental model and the data were collected using „ Nowicki - Strickland Locus of Control Scale‟ adapted to Turkish by Yeşilyaprak (1988 . In this research, 90 students (40 female, 50 male aged 17 ,75 ±1.06 participated voluntery and divided in two groups as a trail and control group randomly. Trial group participated artifcial wall climbing twice a week, totel six weeks. During this time period the control group not join any activity has continued to normal life. As a result of the statistical analysis, no significant difference s were found between control and trial groups pre - test scores (p>0.05. No significant difference s were found between pre and post - test scores of control group (p>0.05, significant differences were found between pre and post - test scores of trial group (p0.05 and no significant differences between the difference of the differences (p>0.05. C onsequently, it could be said that the articifal wall climbing activities has a positive efect on the particip ants‟ locus of control, it caused a movement from out side to inside. And it has a significant effect on gender differences, that women have more gain than men.

  17. In vivo two-photon imaging of climbing fibers plasticity after laser axotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, A. L.; Cesare, P.; Sacconi, L.; Grasselli, G.; Mandolesi, G.; Maco, B.; Knott, G. W.; De Paola, V.; Strata, P.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    In the adult nervous system, different neuronal classes show different regenerative behavior. Although previous studies demonstrated that olivocerebellar fibers are capable of axonal regeneration in a suitable environment as a response to injury, we have hitherto no details about the real dynamics of fiber regeneration. We set up a model of singularly axotomized climbing fibers (CF) to investigate their reparative properties in the adult central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. Here we describe the approach followed to characterize the reactive plasticity after injury.

  18. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Endlein

    Full Text Available Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM. Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes', whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels' in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  19. Design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot to Tackle Overhang on Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhole, Ajinkya; Turlapati, Sri Harsha; S, Rajashekhar V.; Dixit, Jay; Shah, Suril V.; Krishna, K Madhava

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and parameter design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs. Modifying the geometry of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helps in tackling overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, robust design parameters are set to minimize performance variation. The Grey-based Taguchi Method is adopted for providing an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype is shown...

  20. Trunk and lower limb biomechanics during stair climbing in people with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Connor A; Hatfield, Gillian L; Gilbart, Michael K; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a pathomechanical hip condition leading to pain and impaired physical function. It has been shown that those with femoroacetabular impingement exhibit altered gait characteristics during level walking and stair climbing, and decreased muscle force production during isometric muscle contractions. However, no studies to-date have looked at trunk kinematics or muscle activation during dynamic movements such as stair climbing in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical outcomes (trunk and lower limb kinematics as well as lower limb kinetics and muscle activation) during stair climbing in those with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. Trunk, hip, knee and ankle kinematics, as well as hip, knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activity of nine lower limb muscles were collected during stair climbing for 20 people with clinical and radiographic femoroacetabular impingement and compared to 20 age- and sex-matched pain-free individuals. Those with femoroacetabular impingement ascended the stairs slower (effect size=0.82), had significantly increased peak trunk forward flexion angles (effect size=0.99) and external hip flexion moments (effect size=0.94) and had decreased peak external knee flexion moments (effect size=0.90) compared to the control group. Findings from this study indicate that while those with and without femoroacetabular impingement exhibit many biomechanical similarities when ascending stairs, differences in trunk forward flexion and joint kinetics indicate some important differences. Further longitudinal research is required to elucidate the cause of these differences as well as the clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for the climbing problem for heavy launchers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokanowski , Olivier; Cristiani , Emiliano; Laurent-Varin , Julien; Zidani , Hasnaa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we investigate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) approach for solving a complex real-world optimal control problem in high dimension. We consider the climbing problem for the European launcher Ariane V: The launcher has to reach the Geostationary Transfer Orbit with minimal propellant consumption under state/control constraints. In order to circumvent the well-known curse of dimensionality, we reduce the number of variables in the model exploiting the spe...

  2. Modeling and analysis of a meso-hydraulic climbing robot with artificial muscle actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Edward M; Jenkins, Tyler E; Bryant, Matthew

    2017-07-10

    This paper presents a fully coupled electro-hydraulic model of a bio-inspired climbing robot actuated by fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs). This analysis expands upon previous FAM literature by considering not only the force and contraction characteristics of the actuator, but the complete hydraulic and electromechanical circuits as well as the dynamics of the climbing robot. This analysis allows modeling of the time-varying applied pressure, electrical current, and actuator contraction for accurate prediction of the robot motion, energy consumption, and mechanical work output. The developed model is first validated against mechanical and electrical data collected from a proof-of-concept prototype robot. The model is then employed to study the system-level sensitivities of the robot locomotion efficiency and average climbing speed to several design and operating parameters. The results of this analysis demonstrate that considering only the transduction efficiency of the FAM actuators is insufficient to maximize the efficiency of the complete robot, and that a holistic approach can lead to significant improvements in performance. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Penerapan Metode Hill Climbing Pada Sistem Informasi Geografis Untuk Mencari Lintasan Terpendek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Vickraien Dangkua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic search methods is one of the methods commonly in use in finding the shortest path, one of which, namely the methods Hill Climbing process where testing is done using heuristic functions. Problems generally encountered is the shortest path search to solve the problem of distance can be changed into a graph structure, where the point of declaring the city and the State line that connects the two cities. From the logic so that it can locate destinations and save on travel costs. The hallmarks of this algorithm are all possible solutions will have then checked one by one from the left side, so it will be obtained solutions with optimal results. On a Hill Climbing method according to case using geographic information systems as a tool in making a decision, by way of collect, examine, and analyze information related to digital map. with a combination of Hill Climbing method and geographic information systems can result in an application that is certainly feasible for use in the search path problems.   Keywords: Hill Climbin method; digital map; Geographic Information Systems

  4. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Camelia; Horvath, Dragos; Dumitrescu, D

    2011-07-30

    Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP) model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods.

  5. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    =46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were......The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  6. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Camelia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods.

  7. Decorative values of selected cultivars of climbing roses (Rosa L. with regard to thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Włodarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006 in Kraków, phenological observations of climbing roses were conducted in order to determine the length and dates of their flowering period. The diameters of their flowers were also compared. Eight flowering repeating cultivars were selected for the experiment: 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Dortmund', 'Golden Showers', 'Goldstern', 'New Dawn', 'Parade', 'Sympathie' and 'White New Dawn'. During the studies, the shrub roses were not artificially watered in order to create conditions similar to those prevailing in public green areas. It was observed that irrespective of the air temperature pattern in a given year, the studied cultivars did not bloom before 15 June. In 2006 high temperatures (above 20oC, which continued throughout the whole flowering period, caused its shortening, and the interval between the first and the next flowering in the season lasted longer than in the previous years. In the years 2004-2006, the cultivar 'New Dawn' bloomed the longest. In 2005 the studied cultivars produced larger flowers than the next year. The cultivars 'Dortmund' and 'White New Dawn' were characterised by the smallest diameter of flowers, whereas 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Golden Showers' and 'Parade' were marked by the largest diameter.

  8. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  9. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  10. Bifurcation of Lane Change and Control on Highway for Tractor-Semitrailer under Rainy Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and stability in lane changes on highways for tractor-semitrailer under rainy weather. Unlike most of the literature associated with a simulated linear dynamic model for tractor-semitrailers steady steering on dry road, a verified 5DOF mechanical model with nonlinear tire based on vehicle test was used in the lane change simulation on low adhesion coefficient road. According to Jacobian matrix eigenvalues of the vehicle model, bifurcations of steady steering and sinusoidal steering on highways under rainy weather were investigated using a numerical method. Furthermore, based on feedback linearization theory, taking the tractor yaw rate and joint angle as control objects, a feedback linearization controller combined with AFS and DYC was established. The numerical simulation results reveal that Hopf bifurcations are identified in steady and sinusoidal steering conditions, which translate into an oscillatory behavior leading to instability. And simulations of urgent step and single-lane change in high velocity show that the designed controller has good effects on eliminating bifurcations and improving lateral stability of tractor-semitrailer, during lane changing on highway under rainy weather. It is a valuable reference for safety design of tractor-semitrailers to improve the traffic safety with driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system.

  11. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Madigan

    Full Text Available Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD and conditionally automated driving (CAD. In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  12. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  13. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Ruth; Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  14. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  15. We Have Met Our Past and Our Future: Thanks for the Walk down Memory Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes the readers for a walk down memory lane on the use of teaching aids. He shares his experience of the good old days of Audio Visual--opaque projector, motion pictures/films, recorders, and overhead projector. Computers have arrived, and now people can make graphics, pictures, motion pictures, and many different…

  16. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  17. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  18. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers’ lane changing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers’ behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers’ lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers’ acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers’ vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving. PMID:29466402

  19. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  20. Computer Vision Based Smart Lane Departure Warning System for Vehicle Dynamics Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish G. Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collision Avoidance System solves many problems caused by traffic congestion worldwide and a synergy of new information technologies for simulation, real-time control and communications networks. The above system is characterized as an intelligent vehicle system. Traffic congestion has been increasing world-wide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in population density. Congestion reduces utilization of the transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, fuel consumption and most importantly traffic accidents. The main objective of this work is to develop a machine vision system for lane departure detection and warning to measure the lane related parameters such as heading angle, lateral deviation, yaw rate and sideslip angle from the road scene image using standard image processing technique that can be used for automation of steering a motor vehicle. The exact position of the steering wheel can be monitored using a steering wheel sensor. This core part of this work is based on Hough transformation based edge detection technique for the detection of lane departure parameters. The prototype designed for this work has been tested in a running vehicle for the monitoring of real-time lane related parameters.

  1. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that

  2. Microscopic Model of Automobile Lane-changing Virtual Desire Trajectory by Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microscopic traffic simulation models, they have increasingly become an important tool for transport system analysis and management, which assist the traffic engineer to investigate and evaluate the performance of transport network systems. Lane-changing model is a vital component in any traffic simulation model, which could improve road capacity and reduce vehicles delay so as to reduce the likelihood of congestion occurrence. Therefore, this paper addresses the virtual desire trajectory, a vital part to investigate the behaviour divided into four phases. Based on the boundary conditions, β-spline curves and the corresponding reverse algorithm are introduced firstly. Thus, the relation between the velocity and length of lane-changing is constructed, restricted by the curvature, steering velocity and driving behaviour. Then the virtual desire trajectory curves are presented by Matlab and the error analysis results prove that this proposed description model has higher precision in automobile lane-changing process reconstruction, compared with the surveyed result. KEY WORDS: traffic simulation, lane-changing model, virtual desire trajectory, β-spline curves, driving behaviour

  3. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  4. Empirical analysis of an in-car speed, headway and lane use Advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.J.; Van Arem, B.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    For a recently developed in-car speed, headway and lane use advisory system, this paper investigates empirically advice validity (advice given in correct traffic circumstances), credibility (advice logical to drivers) and frequency. The system has been developed to optimize traffic flow by giving

  5. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open

  6. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  7. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Stefan; Waldner, Andreas; Tomelleri, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk), based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation pat...

  8. Watch Out for Your Neighbor: Climbing onto Shrubs Is Related to Risk of Cannibalism in the Scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco; Urbano-Tenorio, Fernando

    The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk.

  9. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane mid-block crosswalks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017

  10. Development and Initial Validation of a Rock Climbing Craving Questionnaire (RCCQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Roderique-Davies

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e.g., surfing and activities (e.g., drug-use. Therefore, using validated craving measures as a template, the aim of the two studies outlined here was to design and preliminarily validate a subjective multidimensional inventory that could be used to measure craving in the sports of rock-climbing and mountaineering (“RCCQ”. The aim of the first study was to investigate the factor structure of a preliminary measure of craving. Climbers (n = 407 completed the RCCQ. A 3-factor model explained 53.65% of the total variance in item scores. All three factors comprised five items each, which were conceptually labeled as “urge to climb” “negative reinforcement” and “positive reinforcement.” The aim of the second study was to validate the 15-item 3-factor RCCQ resulting from Study 1 using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Climbers (n = 254 completed the questionnaire under a climbing-related cue condition or a cue-neutral condition. CFA revealed a good model fit and that all individual parameter estimates were significant and standard errors were within reasonable limits once item 13 was removed from Factor 1. Study 1 supports the multi-dimensional nature of rock climbing craving and shows parallels with substance-related craving in reflecting intention and positive (desire and negative (withdrawal reinforcement. Study 2 confirms this factor structure and gives initial validation to the measure with evidence that these

  11. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  12. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road, weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings. Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD, and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  13. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  14. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Baek, Na Rae; Cho, Se Woon; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-10-28

    Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road), weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings). Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD), and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  15. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  16. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldner Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk, based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation patterns of hemiparetic subjects during real floor walking and stairs climbing up, and during the corresponding simulated conditions on the machine, and secondly to demonstrate gait improvement on single case after training on the machine. Methods The muscle activation pattern of seven lower limb muscles of six hemiparetic patients during free and simulated walking on the floor and stair climbing was measured via dynamic electromyography. A non-ambulatory, sub-acute stroke patient additionally trained on the G-EO-Systems every workday for five weeks. Results The muscle activation patterns were comparable during the real and simulated conditions, both on the floor and during stair climbing up. Minor differences, concerning the real and simulated floor walking conditions, were a delayed (prolonged onset (duration of the thigh muscle activation on the machine across all subjects. Concerning stair climbing conditions, the shank muscle activation was more phasic and timely correct in selected patients on the device. The severely affected subject regained walking and stair climbing ability. Conclusions The G-EO-Systems is an interesting new option in gait rehabilitation after stroke. The lower limb muscle activation patterns were comparable, a training thus feasible, and the positive case report warrants further clinical studies.

