Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)
extraordinary process of standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)
Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Witiw, M. R.
The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), an NSF, NASA, and NOAA supported program providing K-12 teacher professional development uses a thematic approach to frame participant inquiry. To address topics such as carbon sequestration, ocean acidification or aerosols, ESSEA online courses present participants with scenarios or contexts depicting an anomaly or perturbation to the Earth system. The courses deepen teachers’ content knowledge within an inquiry environment through reflection, analysis and self-discovery. Courses familiarize participants with Earth system analyses and provide a suite of techniques that can be employed to facilitate student learning, for example, through the use of Problem-based learning (PBL). Problem-based learning (PBL) is designed to "simultaneously develop both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems.” PBL models are generally characterized by the following steps: 1) the presentation of a problem to a small group of students, 2) discussion of the problem among the students which produces tentative explanations of the problem, and 3) an attempt to solve the problem. When participants work to solve ill-structured problems, they are working toward learning generalized procedures for problem solving that will transfer to new situations (University of Delaware, 1999). At the end of an ESSEA course experience, teachers are better equipped with the content and the confidence in using inquiry in the teaching of climate science.
Joseph, Philippe; Teles, Vanessa; Weill, Pierre
As an introduction to this thematic issue on "Modelling approaches in sedimentology", this paper gives an overview of the workshop held in Paris on 7 November 2013 during the 14th Congress of the French Association of Sedimentologists. A synthesis of the workshop in terms of concepts, spatial and temporal scales, constraining data, and scientific challenges is first presented, then a discussion on the possibility of coupling different models, the industrial needs, and the new potential domains of research is exposed.
Weill, Pierre; Tessier, Bernadette
This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience gives an overview of the works presented in the frame of a session dedicated to "Coastal sediment dynamics" at the 14th Congress of the French Association of Sedimentologists, held in Paris, France, from 5 to 7 November 2013. In total, 23 papers were presented in this session, both in the form of oral communications and posters. This national conference is traditionally a gateway for PhD and Master students to share their first results and sharpen their oral skills in front of an audience of specialists.
Rouwhorst, Gerard; Bos, David
Introduction to a double thematic issue, the second part of which will appear in print in 2017. The authors argue that a truly historical understanding of spirituality is complicated by the historical claims of present-day proponents of spirituality, as well by the commonplace that “spirituality” is
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a which ethical issues were represented, (b whether ethical recommendations were included, (c whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d to what extent the ethical issues were explained. CONCLUSIONS: Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia
Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda
We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.
As a Jefferson Science Fellow from August 2014-August 2015, Alice Bean worked with the Office of Religion and Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of State on climate change and environmental issues. The Office of Religion and Global Affairs works to implement the National Strategy on Religious Leader and Faith Community Engagement which includes building partnerships on environmental issues. With the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties meeting 21 in December, 2015 in Paris, there were and continue to be great opportunities for physicists to interact with policy makers and the general public. As an experimental particle physicist, much was learned about climate change science, how the public views scientists, how science can influence policy, but most especially how to communicate about science.
Hu, Rui-Zhong; Zhou, Mei-Fu
Mesozoic mineral deposits in South China include world-class deposits of W, Sn and Sb and those that provide the major sources of Ta, Cu, Hg, As, Tl, Pb, Zn, Au and Ag for the entire country. These deposits can be classified into polymetallic hydrothermal systems closely related to felsic intrusive rocks (Sn-W -Mo granites, Cu porphyries, polymetallic and Fe skarns, and polymetallic vein deposits) and low-temperature hydrothermal systems with no direct connection to igneous activities (MVT deposits, epithermal Au and Sb deposits). Recent studies have shown that they formed in the Triassic (Indosinian), Jurassic-Cretaceous (Early Yanshanian), and Cretaceous (Late Yanshanian) stages. Indosinian deposits include major MVT (Pb-Zn-Ag) deposits and granite-related W-Sn deposits. Early Yanshanian deposits are low-temperature Sb-Au and high-temperature W-Sn and Cu porphyry types. Many Late Yanshanian deposits are low-temperature Au-As-Sb-Hg and U deposits, and also include high-temperature W-Sn polymetallic deposits. The formation of these deposits is linked with a specific tectonothermal evolution and igneous activities. This special issue brings together some of the latest information in eight papers that deal with the origins and tectonic environments of mineral deposits formed in these stages. We anticipate that this issue will stimulate more interests in these ore deposits in South China.
Ruel, H.J.M.; Bondarouk, T.V.; Florén, H.; Rundquist, J.
This paper introduces the papers included in the thematic issue on Human Resource Management (HRM) and firm innovativeness in a European context. Furthermore it presents the results of a literature review on human resource management and firm innovativeness. The literature shows that the positive re
Bijnsdorp, S.; Bijman, J. (eds.); Kurvers, S.R.; Van der Linden, A.C. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hooft, E.N.' t; Roelofsen, C.P.G. [Grontmij Technical Management, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Plokker, W. [Vabi, Delft (Netherlands); Boerstra, A.C.; Leijten, J.L. [Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Raue, A.K. [Raue IEQ, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hensen, J.L.M.; Van Hoof, J. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
In this special issue 7 articles are dedicated to the indoor climate: (1) the importance of a healthy climate in office buildings; (2) four articles on the so-called GTO- and the ATG-method. GTO is the Dutch abbreviation for weighted temperature exceedance value and ATG stands for the adaptive temperature boundary values. Both are used to assess the thermal comfort and the indoor climate; (3) in the sixth article attention is paid to the impact of the indoor environment on administrative organizations; and (4) the final article deals with the measurement of relative humidity in HVAC-technology. [Dutch] In dit themanummer zijn 7 artikelen gewijd aan het binnenklimaat: (1) het belang van een gezond binnenklimaat in kantoorgebouwen; (2) vier artikelen over de zogenaamde GTO- en ATG-methoden. GTO staat voor gewogen temperatuuroverschrijdingswaarde en ATG is de adaptieve temperatuurgrenswaarden methode; (3) in het zesde artikel wordt aandacht besteed aan het effect van het binnenklimaat op administratieve organisaties; en (4) het laatste artikel gaat in op de meting van de relatieve vochtigheid in de HVAC-technologie.
This paper discusses global climate change, summarizes activities related to climate change, and identifies possible outcomes of the current debate on the subject. Aspects of climate change related to economic issues are very briefly summarized; it is suggested that the end result will be a change in lifestyle in developed countries. International activities, with an emphasis on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and U.S. activities are outlined. It is recommended that the minimum action required is to work to understand the issue and prepare for possible action.
Chandani, Achala; Anderson, Simon; Schoch, Corinne; Smith, Barry
Parliamentarians can play a key role in building climate resilience by bringing constituents' concerns into national forums, scrutinising how governments are responding to domestic and global climate change issues, and ensuring policy continuity. In the Southern African Customs Union, members of parliament often struggle to fulfill this role, hampered by limited understanding of the issues, fragmented policy and legal frameworks and competing priorities. Boosting parliamentarians' capacity to engage effectively with climate change in Southern Africa requires them to strengthen their research capabilities, diversify their sources of information and build cross-party groups on climate change.
Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do
Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen
The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…
scientific understanding of global climate and other environmental and disaster-related phenomena , and consider the implications for both fundamental...Conference “From Bali to Poznan – New Issues, New Challenges.” Conference 12/14/07 H.R. 1585: 2008 Defense Authorization Bill passed House and...Article 12/03/07- 12/14/07 Thirteenth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bali . - Closing
Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto
The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.
Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica
Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...... provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor...
Ebi, K. L.
Continuing to frame climate change as an environmental issue can limit understanding by decision-makers and the public of the magnitude of the challenges faced by human and natural systems as the climate continues to change. Environmental issues are typically researched and managed using methods and tools that have been effective in dealing with other environmental concerns, from tropospheric ozone to lead exposure. Risk assessment is a commonly used approach to understanding the risk(s) posed by an agent, with four basic steps: (1) hazard identification; (2) dose-response assessment; (3) exposure assessment; and (4) risk characterization. This framing does not fully capture the complex interrelationships and feedbacks that often characterize the risks of climate change; understanding these can lead to better-informed decisions. Challenges with using traditional risk assessment to understand the health risks of climate change, for example, include the 'exposure' can range from increases in the mean and/or variance of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables, to ocean acidification. Each is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, with many associations indirect and/or nonlinear. Further, uncertainty about the magnitude, timing, and nature of changes in the climate system results in a need to estimate the potential impacts under a range of possible scenarios. In addition, most climate-sensitive health outcomes have multiple, contributing causes that may be interrelated, making it difficult to single out the influence of climate change against a backdrop of other risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, that also will change over time. In short, the primary assumption underlying traditional risk assessment -- that a defined exposure to a specific agent causes an adverse health outcome to identifiable exposed populations -- does not apply to climate change. Climate literacy can be improved by moving the framing from a relatively linear
Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands where a tight coupling exists between ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, biogeochemical cycles, and water resource availability. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. The issues range from societal aspects such as rapid population growth, the resulting food and water security, and development issues, to natural aspects such as ecohydrological consequences of bush encroachment and the causes of desertification. To improve current understanding and inform upon the needed research efforts to address these critical issues, we identify some recent technical advances in terms of monitoring dryland water dynamics, water budget and vegetation water use, with a focus on the use of stable isotopes and remote sensing. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change.
Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)
The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the
Full Text Available Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change
John T. Fasullo
Full Text Available Numerous attempts have been made to constrain climate sensitivity with observations [1-10] (with  as LC09,  as SB11. While all of these attempts contain various caveats and sources of uncertainty, some efforts have been shown to contain major errors and are demonstrably incorrect. For example, multiple studies [11-13] separately addressed weaknesses in LC09 . The work of Trenberth et al. , for instance, demonstrated a basic lack of robustness in the LC09 method that fundamentally undermined their results. Minor changes in that study’s subjective assumptions yielded major changes in its main conclusions. Moreover, Trenberth et al.  criticized the interpretation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO as an analogue for exploring the forced response of the climate system. In addition, as many cloud variations on monthly time scales result from internal atmospheric variability, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation, cloud variability is not a deterministic response to surface temperatures. Nevertheless, many of the problems in LC09  have been perpetuated, and Dessler  has pointed out similar issues with two more recent such attempts [7,8]. Here we briefly summarize more generally some of the pitfalls and issues involved in developing observational constraints on climate feedbacks. [...
Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.
Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny
theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.
Full Text Available The Paris Climate Change Conference was successfully concluded with the Paris Agreement, which is a milestone for the world in collectively combating climate change. By participating in IPCC assessments and conducting national climate change assessments, China has been increasing its understanding of the issue. For the first time, China's top leader attended the Conference of the Parties, which indicates the acknowledgement of the rationality and necessity of climate change response by China at different levels. Moreover, this participation reflects China's commitment to including climate change in its ecology improvement program and pursuing a low-carbon society and economy. In order to ensure the success of the Paris Conference, China has contributed significantly. China's constructive participation in global governance shows that China is a responsible power. These principles such as the creation of a future of win–win cooperation with each country contributing to the best of its ability; a future of the rule of law, fairness, and justice; and a future of inclusiveness, mutual learning, and common development will serve as China's guidelines in its efforts to facilitate the implementation of the Paris Agreement and participate in the design of international systems.