  17. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan; Waldner, Andreas; Tomelleri, Christopher

    2010-06-28

    Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk), based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation patterns of hemiparetic subjects during real floor walking and stairs climbing up, and during the corresponding simulated conditions on the machine, and secondly to demonstrate gait improvement on single case after training on the machine. The muscle activation pattern of seven lower limb muscles of six hemiparetic patients during free and simulated walking on the floor and stair climbing was measured via dynamic electromyography. A non-ambulatory, sub-acute stroke patient additionally trained on the G-EO-Systems every workday for five weeks. The muscle activation patterns were comparable during the real and simulated conditions, both on the floor and during stair climbing up. Minor differences, concerning the real and simulated floor walking conditions, were a delayed (prolonged) onset (duration) of the thigh muscle activation on the machine across all subjects. Concerning stair climbing conditions, the shank muscle activation was more phasic and timely correct in selected patients on the device. The severely affected subject regained walking and stair climbing ability. The G-EO-Systems is an interesting new option in gait rehabilitation after stroke. The lower limb muscle activation patterns were comparable, a training thus feasible, and the positive case report warrants further clinical studies.

  18. Climbing ability of teneral and sclerotized adult bed bugs and assessment of adhesive properties of the exoskeletal fluid using atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hinson

    Full Text Available We observed that teneral adults (72 h, and sclerotized group 2 (S2 bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 2.64 cm at >72 h post molt. When heights from all climbing events were summed, teneral bed bugs (650.8 cm climbed differed significantly (P< 0.01 from recently sclerotized (82 cm climbed and sclerotized (group 1 = 104.6 cm climbed, group 2 = 107.8 cm climbed bed bugs. These findings suggested that the external surface of teneral bed bug exoskeletons possess an adhesive property. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM, we found that adhesion force of an exoskeletal (presumably molting fluid decreased almost five-fold from 88 to 17 nN within an hour of molting. Our findings may have implications for laboratory safety and the effectiveness of bed bug traps, barriers, and biomimetic-based adhesives.

  19. Climbing plants in a temperate rainforest understorey: searching for high light or coping with deep shade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2011-08-01

    While the climbing habit allows vines to reach well-lit canopy areas with a minimum investment in support biomass, many of them have to survive under the dim understorey light during certain stages of their life cycle. But, if the growth/survival trade-off widely reported for trees hold for climbing plants, they cannot maximize both light-interception efficiency and shade avoidance (i.e. escaping from the understorey). The seven most important woody climbers occurring in a Chilean temperate evergreen rainforest were studied with the hypothesis that light-capture efficiency of climbers would be positively associated with their abundance in the understorey. Species abundance in the understorey was quantified from their relative frequency and density in field plots, the light environment was quantified by hemispherical photography, the photosynthetic response to light was measured with portable gas-exchange analyser, and the whole shoot light-interception efficiency and carbon gain was estimated with the 3-D computer model Y-plant. Species differed in specific leaf area, leaf mass fraction, above ground leaf area ratio, light-interception efficiency and potential carbon gain. Abundance of species in the understorey was related to whole shoot features but not to leaf level features such as specific leaf area. Potential carbon gain was inversely related to light-interception efficiency. Mutual shading among leaves within a shoot was very low (<20 %). The abundance of climbing plants in this southern rainforest understorey was directly related to their capacity to intercept light efficiently but not to their potential carbon gain. The most abundant climbers in this ecosystem match well with a shade-tolerance syndrome in contrast to the pioneer-like nature of climbers observed in tropical studies. The climbers studied seem to sacrifice high-light searching for coping with the dim understorey light.

  20. Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, K N; Hunter, S N; Childress, M J; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L; Blum, M J; Ptacek, M B

    2015-02-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting topographic features of streams, like slope gradient, that can select for predator avoidance or climbing ability in juvenile recruits. To test this hypothesis, we used morphological traits and neutral genetic markers to compare phenotypic and genotypic distributions in recruiting juveniles and adult subpopulations of the waterfall-climbing amphidromous goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, from the islands of Hawai'i and Kaua'i. We found that body shape is significantly different between adult subpopulations from streams with contrasting slopes and that trait divergence in recruiting juveniles tracked stream topography more so than morphological measures of adult subpopulation differentiation. Although no evidence of population genetic differentiation was observed among adult subpopulations, we observed low but significant levels of spatially and temporally variable genetic differentiation among juvenile cohorts, which correlated with morphological divergence. Such a pattern of genetic differentiation is consistent with chaotic genetic patchiness arising from variable sources of recruits to different streams. Thus, at least in S. stimpsoni, the combination of variation in settlement cohorts in space and time coupled with strong postsettlement selection on juveniles as they migrate upstream to adult habitats provides the opportunity for morphological adaptation to local stream environments despite high gene flow. © 2014

  1. Climbing Mont Blanc - A Training Site for Energy Efficient Programming on Heterogeneous Multicore Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Lasse; Follan, Torbjørn; Støa, Simen; Magnussen, Sindre; Guirado, Antonio Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Climbing Mont Blanc (CMB) is an open online judge used for training in energy efficient programming of state-of-the-art heterogeneous multicores. It uses an Odroid-XU3 board from Hardkernel with an Exynos Octa processor and integrated power sensors. This processor is three-way heterogeneous containing 14 different cores of three different types. The board currently accepts C and C++ programs, with support for OpenCL v1.1, OpenMP 4.0 and Pthreads. Programs submitted using the graphical user in...

  2. CLIMB (the Cloud Infrastructure for Microbial Bioinformatics): an online resource for the medical microbiology community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas R; Loman, Nicholas J; Thompson, Simon; Smith, Andy; Southgate, Joel; Poplawski, Radoslaw; Bull, Matthew J; Richardson, Emily; Ismail, Matthew; Thompson, Simon Elwood-; Kitchen, Christine; Guest, Martyn; Bakke, Marius; Sheppard, Samuel K; Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The increasing availability and decreasing cost of high-throughput sequencing has transformed academic medical microbiology, delivering an explosion in available genomes while also driving advances in bioinformatics. However, many microbiologists are unable to exploit the resulting large genomics datasets because they do not have access to relevant computational resources and to an appropriate bioinformatics infrastructure. Here, we present the Cloud Infrastructure for Microbial Bioinformatics (CLIMB) facility, a shared computing infrastructure that has been designed from the ground up to provide an environment where microbiologists can share and reuse methods and data.

  3. Heart rate response to a climber’s fall in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupsky, David

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with response of heart rate to a climber’s simulated fall in a leading position when indoor climbing. Heart rate of climbers was recorded during ascents of an overhanging route in the leading position, to the given point high above the ground, followed by falling into the last protection. The length of the free fall was defined by the place of the last belay anchor, which was at the height of climber’s ankles. The length of the fall was about two meters of free fall plus th...

  4. Stair Climbing Control for 4-DOF Tracked Vehicle Based on Internal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Endo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In search-and-rescue missions, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DOF tracked robots that are equipped with subtracks are commonly used. These types of robots have superior locomotion performance on rough terrain. However, in teleoperated missions, the performance of tracked robots depends largely on the operators’ ability to control every subtrack appropriately. Therefore, an autonomous traversal function can significantly help in the teleoperation of such robots. In this paper, we propose a planning and control method for 4-DOF tracked robots climbing up/down known stairs automatically based on internal sensors. Experimental results obtained using mockup stairs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. First motorcycle-exclusive lane (Motovia) in Colombia: perceptions of users in Cali, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel V; Pacichana-Quinayaz, Sara G; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2017-06-01

    This study's goal was to evaluate the pilot exclusive lane for motorcycles (Motovía) in Cali, Colombia, from the perception of its users in 2012-2013. A cross-sectional study using roadside surveys plus a qualitative component of individual semi-structured interviews was carried out. Road users' perceptions were investigated before and after implementation of lane dividers (LD) and were compared with other roads in the city. Perceptions were compared using chi-square tests. In the study, 293 motorcyclists, 111 cyclists, and 115 automobile drivers were interviewed. Following the installation of the LD, the majority of motorcyclists and cyclists reported that LD made easier the driving maneuvers and decreased travel time, in contrast to perceptions of automobile drivers (p motorcycles. Further research about vulnerable road users' infrastructure is required.

  6. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  7. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  8. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  9. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  10. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  11. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  12. Egocentric framing - one way people may fail in a switch dilemma: evidence from excessive lane switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David; Kaplan, Todd R; Kasten, Ronen

    2013-11-01

    To study switching behavior, an experiment mimicking the state of a driver on the road was conducted. In each trial participants were given a chance to switch lanes. Despite the fact that lane switching had no sound rational basis, participants often switched lanes when the speed of driving in their lane on the previous trial was relatively slow. That tendency was discerned even when switching behavior had been sparsely reinforced, and was especially marked in almost a third of the participants, who manifested it consistently. The findings illustrate a type of behavior occurring in various contexts (e.g., stocks held in a portfolio, conduct pertinent for residual life expectancy, supermarket queues). We argue that this behavior may be due to a fallacy reminiscent of that arising in the well-known "envelopes problem", in which each of two players holds a sum of money of which she knows nothing about except that it is either half or twice the amount held by the other player. Players may be paradoxically tempted to exchange assets, since an exchange fallaciously appears to always yield an expected value greater than whatever is regarded as the player's present assets. We argue that the fallacy is due to egocentrically framing the problem as if the "amount I have" is definite, albeit unspecified, and shows that framing the paradox acentrically instead eliminates the incentive to exchange assets. A possible psychological source for the human disposition to frame problems in a way that inflates expected gain is discussed. Finally, a heuristic meant to avert the source of the fallacy is proposed. © 2013.

  13. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  14. Isospin term of the real part of the Lane optical-model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, J.D.; Schrils, R.

    1976-01-01

    Previous neutron differential cross section measurements for Ni, Fe, and Co at 9 MeV are reanalyzed to obtain the isospin term in the real part of the Lane optical model potential employing a surface-centered form factor. The strength determined is 1.4 +- 0.2 MeV. It is further shown that analysis of the data is little affected by the choice of a volume or surface form for the isospin term in the real potential

  15. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    set off tsunamis, as occurred in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, when an earthquake and tsunami killed over 225,000 people. Natural events...in Somalia, the ability to counter the menagerie of gangs that currently plough the seas off the Horn of Africa will be minimal. Further, the...Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 3, Sea-Lanes to Asia sunk several Vietnamese ships, killing 70 Vietnamese sailors (EIA, 2008b). As states

  17. Experimental study of the vehicle dynamics behavior during lane changing in different speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwan, P. M.; Asyraf, S. M.; Efistein, A. N.; Seah, C. H.; Zikri, J. M.; Syawahieda, J. N.

    2017-10-01

    During lane changing, the speed of the vehicle is related to the stability of the vehicle. If the driver changes the lane at a high speed, the vehicle will lose its stability and it can increase the possibility of an accident. In this study, the experiment has been developed to analyse how the speed of the vehicle can affect the vehicle dynamics behavior. To achieve this objective, the UMP Test Car which employed with global positioning system (GPS), steering torque and angle sensor, displacement sensor and gyro sensor is used in the experiment. The experiment is run at the UMP test track and the track has 2 lanes which can allows the vehicle to change the position from the left to the right. In the experiment, when the GPS monitor shows 30 km/h, the driver will maintain the speed and start to turn the steering just after the test car reaches to the first skittle. Then, the driver will turn again the steering when the test car reaches to the second skittle. This method is repeated two times and the same methods is used for the speed 50 km/h. The data from the sensors is recorded in the Dewetron software and the graph is plotted. From the experimental results, the steering angle, steering torque, yaw rate and displacement for the speed 30 km/h is smaller than 50 km/h. It means that during lane changing, the speed 30 km/h is more stable compared with 50 km/h.

  18. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  19. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh Anne M; Bentley Rebecca J; Thornton Lukar E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study con...

  20. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Hui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was established based on vehicle kinematics and advanced mathematics compared to other ways of computation of TLC. On this basis, a LDW strategy determining driver's intentions was presented by introducing identifying vehicle movements. Finally, a vast quantity of the real vehicle experiments was given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LDW algorithm. The results of the tests show that the algorithm can decrease false alarm rate effectively because of distinguishing from unconscious by real-time vehicle movements, and promote the adaptability to the driver behavior characteristics, so it has favorable driver acceptance and strong intelligence.

  1. An empirical Bayes safety evaluation of tram/streetcar signal and lane priority measures in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2016-01-01

    Streetcars/tram systems are growing worldwide, and many are given priority to increase speed and reliability performance in mixed traffic conditions. Research related to the road safety impact of tram priority is limited. This study explores the road safety impacts of tram priority measures including lane and intersection/signal priority measures. A before-after crash study was conducted using the empirical Bayes (EB) method to provide more accurate crash impact estimates by accounting for wider crash trends and regression to the mean effects. Before-after crash data for 29 intersections with tram signal priority and 23 arterials with tram lane priority in Melbourne, Australia, were analyzed to evaluate the road safety impact of tram priority. The EB before-after analysis results indicated a statistically significant adjusted crash reduction rate of 16.4% after implementation of tram priority measures. Signal priority measures were found to reduce crashes by 13.9% and lane priority by 19.4%. A disaggregate level simple before-after analysis indicated reductions in total and serious crashes as well as vehicle-, pedestrian-, and motorcycle-involved crashes. In addition, reductions in on-path crashes, pedestrian-involved crashes, and collisions among vehicles moving in the same and opposite directions and all other specific crash types were found after tram priority implementation. Results suggest that streetcar/tram priority measures result in safety benefits for all road users, including vehicles, pedestrians, and cyclists. Policy implications and areas for future research are discussed.

  2. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  3. Non-lane-discipline-based car-following model under honk environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ying; Wen, Huiying

    2018-04-01

    This study proposed a non-lane-discipline-based car-following model by synthetically considering the visual angles and the timid/aggressive characteristics of drivers under honk environment. We firstly derived the neutral stability condition by the linear stability theory. It showed that the parameters related to visual angles and driving characteristics of drivers under honk environment all have significant impact on the stability of non-lane-discipline traffic flow. For better understanding the inner mechanism among these factors, we further analyzed how each parameter affects the traffic flow and gained further insight into how the visual angles information influences other parameters and then influences the non-lane-discipline traffic flow under honk environment. And the results showed that the other aspects such as driving characteristics of drivers or honk effect are all interacted with the "Visual-Angle Factor". And the effect of visual angle is not just to say simply it has larger stable region or not as the existing studies. Finally, to verify the proposed model, we carried out the numerical simulation under the periodic boundary condition. And the results of numerical simulation are agreed well with the theoretical findings.

  4. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  5. Engineering Solutions to Enhance Traffic Safety Performance on Two-Lane Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving two-lane highway traffic safety conditions is of practical importance to the traffic system, which has attracted significant research attention within the last decade. Many cost-effective and proactive solutions such as low-cost treatments and roadway safety monitoring programs have been developed to enhance traffic safety performance under prevailing conditions. This study presents research perspectives achieved from the Highway Safety Enhancement Project (HSEP that assessed safety performance on two-lane highways in Beijing, China. Potential causal factors are identified based on proposed evaluation criteria, and primary countermeasures are developed against inferior driving conditions such as sharp curves, heavy gradients, continuous downgrades, poor sight distance, and poor clear zones. Six cost-effective engineering solutions were specifically implemented to improve two-lane highway safety conditions, including (1 traffic sign replacement, (2 repainting pavement markings, (3 roadside barrier installation, (4 intersection channelization, (5 drainage optimization, and (6 sight distance improvement. The effectiveness of these solutions was examined and evaluated based on Empirical Bayes (EB models. The results indicate that the proposed engineering solutions effectively improved traffic safety performance by significantly reducing crash occurrence risks and crash severities.

  6. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately.

  7. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately. (paper)

  8. A survey of safety issues in tree-climbing applications for forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Longo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Topping, trimming, consolidation, securing and felling are very common operations in arboriculture, in city park as well as in forests. In case of very large trees, these operations are often not possible from ground level using ladders or Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs because of excessive height or uneven/inaccessible terrain. In past years, different people start applying techniques, materials and procedures normally used in mountaineering and caving, to climb trees and these techniques start to be applied to forestry management operations; these techniques are now worldwide used. Work activities at height, as tree-climbing for forestry management purpose, are regulated in Italy by Legislative Decree 81/08 about safety in the workplace, as this activity expose operators to fall from height and many other risks. Moreover, as this activity involves the use of specific tools, operators must be trained (with periodic refreshment and tools must been periodically checked by authorised operators. The objective of this work is to present and synthesise regulations and some technical aspects in order to allow operators to better understand different issues and general principles related to this activity.

  9. Body shape helps legged robots climb and turn in complex 3-D terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanfeng; Wang, Zheliang; Li, Chen

    Analogous to streamlined shapes that reduce drag in fluids, insects' ellipsoid-like rounded body shapes were recently discovered to be ``terradynamically streamlined'' and enhance locomotion in cluttered terrain by facilitating body rolling. Here, we hypothesize that there exist more terradynamic shapes that facilitate other modes of locomotion like climbing and turning in complex 3-D terrains by facilitating body pitching and yawing. To test our hypothesis, we modified the body shape of a legged robot by adding an elliptical and a rectangular shell and tested how it negotiated with circular and square vertical pillars. With a rectangular shell the robot always pitched against square pillars in an attempt to climb, whereas with an elliptical shell it always yawed and turned away from circular pillars given a small initial lateral displacement. Square / circular pillars facilitated pitching / yawing, respectively. To begin to reveal the contact physics, we developed a locomotion energy landscape model. Our model revealed that potential energy barriers to transition from pitching to yawing are high for angular locomotor and obstacle shapes (rectangular / square) but vanish for rounded shapes (elliptical / circular). Our study supports the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the rich locomotor transitions in complex 3-D terrains.

  10. Effects of environmental changes in a stair climbing intervention: generalization to stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F

    2007-01-01

    Visual improvements have been shown to encourage stair use in worksites independently of written prompts. This study examined whether visual modifications alone can influence behavior in a shopping mall. Climbing one flight of stairs, however, will not confer health benefits. Therefore, this study also assessed whether exposure to the intervention encouraged subsequent stair use. Interrupted time-series design. Escalators flanked by a staircase on either side. Ascending and descending pedestrians (N = 81,948). Following baseline monitoring, a colorful design was introduced on the stair risers of one staircase (the target staircase). A health promotion message was superimposed later on top. The intervention was visible only to ascending pedestrians. Thus, any rise in descending stair use would indicate increased intention to use stairs, which endured after initial exposure to the intervention. Observers inconspicuously coded pedestrians' means of ascent/descent and demographic characteristics. The design alone had no meaningful impact. Addition of the message, however, increased stair climbing at the target and nontarget staircases by 190% and 52%, respectively. The message also produced a modest increase in stair descent at the target (25%) and nontarget (9%) staircases. In public venues, a message component is critical to the success of interventions. In addition, it appears that exposure to an intervention can encourage pedestrians to use stairs on a subsequent occasion.

  11. Multi-Objective Climb Path Optimization for Aircraft/Engine Integration Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeidis Antonakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new multi-objective approach to the aircraft climb path optimization problem, based on the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, is introduced to be used for aircraft–engine integration studies. This considers a combination of a simulation with a traditional Energy approach, which incorporates, among others, the use of a proposed path-tracking scheme for guidance in the Altitude–Mach plane. The adoption of population-based solver serves to simplify case setup, allowing for direct interfaces between the optimizer and aircraft/engine performance codes. A two-level optimization scheme is employed and is shown to improve search performance compared to the basic PSO algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in a hypothetic engine upgrade scenario for the F-4 aircraft considering the replacement of the aircraft’s J79 engine with the EJ200; a clear advantage of the EJ200-equipped configuration is unveiled, resulting, on average, in 15% faster climbs with 20% less fuel.

  12. A study on a wheel-based stair-climbing robot with a hopping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Koki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Sudo, Takayuki; Bushida, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we propose a simple hopping mechanism using the vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system for a wheel-based stair-climbing robot. The robot, consisting of two bodies connected by springs and a wire, hops by releasing energy stored in the springs and quickly travels using wheels mounted in its lower body. The trajectories of the bodies during hopping change in accordance with the design parameters, such as the reduced mass of the two bodies, the mass ratio between the upper and lower bodies, the spring constant, the control parameters such as the initial contraction of the spring and the wire tension. This property allows the robot to quickly and economically climb up and down stairs, leap over obstacles, and landing softly without complex control. In this paper, the characteristics of hopping motion for the design and control parameters are clarified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Furthermore, using the robot design based on the results the abilities to hop up and down a step, leap over a cable, and land softly are demonstrated.

  13. Improving Students’ Mastery on Simple Present Tense Through Climbing Grammar Mountain Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilla Taslim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the use of Climbing Grammar Mountain Game gave significant improvement on students in learning simple present tense. Classroom action research was used in this study where the data were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The population of the study was the students of grade eleventh at SMPN 1 Luak 50 Kota. There were 21 students in this class. Six kinds of instruments were used to collect data, namely teaching ,scenario, observation sheet, questionnaire, test, interview, and teacher’s journal. This study ran for two cycles. In the second cycle, it was shown that there was gradual improvement from the previous cycle which changed from 64 (insufficient to 79 (sufficient of the mean score. it was more than criteria of the students’ mean score which were determined in this study and it was significant because it proved that the students enthusiasm to study simple present tense, it mean that the students liked and were not bored again so this was a motivation for them to more concentrate to study simple present tense and they could use it in daily life for communication. They understand that simple present tense is important in learning English because it is used in daily life, either in writing and spoken language. It could be concluded that Climbing Grammar Mountain Game could improve the ability of the students in class VII B of SMPN 1 Luak 50 Kota in using Simple Present Tense.

  14. Available friction of ladder shoes and slip potential for climbing on a straight ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2005-07-15

    Straight ladder accidents are a major safety problem. As a leading cause of injuries involving straight ladders, slips at the ladder base occur when the required friction exceeds the available friction at the ladder shoe and floor interface. The objectives of this experiment were to measure the available friction at the base of a portable straight ladder in contact with a floor and to estimate the slip potential of the ladder. The results of friction measurements indicated that the measured friction coefficient on the oily surfaces differed among the six commercially available ladder shoes evaluated. A statistical model was used to compare the available friction results from the current study with the friction requirements under different climbing conditions from a previous study based on their stochastic distributions to estimate the slip potential at the base of the ladder. The results showed that different climbing conditions used in the previous study could be supported by available friction on dry surfaces. However, when the ladder was put onto oily surfaces, resulting in a significant reduction in the available friction due to contamination, slip potential was significantly increased.

  15. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  16. Multivariate poisson lognormal modeling of crashes by type and severity on rural two lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Jackson, Eric

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to improve traffic safety, there has been considerable interest in estimating crash prediction models and identifying factors contributing to crashes. To account for crash frequency variations among crash types and severities, crash prediction models have been estimated by type and severity. The univariate crash count models have been used by researchers to estimate crashes by crash type or severity, in which the crash counts by type or severity are assumed to be independent of one another and modelled separately. When considering crash types and severities simultaneously, this may neglect the potential correlations between crash counts due to the presence of shared unobserved factors across crash types or severities for a specific roadway intersection or segment, and might lead to biased parameter estimation and reduce model accuracy. The focus on this study is to estimate crashes by both crash type and crash severity using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MVPLN) model, and identify the different effects of contributing factors on different crash type and severity counts on rural two-lane highways. The INLA MVPLN model can simultaneously model crash counts by crash type and crash severity by accounting for the potential correlations among them and significantly decreases the computational time compared with a fully Bayesian fitting of the MVPLN model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper describes estimation of MVPLN models for three-way stop controlled (3ST) intersections, four-way stop controlled (4ST) intersections, four-way signalized (4SG) intersections, and roadway segments on rural two-lane highways. Annual Average Daily traffic (AADT) and variables describing roadway conditions (including presence of lighting, presence of left-turn/right-turn lane, lane width and shoulder width) were used as predictors. A Univariate Poisson Lognormal (UPLN) was estimated by crash type and

  17. Climbing walls as multitasking sites of geo(morpho)logical interests: Italian examples from the Western Alps and Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Fossati, Maria; Panizza, Valeria; Pelfini, Manuela; Zanoletti, Enrico; Zucali, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Geosites and in particular geomorphosites have been recently more and more used as base for educational activities in Earth Sciences and to enhance the geodiversity of a territory. Their attributes acquire a greater value and become especially appreciable when associated with field and outdoor activities. Frequently rock walls represent key sites for geological and gemorphological researches due to the wide outcrops of rocks where mineralogical composition and structures are very evident as well as landforms deriving from the modeling of outcrops surfaces. Where the rock walls are equipped for climbing activities they may be considered open-air laboratories useful to get in touch with the different features of rocks that condition progression on climbing routes. Due to these two aspects, geohistorical importance and educational exemplarity contribute to the increase of the scientific value and, as a consequence, of the global value of these sites as geosites. Geomorphosites from climbing sites allow to realize educational projects with different goals: 1) Recent researches in the Western Italian Alps have been conducted to make a census of climbing rock cliffs along the Ossola Valley (Verbanio-Cusio-Ossola Province, Italy) and to operate a choice of the ones characterized by high educational value (considering easy accessibility, grades for experts and beginners and the good exposition of rock features), representativeness, geohistorical importance, high cultural and socio-economic values, in order to propose an educational project addressed to students of an Italian secondary school aimed at introducing the three great families of rocks (magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary); 2) The Eclogitic Micaschist Complex of the Austroalpine Domain (Montestrutto climbing wall, Turin Province, Italy) has been investigated in order to i) reconstruct the deformation stages at local scales along the sport climbing wall and the relationships between geological elements and

  18. Thermally switchable adhesions of polystyrene-block-poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer pillar array mimicking climb attitude of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jem-Kun; Wang, Jing-Hong; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the gecko foot pad, we fabricated polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PS-b-PNIPAAm) copolymer pillar array to mimic climbing attitude of a gecko, alternately attach to and detach from a surface. The pillar array structure of the PS segment significantly enhances both of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic property of PNIPAAm segment tips at 25 and 50 °C, respectively, which could generate alternating adhesive forces of approximately 120 and 11 nN. The dramatic change in adhesive and friction force difference at 25 and 50 °C may guide the design of bio-inspired artificial analogues, which could approach gecko's climbing behavior.