Newmark, R. L.; Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Short, W.
Accurate characterizations of renewable energy technologies, particularly wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, require an increasingly sophisticated understanding of location-specific attributes, including generation or production costs and the cost of transmission or transportation to a point of use, and climate induced changes to the resource base. Capturing these site-specific characteristics in national and global models presents both unique opportunities and challenges. National and global decisions, ideally, should be informed by geospatially rich data and analysis. Here we describe issues related to and initial advances in representing renewable energy technologies in global models, and the resulting implications for climate stabilization analysis and global assessments, including IPCC’s Assessment Round 5 and IEA’s World Energy Outlook.
Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.
Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…
Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and
Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.
This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.
This position paper by the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) outlines the information technology community's position vis-a-vis the Federal Government's 'Climate Change Plan for Canada'. In general, the ITAC is in favour of the Government's plan, however, it asserts that the Plan falls short by not acknowledging the significant contributions that present and emerging information and communications technologies can make to the achievements of Canadian climate change goals. In this regard the paper draws attention to, and explains the significance of the actual and potential contributions made to climate change efforts by teleconferencing, video-conferencing, telecommuting, electronic commerce, and smart buildings technologies. 4 refs.
Wilson, E.B.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.
The international conference on Deltas in Times of Climate Change: Connecting World Science and Deltas was held in Rotterdam over three days in September and October 2010, drawing some one thousand participants from sixty countries. It soon became apparent that there was considerable interest in the
Vezer, M. A.
Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between
Aschbacher, Pamela R.
Unlike traditional instruction, which emphasizes basic skills mastery as a gateway to more challenging coursework, the interdisciplinary, thematic, team-based humanitas program at Los Angeles Unified School District stresses that all students can learn from a conceptual approach. The key is teacher collaboration. Attendance rates have improved…
Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing
The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.
The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature
Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Schaefer, R. K.; Swartz, W. H.; Nix, M.; Strong, S. B.; Fountain, G. H.; Babin, S. M.; Pikas, C. K.; Parker, C. L.; Global Assimilation of InformationAction
GAIA - the Global Assimilation of Information for Action program - provides a broadly extensible framework for enabling the development of a deeper understanding of the issues associated with climate disruption. The key notion of GAIA is that the global climate problem is so complex that a "system engineering" approach is needed in order to make it understandable. The key tenet of system engineering is to focus on requirements and to develop a cost-effective process for satisfying those requirements. To demonstrate this approach we focused first on the impact of climate disruption on public health. GAIA is described in some detail on our website (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu). Climate disruption is not just a scientific problem; one of the key issues that our community has is that of translating scientific results into knowledge that can be used to make informed decisions. In order to support decision makers we have to understand their issues and how to communicate with them. In this talk, we describe how we have built a community of interest that combines subject matter experts from diverse communities (public health, climate change, government, public policy, industry, etc) with policy makers and representatives from industry to develop, on a "level playing field", an understanding of each other's points of view and issues. The first application of this technology was the development of a workshop on Climate, Climate Change and Public Health held April 12-14, 2011. This paper describes our approach to going beyond the workshop environment to continue to engage the decision maker's community in a variety of ways that translate abstract scientific data into actionable information. Key ideas we will discuss include the development of social media, simulations of global/national/local environments affected by climate disruption, and visualizations of the monetary and health impacts of choosing not to address mitigation or adaptation to climate disruption.
Dempsey, C.; Bodzin, A. M.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Peffer, T.; Cirucci, L.
In the Environmental Literacy and Inquiry middle school Climate Change curriculum we focus on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/). It incorporates a related set of a framework and design principles to provide guidance for the development of the geospatial technology-integrated Earth and environmental science curriculum materials. Students use virtual globes, Web-based tools including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline, and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate climate change topics. The curriculum includes educative curriculum materials that are designed to promote and support teachers' learning of important climate change content and issues, geospatial pedagogical content knowledge, and geographic spatial thinking. The curriculum includes baseline instructional guidance for teachers and provides implementation and adaptation guidance for teaching with diverse learners including low-level readers, English language learners and students with disabilities. In the curriculum, students use geospatial technology tools including Google Earth with embedded spatial data to investigate global temperature changes, areas affected by climate change, evidence of climate change, and the effects of sea level rise on the existing landscape. We conducted a designed-based research implementation study with urban middle school students. Findings showed that the use of the Climate Change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts.
Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.
How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power
Rothengatter, Werner; Ott, Anselm; Scholz, Aaron (and others)
The workshop covers the following issues: 1. Recommendations - action list: raking responsibility; analyzing the areas of impact; designing the instruments. 2. Climate change and necessary responses: challenges for the economy and the transportation sector; external cost of transportation and climate change. 3. Taking responsibility in the transportation sector: global responsibility; strategy in air transportation, strategies in road transportation; strategies in rail transportation, strategies in shipping.
How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power
Kwa, C.; van Hemert, M.
The Royal Society report on Geoengineering the Climate, published in 2009, is a land mark report on several accounts. This article assesses critically a number of the geoengineering techniques, in the broad categories of Solar Radiation Management and Carbon Dioxide Removal, which the Royal Society
Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus
There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to…
Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve
Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...... livestockkeeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. Wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigation opportunities......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....
Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken
Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.
Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.
Thematic structure and thematic progression are important concept of textual function. Based on the example of Obama's weekly radio speech, we can examine the practicality of thematic structure and thematic progression and give a guidance for preparation of political speeches.
Jentes Banicki, J.; Dierkes, C.
When people think about the effects of climate change, many will still picture that iconic lone polar bear clinging to a shrinking iceberg in Antarctica. But many don't realize that the impacts that we will face here at home could also be severe, directly affecting the food we eat, the health we have, and the natural environments we appreciate. To help better explain and ultimately localize those impacts for Great Lakes residents, 10 departments within Ohio State University partnered in 2009 to create the Global Change, Local Impact webinar series. The monthly series brings in experts from around the Great Lakes region to discuss issues and impacts we will encounter regionally as our climate changes. Originally designed as a small series for Ohioans, the series has broadened to focus on Great Lakes-related issues, with more than 4,500 attendees representing 500 organizations in governmental agencies, academia, non-profit groups, private industry, and the legislature from around the country. Over the past two years, the OSU Climate Team expanded its educational reach by partnering with external groups like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Great Lakes Regional Water Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network to help deliver the most knowledgeable experts and resources for each Great Lake-focused climate topic and archive those resources on its www.changingclimate.osu.edu web site. As a result of these collaborative efforts, participants say the webinars are one of their primary resources for climate-related research information in the region, with 80-90% polled saying they use this information as an unbiased resource to help not only understand how climate change could affect local concerns like public health, agriculture, and infrastructure, but what they in their vocations and daily lives can do to prepare for it. For scientists and practitioners, this series serves as the perfect low carbon venue
Full Text Available The papers in this thematic section were originally presented in two venues. Approximately half of the contributions were delivered first in a session at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Anthropological Society in Indianapolis, Indiana in March, 1995. The full complement of presentations took place at the 94th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Washington, D.C., in November, 1995. Two participants in the Washington symposium chose not to include their papers in this section. A number of the papers have thus benefitted from several stages of discussion and criticism. While anthropologists (and especially archaeologists dominated both panels, the disciplinary breadth represented by the various members contributed to an invigorating discussion which we now bring to the pages of this journal. In this attempt to reach a broad audience, however, we realize there is the problem of disciplinary specificity, i.e., the particular approaches and data with which scholars deal may not be easily comprehensible to those in other fields. For the current collection, this issue is especially acute for prehistorians, whose focus on the material record and a specialized archaeological terminology may confound some readers. The archaeologists have made efforts to minimize the use of esoteric jargon. In addition, chronological periods are clearly defined in order to fix the temporal setting. While some readers may already be very familiar with the periods in question, we thought it best to err on the side of caution.
Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.
Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Full Text Available Issues and their sub-topics in the public agenda follow certain dynamics of attention. This has been studied for “offline” media, but barely for online communication. Furthermore, the enormous spectrum of online communication has not been taken into account. This study investigates whether specific dynamics of attention on issues and sub-topics can be found in different online public arenas. We expect to identify differences across various arenas as a result of their specific stakeholders and constellations of stakeholders, as well as different trigger events. To examine these assumptions, we shed light on the online climate change discourse in Germany by undertaking a quantitative content analysis via manual and automated coding methods of journalistic articles and their reader comments, scientific expert blogs, discussion forums and social media at the time of the release of the 5th IPCC report and COP19, both in 2013 (n = 14.582. Our results show online public arena-specific dynamics of issue attention and sub-topics. In journalistic media, we find more continuous issue attention, compared to a public arena where everyone can communicate. Furthermore, we find event-specific dynamics of issue attention and sub-topics: COP19 received intensive and continuous attention and triggered more variation in the sub-topics than the release of the IPCC report.
Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.
Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf
Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;…
Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia
This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.
Outlines a thematic approach to a U.S. history survey course that focused on the struggles and achievements of women. Covers cultural images of femininity and beauty as well as political and economic issues. Includes brief biographies of Eliza Pinckey, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul. (MJP)
Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, Stephen; Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup;
Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the link...... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize....../develop for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....
A critical function of human language is to specify who did what to whom.Sentences serve this function by acting as miniature plays,with actors (typically labeled by noun phrases) playing roles in the event labeled by the verb.In the study of modern syntactic and semantics,theta role occupies quite an important place.This paper is a general overview of thematic role which may make a successful story on further study.
Full Text Available The Croatian Mine Action Centre (CROMAC reviewed, defined and marked the entire mine suspected area (MSA in Croatia by the year 2004. However, due to the need to reduce risk and the lack of information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, its surface area was defined as larger than in reality. Mine clearance is a long-term, expensive process, and Croatia has committed itself to resolving the problem of landmines on its territory by 201 9. Such developments have led to searching for and finding solutions to speed up resolution of the mine problem in Croatia (and in the world through reducing the defined MSA. The reduction of an already defined MSA requires additional data and information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, on the basis of which a revision of existing SMEs to make reductions will be carried out. Based on these data and revision of the existing MSA, reduction can be performed. All subsequently collected data and information, together with previously known data from the CROMAC Mine Information System (MIS, are processed in the decision support system in conditions of uncertainty. The results obtained are displayed on different thematic maps, showing the positions of objects and their spatial impact on the environment. Thus, thematic maps allow insights into topics which experts in humanitarian demining can use to make decisions in the process. These thematic maps are the result of the methodology created within the project Space and Airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools (SMART, and further developed in the technological project System for Multisensor Airborne Reconnaissance and Surveillance in Emergency Situations and Environmental Protection, TP-06/0007-01 , Ministry of Science, Education and Sports; Deployment of Advanced Intelligence Decision Support System for Mine Suspected Area Reduction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the author's doctoral dissertation. This paper establishes the new terminology for new, improved thematic maps
Full Text Available The quality of scientific writing is based on its impact on knowledge development. This study aims at exposing the Mendeley impact on scientific writing. The thematic analysis was applied in this study to transcribe the recordings and translate as well as analyze the transcripts through NVivo 8 software. This study reveals that the identified themes appeared in this study are avoiding plagiarism, backup file, change citation style, personal library, and social network. This study recommends that due to the plagiarism deterrent is problematic in scientific writing; students are required to be educated on this issue. This study also reveals that research collaboration in internet connection could be the basis of building the real network by creating research community and organizing conference for knowledge sharing among the researchers.