  19. The effect of concurrent bandwidth feedback on learning the lane-keeping task in a driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Stefan; de Winter, Joost C F; López García, José Manuel; Mulder, Max; Wieringa, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether concurrent bandwidth feedback improves learning of the lane-keeping task in a driving simulator. Previous research suggests that bandwidth feedback improves learning and that off-target feedback is superior to on-target feedback. This study aimed to extend these findings for the lane-keeping task. Participants without a driver's license drove five 8-min lane-keeping sessions in a driver training simulator: three practice sessions, an immediate retention session, and a delayed retention session I day later. There were four experimental groups (n=15 per group): (a) on-target, receiving seat vibrations when the center of the car was within 0.5 m of the lane center; (b) off-target, receiving seat vibrations when the center of the car was more than 0.5 m away from the lane center; (c) control, receiving no vibrations; and (d) realistic, receiving seat vibrations depending on engine speed. During retention, all groups were provided with the realistic vibrations. During practice, on-target and off-target groups had better lane-keeping performance than the nonaugmented groups, but this difference diminished in the retention phase. Furthermore, during late practice and retention, the off-target group outperformed the on-target group.The off-target group had a higher rate of steering reversal and higher steering entropy than the nonaugmented groups, whereas no clear group differences were found regarding mean speed, mental workload, or self-reported measures. Off-target feedback is superior to on-target feedback for learning the lane-keeping task. This research provides knowledge to researchers and designers of training systems about the value of feedback in simulator-based training of vehicular control.

  20. When Affordances Climb into Your Mind: Advantages of Motor Simulation in a Memory Task Performed by Novice and Expert Rock Climbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Barca, Laura; Bocconi, Alessandro Lamberti; Borghi, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    Does the sight of multiple climbing holds laid along a path activate a motor simulation of climbing that path? One way of testing whether multiple affordances and their displacement influence the formation of a motor simulation is to study acquired motor skills. We used a behavioral task in which expert and novice rock climbers were shown three…

  1. To be active through indoor-climbing: an exploratory feasibility study in a group of children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Thor; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    beneficial effects of climbing activities in populations with functional and/or cognitive challenges. The aim of this study was therefore to test the feasibility of an intensive 3 weeks indoor-climbing training program in children with CP and typically developing (TD) peers. In addition we evaluated possible...... indoor-climbing training sessions, and climbing abilities were measured. The participants were tested in a series of physiological, psychological and cognitive tests: two times prior to and one time following the training in order to explore possible effects of the intervention.Results: The children...... in cognitive abilities or psychological well-being in any of the groups.Conclusions: These findings show that it is possible to use climbing as means to make children with CP physically active. The improved motor abilities obtained through the training is likely reflected by increased synchronization between...

  2. On the development a pneumatic four-legged mechanism autonomous vertical wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Shukri Zainal Abidin; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . shukri@suria.fke.utm.my

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype legged mechanism together with suction mechanism, the mechanical design, on-board controller and an initial performance test. The design is implemented in the form of a pneumatically powered multi-legged robot equipped with suction pads at the sole of the feet for wall climbing purpose. The whole mechanism and suction system is controlled by controller which is housed on-board the robot. The gait of the motion depended on the logic control patterns as dictated by the controller. The robot is equipped with sensors both at the front and rear ends that function as an obstacle avoidance facility. Once objects are detected, signals are sent to the controller to start an evasive action that is to move in the opposite direction. The mechanism has been tested and initial results have shown promising potential for an autonomous mobile. (Author)

  3. Automatic stair-climbing algorithm of the planetary wheel type mobile robot in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Jong Min

    1995-01-01

    A mobile robot, named KAEROT, has been developed for inspection and maintenance operations in nuclear facilities. The main feature of locomotion system is the planetary wheel assembly with small wheels. This mechanism has been designed to be able to go over the stairs and obstacles with stability. This paper presents the inverse kinematic solution that is to be operated by remote control. The automatic stair climbing algorithm is also proposed. The proposed algorithms the moving paths of small wheels and calculates the angular velocity of 3 actuation wheels. The results of simulations and experiments are given for KAEROT performed on the irregular stairs in laboratory. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides the lower inclination angle of the robot body and increases its stability during navigation. 14 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  4. Automatic stair-climbing algorithm of the planetary wheel type mobile robot in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Jong Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    A mobile robot, named KAEROT, has been developed for inspection and maintenance operations in nuclear facilities. The main feature of locomotion system is the planetary wheel assembly with small wheels. This mechanism has been designed to be able to go over the stairs and obstacles with stability. This paper presents the inverse kinematic solution that is to be operated by remote control. The automatic stair climbing algorithm is also proposed. The proposed algorithms the moving paths of small wheels and calculates the angular velocity of 3 actuation wheels. The results of simulations and experiments are given for KAEROT performed on the irregular stairs in laboratory. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides the lower inclination angle of the robot body and increases its stability during navigation. 14 figs., 16 refs. (Author).

  5. Analysis of automobile’s automatic control systems for the hill climbing start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Klimenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve road safety while driving on the rise, facilitating the driver’s activity the automobile industry leaders are introducing automatic hill-hold control systems into the car design. This study purpose relates to the existing automatic start control systems’ design analysis. Analyzed are the existing design developments of automatic hill start assist control systems applied for driving at the start of the climbing. The effected research allows to select the scheme for further development of start driving automatic control systems. Further improvement of driving control systems and primarily the driver assistance hill-hold control systems is necessary to increase both the driving comfort and the traffic safety.

  6. Fluid Model of Sliding Suction Cup of Wall-climbing Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhering capability, one of the most important performance indexes of wall-climbing robots(WCRs, should be taken into account when a WCR is designed. This paper proposes a novel approach for investigating the adhering characteristics of the sliding suction cup (SSCs using fluid network theory to enhance the adhering capability of WCRs. The fluid models of the SSCs of two WCRs are developed and equivalent circuits in three cases are presented. The dynamic responses of negative pressure in SSCs are obtained and validated by a set of experiments. It indicated that the theoretical analysis is reasonable and can give some valuable design criteria on the structure parameters of SSCs and control strategies of suction force of SSCs.

  7. A fuzzy hill-climbing algorithm for the development of a compact associative classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Soumyaroop; Lam, Sarah S.

    2012-02-01

    Classification, a data mining technique, has widespread applications including medical diagnosis, targeted marketing, and others. Knowledge discovery from databases in the form of association rules is one of the important data mining tasks. An integrated approach, classification based on association rules, has drawn the attention of the data mining community over the last decade. While attention has been mainly focused on increasing classifier accuracies, not much efforts have been devoted towards building interpretable and less complex models. This paper discusses the development of a compact associative classification model using a hill-climbing approach and fuzzy sets. The proposed methodology builds the rule-base by selecting rules which contribute towards increasing training accuracy, thus balancing classification accuracy with the number of classification association rules. The results indicated that the proposed associative classification model can achieve competitive accuracies on benchmark datasets with continuous attributes and lend better interpretability, when compared with other rule-based systems.

  8. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA HILL CLIMBING DAN ALGORITMA A* DALAM PENYELESAIAN PENYUSUNAN SUKU KATA DASAR DENGAN POLA PERMAINAN BINTANG KEJORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Nurdin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Permainan Bintang Kejora merupakan permainan yang sama seperti permainan pergeseran angka dalam kotak berbentuk persegi (Puzzle. Jenis permainan seperti ini cenderung mudah untuk diselesaikan. Bentuk wadah bintang menyebabkan arah pergeseran akan menjadi terbatas. Permainan bintang kejora ini cukup rumit dan sukar untuk diselesaikan secara manual. Permainan ini dapat diselesaikan dengan metode heuristik, yaitu dengan menggunakan algoritma hill climbing dan algoritma A*. Sifat algoritma hill climbing adalah mencari kemungkinan-kemungkinan dari calon solusi untuk mendapatkan yang optimal bagi penyelesaian masalah dengan mencari nilai heuristik yang terkecil. Sedangkan algoritma A* membantu menemukan solusi pencarian dalam ruang keadaan dengan mempertimbangkan nilai heuristik terbesar yang dilacak sesuai node yang akan dilewati. Pembuatan perangkat lunak ini dirancang terlebih dahulu dengan menggunakan diagram State Transition Diagram, Use Case Diagram, Activity Diagram, dan Class Diagram. Perangkat lunak ini dapat memberikan penyelesaian yang optimum atas permainan bintang kejora yang nantinya menghasilkan huruf yang sebelumnya diacak menjadi tersusun membentuk sebuah kata dasar. Hasil yang didapatkan berupa langkah-langkah ditemukan solusi serta ditampilkan waktu pencarian yang dibutuhkan dalam menemukan solusi. Pencarian A* lebih cepat menemukan solusi dibandingkan Hill Climbing, karena A* mencari nilai heuristik pada jarak yang terjauh sehingga langsung tepat menuju sasaran. Kata kunci: Hill Climbing, Algoritma A*, Bintang Kejora

  9. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Romain; Orth, Dominic; Courtine, Yoan; Croft, James L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, both feet, and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction of each limb and hip during the ascent. We were able to detect movement and immobility phases of each IMU using segmentation and classification processes. Depending on whether the limbs and/or hip were moving, five states of behavior were detected: immobility, postural regulation, hold exploration, hold change, and hold traction. Using cluster analysis we identified four clusters of gaze behavior during route previewing depending on route preview duration, number of scan paths, fixations duration, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks strategies. The number of scan paths was positively correlated with relative duration of exploration and negatively correlated with relative duration of hold changes during the ascent. Additionally, a high relative duration of sequence-of-blocks strategy and zigzagging strategy were associated with a high relative duration of immobility during the ascent. Route previewing might help to pick up functional information about reachable, graspable, and usable holds, in order to chain movements together and to find the route. In other words, route previewing might contribute to perceiving and realizing nested

  10. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks they used. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, both feet, and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction of each limb and hip during the ascent. We were able to detect movement and immobility phases of each IMU using segmentation and classification processes. Depending on whether the limbs and/or hip were moving, five states of behavior were detected: immobility, postural regulation, hold exploration, hold change, and hold traction. Using cluster analysis we identified four clusters of gaze behavior during route previewing depending on route preview duration, number of scan paths, fixations duration, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks strategies. The number of scan paths was positively correlated with relative duration of exploration and negatively correlated with relative duration of hold changes during the ascent. Additionally, a high relative duration of sequence-of-blocks strategy and zigzagging strategy were associated with a high relative duration of immobility during the ascent. Route previewing might help to pick up functional information about reachable, graspable, and usable holds, in order to chain movements together and to find the route. In other words, route previewing might contribute to perceiving and

  11. Impacts of environmental factors on the climbing behaviors of herbaceous stem-twiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chen, Youfang; Liu, Meicun

    2017-11-01

    The curvature of the helical trajectory formed by herbaceous stem-twiners has been hypothesized to be constant on uniformly sized cylindrical supports and remains constant on different supports varying in diameter. However, experimental studies on the constant curvature hypothesis have been very limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis in a series of experiments on five herbaceous stem-twiners ( Ipomoea triloba , Ipomoea nil , Phaseolus vulgaris , Vigna unguiculata, and Mikania micrantha ). We investigated how internode characteristics (curvature [β], diameter [ d ], and length [ L ]) and success rate (SR) of twining shoots would be affected by support thickness ( D ), temperature ( T ), illumination, and support inclination. The results showed that: (1) the SR of tested species decreased, but d increased with increasing support thickness. The β of the twining shoots on erect cylindrical poles was not constant, but it decreased with increasing d or support thickness. (2) The SR of tested species was not obviously reduced under low-temperature conditions, but their β was significantly higher and d significantly lower when temperature was more than 5°C lower. (3) The SR , d, and L of two tested Ipomoea species significantly declined, but β increased under 50% shading stress. (4) The curvatures of upper semicycles of I. triloba shoots on 45° inclined supports were not significantly different from curvatures of those shoots climb on erect supports, whereas the curvatures of lower semicycles were 40%-72% higher than curvatures of upper semicycles. Synthesis : Our study illustrates that stem curvatures of a certain herbaceous stem-twiners are not constant, but rather vary in response to external support, temperature, and illumination conditions. We speculate that herbaceous stem-twiners positively adapt to wide-diameter supports by thickening their stems and by reducing their twining curvatures. This insight helps us better understand climbing processes and

  12. Dynamics of a thermally driven film climbing the outside of a vertical cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Linda B

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of a film climbing the outside of a vertical cylinder under the competing effects of a thermally driven surface tension gradient and gravity is examined through numerical simulations of a thin-film model for the film height. The model, including boundary conditions, depends on three parameters, the scaled cylinder radius R[over ̂], the upstream film height h_{∞}, and the downstream precursor film thickness b, and reduces to the model for Marangoni driven film climbing a vertical plate in the limit R[over ̂]→∞. The axisymmetric advancing front displays dynamics similar to that found along a vertical plate where, depending on h_{∞}, the film forms a single Lax shock, an undercompressive double shock, or a rarefaction-undercompressive shock. A linear stability analysis of the Lax shock reveals the number of fingers that form along the contact line increases linearly with cylinder circumference while no fingers form for sufficiently small cylinders (below R[over ̂]≈1.15 when b=0.1). The substrate curvature controls the height of the Lax shock, bounds on h_{∞} that define the three distinct solutions, and the maximum growth rate of contact line perturbations to the Lax shock when R[over ̂]=O(1), whereas the three solutions and the stability of the Lax shock converge to the behavior one observes on a vertical plate when R[over ̂]≥O(10). An energy analysis reveals that the azimuthal curvatures of the base state and perturbation, which arise from the annular geometry of the film, promote instability of the advancing contact line.