This special thematic section responds to the 21st century proliferation of social movements characterised by the slogans ‘another world is possible’ and ‘be the change you want to see’. It explores prefigurative politics as a means of instantiating radical social change in a context of widening global inequalities, climate change, and the crises and recoveries of neoliberal global capitalism. ‘Prefigurative politics’ refers to a range of social experiments that both critique the status quo a...
Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG
Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre
Full Text Available Climate change policy and sustainable development issues and goals are closely intertwined. Recognizing the dual relationship between sustainable development and climate change points to a need for the exploration of actions that jointly address sustainable development and climate change. Technology transfer is considered an issue with growing interest worldwide and has been recognized as the key in supporting countries to achieve sustainable development, while addressing climate change challenges. This study presents an integrated decision support methodological framework for the formulation and evaluation of activities to promote technology transfer, as well as the provision of clear recommendations and strategies for framing specific policy in the context of climate change. The philosophy of the proposed approach, under the name: assess-identify-define (AID, consists of three components, where each one focuses on a particular problem. The methodology is integrated using appropriate tools in the information decision support system for effective technology transfer (DSS-ΕTT. The pilot application of the proposed methodology, in five representative developing countries, provided the possibility to evaluate the characteristics of the adopted methodology in terms of completeness, usability, extensionality, as well as analysis of results reliability.
Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas
This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes
This article discusses the limits of the Anthropogenic Global Warming Theory advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A phenomenological theory of climate change based on the physical properties of the data themselves is proposed. At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system. A climatic stabilization or cooling until 2030-2040 is forecast by the phenomenological model.
Prabhat Kumar Rai
Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.
Climate change is defined as any long-term and significant change in the expected patterns of a specific region's average weather for an appropriately significant period of time. It is the result of several factors, including Earth?s dynamic processes, external forces, and more recently, human activity. External factors that shape climate include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in Earth's orbit, and variations in the level of greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence of climatic change taken from a variety of sources can, in turn, be used to reconstruct past climates. Most climate evidence is inferred from changes in key climate indicators, including vegetation, ice cores, dendrochronology, sea-level change, and glacial geology. Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social, and economic threats facing the planet today. In developing countries, Swaziland included, climate change will likely have a significant impact on the livelihoods and living conditions of the poor. It is a particular threat to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and progress in sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing temperatures and shifting rain patterns across Africa reduce access to food and create effects that impact regions, farming systems, households, and individuals in varying ways. Additional global changes, including changed trade patterns and energy policies, have the potential to exacerbate the negative effects of climate change on some of these systems and groups.
Adlong, William; Dietsch, Elaine
The likelihood of adverse health impacts from climate change is high. Actions to reduce emissions, however, not only mitigate climate change but often have more immediate health co-benefits. One substantial co-benefit is gained through reductions of the high health costs of pollution from fossil fuel power stations, particularly coal. Evidence…
This presentation will focus on four key points: (a) Aquifer storage and recovery: a long-held practice offering a potential tool for climate change adaptation, (b) The drivers: 1) hydrological perturbations related to climate change, 2) water imbalance in both Qand Vbetween wat...
Gómez-Martín, M.B.; Armesto-López, Xosé; Amelung, B.
This paper sets out to analyse the information dedicated to climate change and tourism in the Spanish press in the Mediterranean region of the peninsula during the period 1990–2010. Specifically, it seeks to determine the quantitative evolution of media coverage of climate change and tourism and the
Ho, Li-Ching; Seow, Tricia
In this article, the authors investigate 6 Singaporean geography teachers' understandings of climate change education. The findings indicate that the participants held very different beliefs about the primary purposes of climate change education, in spite of the highly centralized national curriculum and the unambiguous state support for the…
Thematic progression can affect the flow of information and directly affect the discourse coherence. This paper analyzes thematic progression patterns of a speech about“people and nature” in the “CCTV Cup”English Speaking Contest and finds that there are three progression patterns in this text, which are parallel progression, continuous progression, and crossing progression.
Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.
The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…
Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian
Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.
Marini, A.; Melis, Maria T.
Tigre Province is in northern Ethiopia between Eritrea on the north and east, and Begemdir and Wollo on the south. The area is comprised of five main physiographic units: Danakil Depression, Escarpment, Tigre and Eritrea Plateau, Semien Mountains and the Western Lowlands. The first two drain into the closed drainage basin of Dallol whilst the other three drain into the Nilo Through the Tezeke, Mareb and Barka River. Three main rock complexes build up the prospect area. The metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Precambrian basement, the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Sediments and Tertiary Trap Volcanics, and the Young Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks of the Danakil Depression. The only existing geological data on this area is represented by maps assembled from different sources on very large scale. Thanks to interactive computer processing, it is becoming possible to trace, on the relief as it appears on the display unit, lithological boundaries and the faults which affect them, measuring each of their geometric characteristics. Image processing coupled with pattern recognition programs has made it possible to take into consideration landscape units combining morphological, botanical and geological signatures, and more generally to quantify the morphological elements. Satellite images (Landsat TM and Spot XS) have been processed to produce thematic maps.
Tomas Moe Skjølsvold
Full Text Available For years, technology optimists have hoped that the internet might serve as a vehicle for democratization. Meanwhile, many STS-scholars have called for a democratization of scientific practices through increased transparency and inclusion of lay-persons in scientific knowledge production. Many expect this to result in increased scientific quality and more legitimate knowledge claims. In this article, we explore what happens when science related communication moves online. Do climate scientists and climate ‘skeptics’ use the internet to engage lay persons in factual deliberations and debate? Does the rise of the internet as a channel of science communication herald a new, democratic scientific era? Our paper suggests that such claims should be made with caution. Instead we identify two ways that the internet is used by climate scientists. First, it is a tool to fight a cold war with climate skeptics, a dynamic which is hidden from public view. Second, it is a site of education, where ready-made packets of facts should be transported to lay-people to mitigate perceived knowledge deficits. This strategy is mimicked by climate skeptics who attempt to make their communication appear more scientific than the scientists.
Sharp, William L.; Walter, James K.
In 1995, a group of school administrators affiliated with the Indiana Executive Fellows Program identified important educational issues. This paper presents findings of a 1997 study that asked a different sample of superintendents to rank a list of educational issues on the basis of importance. Questionnaires were sent to 325 superintendents in…
Perry, Ian; Cury, Philippe; Brander, Keith
Modern fisheries research and management must understand and take account of the interactions between climate and fishing, rather than try to disentangle their effects and address each separately. These interactions are significant drivers of change in exploited marine systems and have ramificati......Modern fisheries research and management must understand and take account of the interactions between climate and fishing, rather than try to disentangle their effects and address each separately. These interactions are significant drivers of change in exploited marine systems and have...
Phebe Asantewaa Owusu
Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.
Burtis, M.D. [comp.
This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)
This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Brevik, C.; Brevik, E. C.
Each fall, Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events for elementary-aged children to increase their engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change and the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change and soil in a fun, interactive environment. The activities also helped the children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focusing on climate change was also offered during the event. The fully immersive, 360-degree show allowed the kids and their parents to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Education majors who participated practiced communicating science concepts to children, and students in other majors who helped with this event gained experiences that reinforced various concepts they had learned in their general education science courses.
Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.
Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education
Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.
A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse
Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.
The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).
Täuber, Susanne; van Zomeren, Martijn; Kutlaca, Maja
The main objective of this paper is to identify a serious problem for communicators regarding the framing of climate issues in public discourse, namely that moralizing such an issue can motivate individuals while at the same time defensively lead them to avoid solving the problem. We review recent s
CLAUSEN, Daniel; Clausen, Michael
This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.9, issue 2 (Fall 2010) pp. 13-25. Approved for public display, distribution unlimited An Emerging Security Focus: Climate Security. A new concern is circulating among policymakers, think tanks, and scholars: securing the planet’s climate. For those who debate what counts as “national security,” the question over whether climate change should be framed as a security issue has been argued along well-worn lines. For those who seek a more expan...
Philibert, C. [French Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Paris (France)
The question of climate change is characterised by major uncertainties. For some, this means that no action should be undertaken for the time being. For others, forceful action is needed to avoid potentially disastrous consequences: targets and timetables for emission reductions must be agreed. This communication is an attempt to suggest a third alternative, with two main conclusions. The international decision process should focus on instruments and degrees of effort, rather than on `emission trajectories` (the evolution of emission levels over time), rather than on quantitative objectives tied to precise timetables. In this perspective action can start right away. (author)
Thematic Progression Patterns are the principal base for English advertisement analysis. Nowadays, it has attracted many experts in this field. Thematic Progression plays very important roles in the creation, development and establishment of English advertisement. This paper introduces four main types of Thematic Progression patterns and the analysis of English adver-tisement from Thematic Progression perspective.
The thematic map is a major class of maps designed to demonstrate particular features or concepts,functioning as an indispensable tool in geographical research.The process of thematic mapping is one into which geographical research goes deeply and broadly.The key activity and course of thematic map production is the use of mathematical models to create thematic data layers.Therefore,the selection and optimization of mathematical models is in the forefront of thematic map research.The theoretical foundations,mechanisms and methods of mathematical model optimization are expounded in this paper,including two approaches,the phase by phase mode and the multi-aim scheme balance mode.Case studies in eco-environment mapping and emergency mapping are described and analyzed,with a hierarchical analysis method being used in the model optimization for eco-environment fragility and sensitivity assessment mapping in Beibuwan (Guangxi) District,the dynamic system (DS) method being used in the model optimization for ecological security adjustment mapping in Xishuang Banna,Yunnan province,and the multi-phase mode being used in the models for forest fire and infectious diseases mapping.
Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.
Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.
Brandt, U.S.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.