  13. A MODULAR DESIGN OF A WALL-CLIMBING ROBOT AND ITS MECHATRONICS CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Tlale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The modular design of a wall-climbing robot, implementing two articulated legs per module (biped robotic modules, is presented in this paper. Modular design improves a wall-climbing robot’s manoeuvrability and flexibility during surface changes or while walking on uneven surfaces. The design of the articulated legs uses four motors to control the posture of the vacuum cups, achieving the best possible contact with the surface. Each leg can contain more than five sensors for effective feedback control, and additional sensors such as gyros, CCD sensors, etc, can be fitted on a module, depending on the robot’s application. As the number of modules used in the design of the robot is increased, the number of actuators and sensors increases exponentially. A distributed mechatronics controller of such systems is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Modulêre ontwerp van 'n muurklim-robot met twee geskarnierde bene per module (twee-benige robotmodules word in hierdie artikel weergegee. Modulêre ontwerp verbeter die muurklim-robot se beweeglikheid en aanpasbaarheid tydens veranderings in die loopvlak of terwyl dit loop op ongelyke oppervlaktes. Ontwerp van geskarnierde bene implementeer vier motors wat die oriëntasie van vakuumsuigdoppe beheer om die bes moontlike kontak met die loopvlak te handhaaf. Elke been kan meer as vyf sensors hê vir doeltreffende terugvoerbeheer, en bykomende sensors soos giroskope, CCD sensors, ens. kan by 'n module gevoeg word soos die toepassing van die robot dit mag vereis. Soos die aantal modules wat in die ontwerp van die robot gebruik word, toeneem, neem die aantal aktiveerders en sensors eksponensiëel toe. 'n Verdeelde megatroniese beheerder van sulke stelsels word aangebied.

  14. Observed activation status of lane departure warning and forward collision warning of Honda vehicles at dealership service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-11-16

    There are little objective data on whether drivers with lane departure warning and forward collision warning systems actually use them, but self-report data indicate that lane departure warning may be used less and viewed less favorably than forward collision warning. The current study assessed whether the systems were turned on when drivers brought their vehicles to dealership service stations and whether the observational protocol is a feasible method for collecting similar data on various manufacturers' systems. Observations of 2013-2015 Honda Accords, 2014-2015 Odysseys, and 2015 CR-Vs occurred at 2 U.S. Honda dealerships for approximately 4 weeks during Summer 2015. Of the 265 vehicles observed to have the 2 systems, 87 (32.8%) had lane departure warning turned on. Accords were associated with a 66% increase in the likelihood that lane departure warning was turned on compared with Odysseys, but the rate was still only about 40% in Accords. In contrast, forward collision warning was turned on in all but one of the observed vehicles. Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers.

  15. Direct HST Dust Lane Detection in Powerful Narrow-Line Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Edgar A.; Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Tadhunter, Clive N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique [NASA Ames Research Center, SOFIA Science Center, SOFIA/USRA, Mountain View, CA (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Packham, Chris, E-mail: e.ramirez@inaoep.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-22

    We present the analysis of near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 10 Fanaroff Riley II powerful radio galaxies at low redshift (0.03 < z < 0.11) optically classified as narrow-line radio galaxies. The photometric properties of the host galaxy are measured using galfit, and compared with those from the literature. Our high resolution near-infrared observations provide new and direct information on the central kpc-scale dust lanes in our sample that could be connected to the pc-scale torus structure. Moreover, analyzing the infrared spectrograph Spitzer spectra of our sample, we suggest properties of the dust size of the torus.

  16. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Wong, S. C.; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Meng-Ping

    2011-10-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.

  17. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    econometric and time series modelling have been rather limited. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss contemporary container freight rate dynamics in an attempt to forecast for the Far East to Northern Europe trade lane. Methodology-wise, we employ autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) as well......This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  18. Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.; Farner, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~20-25% of the dextral-motion between the Pacific and North American plates the Walker Lane is represented as an elongate, NW oriented, region of active tectonics positioned between the northwesterly-translating Sierra Nevada microplate and the east-west extension of the Basin and Range. This region of transtension is being variably accommodated on regional-scale systems of predominantly strike-slip faulting. At the western edge of the central Walker Lane (ca. 38°-39°N latitude) is a region of crustal-scale blocks bounded by wedge-shaped depositional-basins and normal-fault systems, here defined as the west-central Walker Lane (WCWL). Devoid of obvious strike-slip faulting, the presence of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations in the WCWL represents unrecognized components of dextral-shearing and/or changes of strain-accommodation over time. We use paleomagnetic reference directions for Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) members of the late Miocene Stanislaus Group as spatial and temporal markers for documentation of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations near Bridgeport, CA. Study-site rotations revealed discrete rotational domains of mean vertical-axis rotation ranging from ~10°-30° with heterogeneous regional distribution. Additionally, the highest measured magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation (~50°-60° CW) define a 'Region of High Strain' that includes the wedge-shaped Bridgeport Valley (Basin). This study revealed previously-unrecognized tectonic rotation of reference direction sites from prior studies for two (By-Day and Upper) of the three members of the EVT, resulting in under-estimates of regional strain accommodation by these studies. Mean remanent directions and virtual geomagnetic poles utilized in our study yielded a recalculated reference direction for the By-Day member of: Dec.=353.2°; Inc.= 43.7°; α95=10.1, in agreement with new measurements in the stable Sierra Nevada. This recalculated direction confirmed the presence of previously

  19. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology. A simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A; De Waard, Dick

    2011-05-01

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased by exposure to narrow lane widths and high density oncoming traffic while speed was fixed in all conditions to prevent a compensatory reaction. Results indicated that both steering demand factors influence mental effort expenditure and using multiple measures contributes to effort assessment. Application of these outcomes for adaptive automation is envisaged. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  1. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  2. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  3. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  4. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  5. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  6. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  7. Radiological survey results at 1 Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ095)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action at the Stepan property in Maywood, New Jersey and several vicinity properties in Lodi, New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), adjacent to the former Maywood Chemical Works facility. The property at One Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey was not one of these vicinity properties but was surveyed by DOE at the request of the owner. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted in November 1994, was to confirm whether remedial actions were to be performed on the property in order to be in compliance with the identified Guidelines. The radiological survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at One Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey, were comparable to background levels in the area, and well within the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines. Based on the results of the radiological survey data, this property does not meet guidelines for inclusion under FUSRAP

  8. Prediction of Driver's Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-06-10

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver's intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver's intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver's intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver's intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  9. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely-driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes. I will describe some results on this phenomenon obtained by simple physical arguments and computer simulations. Laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with Peclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely-driven colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas. Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  10. Lane fuzzy collision in channel with potential deformation by photon-phonon-electron excitation and sub-atomic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jing

    1998-01-01

    Collision between μ + and the μ - beams in the crystal are forbidden due to the two beams having different ''lanes'' in a channel. A laser pulse of ps-fs shocks lattice kernel vibration and dilates lattice electron distribution. It deforms the Lindhard's potential which is then expressed in a quantized form as the Huang-Zhu's potential[1]. The dynamic lanes can be made to overlap in a channel to allow collision without ductile fracture. This raises a new technology of sub-atomic information and control, which has been raised by T. D. Lee

  11. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...The EPA has made a proposed determination that a reduction in recurring expenditures of non-Federal funds for the Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective reductions in expenditures. This determination, when final, will permit the LRAPA to continue to receive grant funding under Section 105 of the Clean Air Act for the state fiscal year (SFY) 2014. This determination will also reset the LRAPA required maintenance of effort level for SFY 2012 and 2013 to reflect the non-selective reductions made to address reductions in revenue due to adverse economic conditions in Lane County, Oregon.

  12. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CLIMB - Climate induced changes on the hydrology of mediterranean basins - Reducing uncertainties and quantifying risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    According to future climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. These changes are expected to have severe direct impacts on the management of water resources. Threats include severe droughts and extreme flooding, salinization of coastal aquifers, degradation of fertile soils and desertification due to poor and unsustainable water management practices. It can be foreseen that, unless appropriate adaptation measures are undertaken, the changes in the hydrologic cycle will give rise to an increasing potential for tension and conflict among the political and economic actors in this vulnerable region. The presented project initiative CLIMB, funded under EC's 7th Framework Program (FP7-ENV-2009-1), has started in January 2010. In its 4-year design, it shall analyze ongoing and future climate induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes across the Mediterranean and neighboring regions. This is undertaken in study sites located in Sardinia, Northern Italy, Southern France, Tunisia, Egypt and the Palestinian-administered area Gaza. The work plan is targeted to selected river or aquifer catchments, where the consortium will employ a combination of novel field monitoring and remote sensing concepts, data assimilation, integrated hydrologic (and biophysical) modeling and socioeconomic factor analyses to reduce existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. Advanced climate scenario analysis will be employed and available ensembles of regional climate model simulations will be downscaling. This process will provide the drivers for an ensemble of hydro(-geo)logical models with different degrees of complexity in terms of process description and level of integration. The results of hydrological modeling and socio-economic factor analysis will enable the development of a GIS-based Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. This tool will serve as a platform

  14. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  15. Micromycetes on climbing roses leaves (Rosa L. in the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micromycetes inhabiting the leaves of 20 cultivars of climbing roses (Rosa L., grown in Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow was investigated in the three successive years of research. Sixty-five taxa of of micromycetes was recorded with a few species dominating: Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Pestalotia rosae, Penicillium brevicompactum and Sordaria fimicola, accompanied by various other microfungi. A high abundance of rose black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae was also observed. The affected leaves revealed advancing necrosis, substantially enhancing at the end of the growing season. Defoliation took place from June to October. Micromycetes inhabiting the leaves of climbing roses in Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow considerably deteriorated the decorative aspect of the plants.

  16. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  17. Development of Disk Rover, wall-climbing robot using permanent magnet disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Shigeo; Tsutsumitake; Hiroshi; Toyama, Ryousei; Kobayashi, Kengo.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of wall climbing robot, named Disk Rover, using permanent magnet disks are developed. The newly introduced permanent magnet disk is to rotate the magnet disk on the surface of wall with partly contacted posture. It allows to produce high magnetic attraction force compared with conventional permanent wheel which utilizes only a small portion of the magnet installed around the wheel. The optimum design of the magnetic wheel is done by using finit element method and it is shown that the magnetic attraction force vs. weight ratio can be designed about three times higher than conventional type magnet wheel. The developed Disk Rover is 25 kg in weight including controller and battery, about 685 mm in diameter, 239 mm in height and has a pair of permanent magnet disks. It is demonstrated by the experiments that the Disk Rover can move around on the surface of the wall quite smoothly by radio control and has payload of about its own weight. Several considerations are also done in order to surmount bead weld. (author)

  18. Climbing Robot for Ferromagnetic Surfaces with Dynamic Adjustment of the Adhesion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climbing robot with wheeled locomotion and adhesion through permanent magnets, developed with the intention of being used in the inspection of different types of man-made ferromagnetic structures, such as towers for wind turbines, fuel storage tanks, and ship hulls. In this paper are presented the main considerations thought for its project, as well as several constructive aspects, among which are detailed its mechanical and electrical construction, the implemented control architecture, and the human-machine interface developed for the manual and automatic control of the vehicle while in operation. Although it can be manually controlled, the vehicle is designed to have a semiautonomous behavior, allowing a remote inspection process controlled by a technician, this way reducing the risks associated with the human inspection of tall structures and ATEX places. The distinguishing characteristic of this robot is its dynamic adjustment system of the permanent magnets in order to assure the machine adhesion to the surfaces, even when crossing slightly irregular and curved surfaces with a large radius.

  19. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maturation of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Population Activity during Postnatal Refinement of Climbing Fiber Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Good

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits undergo massive refinements during postnatal development. In the developing cerebellum, the climbing fiber (CF to Purkinje cell (PC network is drastically reshaped by eliminating early-formed redundant CF to PC synapses. To investigate the impact of CF network refinement on PC population activity during postnatal development, we monitored spontaneous CF responses in neighboring PCs and the activity of populations of nearby CF terminals using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging. Population activity is highly synchronized in newborn mice, and the degree of synchrony gradually declines during the first postnatal week in PCs and, to a lesser extent, in CF terminals. Knockout mice lacking P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel or glutamate receptor δ2, in which CF network refinement is severely impaired, exhibit an abnormally high level of synchrony in PC population activity. These results suggest that CF network refinement is a structural basis for developmental desynchronization and maturation of PC population activity.

  1. Muscle coordination in healthy subjects during floor walking and stair climbing in robot assisted gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, S; Schmidt, H; Volkmar, M; Werner, C; Helmich, I; Piorko, F; Krüger, J; Hesse, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of gait rehabilitation is a restoration of an independent gait and improvement of daily life walking functions. Therefore the specific patterns, that are to be relearned, must be practiced to stimulate the learning process of the central nervous system (CNS). The Walking Simulator HapticWalker allows for the training of arbitrary gait trajectories of daily life. To evaluate the quality of the training a total of 9 subjects were investigated during free floor walking and stair climbing and during the same tasks in two different training modes on the HapticWalker: 1) with and 2) without vertical center of mass (CoM) motion. Electromyograms (EMG) of 8 gait relevant muscles were measured and muscle activation was compared for the various training modes. Besides the muscle activation as an indicator for the quality of rehabilitation training the study investigates if a cancellation of the vertical CoM movement by adaption of the footplate trajectory is feasible i.e. the muscle activation patterns for the two training modes on the HapticWalker agree. Results show no significant differences in activation timing between the training modes. This indicates the feasibility of using a passive patient suspension and emulate the vertical CoM motion by trajectory adaption of the footplates. The muscle activation timing during HapticWalker training shows important characteristics observed in physiological free walking though a few differences can still remain.

  2. Distributed behavior-based control architecture for a wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir Ould Khessal; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . nadir.ok@ieee.org

    1999-01-01

    In the past two decades, Behavior-based AI (Artificial Intelligence) has emerged as a new approach in designing mobile robot control architecture. It stresses on the issues of reactivity, concurrency and real-time control. In this paper we propose a new approach in designing robust intelligent controllers for mobile robot platforms. The Behaviour-based paradigm implemented in a multiprocessing firmware architecture will further enhance parallelism present in the subsumption paradigm itself and increased real-timeness. The paper summarises research done to design a four-legged wall climbing robot. The emphasis will be on the control architecture of the robot based on the Behavior -based paradigm. The robot control architecture is made up of two layers, the locomotion layer and the gait controller layer. The two layers are implemented on a Vesta 68332 processor board running the Behaviour-based kernel, The software is developed using the L programming language, introduced by IS Robotics. The Behaviour-based paradigm is outlined and contrasted with the classical Knowledge-based approach. A description of the distributed architecture is presented followed by a presentation of the Behaviour-based agents for the two layers. (author)

  3. A Circuit for Gradient Climbing in C. elegans Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Larsch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animals have a remarkable ability to track dynamic sensory information. For example, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can locate a diacetyl odor source across a 100,000-fold concentration range. Here, we relate neuronal properties, circuit implementation, and behavioral strategies underlying this robust navigation. Diacetyl responses in AWA olfactory neurons are concentration and history dependent; AWA integrates over time at low odor concentrations, but as concentrations rise, it desensitizes rapidly through a process requiring cilia transport. After desensitization, AWA retains sensitivity to small odor increases. The downstream AIA interneuron amplifies weak odor inputs and desensitizes further, resulting in a stereotyped response to odor increases over three orders of magnitude. The AWA-AIA circuit drives asymmetric behavioral responses to odor increases that facilitate gradient climbing. The adaptation-based circuit motif embodied by AWA and AIA shares computational properties with bacterial chemotaxis and the vertebrate retina, each providing a solution for maintaining sensitivity across a dynamic range.

  4. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation treatment at phytosanitary dose levels on the quality of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dose tolerance of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) to irradiation for phytosanitary purposes, identify the sensory attributes that may be affected by the treatment, and determine which changes, if any, influence consumer liking....

  6. Complex traffic flow that allows as well as hampers lane-changing intrinsically contains social-dilemma structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-02-01

    To investigate an interesting question as to whether or not social dilemma structures can be found in a realistic traffic flow reproduced by a model, we built a new microscopic model in which an intentional driver may try lane-changing to go in front of other vehicles and may hamper others’ lane-changes. Our model consists of twofold parts; cellular automaton emulating a real traffic flow and evolutionary game theory to implement a driver’s decision making-process. Numerical results reveal that a social dilemma like the multi-player chicken game or prisoner’s dilemma game emerges depending on the traffic phase. This finding implies that a social dilemma, which has been investigated by applied mathematics so far, hides behind a traffic flow, which has been explored by fluid dynamics. Highlight - Complex system of traffic flow with consideration of driver’s decision making process is concerned. - A new model dovetailing cellular automaton with game theory is established. - Statistical result from numerical simulations reveals a social dilemma structure underlying traffic flow. - The social dilemma is triggered by a driver’s egocentric actions of lane-changing and hampering other’s lane-change.

  7. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  8. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task

  9. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  10. Optimal Design of a New Wheeled Mobile Robot by Kinetic Analysis for the Stair-Climbing States

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Chun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun Do; Kim, Mun Sang; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2007-01-01

    In order to be utilized in building inspection, building security, and military reconnaissance, a new type of WMR was designed with a passive linkage-type locomotive mechanism for improved adaptability to rough terrain and stair-climbing without the active control techniques. Two designed concepts, `adaptability' and `passivity', were considered for the design of the linkage-type locomotive mechanism of the WMR. The proposed mechanism, composed of a simple 4-bar linkage mechanism and a limite...

  11. High-Order Sliding Mode-Based Synchronous Control of a Novel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Juanxiu; Wu, Yifei; Guo, Jian; Chen, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    For the attitude control of a novel stair-climbing wheelchair with inertial uncertainties and external disturbance torques, a new synchronous control method is proposed via combing high-order sliding mode control techniques with cross-coupling techniques. For this purpose, a proper controller is designed, which can improve the performance of the system under conditions of uncertainties and torque perturbations and also can guarantee the synchronization of the system. Firstly, a robust high-or...

  12. To be active through indoor-climbing: an exploratory feasibility study in a group of children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Thor; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    functional and cognitive benefits of 3 weeks of intensive climbing training in 11 children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 11-13 years and six of their TD peers.Method: The study was designed as a feasibility and interventional study. We evaluated the amount of time spent being physically active during the 9...... in cognitive abilities or psychological well-being in any of the groups.Conclusions: These findings show that it is possible to use climbing as means to make children with CP physically active. The improved motor abilities obtained through the training is likely reflected by increased synchronization between...... be challenged functionally and cognitively, making climbing of great potential interest in (re) habilitation settings. However, until now only few research projects have investigated the feasibility of climbing as a potential activity for heightening physical activity in children with CP and the possible...

  13. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  14. Effects of stair-climbing on balance, gait, strength, resting heart rate, and submaximal endurance in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Faude, O; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2014-04-01

    Stair-climbing serves as a feasible opportunity to remain physically active within everyday-life. Data on neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory performance after regular stair-climbing in seniors are scarce. Forty-eight seniors were stratified to a one- (taking every step, INT1) or two-step strategy (every second step, INT2) or a control group (CON). Thirty-nine seniors [females: n = 22, males: n = 17; age: 70.5 (SD 5.1) years; BMI: 25.8 (3.1) kg/m(2)] completed the 8-week intervention (three weekly sessions). Before and after the intervention, balance, gait, strength, and submaximal endurance (at different intensities) were assessed. Maximal strength and explosive power did not improve significantly (0.10 walking significantly decreased (-11/min; P beam balancing (4.5 cm width) increased in INT2 (P = 0.007) compared with CON. With more pronounced effects in INT2, stair-climbing significantly improved resting and exercise heart rates, perceived exertion, and dynamic balance performance in healthy seniors and may contribute to better overall fitness, reduced fall risk, and less perceived strain during daily life activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage Ingestion on Heart Rate Response While Climbing Mountain Fuji at ~3000 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate whether carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage ingestion reduced heart rate (HR in twenty-three healthy young adults while climbing Mount Fuji at a given exercise intensity. Twenty-three healthy adults were randomly divided into two groups: the tap water (11 males [M] and 1 female [F] and the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (10 M and 1 F. HR and activity energy expenditure (AEE were recorded every min. The HRs for the first 30 minutes of climbing were not significantly different between the groups [121 ± 2 beats per min (bpm in the tap water and 116 ± 3 bpm in the carbohydrate-electrolyte]; however, HR significantly increased with climbing in the tap water group (129 ± 2 bpm but showed no significant increase in the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (121 ± 3 bpm. In addition, body weight changes throughout two days ascending and descending on Mount Fuji were inversely related to changes in resting HR. Further, individual variation of body weight changes was suppressed by carbohydrate-electrolyte drink. Collectively, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage intake may attenuate an increase in HR at a given AEE while mountaineering at ~3000 m compared with tap water intake.

  16. Tree Climbing Techniques and Volume Equations for Eschweilera (Matá-Matá, a Hyperdominant Genus in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Gimenez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Eschweilera genus has great ecological and economic importance due to its wide abundance in the Amazon basin. One potential use for the Eschweilera genus is in forest management, where just a few trees are removed per hectare. In order to improve the forest management in the Amazon, this study assessed two critical issues: volume equations fitted for a single genus and the development of a non-destructive method using climbing techniques. The equipment used to measure the sample trees included: climbing rope, ascenders, descenders, and carabiners. To carry out the objectives of this study, 64 trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 10 cm were selected and measured in ZF-2 Tropical Forestry Station near the city of Manaus, Brazil. Four single input models with DBH and four dual input models with DBH and merchantable height (H were tested. The Husch model (V = a × DBHb presented the best performance (R2 = 0.97. This model does not require the merchantable height, which is an important advantage, because of the difficulty in measuring this variable in tropical forests. When the merchantable height data are collected using accurate methods, the Schumacher and Hall model (V = a × DBHb × Hc is the most appropriated. Tree climbing techniques with the use of ropes, as a non-destructive method, is a good alternative to measure the merchantable height, the diameter along the stem, and also estimate the tree volume (m3 of the Eschweilera genus in the Amazon basin.

  17. THE IMPACT OF SPORT CLIMBING ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CLIMBERS OF 14 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Jereb

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research was to identify the impact of sport climbing on some morphologic characteristics and motor abilities in climbers. The sample group consisted of 19 climbers, who trained climbing for one year beside their regular physical education after the initially survey was made, and 72 nonclimbers, who’s only sport activity was their regular physical education. At the time of the test, climbers as well as nonclimbers were 14 years of age. The measurement included all the variables from the Physical education chart. Data were processed with statistical programme package SPSS for Windows. The result of analysis of covariance show that after a year long period of sport climbing statistically significant differences were shown in the results of t he test Polygon backwards in favour of the experimental group. It is also possible to observe a trend towards better results of the experimental group in the tests Skin fold thickness of the upper arm and Bend and touch on bench. The nonclimbers achieved larger differences than climbers in torso lifting and 600 m run.

  18. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundy, D., E-mail: david.laundy@diamond.ac.uk; Sawhney, K.; Nistea, I.; Alcock, S. G.; Pape, I.; Sutter, J.; Alianelli, L.; Evans, G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  19. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  20. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  1. The Dawes Lane coke ovens by-products plant expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Warren [Corus Research Development and Technology (United Kingdom). Teeside Technology Department

    2002-07-01

    A system has been developed to provide comprehensive monitoring of the washer/scrubber processes on the by-products plant at Dawes Lane coke ovens where faulty operation may cause blockage of the gas stream leading to opening of the battery bleeders to release gas to atmosphere. The system developed and the additional instrumentation and practices have met the requirements for improved monitoring to reduce the likelihood of uncontrolled gas emissions. It is planned to further develop the system so that it will contribute towards optimisation of plant operation, and so to generate a financial benefit from the investment made. The paper was presented to the Midland Section of the Coke Oven Managers' Association at Corus Centre, Scunthorpe, UK on 20 May 2001. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Brain limbic system-based intelligent controller application to lane change manoeuvre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel neuromorphic control strategy for lane change manoeuvres in the highway environment. The lateral dynamics of a vehicle with and without wind disturbance are derived and utilised to implement a control strategy based on the brain limbic system. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, several disturbance conditions including wind, uncertainty in the cornering stiffness, and changes in the vehicle mass are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the suggested strategy, simulation results of the proposed method are compared with the human driver model-based control scheme, which has been discussed in the literature. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed controller in energy efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness.

  3. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.

    2014-01-01

    at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...... the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical...

  4. A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-08-01

    We establish a Liouville type theorem for the fractional Lane-Emden system: {(-Δ)αu=vqin  RN,(-Δ)αv=upin  RN, where α \\in (0,1) , N>2α and p, q are positive real numbers and in an appropriate new range. To prove our result we will use the local realization of fractional Laplacian, which can be constructed as a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of a degenerate elliptic equation in the spirit of Caffarelli and Silvestre (2007 Commun. PDE 32 1245-60). Our proof is based on a monotonicity argument for suitable transformed functions and the method of moving planes in a half infinite cylinder ({IR}× S+N , where S+N is the half unit sphere in {{{R}}N+1} ) based on maximum principles which are obtained by barrier functions and a coupling argument using a fractional Sobolev trace inequality.

  5. Analytical Model for Passing Sight Distance Design Criteria of Two-Lane Roads in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mampearachchi W. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For a safe overtaking manoeuvre on two-lane highways, drivers need a sufficient sight distance along the roadway, but it depends on the traffic environment. To provide an adequate Passing Sight Distance (PSD, a number of models have been proposed since the initial model introduced by American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO in 1954. It is a current design practice in Sri Lanka as well, however, not validated for local traffic conditions. This paper will present an alternative PSD model and an evaluation of AASHTO model for national highway design. Experiment was based on GPS data collection. In conclusion, PSD demand was satisfied by AASHTO PSD under mix traffic conditions, but not the safety concerns for speeds greater than 80 km/h, while alternative model successful for all speeds.

  6. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  7. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  8. Results of the radiological survey at 9 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ069)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-07-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process waste and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monozite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Areas residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with teas and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigate radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 9 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ069), was conducted during 1987. Measurements at the private property located at 9 Redstone Lane indicate slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in association with cinder-like material observed in logging holes. These elevated levels result from naturally occurring radioactivity present in such substances as ashes and cinders. They are not related to the deposit of residues from processing operations at the MCW site. All other radiological findings conform to the guidelines established by the DOE for the Maywood, New Jersey, area remedial action plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Tremblay, Mathieu; Laurendeau, Denis; Teasdale, Normand

    2012-03-02

    Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  10. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  11. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  12. Lane Level Localization; Using Images and HD Maps to Mitigate the Lateral Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Peter, M.