The political economy idea developed by Ackerman and Hassler (1981) is the starting point of this paper. It suggested that a coalition of environmentalists and industrialists successfully lobbied the US Congress. More strict technology-based standards for new sources than existing sources was the resulting policy outcome serving the common interest of the coalition because it both offered a barrier to entry for new firms and improved environmental quality. Wc focus both on cases from air and water pollution in the US confirming which seem to confirm this suggestion and the case of international climate negotiations and the promotion of wind-based energy. In the line of the Ackerman and Hassler approach wc suggest that the reason for EU eagerness to push forward ambitious reduction target levels (and thereby promote new green industries) is a similar coalition between industrialists and environmentalists. Such a strategy can be seen in the context of the Bootleggers and Baptist theory developed by Yandle (1983), where the Baptists (in our case the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral reasons. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome for the coalition of industrialists and environmentalists offering both market protection and improved environmental quality. Solving the current dead-lock in international climate negotiations across the Atlantic may well imply fighting the strong coalition of industrialists and environmentalists. Such a political battle may turn out to be just as tough as fighting windmills if not clearly investigated in future research. (au)
Broad scientific agreement prevails that human-produced (anthropogenic) greenhouse gas emissions affect the climate. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established that such emissions must be significantly reduced to avoid serious consequences for the environment and society. Norway's petroleum industry recognises the climate challenge and has long worked to cut its emissions. These efforts avoided 40 million tonnes of carbon emissions in 1994-2007. The figure for 2006 alone was 4.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has furthermore been initiated for natural gas production on the Snoehvit field in the Barents Sea, while the Gjoea and Valhall fields in the North Sea are to be powered from shore. These moves represent an annual cut of 1.3 million tonnes in carbon emissions by 2010. Further reduction measures totalling 800 000 tonnes per annum by 2013 have also been identified, and will help confirm Norway's position as the world's cleanest oil and gas producer. Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions, measured in carbon equivalent, totalled 55 million tonnes in 2007. Carbon dioxide accounted for 44.9 million tonnes. The total for the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) was 13.8 million tonnes, including 13.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. KonKraft report 5 includes an account of action taken to reduce emissions from the NCS and measures planned for the future. The most power-intensive processes on an offshore installation are compression related to gas transport, injection of gas and water for pressure support, and pumping of oil and condensate. Power for these processes is largely generated by gas turbines, which provide the bulk of carbon emissions from the NCS. Flaring has accounted for about 10 per cent in recent years, but this share rose in 2007 because of start-up problems with the Snoehvit plant at Melkoeya Maturation of the NCS and the shift from oil to gas production will boost carbon
Broad scientific agreement prevails that human-produced (anthropogenic) greenhouse gas emissions affect the climate. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established that such emissions must be significantly reduced to avoid serious consequences for the environment and society. Norway's petroleum industry recognises the climate challenge and has long worked to cut its emissions. These efforts avoided 40 million tonnes of carbon emissions in 1994-2007. The figure for 2006 alone was 4.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has furthermore been initiated for natural gas production on the Snoehvit field in the Barents Sea, while the Gjoea and Valhall fields in the North Sea are to be powered from shore. These moves represent an annual cut of 1.3 million tonnes in carbon emissions by 2010. Further reduction measures totalling 800 000 tonnes per annum by 2013 have also been identified, and will help confirm Norway's position as the world's cleanest oil and gas producer. Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions, measured in carbon equivalent, totalled 55 million tonnes in 2007. Carbon dioxide accounted for 44.9 million tonnes. The total for the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) was 13.8 million tonnes, including 13.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. KonKraft report 5 includes an account of action taken to reduce emissions from the NCS and measures planned for the future. The most power-intensive processes on an offshore installation are compression related to gas transport, injection of gas and water for pressure support, and pumping of oil and condensate. Power for these processes is largely generated by gas turbines, which provide the bulk of carbon emissions from the NCS. Flaring has accounted for about 10 per cent in recent years, but this share rose in 2007 because of start-up problems with the Snoehvit plant at Melkoeya Maturation of the NCS and the shift from oil to gas production will boost carbon
Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo
Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.
Full Text Available The first batch contains an article by Political Scientist Daniel Whitcncck on epistemic communities and global leadership and a special thematic section focussing around the ideas ofW. Warren Wagar regarding the future of the world-system and global politics. The second batch of papers in Volume 2 has been edited by P. Nick Kardulias of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Kenyon College. This special thematic section focusses on anthropological and archaeological approaches to the study of world systems.
Shannon, T A
The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.
Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)
Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).
HE Jinsheng; WANG Zhengquan; FANG Jingyun
The theory of ecology is based on over 100 a of research and investigation, all centered on aboveground patterns and processes. However, as contemporary ecologists are increasingly acknowledging, belowground structures, functions, and processes are some of the most poorly understood areas in ecology. This lack of understanding of belowground ecological processes seriously restricts the advance of global change research. The interdisciplinary field of belowground ecology began to flourish in the 1990s, along with the expansion of global change research, and quickly gained momentum. Belowground ecology aims to investigate belowground structures, functions, and processes, as well as their relationships with corresponding aboveground features, emphasizing the responses of belowground systems under global change conditions. Key research areas include root ecology,belowground animals, and soil microorganisms. This review summarizes and analyzes the relationships between aboveand belowground ecosystems, root ecology, root biogeography, belowground biodiversity, as well as research areas with particular challenges and progress. This commentary emphasizes certain theoretical issues concerning the responses of belowground processes to global change, and concludes that belowground ecology is a critical research priority in the 21st century.
Worby, Diana Z.
By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…
In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…
Full Text Available Abstract The launch of a new thematic series of Malaria Journal -- "Towards malaria elimination" -- creates the forum that allows carrying scientific evidence on how to achieve malaria elimination in specific endemic settings and conditions into the circles of scientists, public health specialists, national and global programme managers, funders and decision makers.
Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.
This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…
Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.
If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate
Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.
The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.
Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.
Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.
Alberto Pace, CSC Director
The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016. The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields. All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...
Fürst, Susanne Lauber
Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available.
The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)
Craik, David J.; Allewell, Norma M.
Circular proteins have now been discovered in all kingdoms of life and are characterized by their exceptional stability and the diversity of their biological activities, primarily in the realm of host defense functions. This thematic minireview series provides an overview of the distribution, evolution, activities, and biological synthesis of circular proteins. It also reviews approaches that biological chemists are taking to develop synthetic methods for making circular proteins in the labor...
Thematic structure is an important grammatical device to organize the text,which is also an important aspect of discourse analysis. And the-matic progression plays an important role in the analysis of textual cohesion and organization. This paper mainly discusses the theory of thematic progression and its application to translation between English and Chinese.
Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna
When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…
Grindsted, Thomas Skou; Holm, Tove
of the international SHE literature reveals no study that deals specifically with the interaction between declarations developed by the university sector and declarations developed by governmental and intergovernmental institutions. An analysis of this type can give us important insights in what themes these parties...... think should be given top priority in order to develop a sustainable society. Hence, the article addresses the following issues: (1) a thematic analysis of the relation between declarations developed by the university sector and those developed by governmental and intergovernmental institutions; (2......) an analysis of themes the two types of declarations might have in common; and if so (3) an analysis of how they have developed during the past decade. The article finds four new themes that previous research has not identified, and shows how the valuation of nature is under reconfiguration in higher education...
Full Text Available This special thematic section responds to the 21st century proliferation of social movements characterised by the slogans ‘another world is possible’ and ‘be the change you want to see’. It explores prefigurative politics as a means of instantiating radical social change in a context of widening global inequalities, climate change, and the crises and recoveries of neoliberal global capitalism. ‘Prefigurative politics’ refers to a range of social experiments that both critique the status quo and offer alternatives by implementing radically democratic practices in pursuit of social justice. This collection of articles makes the case for psychologists to engage with prefigurative politics as sites of psychological and social change, in the dual interests of understanding the world and changing it. The articles bridge psychology and politics in three different ways. One group of articles brings a psychological lens to political phenomena, arguing that attention to the emotional, relational and intergroup dynamics of prefigurative politics is required to understand their trajectories, challenges, and impacts. A second group focuses a political lens on social settings traditionally framed as psychological sites of well-being, enabling an understanding of their political nature. The third group addresses the ‘border tensions’ of the psychological and the political, contextualising and historicising the instantiation of prefigurative ideals and addressing tensions that arise between utopian ideals and various internal and external constraints. This introduction to the special section explores the concept and contemporary debates concerning prefigurative politics, outlines the rationale for a psychological engagement with this phenomenon, and presents the articles in the special thematic section. The general, prefigurative, aim is to advance psychology’s contribution to rethinking and remaking the world as it could be, not only
Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications
This book includes selected papers from the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, that took place in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29 to July 2, 2015. By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical systems,and nanotechnologies.
Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and
Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.
Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro
The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories.
Drawing on large-scale computational data and methods, this research demonstrates how polarization efforts are influenced by a patterned network of political and financial actors. These dynamics, which have been notoriously difficult to quantify, are illustrated here with a computational analysis of climate change politics in the United States. The comprehensive data include all individual and organizational actors in the climate change countermovement (164 organizations), as well as all written and verbal texts produced by this network between 1993-2013 (40,785 texts, more than 39 million words). Two main findings emerge. First, that organizations with corporate funding were more likely to have written and disseminated texts meant to polarize the climate change issue. Second, and more importantly, that corporate funding influences the actual thematic content of these polarization efforts, and the discursive prevalence of that thematic content over time. These findings provide new, and comprehensive, confirmation of dynamics long thought to be at the root of climate change politics and discourse. Beyond the specifics of climate change, this paper has important implications for understanding ideological polarization more generally, and the increasing role of private funding in determining why certain polarizing themes are created and amplified. Lastly, the paper suggests that future studies build on the novel approach taken here that integrates large-scale textual analysis with social networks.
Full Text Available Planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information are various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex. At present thanks to first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple preparing of necessary thematic maps.The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System(GIZIS of the Karlovacka County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in ecology, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialized maps. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic ofCroatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysis this data, by digitalization, generalization and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GIZIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organized in a way that enable prepare different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form allowing simple and easy access by the ArcWiew program package to all information, either by the base search or by putting questions. The data
The general area investigated by Lin and Murphy was thematic relations used for classification in adults'category con-struction. The present study aims to discover whether thematic categorization could be found in American adult college students and whether thematic groupings have significant conceptual content. Most of the previous studies focus on children's classifica-tion, while the current study explores that of adults'. That is the significance of the current study.
Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia
Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.
Dichk M. Kanonge
Full Text Available It is commonly held that irony features significantly in Susanna. This seemingly plausible hypothesis, however, has not yet been supported by compelling evidence resulting from a systematic analysis of Susanna. This study attempts to fill this gap by investigating the main ironic expressions, words and incidents featuring in Susanna. The approach followed consists of uncovering expressions of irony embedded in the story by paying attention to ironic use of metaphor, ironic use of wordplay, ironic use of rhetorical questions, ironic understatements (e.g. litotes, ironic exaggeration (e.g. hyperbole, ironic use of social conventions and traditions and ironic attribution. It is the contention of this study that Susanna is a thematically ironic story. The use of reversed social conventions is the most powerful and the most abundant expression of irony in the story. This dominant derisive technique is possibly aimed at addressing the irrelevance as well as the abuse of Jewish social conventions in the Second Temple period.
Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)
In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.
Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice, lia
This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…
This paper reports an analysis of research article (RA) abstracts from linguistics journals from two related angles: rhetorical organisation and thematic structure. Based on a small scale study it reveals two major types of rhetorical organisation, here called the IMRD type and the CARS type. When thematic analysis, in terms of thematic…
Lins, Harry F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kiang, Julie
Of all the potential threats posed by climatic variability and change, those associated with water resources are arguably the most consequential for both society and the environment (Waggoner, 1990). Climatic effects on agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, energy, and industry are strongly influenced by climatic effects on water. Thus, understanding changes in the distribution, quantity and quality of, and demand for water in response to climate variability and change is essential to planning for and adapting to future climatic conditions. A central role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with respect to climate is to document environmental changes currently underway and to develop improved capabilities to predict future changes. Indeed, a centerpiece of the USGS role is a new Climate Effects Network of monitoring sites. Measuring the climatic effects on water is an essential component of such a network (along with corresponding effects on terrestrial ecosystems). The USGS needs to be unambiguous in communicating with its customers and stakeholders, and with officials at the Department of the Interior, that although modeling future impacts of climate change is important, there is no more critical role for the USGS in climate change science than that of measuring and describing the changes that are currently underway. One of the best statements of that mission comes from a short paper by Ralph Keeling (2008) that describes the inspiration and the challenges faced by David Keeling in operating the all-important Mauna Loa Observatory over a period of more than four decades. Ralph Keeling stated: 'The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking changes decade after decade and poring over the records.' There are three key ideas that are important to the USGS in the above-mentioned sentence. First, to understand what is happening requires measurement. While models are a tool for learning and testing our understanding
Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.
This study examines the interaction of political orientation with academic discipline on beliefs in anthropogenic climate change (ACC) among higher education faculty. Over 300 faculty members at two research institutions in the United States were surveyed on topics concerning ACC and the results were analyzed with multiple regression. Even among…
Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)
The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and
. Conclusion We compare thematic synthesis to other methods for the synthesis of qualitative research, discussing issues of context and rigour. Thematic synthesis is presented as a tried and tested method that preserves an explicit and transparent link between conclusions and the text of primary studies; as such it preserves principles that have traditionally been important to systematic reviewing.
Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.
Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.
Full Text Available Koji Kondo’s music is among the most recognized video game music ever written. As the composer for both Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo, 1984 and The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo, 1986, he has received international fame and recognition for his game compositions. With The Legend of Zelda series, Kondo has managed to create new music for each iteration of the series while maintaining a sense of unity across the series as a whole. Through the use of motivic and prolongational analysis, this article demonstrates how Kondo created this unity across the entire Zelda franchise, while making each game’s score unique by examining one musical element, the overworld theme, from each of the main entries in the Zelda series. A Schenkerian-like analysis is used to identify structural and motivic relationships between the various themes. This essay concludes with an examination of semiotic implications of this analysis and its impact on other aspects of the Zelda series and game music analysis as a whole. Using concepts from Barthes Elements of Semiology, I discuss the implication of the musical analysis to show how this approach can provide the basis for an in-depth look at musical signs in video games. In this discussion of thematic unity, I’m exploring both musical theme and a semiological theme.
Amy L. Fielden
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.
Fisette, Paul; Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications
This volume provides the international multibody dynamics community with an up-to-date view on the state of the art in this rapidly growing field of research which now plays a central role in the modeling, analysis, simulation and optimization of mechanical systems in a variety of fields and for a wide range of industrial applications. This book contains selected contributions delivered at the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, which was held in Brussels, Belgium and organized by the Université catholique de Louvain, from 4th to 7th July 2011. Each paper reflects the State-of-Art in the application of Multibody Dynamics to different areas of engineering. They are enlarged and revised versions of the communications, which were enhanced in terms of self-containment and tutorial quality by the authors. The result is a comprehensive text that constitutes a valuable reference for researchers and design engineers which helps to appraise the potential for the application of multibody dynamics meth...
Full Text Available Despite unprecedented access to information and diffusion of knowledge across the globe, the bulk of work in mainstream psychological science still reflects and promotes the interests of a privileged minority of people in affluent centers of the modern global order. Compared to other social science disciplines, there are few critical voices who reflect on the Euro-American colonial character of psychological science, particularly its relationship to ongoing processes of domination that facilitate growth for a privileged minority but undermine sustainability for the global majority. Moved by mounting concerns about ongoing forms of multiple oppression (including racialized violence, economic injustice, unsustainable over-development, and ecological damage, we proposed a special thematic section and issued a call for papers devoted to the topic of "decolonizing psychological science". In this introduction to the special section, we first discuss two perspectives—liberation psychology and cultural psychology—that have informed our approach to the topic. We then discuss manifestations of coloniality in psychological science and describe three approaches to decolonization—indigenization, accompaniment, and denaturalization—that emerge from contributions to the special section. We conclude with an invitation to readers to submit their own original contributions to an ongoing effort to create an online collection of digitally linked articles on the topic of decolonizing psychological science.
Full Text Available Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate change. Recent terrestrial gravity, GRACE and GPS observations suggest that the crust over the Tibetan plateau is thickening, and the Himalayan glaciers appear to be thinning. Satellite altimetry is a potential tool to study vertical displacement and permafrost thawing and changes in the active layers in Siberia and Tibet.
The study applied the approach of empirical studies to select 176 teachers in 9 universities in Taiwan and Inland in China to deliver questionnaires. The study intended to explore the influence of organizational climate on campus ethics and its diversity between the universities across the Taiwan strait. The study explored that the organizational climate in the universities across the Strait was not ethically high. Yet, the universities in Inland emphasized more on campus restraint in teachers' behavior, job performance and their sense of belonging to the school.The study result demonstrated that improving leadership of the universities could enhance teachers' identification with their schools and could promote the level of campus across the Strait.
Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Ginsberg, H. S.; Couret, J.
Each year, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago, with some estimates even higher. Puerto Rico (PR) has experienced epidemic dengue activity since 1963, and the disease is currently endemic. Since 1990 there have been 4 large epidemics, the most recent in 2010 where there were nearly 27,000 cases reported, amounting to almost 1% of the island's total population. Because no vaccine is currently available, effective control is dependent on our ability to understand the complex relationship between environmental factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as humans are the preferred host for Ae. aegypti. The purpose of our analysis is to assess temporal and spatial patterns of dengue transmission in PR and relate this to both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Unlike past studies, which have used San Juan to represent the island as a whole, our research will investigate regional dynamics in dengue transmission, as preliminary results have shown significant differences in population density, disease incidence, and environmental and climatic variables. Data from the Passive Dengue Surveillance System of CDC, meteorological observations from NCDC, and remote sensing data from USGS and NASA will be used together to identify relationships between climate, urbanization, and dengue incidence for PR at various spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary climatic factors considered include precipitation, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, we will assess measures of urbanization such as land cover, land use, population density, and infrastructure that can make regional differences in dengue incidence each year. Results from this study could help create early warning systems for dengue surveillance in Puerto Rico, and develop techniques that can be applied to other areas of the world.
Practical evaluation model of environmental and climate protection issues for the use of biogas with comparative applications in Germany and China; Praktisches Bewertungsmodell von Umwelt- und Klimaschutzaspekten fuer die Nutzung von Biogas im deutsch-chinesischen Vergleich
Climate protection is the greatest environmental challenge. Recently, the interaction between climate change and constantly scarcer fossil fuels provides a boom in renewable energy. Of these, the use of biogas in Germany is a key component of renewable energy beside projects for wind energy and solar energy. In China, the situation of utilizing biogas is complicated, but also has become increasingly important. The author of the contribution under consideration identifies the key environmental issues and issues of climatic change. An evaluation modell is developed. Potential differences in the use of biogas in Germany and China are compared and discussed.
Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.
An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.
Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian
The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification
全球气候变化问题在各种政治较量和利益权衡中正逐步遮蔽其深层次伦理关切,导致了各种决策、理论的功利性和盲目性。作为＂他者＂的伦理关系始终没有出现。梳理西方近代以来主体性哲学传统和现代＂他者＂思想,将为理解气候变化问题产生的思想渊源,探讨当今气候变化问题涉及的伦理学问题提供基本线索。%The deep ethical concern of global climate change issue is gradually submerged in a variety of political and benefit contest. This leads to utilitarian and blindness in decision-making. As a new ethical relationship, ＂others＂ has not come up. Modern western philosophical ideas of subjectivity and ＂others＂ theory provide us different orientation of ethics in climate change issues.
Of Halliday’s three metafunctions, the textual function helps the written or spoken text organized into a coherent one as a whole. In the textual function, the thematic structure gives the clause its character as a message. Since tourism has become a booming industry on the global scale, introductions to scenic spots play a crucial role in attracting or persuading readers to visit the tourist destinations. This paper, by comparing the thematic structures of two English introductions to scenic spots , tries to an-alyze how the writer organizes the thematic structure in English tourist tests to achieve their communicative purpose of publiciz-ing and promotion.
Trines, E. [Treeness Consult, Austerlitz (Netherlands); Hoehne, N.; Jung, M. [Ecofys, Koeln (Netherlands); Skutsch, M. [KuSiNi Foundation, Enschede (Netherlands); Petsonk, A.; Silva-Chavez, G. [Environmental Defense, Washington DC (United States); Smith, P. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Nabuurs, G.J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Verweij, P. [Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)
The current agreement under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol takes a fragmented approach to emissions and removals from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU): not all activities, not all gases and not all lands are included. Also, net removals can be used to offset emissions from other sectors as the sector 'Land-Use Change and Forestry' (LUCF) is not an integral part of the 'quantified emission limitations or reduction commitments' or targets to which Parties included in Annex I to the UNFCCC have committed themselves. The emissions in the AFOLU sector are significant and are predominantly located in non-Annex I countries. Having a large amount of emissions means there is also a significant mitigation potential in those countries. On the other side of the equation, if nations want to keep the option open to achieve the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC within a reasonable timeframe, the cut in emissions required under a possible post 2012 climate change mitigation regime needs to be significantly deeper compared to what has been agreed for the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol. Adding up these two aspects means that AFOLU needs to be brought into the equation. This could only ever be acceptable to non-Annex I Parties if this would not hinder their development but would rather propel it. Therefore, it should not lead to commitments for non-Annex I countries but be a tempting opportunity to improve national circumstances and to access (economic) benefits that result from an engagement in such an agreement. This report presents five policy options that can be employed by non-Annex I Parties on a voluntary basis, at a moment of their choice, that will lead to a broader and deeper participation under a possible post 2012 climate regime without hindering but rather promoting their development, whilst at the same time enabling Annex I parties to take on commitments that lead to deeper cuts in emissions.
Cooter, Robert B., Jr.; Griffith, Robert
Describes the Dublin model, a program which uses thematic units or individualized reading assignments to focus on popular adolescent literature and includes projects that demonstrate students' comprehension of text. Discusses the formulation, implementation, and assessment of this program. (RS)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is a sensor carried onboard the Landsat 7 satellite and has acquired images of the Earth nearly...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) is a sensor carried onboard Landsats 4 and 5 and has acquired images of the Earth nearly continuously from July 1982 to...