    2017-05-01

    In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines) in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone's GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone's camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  13. LANE LEVEL LOCALIZATION; USING IMAGES AND HD MAPS TO MITIGATE THE LATERAL ERROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinyalamdary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone’s GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone’s camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  14. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  16. Serum irisin and myostatin levels after 2 weeks of high-altitude climbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Śliwicka

    Full Text Available Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OHD and indices of inflammatory processes. The study was performed in 8 men aged between 23 and 31 years, who participated in a 2-week climbing expedition in the Alps. The measurements of body composition and serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, 25(OHD, interleukin-6, myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, and high-sensitivity soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL were performed before and after expedition. A 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia caused significant decrease in body mass, body mass index (BMI, free fat mass and irisin, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels. On the other hand, significant increase in the levels of myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and osteoprotegerin were noted. The observed correlations of irisin with 25(OHD levels, as well as myostatin levels with inflammatory markers and the OPG/RANKL ratio indicate that these myokines may be involved in the energy-related processes and skeletal muscle regeneration in response to 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

  17. Climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic pathology in tremor and cerebellar degenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Wang, Jie; Sims, Peter A.; Pan, Ming-Kai; Liou, Jyun-you; Lee, Danielle; Tate, William J.; Kelly, Geoffrey C.; Louis, Elan D.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synaptic connections have been found in the essential tremor (ET) cerebellum, and these changes are correlated with tremor severity. Whether these postmortem changes are specific to ET remains to be investigated. We assessed CF-PC synaptic pathology in the postmortem cerebellum across a range of degenerative movement disorders [10 Parkinson’s disease (PD) cases, 10 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases, 10 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) cases, and 20 ET cases] and 25 controls. We observed differences in terms of CF pathological features across these disorders. Specifically, PD cases and ET cases both had more CFs extending into the parallel fiber (PF) territory, but ET cases had more complex branching and increased length of CFs in the PF territory along with decreased CF synaptic density compared to PD cases. MSA cases and SCA1 cases had the most severely reduced CF synaptic density and a marked paucity of CFs extending into the PF territory. Furthermore, CFs in a subset of MSA cases formed collateral branches parallel to the PC layer, a feature not seen in other diagnostic groups. Using unsupervised cluster analysis, the cases and controls could all be categorized into four clusters based on the CF pathology and features of PC pathology, including counts of PCs and their axonal torpedoes. ET cases and PD cases co-segregated into two clusters, whereas SCA1 cases and MSA cases formed another cluster, separate from the control cluster. Interestingly, the presence of resting tremor seemed to be the clinical feature that separated the cases into the two ET-PD clusters. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that these degenerative movement disorders seem to differ with respect to the pattern of CF synaptic pathology they exhibit. It remains to be determined how these differences contribute to the clinical presentations of these diseases. PMID:27704282

  18. Serum irisin and myostatin levels after 2 weeks of high-altitude climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwicka, Ewa; Cisoń, Tomasz; Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Nowak, Alicja; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes. The study was performed in 8 men aged between 23 and 31 years, who participated in a 2-week climbing expedition in the Alps. The measurements of body composition and serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, 25(OH)D, interleukin-6, myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, and high-sensitivity soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) were performed before and after expedition. A 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia caused significant decrease in body mass, body mass index (BMI), free fat mass and irisin, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels. On the other hand, significant increase in the levels of myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and osteoprotegerin were noted. The observed correlations of irisin with 25(OH)D levels, as well as myostatin levels with inflammatory markers and the OPG/RANKL ratio indicate that these myokines may be involved in the energy-related processes and skeletal muscle regeneration in response to 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

  19. Prediction of Chinese Drivers' Intentions to Park Illegally in Emergency Lanes: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yubing; Ma, Yang; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Jianchuan; Zhang, Yunlong

    2018-06-21

    Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions. In this cross-sectional study, eligible respondents were all qualified Chinese drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data including demographic information, descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and scenario-based invulnerability combined with TPB constructs. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs and a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. A total of 435 qualified drivers (234 males and 201 females) with a mean age of 35.2 years (S.D.=10.3) were included in analysis. The descriptive analysis showed that most participants reported weak intentions (M = 2.35) to park illegally in emergency lanes with negative attitude (M = 3.19), low perceived support (M = 2.91) and high control (M = 5.08) over the behavior. The model succeeded in explaining 64% of the variance in intentions for the whole sample, and principal TPB components accounted for 21% of variance in intentions after demographic variables were controlled. MANOVAs revealed that significant differences of respondents' opinions towards illegal emergency lane parking were only found between better-educated drivers (with college education background) and less-educated ones. Separate regression analyses revealed that predictive pattern of better-educated participants also

  20. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  1. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors

  2. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  3. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  4. Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The aim of this paper is to present the LANE study, to estimate representativeness and analyse response rates over time, and also to describe common career pathways and life transitions during the first years of working life. Methods Three Swedish national cohorts of nursing students on university degree programmes were recruited to constitute the cohorts. Of 6138 students who were eligible for participation, a total of 4316 consented to participate and responded at baseline (response rate 70%. The cohorts will be followed prospectively for at least three years of their working life. Results Sociodemographic data in the cohorts were found to be close to population data, as point estimates only differed by 0-3% from population values. Response rates were found to decline somewhat across time, and this decrease was present in all analysed subgroups. During the first year after graduation, nearly all participants had qualified as nurses and had later also held nursing positions. The most common reason for not working was due to maternity leave. About 10% of the cohorts who graduated in 2002 and 2004 intended to leave the profession one year after graduating, and among those who graduated in 2006 the figure was almost twice as high. Intention to leave the profession was more common among young nurses. In the cohort who graduated in 2002, nearly every fifth registered nurse continued to further higher educational training within the health professions. Moreover, in this cohort, about 2% of the participants had left the nursing

  5. Evaluation of the traffic safety benefits of a lower speed limit and restriction of trucks to use of right lane only on I-10 over the Atchafalaya Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    To improve traffic operation and safety, several states have implemented truck lane restriction and differential speed limit policies on freeways. In response to an 11-vehicle crash in September 2003, the Louisiana State Department of Transportation ...

  6. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARRIOT LANE in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20 February 1987 to 22 February 1987 (NODC Accession 8700096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the HARRIOT LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean. Data...

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARRIOT LANE in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 29 December 1986 to 31 December 1986 (NODC Accession 8700074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XTB casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from the HARRIOT LANE. Data were collected from 29 December...

  8. Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB): A Mobile Intervention to Improve Social Functioning in People With Chronic Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Danielle; Nahum, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous psychosocial interventions for individuals with chronic psychotic disorders (CPD) have shown positive effects on social cognitive and functional outcome measures. However, access to and engagement with these interventions remains limited. This is partly because these interventions require specially trained therapists, are not available in all clinical settings, and have a high scheduling burden for participants, usually requiring a commitment of several weeks. Delivering interventions remotely via mobile devices may facilitate access, improve scheduling flexibility, and decrease participant burden, thus improving adherence to intervention requirements. To address these needs, we designed the Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB) digital intervention, which aims to enhance social functioning in people with CPD. CLIMB consists of two treatment components: a computerized social cognition training (SCT) program and optimized remote group therapy (ORGT). ORGT is an innovative treatment that combines remote group therapy with group texting (short message service, SMS). Objectives The objectives of this single-arm study were to investigate the feasibility of delivering 6 weeks of CLIMB to people with CPD and explore the initial effects on outcomes. Methods Participants were recruited, screened and enrolled via the Internet, and delivered assessments and interventions remotely using provided tablets (iPads). Participants were asked to complete 18 hours of SCT and to attend 6 remote group therapy sessions. To assess feasibility, adherence to study procedures, attrition rates, engagement metrics, and acceptability of the intervention were evaluated. Changes on measures of social cognition, quality of life, and symptoms were also explored. Results In total, 27 participants were enrolled over 12 months. Remote assessments were completed successfully on 96% (26/27) of the enrolled participants. Retention in the 6-week trial was 78% (21

  9. The “green wave” mode production on the two-lane highways during the construction works time period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Berezhnoy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the problem of a bi-directional “green wave” mode production is considered for the vehicle flows motion on two-lane highways during the conducting of construction works. The solution of the given task allows to develop practical recommendations for the sphere of the construction works management on two-lane roads and country highways, and also to raise traffic control efficiency in the pointed conditions. The comparative analysis of possible traffic regulation modes for the set scheme of road construction works sites and the estimation of their effi ciency is performed, the test of a hypothesis regarding the possibility of a bi-directional “green wave” mode realization is carried out, and calculation of traffic lights signal control phases time is performed.

  10. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  11. Statistical characteristics of climbing fiber spikes necessary for efficient cerebellar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S; Yamamoto, K; Miyamoto, H; Doya, K; Kawat, M

    2001-03-01

    Mean firing rates (MFRs), with analogue values, have thus far been used as information carriers of neurons in most brain theories of learning. However, the neurons transmit the signal by spikes, which are discrete events. The climbing fibers (CFs), which are known to be essential for cerebellar motor learning, fire at the ultra-low firing rates (around 1 Hz), and it is not yet understood theoretically how high-frequency information can be conveyed and how learning of smooth and fast movements can be achieved. Here we address whether cerebellar learning can be achieved by CF spikes instead of conventional MFR in an eye movement task, such as the ocular following response (OFR), and an arm movement task. There are two major afferents into cerebellar Purkinje cells: parallel fiber (PF) and CF, and the synaptic weights between PFs and Purkinje cells have been shown to be modulated by the stimulation of both types of fiber. The modulation of the synaptic weights is regulated by the cerebellar synaptic plasticity. In this study we simulated cerebellar learning using CF signals as spikes instead of conventional MFR. To generate the spikes we used the following four spike generation models: (1) a Poisson model in which the spike interval probability follows a Poisson distribution, (2) a gamma model in which the spike interval probability follows the gamma distribution, (3) a max model in which a spike is generated when a synaptic input reaches maximum, and (4) a threshold model in which a spike is generated when the input crosses a certain small threshold. We found that, in an OFR task with a constant visual velocity, learning was successful with stochastic models, such as Poisson and gamma models, but not in the deterministic models, such as max and threshold models. In an OFR with a stepwise velocity change and an arm movement task, learning could be achieved only in the Poisson model. In addition, for efficient cerebellar learning, the distribution of CF spike

  12. Adhesive foot pads: an adaptation to climbing? An ecological survey in hunting spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-01

    Hairy pads relying on dry adhesion are fascinating structures that convergently evolved among spiders and lizards. Numerous studies underline the functional aspects leading to their strong adhesion to smooth surfaces, but rarely has their role been studied in the context of natural habitats and surfaces that animals are faced with. In hunting spiders, the hairy foot pads (claw tufts) underneath the paired claws are assumed to be an adaptation to a climbing lifestyle, particularly on smooth plant surfaces. However, surfaces that are too smooth for claws to generate a sufficient grip are rather rare in natural habitats and above-ground habitats are occupied by hunting spiders both with and without claw tufts. In this study we estimated the proportion of claw tuft-bearing hunting spiders (ct+ ratio) among microhabitat-specific assemblages by conducting both a field study and a meta-analysis approach. The effect of surface characteristics, structure fragmentation and altitude of the microhabitat niche on the ct+ ratio was analyzed. We hypothesized that the ct+ ratio will be higher in (i) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats above the ground than from those at the ground and (ii) in hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with smoother surfaces (tree foliage) than those with rougher surfaces (barks, stones), and lower in (iii) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with more fragmented structures (small leaves) than in those with comparable but less fragmented structures (large leaves). We found the ct+ ratio to be significantly affected by the microhabitat's distance from the ground, whereas surface characteristics and fragmentation of the substrates were of minor importance. This suggests that claw tufts are highly beneficial when the microhabitat's height exceeds a value where the additional pad-related costs are exceeded by the costs of dropping. We assume the benefit to be mainly due to gaining a high safety factor

  13. Toyota drivers' experiences with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, Pre-Collision System, and Lane-Keeping Assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-02-01

    Advanced crash avoidance and driver assistance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes. Previous surveys with drivers have found favorable opinions for many advanced technologies; however, these surveys are not necessarily representative of all drivers or all systems. As the technologies spread throughout the vehicle fleet, it is important to continue studying driver acceptance and use of them. This study focused on 2010-2013 Toyota Sienna and Prius models that were equipped with adaptive cruise control, forward collision avoidance, and lane departure warning and prevention (Prius models only). Telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2013 with 183 owners of vehicles with these technologies. About 9 in 10 respondents wanted adaptive cruise control and forward collision avoidance on their next vehicle, and 71% wanted lane departure warning/prevention again. Males and females reported some differences in their experiences with the systems; for example, males were more likely to have turned on lane departure warning/prevention than females, and when using this system, males reported more frequent warnings than did females. Relative to older drivers, drivers age 40 and younger were more likely to have seen or heard a forward collision warning. Consistent with the results in previous surveys of owners of luxury vehicles, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies was high, although less so for lane departure warning/prevention. Experiences with the Toyota systems differed by driver age and gender to a greater degree than in previous surveys, suggesting that the responses of drivers may begin to differ as crash avoidance technology becomes available on a wider variety of vehicles. Crash avoidance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. These systems will be effective only to the extent that drivers use them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and

  14. Principles of expert fuzzy controller design: AI mobile wall climbing robots for decontamination of nuclear power-station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradetsky, V.G.; Ul'yanov, S.; Slesarev, Y.V.; Pospelov, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The arrangement principles for a complex control framework of artificial intelligence control systems are introduced. The notions of intelligence levels with the top boundary (intelligence in large) and the bottom boundary (intelligence in small) are defined. A special methodology for the design of an artificial intelligence control system design for the decontamination of a nuclear power plant using a wall climbing robot with different intelligence levels is presented. The application of WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) to the design of an automatic fuzzy controller for the fuzzy correction of the motion of the manipulator and WCR is examined

  15. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  16. Development of stair-climbing mechanism with passive crawlers. Analysis of limitation for crawler rotation angle and test vehicle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Junji; Kimura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel mechanism with passive crawlers that will realize a stair-climbing rescue robot with simple system. The proposed mechanism is called 'SMART-III', it is named after 'Simple Mechanism Adaptive for Rough Terrain'. Some quasi-static dynamic analysis were implemented and effectiveness of limitation for crawler rotation angle were verified. A prototype robot with the SMART-III mechanism had been improved. Experimental results show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed mechanism against a step and continuous stairs. (author)

  17. Climb!” – A Composition Case Study. Actualising and Replicating Virtual Spaces in Classical Music Composition and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2018-01-01

    , for example, the acoustics of the concert hall, the instrumentation, the qualities of the concert instrument, or the technologies used. Today´s electroacoustic repertoires frequently contain manipulation of (either physical or virtual) space or acoustic qualities, which sets new requirements...... to the capabilities of the performers. This leads to a question what these requirements may be and how can the performers and composers best deal with them? Can the space itself form part of the structure of a composition and/or performance? This chapter explores the topic through a composition case study “Climb...