气候变化将会对美国造成严重的影响，其严重程度又部分取决于政府采取何种社会行动来限制气体排放和缓解气候变化。应对气候变化，气候适应与气候缓解同样重要，但未能得到应有的关注。在联邦制体系中，不同层级的政府应当分担应对气候变化的责任。首先，州与地方政府属于气候变化天然的“最先受众”，需要在资助和标准制定上承担较多的责任；其次，在州政府失灵、州际溢出效应与政治扭曲的情况下，联邦政府同样应当发挥作用。联邦政府可以根据应对气候变化需要事先制定适应标准或者提供资金支持，但这些努力在宪制上可能会受到一定的限制。%Climate change will have serious impact on the United States, the severity of which partly depends on the social action taken by the government to limit gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Climate change a-daption gets less focus than the mitigation, even though both of which are equally import. Under federalism, ev-ery level government should take their appropriate roles. Firstly, states are likely to play the leading role in fun-ding adaptation and setting standards. Secondly, federal intervention may be warranted by the existence of inter-state spillover effects, political distortions that hinder state responses, or equity factors. However, these federal efforts may be subject to certain constitutional constraints that could limit policy responses.
Friesel, Anna; Thiriet, Jean-Marc; Yahoui, Hamed;
The ELLEIEC ERASMUS thematic network runs from October 2008 to September 2011. Within this project, Task 4 is dedicated to “Implementation issues across EIE”. The idea of this task is to see how we can, thanks to implementation using Programmes available from the European Commission and associate...
[English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time
Semiperiodo de la literatura científica en Biblioteconomía y Documentación y la influencia de los aspectos temáticos The half-life of scientific literature in library and information science and the influence of thematic issues
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el cálculo del semiperiodo o vida media de las referencias en 28 revistas españolas y anglosajonas de Biblioteconomía y Documentación siguiendo la fórmula de Burton y Kebler, durante el año 2006. Se analiza posteriormente la posible relación con los contenidos presentes en las revistas, y se extraen conclusiones sobre qué temas nucleares del área imponen básicamente dicho semiperiodo, dando lugar a lo que puede considerarse como el semiperiodo de la literatura científica en Biblioteconomía y Documentación, y señalando qué temas tienden a aumentar o disminuir dicho semiperiodo cuando están presentes en una determinada revista. De esta forma el semiperiodo podría considerarse un indicio del contenido temático de la revista.Following the formula developed by Burton and Kebler, this paper presents a calculation of the half-life of bibliographical references appearing in twenty-eight English- and Spanish-language Library and Information Science journals in the year 2006. An analysis of the relationship of this phenomenon to content is carried out in order to identify the nuclear topic areas that in turn determine this half-life. Moreover, the paper provides an assessment of those subject areas for each of the journals studied that tend to lengthen or shorten the half-life of a given bibliographic reference. As such, the bibliographic half-life may be considered an indicator of the thematic inclination of a given journal.
Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques
Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.
Sager, J. M
This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)
Hoenig, V.; Schneider, M. [German Cement Industry (Germany)
In 1995, the cement industry in Germany stated that it would reduce energy consumption by 20 per cent between 1987 and 2005. In 2000, this commitment was adapted to international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. The voluntary agreement now includes a reduction of the specific energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2008/12 by 28 per cent. Burning and grinding facilities have been optimized in recent years and the cement industry in Germany is planning to increase the use of fossil fuels by using waste products and by promoting the marketing of blended cements. The energy related carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by 3.6 million tonnes per year from 1987 to 1999 in the German cement industry as a result of these efforts. The use of waste products has also been increased from 4 to 23 per cent during this same time period and the clinker portion in cement has been decreased from 86 to 80.6 per cent. Granulated blast-furnace slag and unburned limestone has become the main constituent in cement. This paper also discussed the extent to which other instruments such as emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism will have on the future of the cement industry. This paper was divided into several sections entitled: (1) voluntary agreement on climate change, (2) improvement in manufacturing processes, (3) optimization of existing kilns, (4) waste heat recovery, (5) reduction of electric power consumption, (6) remaining energy reduction potentials, (7) promotion of blended cement consumption, (8) market development, (9) use of secondary fuels, (10) greenhouse gas emissions, (11) energy related carbon dioxide emissions, (12) carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of limestone, and (13) other greenhouse gas emissions. 3 tabs., 9 figs.
Wu, Denise H; Waller, Sara; Chatterjee, Anjan
Lexical-semantic investigations in cognitive neuroscience have focused on conceptual knowledge of concrete objects. By contrast, relational concepts have been largely ignored. We examined thematic role and locative knowledge in 14 left-hemisphere-damage patients. Relational concepts shift cognitive focus away from the object to the relationship between objects, calling into question the relevance of traditional sensory-functional accounts of semantics. If extraction of a relational structure is the critical cognitive process common to both thematic and locative knowledge, then damage to neural structures involved in such an extraction would impair both kinds of knowledge. If the nature of the relationship itself is critical, then functional neuroanatomical dissociations should occur. Using a new lesion analysis method, we found that damage to the lateral temporal cortex produced deficits in thematic role knowledge and damage to inferior fronto-parietal regions produced deficits in locative knowledge. In addition, we found that conceptual knowledge of thematic roles dissociates from its mapping onto language. These relational knowledge deficits were not accounted for by deficits in processing nouns or verbs or by a general deficit in making inferences. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that manners of visual motion serve as a point of entry for thematic role knowledge and networks dedicated to eye gaze, whereas reaching and grasping serve as a point of entry for locative knowledge. Intermediary convergence zones that are topographically guided by these sensory-motor points of entry play a critical role in the semantics of relational concepts.
Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E
This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment.
Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt
contribution of this paper, three key documentation issues are identified on the basis of the experience with Elucidative Programming. Documentation motifs represent thematic elements of software, which typically transverse the structure of the source program files. Documentation proximity characterizes...
Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable
Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y
The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.
Theme is art extremely important concept in Systemic Functional Grammar,The theory of theme and theme is widely used in discourse analysis as well.This thesis tries to explore thematic structure In systemic functional linguistics and its apphcation in teaching writing.To start with,we review marked theme and unmarksd theme.Then,we have discussion and inake analysis on simple theme,multiple theme and clausal thme,Eventually,we aho probe into thematic progression and its application in teaching writing.
Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.
Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.
Full Text Available The current tuning process of parameters in global climate models is often performed subjectively or treated as an optimization procedure to minimize model biases based on observations. While the latter approach may provide more plausible values for a set of tunable parameters to approximate the observed climate, the system could be forced to an unrealistic physical state or improper balance of budgets through compensating errors over different regions of the globe. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model was used to provide a more flexible framework to investigate a number of issues related uncertainty quantification (UQ and parameter tuning. The WRF model was constrained by reanalysis of data over the Southern Great Plains (SGP, where abundant observational data from various sources was available for calibration of the input parameters and validation of the model results. Focusing on five key input parameters in the new Kain-Fritsch (KF convective parameterization scheme used in WRF as an example, the purpose of this study was to explore the utility of high-resolution observations for improving simulations of regional patterns and evaluate the transferability of UQ and parameter tuning across physical processes, spatial scales, and climatic regimes, which have important implications to UQ and parameter tuning in global and regional models. A stochastic importance sampling algorithm, Multiple Very Fast Simulated Annealing (MVFSA was employed to efficiently sample the input parameters in the KF scheme based on a skill score so that the algorithm progressively moved toward regions of the parameter space that minimize model errors.
The results based on the WRF simulations with 25-km grid spacing over the SGP showed that the precipitation bias in the model could be significantly reduced when five optimal parameters identified by the MVFSA algorithm were used. The model performance was found to be sensitive to
Full Text Available The current tuning process of parameters in global climate models is often performed subjectively or treated as an optimization procedure to minimize model biases based on observations. While the latter approach may provide more plausible values for a set of tunable parameters to approximate the observed climate, the system could be forced to an unrealistic physical state or improper balance of budgets through compensating errors over different regions of the globe. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model was used to provide a more flexible framework to investigate a number of issues related uncertainty quantification (UQ and parameter tuning. The WRF model was constrained by reanalysis of data over the Southern Great Plains (SGP, where abundant observational data from various sources was available for calibration of the input parameters and validation of the model results. Focusing on five key input parameters in the new Kain-Fritsch (KF convective parameterization scheme used in WRF as an example, the purpose of this study was to explore the utility of high-resolution observations for improving simulations of regional patterns and evaluate the transferability of UQ and parameter tuning across physical processes, spatial scales, and climatic regimes, which have important implications to UQ and parameter tuning in global and regional models. A stochastic important-sampling algorithm, Multiple Very Fast Simulated Annealing (MVFSA was employed to efficiently sample the input parameters in the KF scheme based on a skill score so that the algorithm progressively moved toward regions of the parameter space that minimize model errors.
The results based on the WRF simulations with 25-km grid spacing over the SGP showed that the precipitation bias in the model could be significantly reduced when five optimal parameters identified by the MVFSA algorithm were used. The model performance was found to be sensitive to
Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.
The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to
Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Grasso, Jean Robert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Styles, Peter; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Sterzel, Mariusz; Garcia, Alexander
EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) aims to integrate distributed research infrastructures (RI) to facilitate and stimulate research on anthropogenic hazards (AH) especially those associated with the exploration and exploitation of geo-resources. The innovative element is the uniqueness of the integrated RI which comprises two main deliverables: (1) Exceptional datasets, called "episodes", which comprehensively describe a geophysical process; induced or triggered by human technological activity, posing hazard for populations, infrastructure and the environment, (2) Problem-oriented, bespoke services uniquely designed for the discrimination and analysis of correlations between technology, geophysical response and resulting hazard. These objectives will be achieved through the Science-Industry Synergy (SIS) built by EPOS WG10, ensuring bi-directional information exchange, including unique and previously unavailable data furnished by industrial partners. The Episodes and services to be integrated have been selected using strict criteria during the EPOS PP. The data are related to a wide spectrum of inducing technologies, with seismic/aseismic deformation and production history as a minimum data set requirement and the quality of software services is confirmed and referenced in literature. Implementation of TCS AH is planned for four years and requires five major activities: (1) Strategic Activities and Governance: will define and establish the governance structure to ensure the long-term sustainability of these research infrastructures for data provision through EPOS. (2) Coordination and Interaction with the Community: will establish robust communication channels within the whole TCS AH community while supporting global EPOS communication strategy. (3) Interoperability with EPOS Integrated Core Service (ICS) and Testing Activities: will coordinate and ensure interoperability between the RIs and the ICS. Within this modality a functional e
The paper discusses the concept of spatial narratives based on so-called narrative links and their potential role within the implementation of flexible and thematic tourist information systems on mobile gps-enabled devices. References are made to two examples of specific application areas: one from...
Wagner, Daniel A.
A global thematic study on literacy and adult education considered trends and innovations particularly salient during the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) decade. According to the most recent UNESCO statistics, world illiteracy rates dropped over the last 20-30 years because of increased primary school enrollments, yet the actual…
Theme and thematic progression (T/TP) is a major aspect of the way that speakers construct their messages in a way which makes them fit smoothly into the unfolding language event. While studies have illustrated the usefulness of observing T/TP to identify English learners' writing difficulties and suggested that T/TP should be included in English…
Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.
In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…
Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz
This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.
Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer
This article reports on the findings of a thematic review of research literature about integrated early years services (IEYS) [1995-2012]. Four themes are discussed: broad support for IEYS; critiques of claims about IEYS; a focus on inter-professional practice; and the challenge of evaluating IEYS. The article concludes with reflections concerning…
Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva; Björklund, Camilla
This study focuses on teachers' ways of mediating meaning through communicative tools and modes in preschool thematic work. A socio-cultural perspective is used for analysis on how tools and modes are provided for children to make use of for communicative purposes. The research questions are: (1) what communicative tools do teachers use in their…
Full Text Available This article outlines advances in thematic progression theory in the hope they may be useful to teachers of writing, especially with non-native and non-European students. Thematic progression denotes the strategies available to writers for linking the themes and rhemes in a clause to those of surrounding clauses. It is a key factor in the structuring of information because it acts as a bridge between sentence level and discourse level, coordinating cohesion and coherence. This paper compares the use of thematic progression in essays by students on a course leading to MA studies in journalism, media and communications with that in two leading British newspapers. It considers how assignment writing could be improved generally by teaching the rudiments of progression theory. If students' assignments are to be clear in their development but also varied and interesting for the reader, additional progression skills are required. In particular, this paper recommends certain variations on Daneš' progression types, as well as the use of more breaks (non-participant themes to mark rhetorical transitions in the text. Familiarisation with the thematic progression in tabloids and broadsheets, respectively, should provide an overview of a range of progression from formal to outspoken, which would raise awareness of what is available, even if not all elements are appropriate for all types of academic writing.
Michaelidou, Evanthia; Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; Nakos, Byron
The aim of this research is to examine how children use visual variables to represent nominal and ordinal data on thematic maps. Greek students from first (six- to seven-year old), second (seven to eight-year-old), and third grades (eight- to nine-year-old), without any systematic cartographic experience, were invited to participate in the…
Dermendzhieva, Stela; Nejdet, Semra
The purpose of this paper is to follow "Climate change, risks and Natural Resources" in the curriculum of Geography of Bulgaria and the world in 9th and 10th grade and to interpret some didactic aspects. Analysis of key themes, concepts and categories related to the environment, events and approaches to environmental protection and the environmentally sound development of sectors of the economy is didikticheski targeted. Considering the emergence and development of geo-ecological issues, their scope and their importance to the environment, systematize some species and some approaches to solving them. Geography education in grade 9 and 10 involves acquiring knowledge, developing skills and composing behaviors of objective perception and assessment of the reality of globed, regional and local aspect. The emerging consumer and individualistic culture snowballing globalization, are increasingly occurring global warming, declining biodiversity form new realities which education must respond appropriately. The objective, consistency, accessibility and relevance in real terms are meaningful, logical accents. Whether and how reproduced in the study of Geography of Bulgaria and the world is the subject of research study in this report. Geoecological structuring of topics, concepts and categories can be done in different signs. In terms of their scope are local, national or regional, and global. Matter and interdisciplinary approach, which is to reveal the unity of the "man-society-nature" to clarify the complexity of their character with a view to forming a harmonious personality with high Geoecological consciousness and culture, and the activities carried out in their study.
Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane
One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…
Full Text Available This article compares how climate change is presented in English- andFrench-language print media in Canada. In recent years, climate change has become an increasingly divisive issue, with the media playing a central role in the promotion of competing claims and narratives in the public sphere. Using concepts from environmental sociology and the sociology of journalism, we examine content from six English- and two French-language newspapers from 2007–2008 (N=2,249, and find significant evidence of both convergence and divergence across the language divide. Among the most significant findings are differences in how complexity is handled: English outlets present diverse coveragethat is highly compartmentalized, while the French newspapers present a narrower range of coverage but with thematically richer articles that better link climate change issues to the realms of culture, politics, and economy.
Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place
and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate......This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...
Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place
This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...
The Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) provides a unique opportunity to preserve exceptional properties world-wide and to raise awareness about the Outstanding Universal Value of these properties. The mission of UNESCO regarding World Heritage consists of assisting the States Parties to this Convention to safeguard properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, to support activities led by States Parties in the preservation of World Heritage, and to encourage international cooperation in heritage conservation. Considering that sites related to science and technology are among the most under-represented on the World Heritage List and recognizing the absence of an integrated thematic approach for such sites, the World Heritage Committee launched the Thematic Initiative “Astronomy and World Heritage”. Developed in close collaboration between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), and implemented by the National Focal Points world-wide, the Thematic Initiative on Astronomy and World Heritage aims to establish a link between Science and Culture towards the recognition of scientific values of sites linked to astronomy. It provides an opportunity not only to identify the properties but also to keep their memory alive and preserve them from progressive deterioration. The implementation of this initiative has revealed numerous issues that need to be addressed, and in particular in the domain of technological heritage connected with space exploration. For this reason, the World Heritage Committee during its 36th session (Saint Petersburg, 2012) encouraged cooperation between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, specialized agencies and relevant interdisciplinary scientific initiatives towards the elaboration of a Global Thematic Study on Heritage of Science and Technology, including studies and research on technological
Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte
Climate change has become a pressing environmental concern for scientists, social commentators and politicians. Previous social science research has explored media representations of climate change in various temporal and geographical contexts. Through the lens of Social Representations Theory, this article provides a detailed qualitative thematic analysis of media representations of climate change in the 1988 British broadsheet press, given that this year constitutes an important juncture in this transition of climate change from the domain of science to that of the socio-political sphere. The following themes are outlined: (i) "Climate change: a multi-faceted threat"; (ii) "Collectivisation of threat"; (iii) "Climate change and the attribution of blame"; and (iv) "Speculative solutions to a complex socio-environmental problem." The article provides detailed empirical insights into the "starting-point" for present-day disputes concerning climate change and lays the theoretical foundations for tracking the continuities and discontinuities characterising social representations of climate change in the future.
Murga Leonel F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods are now available for the prediction of interaction sites in protein 3D structures. While many of these methods report high success rates for site prediction, often these predictions are not very selective and have low precision. Precision in site prediction is addressed using Theoretical Microscopic Titration Curves (THEMATICS, a simple computational method for the identification of active sites in enzymes. Recall and precision are measured and compared with other methods for the prediction of catalytic sites. Results Using a test set of 169 enzymes from the original Catalytic Residue Dataset (CatRes it is shown that THEMATICS can deliver precise, localised site predictions. Furthermore, adjustment of the cut-off criteria can improve the recall rates for catalytic residues with only a small sacrifice in precision. Recall rates for CatRes/CSA annotated catalytic residues are 41.1%, 50.4%, and 54.2% for Z score cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding precision rates are 19.4%, 17.9%, and 16.4%. The success rate for catalytic sites is higher, with correct or partially correct predictions for 77.5%, 85.8%, and 88.2% of the enzymes in the test set, corresponding to the same respective Z score cut-offs, if only the CatRes annotations are used as the reference set. Incorporation of additional literature annotations into the reference set gives total success rates of 89.9%, 92.9%, and 94.1%, again for corresponding cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98. False positive rates for a 75-protein test set are 1.95%, 2.60%, and 3.12% for Z score cut-offs of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Conclusion With a preferred cut-off value of 0.99, THEMATICS achieves a high success rate of interaction site prediction, about 86% correct or partially correct using CatRes/CSA annotations only and about 93% with an expanded reference set. Success rates for catalytic residue prediction are similar to those of
The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...
Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.
The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)
Körfgen, Annemarie; Keller, Lars; Kuthe, Alina; Oberrauch, Anna; Stötter, Hans
The grand challenges of the 21st century will increasingly require societies to reconsider the pathways taken thus far. Engagement with climate change is of ever-growing importance to young people. They will be confronted with the effects of climate change throughout their entire lives and, as future decision-makers, they will vitally shape societal developments. Education will thus play a crucial role in the transformation to a sustainable society. In terms of awareness-raising, an important first step in preparing young people for the challenges of the 21st century is to understand what content is connected with climate change. As complex challenges, such as climate change, demand ways of thinking that go beyond categories, interconnections between the anthroposphere and the natural sphere have to be taken into consideration. This study provides an insight into the questions and topics young people develop whilst becoming involved in climate change in an in-school learning setting and in an out-of-school learning setting (a high mountain environment). The analysis focuses on the question of in which spheres students predominantly make their thematic choices and how far the interconnections between different spheres are formed. Our results show that the choice of the learning setting influences the topics students connect with climate change. Interconnections between sub-spheres of the anthroposphere and natural sphere are made only occasionally. These findings serve as a basis for reconsidering the content and foundation of climate change communication with young people. We recommend that climate change educational programmes should include phases that allow the following: a) involvement with climate change issues related to single spheres in the first phase, and b) consideration of the interconnections between spheres when becoming involved with climate change issues in the second phase. As the educational setting can considerably influence the focus of the
Alberto Pace, CSC Director
tCSC2014 continues the concept prototyped last year. It aims to complement the existing portfolio of CSC events: the historical main summer school, organised since 1970, the inverted CSCs (iCSCs) organized since 2005, and the special schools, as organised in 2006 in Bombay. Shorter, smaller, focused are the three distinguishing features of the thematic CSC (tCSC). But, though different from the main CSCs, the tCSCs maintain the same guiding principles: Academic dimension on advanced topic Theory and practice Networking and socialisation. The second thematic CSC will take place in Split, Croatia, from 16 to 20 June. All applicants are welcome, including former and future CSC participants in the main summer school. The theme is "Future high-throughput scientific computing", covering: Data-oriented design: Designing for data, data-intensive applications, vectorization. Memory programming: Memory effects in hardware, choosing data structures, non-uniform memory. Program...
张强; 李裕; 陈丽华
总结归纳了当代气候变化的主要特点和基本规律,并从能量角度分析了全球气候变化的原因和气候变暖的本质驱动力.同时,还提出了目前气候变暖中几个值得重点关注的问题,讨论了为何要更加重视气候变暖的不利影响及其不利影响的深刻性和广泛性,并从长远发展和短期现实角度对目前科学应对气候变暖做了一些初步思考.%Scientific literatures contain numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on natural environment and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change,environmental conservation organizations and government agencies are taking actions to help human society and ecological systems to adopt to climate change. In the paper, main characteristics and main socio-economic driving forces of climate change are analyzed and key issues and adverse effects of climate warming are discussed. Lastly, the authors give some advices of adaptation to climate change not only for long-term development but also for short-term benefits.
Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S.; ,
This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.
In "Thematizing the Subject from Gothicism to Late Romanticism," Slobodan Sucur takes Habermas's suggestion that "modern art reveals its essence in Romanticism; and absolute inwardness determines the form and content of Romantic art" and offers an analysis of a spectrum of primary texts in relation to the statement. The texts analysed range from Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto to Odoyevsky’s Russian Nights. The texts are analyzed in chronological fashion, in an attempt to see how the thematiz...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Department of Geography Distance Learning students’ approaches towards the thematic courses in Physical Geography field in academic year 2014-2015 Spring semester. 4 Open-ended questions were asked to the students to designate the difficulties and the problems encountered when implementing the online courses. The study which was participated in 66 distance learning students was performed through qualitative analysis technique. The data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis method. At the end of the research, deficiency of map skill development and field work practices were directly related to the Physical Geography field among the problems that the students’ come face to face. Alongside of overcoming these issues, students stated that they demanded to improve communication with each other and especially the lecturers.