  18. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eves Frank F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour. Methods Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300. Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site. In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site. The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854 and descent (29,352 at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253. Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing, logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing, and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire. Results Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66 than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34. Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they

  19. An observational study of consumer use of fast-food restaurant drive-through lanes: implications for menu labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Hoffnagle, Elena; Bragg, Marie A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-11-01

    Some versions of restaurant menu labelling legislation do not require energy information to be posted on menus for drive-through lanes. The present study was designed to quantify the number of customers who purchase fast food through drive-in windows as a means of informing legislative labelling efforts. This was an observational study. The study took place at two McDonald's and Burger King restaurants, and single Dairy Queen, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Taco Bell and Wendy's restaurants. The number of customers entering the chain restaurants and purchasing food via the drive-through lane were recorded. A total of 3549 patrons were observed. The percentage of customers who made their purchases at drive-throughs was fifty-seven. The overall average (57 %) is likely a conservative estimate because some fast-food restaurants have late-night hours when only the drive-throughs are open. Since nearly six in ten customers purchase food via the drive-through lanes, menu labelling legislation should mandate the inclusion of menu labels on drive-through menu boards to maximise the impact of this public health intervention.

  20. Modeling and simulation of driver's anticipation effect in a two lane system on curved road with slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Sharma, Sapna

    2018-06-01

    The complexity of traffic flow phenomena on curved road with slope is investigated and a new lattice model is presented with the addition of driver's anticipation effect for two lane system. The condition under which the free flow turns into the jammed one, is obtained theoretically by using stability analysis. The results obtained through linear analysis indicates that the stable region increases (decreases) corresponding to uphill (downhill) case due to increasing slope angle for fixed anticipation parameter. It is found that when the vehicular density becomes higher than a critical value, traffic jam appears in the form of kink antikink density waves. Analytically, the kink antikink density waves are described by the solution of mKdV equation obtained from non linear analysis. In addition, the theoretical results has been verified through numerical simulation, which confirm that the slope on a curved highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the anticipation parameter in a two lane lattice model when lane changing is allowed.

  1. Fast learning method for convolutional neural networks using extreme learning machine and its application to lane detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Jonghong; Jang, Gil-Jin; Lee, Minho

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning has received significant attention recently as a promising solution to many problems in the area of artificial intelligence. Among several deep learning architectures, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) demonstrate superior performance when compared to other machine learning methods in the applications of object detection and recognition. We use a CNN for image enhancement and the detection of driving lanes on motorways. In general, the process of lane detection consists of edge extraction and line detection. A CNN can be used to enhance the input images before lane detection by excluding noise and obstacles that are irrelevant to the edge detection result. However, training conventional CNNs requires considerable computation and a big dataset. Therefore, we suggest a new learning algorithm for CNNs using an extreme learning machine (ELM). The ELM is a fast learning method used to calculate network weights between output and hidden layers in a single iteration and thus, can dramatically reduce learning time while producing accurate results with minimal training data. A conventional ELM can be applied to networks with a single hidden layer; as such, we propose a stacked ELM architecture in the CNN framework. Further, we modify the backpropagation algorithm to find the targets of hidden layers and effectively learn network weights while maintaining performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is effective in reducing learning time and improving performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  3. Highway driving safety the day after using sleep medication: the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane in drowsy drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Mooren, Loes; Bervoets, Adriana C; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-24

    The primary outcome measure of the on-road driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position. However, other outcome measures, such as lapses and excursions out-of-lane, also need to be considered as they may be related to crash risk. The aim of this study was to determine the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane (i.e. towards/into the adjacent traffic lane or towards/into the road shoulder). In total, data from 240 driving tests were re-analysed, and 628 lapses and 401 excursions out-of-lane were identified. The analyses revealed that lapses were made equally frequently over left (49.4%) and over right (43.3%). In contrast, excursions out-of-lane were almost exclusively directed over right into the (safer) road shoulder (97.3%). These findings suggest that drivers are unaware of having lapses, whereas excursions out-of-lane are events where the driver is aware of loss of vehicle control. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Changing lanes in a simulator: effects of aging on the control of the vehicle and visual inspection of mirrors and blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalliere, Martin; Laurendeau, Denis; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine lane change strategies in active younger and older drivers. Visual inspection of mirrors and the blind spot and the control of the vehicle were documented in a simulator environment. Younger (n = 10, 21-31 years) and older (n = 11, 65-75 years) active drivers drove through a continuous simulated environment including urban and rural sections. The scenario included events where, to negotiate a secure lane change, the driver needed to look at 3 regions of interest (ROI): (1) the rearview mirror, (2) the left side mirror, and (3) the left blind spot. The lane change maneuvers were necessary to avoid a vehicle parked halfway in the rightmost lane that was partially or completely blocking the lane or for overtaking a slower moving vehicle. Compared with younger drivers, older drivers showed a reduced frequency of visual inspection toward the rearview mirror and the blind spot. Also, though the older drivers showed a constant frequency of visual inspection across the 2 types of driving maneuvers, the younger drivers increased their frequency of inspection when overtaking a slower vehicle. Control of the car was mostly similar for both groups. A better knowledge of the drivers' visual search strategies when changing lanes could help in identifying suboptimal strategies at-risk of causing crashes and also serves to develop retraining programs.

  5. Crowd of individuals walking in opposite directions. A toy model to study the segregation of the group into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsztein, Guillermo H.

    2017-08-01

    Consider a corridor, street or bridge crowded with pedestrians walking in both directions. The individuals do not walk in a completely straight line. They adjust their path to avoid colliding with incoming pedestrians. As a result of these adjustments, the whole group sometimes end up split into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction. While this formation of lanes facilitates the flow and benefits the whole group, it is believed that results from the actions of the individuals acting only on their behalf, without considering others. This phenomenon is an example of self-organization. We analyze a simple model. We assume that individuals move around a two-lane circular track. All of them at the same speed. Half of them in one direction and the rest in the opposite direction. Each time two individuals collide, one of them moves to the other lane. The individual changing lanes is selected randomly. The system self-organizes. Eventually each lane is occupied with individuals moving in only one direction. We show that the time required for the system to self-organize is bounded by a linear function on the number of individuals. This toy model provides an example where global self-organization occurs even though each member of the group acts without considering the rest.

  6. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend with distance. While for the ramp with an auxiliary lane that has sufficient acceleration distance, it was found that the acceleration behavior is to have a high acceleration rate in the beginning, then acceleration rate decrease with speed increase, and high acceleration rate again as drivers approach the merging area. Field data show that the truck acceleration performance data documented in the ITE’s (Institute of Transportation Engineers “Traffic Engineering Handbook” are much lower than the field collected data. Also, based on the regression analysis of speed versus distance profiles, it was found that the AASHTO’s (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book acceleration length design guidance is insufficient to accommodate trucks at metered on-ramps. The required acceleration lengths for medium and heavy trucks are approximately 1.3 and 1.6 times of the Green Book design guideline, respectively.

  7. Lane-Emden equation with inertial force and general polytropic dynamic model for molecular cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, DaLei; Lou, Yu-Qing; Esimbek, Jarken

    2018-01-01

    We study self-similar hydrodynamics of spherical symmetry using a general polytropic (GP) equation of state and derive the GP dynamic Lane-Emden equation (LEE) with a radial inertial force. In reference to Lou & Cao, we solve the GP dynamic LEE for both polytropic index γ = 1 + 1/n and the isothermal case n → +∞; our formalism is more general than the conventional polytropic model with n = 3 or γ = 4/3 of Goldreich & Weber. For proper boundary conditions, we obtain an exact constant solution for arbitrary n and analytic variable solutions for n = 0 and n = 1, respectively. Series expansion solutions are derived near the origin with the explicit recursion formulae for the series coefficients for both the GP and isothermal cases. By extensive numerical explorations, we find that there is no zero density at a finite radius for n ≥ 5. For 0 ≤ n 0 for monotonically decreasing density from the origin and vanishing at a finite radius for c being less than a critical value Ccr. As astrophysical applications, we invoke our solutions of the GP dynamic LEE with central finite boundary conditions to fit the molecular cloud core Barnard 68 in contrast to the static isothermal Bonnor-Ebert sphere by Alves et al. Our GP dynamic model fits appear to be sensibly consistent with several more observations and diagnostics for density, temperature and gas pressure profiles.

  8. Method for environmental risk analysis of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen-Lie, Torild R.; Aspholm, Ole O. [DNV Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a quantitative method for analyzing the environmental risk of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes. The method has been used both in Norway and elsewhere in the world; calculating the risk for environmental resources as fish, seabirds and waterfowls, marine mammals, otters, sea turtles and salt marches and other shoreline/sub tidal habitats. The environmental risk is the product of the probability of acute releases and the environmental consequences. Consequences for vulnerable species and habitats are calculated based on oil drift modelling results and a consequence matrix consisting of 5-7 consequence parameter and five consequence levels of increasing seriousness. An average consequence level is calculated on basis of defined weighting factors to provide an overall consequence value for each spill scenario for each species/habitat. An environmental risk analysis highlights the hazards that have to be managed in order to run an environmentally sustainable operation and can also provide input to establish cost-effective oil spill response measures. (author)

  9. Results of the radiological survey at 19 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ056)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 19 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ056), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Results of the radiological survey at 106 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ063)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 106 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ063), was conducted during 1987. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Results of the radiological survey at 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Results of the radiological survey at 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068), was conducted during 1987. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclides analyses. The survey of this site, 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained

  15. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  16. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  17. Development of regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural roads in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Gayah, Vikash V; Donnell, Eric T

    2017-11-01

    The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual (HSM) contains safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict annual crash frequencies for several roadway types. When applying these SPFs in a jurisdiction whose data were not used to develop the SPF, a calibration factor can be applied to adjust the expected crash frequency estimate to statewide or local conditions. Alternatively, the HSM suggests that transportation agencies may develop their own SPFs in lieu of applying the calibration factor to the HSM SPFs. However, the HSM does not provide guidance on the appropriate level of regionalization that should be adopted for either method, even though safety performance may vary considerably within a state. In light of this, the present study considers the development of local or regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural highways within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Three regionalization levels were considered: statewide, engineering district and individual counties. The expected crash frequency for each level of regionalization was compared to the reported crash frequency over an eight-year analysis period. The results indicate that district-level SPFs with county-level adjustment factors provide better predictive accuracy than the development of a statewide SPF or application of the HSM-calibrated SPF. The findings suggest that there are significant differences in safety performance across engineering districts within Pennsylvania. As such, other state transportation agencies developing SPFs or using calibration factors may also consider how variations across jurisdictions will affect predicted crash frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  19. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, R.A.; Nassef, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  20. Design and Optimal Research of a Non-Contact Adjustable Magnetic Adhesion Mechanism for a Wall-Climbing Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-climbing welding robots (WCWRs can replace workers in manufacturing and maintaining large unstructured equipment, such as ships. The adhesion mechanism is the key component of WCWRs. As it is directly related to the robot's ability in relation to adsorbing, moving flexibly and obstacle-passing. In this paper, a novel non-contact adjustably magnetic adhesion mechanism is proposed. The magnet suckers are mounted under the robot's axils and the sucker and wall are in non-contact. In order to pass obstacles, the sucker and the wheel unit can be pulled up and pushed down by a lifting mechanism. The magnetic adhesion force can be adjusted by changing the height of the gap between the sucker and the wall by the lifting mechanism. In order to increase the adhesion force, the value of the sucker's magnetic energy density (MED is maximized by optimizing the magnet sucker's structure parameters with a finite element method. Experiments prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism has enough adhesion force and that the WCWR can complete wall-climbing work within a large unstructured environment.