Liversedge, Simon P; Pickering, Martin J; Clayes, Emma L; Branigan, Holly P
We investigated thematic processing in sentences containing a prepositional phrase that was ambiguous between a locative and a temporal interpretation. We manipulated context (temporal or locative), target sentence (temporal or locative), and whether or not the main verb of the target and the context was repeated. Results showed that context dictated the participants' thematic expectations. Thematically, congruent target and context pairs were read faster than incongruent pairs. This effect was not modulated by verb repetition. We argue that wh-words cause readers to lodge semantically vacuous thematic roles in their discourse representation that bias a reader's interpretation of subsequent thematically ambiguous adjuncts in their discourse representation.
Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K
We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.
Sebastian J. Crutch
Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.
Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier
In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.
Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo
for the students. They have a hard time understanding where mathematical concepts come from and why physics has little to do with their experiential world. This problem demands a systematic research effort from experts in different fields, especially the ones who aim at informing educational practices......Since their beginnings Physics (natural philosophy) and mathematics have been deeply interrelated, and this mutual influence has played an essential role in both their developments. However, the image typically found in educational contexts is often quite different. In physics education......, it is usual to find mathematics being seen as a mere tool to describe and calculate, whereas in mathematics education, physics is commonly viewed as a possible context for the application of mathematical concepts that were previously defined abstractly. This dichotomy creates significant learning problems...
The study reviews the challenges water resources management faces, and the opportunities for policy formulation towards sustainable development in Argentina, where regardless of prudent public finances management, water resources management remain disproportionately backward compared to regional, and international best practices. Hence, within a frame of reference on the country's populati...
The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.
Full Text Available This article proposes an original analysis of the international debate on climate change through the use of digital methods. Its originality is twofold. First, it examines a corpus of reports covering 18 years of international climate negotiations, a dataset never explored before through digital techniques. This corpus is particularly interesting because it provides the most consistent and detailed reporting of the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Second, in this paper we test an original approach to text analysis that combines automatic extractions and manual selection of the key issue-terms. Through this mixed approach, we tried to obtain relevant findings without imposing them on our corpus. The originality of our corpus and of our approach encouraged us to question some of the habits of digital research and confront three common misunderstandings about digital methods that we discuss in the first part of the article (section ‘Three misunderstandings on digital methods in social sciences’. In addition to reflecting on methodology, however, we also wanted to offer some substantial contribution to the understanding of UN-framed climate diplomacy. In the second part of the article (section ‘Three maps on climate negotiations’ we will therefore introduce some of the preliminary results of our analysis. By discussing three visualizations, we will analyze the thematic articulation of the climatic negotiations, the rise and fall of these themes over time and the visibility of different countries in the debate.
Full Text Available Purpose. To compile a thematic references list on the problems of biology, physiology, pathology and crayfish breeding in Ukraine. Methodology. As the search base for the realization of the purpose was the scientific library stock of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. The methods that have been preferred were both integrated and selective. Findings. We prepared a thematic reference list of the main scientific works, such as collections of scientific papers, proceedings of international scientific conferences, articles and candidate’s thesis abstracts on the biology of crustaceans and their cultivation in Ukraine, including the literature sources since 1958. The bibliography contains 37 publications of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS scientific library stock, in alphabetical order, and described according to DSTU GOST 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules». Practical value. The list may be helpful for experts, scientists, students, who are interested in problems of crayfish biology and culture.
@@ Advances in Climate Change Research is a journal published by National Climate Centre of China Meteorological Administration.So far,it is the only comprehensive English journal in China,which focuses on climate change studies and covers both natural and social sciences related to climate change.This issue mainly presents the latest academic views and findings in climate change research both in China and overseas,and additionally it provides information about major activities regarding climate change both at home and abroad.
Full Text Available Within the last century, the global average temperature increased by about 1 °C and this rate of increase may accelerate over the course of the 21st century . Although estimates of climate change are based on projections and probabilistic assessments, ample evidence exists that climate change impacts are likely to become more profound in this century, particularly if mitigation policies are absent or inadequate [1,2]. It has been argued that, relative to keeping the warming at 2 °C or lower, the global cost of continuing with “business as usual” may be 5 to 20 times higher [3,4]. [...
Full Text Available European funds is one of the most important instruments for addressing major development issues for Romania in the period 2014-2020. These funds must be used on the priorities identified in the framework of the partnership agreement 2014-2020 for Romania. In this paper are presented the main development priorities, which are supported by interventions in the framework of the 11 objectives of the thematic Strategy Europe 2020, in order to strengthen the sustainability of economic operators and improve regional attractiveness; of employment and labour mobility, offering solutions for severe social challenges and combating poverty, especially the underprivileged or marginalized communities or in rural areas; the development of the ICT sector and the transport sector, in order to increase the accessibility of regions of Romania and their attractiveness for investors; promoting energy efficiency, to an economy with low emissions of carbon, environmental protection and adaptation to climate change and settlement governance structural errors.
Byrne, Richard; Monastersky, Richard
When the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize would be shared by Al Gore, the former U.S. vice president, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the award implicitly celebrated a third party--academic institutions. Much of the research on global warming has come from university scientists, and higher…
Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.
The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how
Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.
In cities in temperate climate zones, the elderly, disabled and socially deprived are most vulnerable to extreme heat, as witnessed by increased mortality rates during heat waves in Europe and North America. Many cities, however, lag behind in the protection of vulnerable citizens against heat stres
Full Text Available Subjective decisions of thematic and spatial resolutions in characterizing environmental heterogeneity may affect the characterizations of spatial pattern and the simulation of occurrence and rate of ecological processes, and in turn, model-based tree species distribution. Thus, this study quantified the importance of thematic and spatial resolutions, and their interaction in predictions of tree species distribution (quantified by species abundance. We investigated how model-predicted species abundances changed and whether tree species with different ecological traits (e.g., seed dispersal distance, competitive capacity had different responses to varying thematic and spatial resolutions. We used the LANDIS forest landscape model to predict tree species distribution at the landscape scale and designed a series of scenarios with different thematic (different numbers of land types and spatial resolutions combinations, and then statistically examined the differences of species abundance among these scenarios. Results showed that both thematic and spatial resolutions affected model-based predictions of species distribution, but thematic resolution had a greater effect. Species ecological traits affected the predictions. For species with moderate dispersal distance and relatively abundant seed sources, predicted abundance increased as thematic resolution increased. However, for species with long seeding distance or high shade tolerance, thematic resolution had an inverse effect on predicted abundance. When seed sources and dispersal distance were not limiting, the predicted species abundance increased with spatial resolution and vice versa. Results from this study may provide insights into the choice of thematic and spatial resolutions for model-based predictions of tree species distribution.
A thematic course called "Climate Change: Chemistry and Controversy" was developed for upper-level non-STEM students. This course used the socioscientific context of climate change to teach chemical principles and the nature of science. Students used principles of agnotology (direct study of misinformation) to debunk climate change…
This work was compiled with expanded and reviewed contributions from the 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, that was held from 3 to 6 June 2015 at Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal. The Conference provided a comprehensive forum for discussing the current state of the art in the field as well as generating inspiration for future ideas specifically on a multidisciplinary level. The scope of the Conference included topics related to the following areas: Fundamentals of smart materials and structures; Modeling/formulation and characterization of smart actuators, sensors and smart material systems; Trends and developments in diverse areas such as material science including composite materials, intelligent hydrogels, interfacial phenomena, phase boundaries and boundary layers of phase boundaries, control, micro- and nano-systems, electronics, etc. to be considered for smart systems; Comparative evaluation of different smart actuators and sensors; Analysis of structural concepts and des...
Rands, R.L.; Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.
Ceramic incensarios were an important component of ritual paraphernalia in the Palenque region. Tubular flanged cylinders - stands or supports for receptacles in which the incense was actually burned - were highly embellished. The primary concern is with these iconographically-rich objects, focusing on variations in thematic presentation and in paste composition. The latter, mineralogical and chemical composition, has significance in that it enables differentiation among centers of production, leading to a better understanding of where clay resources were procured and, inferentially, where the incensarios were manufactured. An attempt is being made to determine if incensarios of Palenque style were manufactured at a single or at multiple sites, if Palenque itself was a production center, and what can be inferred about trading or distributional patterns of these specialized objects.
Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.
Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.
Allen, J S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Betrue, R.
Safe, sustained, affordable human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond is a major NASA goal. Robotic exploration of the Moon and Mars will help pave the way for an expanded human presence in our solar system. To help share the robotic exploration role in the Vision for Space Exploration with classrooms, informal education groups, and the public, our team researched and consolidated the thematic story components and associated education activities into a useful education materials set for educators. We developed the set of materials for a workshop combining NASA Science Mission Directorate and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate engineering, science, and technology to train informal educators on education activities that support the robotic exploration themes. A major focus is on the use of robotic spacecraft and instruments to explore and prepare for the human exploration of the Moon and Mars.
Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn
The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.
It is acknowledged that contrast plays an important role in understanding discourse and information structure. While it is commonly assumed that contrast can be marked by intonation only, our understanding of the intonational realization of contrast is limited. For German there is mainly introspective evidence that the rising theme accent (or topic accent) is realized differently when signaling contrast than when not. In this article, the acoustic basis for the reported impressionistic differences is investigated in terms of the scaling (height) and alignment (positioning) of tonal targets. Subjects read target sentences in a contrastive and a noncontrastive context (Experiment 1). Prosodic annotation revealed that thematic accents were not realized with different accent types in the two contexts but acoustic comparison showed that themes in contrastive context exhibited a higher and later peak. The alignment and scaling of accents can hence be controlled in a linguistically meaningful way, which has implications for intonational phonology. In Experiment 2, nonlinguists' perception of a subset of the production data was assessed. They had to choose whether, in a contrastive context, the presumed contrastive or noncontrastive realization of a sentence was more appropriate. For some sentence pairs only, subjects had a clear preference. For Experiment 3, a group of linguists annotated the thematic accents of the contrastive and noncontrastive versions of the same data as used in Experiment 2. There was considerable disagreement in labels, but different accent types were consistently used when the two versions differed strongly in F0 excursion. Although themes in contrastive contexts were clearly produced differently than themes in noncontrastive contexts, this difference is not easily perceived or annotated.
Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J
Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts rely, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifacts and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times (RTs) for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower RTs in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association between thematic
Soegaard Soerensen, F.; Sloth, K.; Oellgaard, G. [Explora A/S (Denmark)
On average, respondents gave 59 percent right answers in a multiple-choice quiz designed to test general knowledge on climate change. This percentage is significantly lower than the 82 percent right answers found in Tager vi hensyn til miljoeet (Do we care for the environment), where knowledge of a wide range of topics was surveyed. Thus, it is evident that global heating is a topic, whose nature, causes and consequences, to the average citizen, rank among the more difficult ones. Respondents' knowledge on how to prevent climate change was slightly better, as respondents gave 64 percent correct answers. The respondents lack of knowledge was demonstrated, when they were asked about associations to the term 'greenhouse effect' and their ideas on the causes of the greenhouse effect, as it was often mixed up with the notion of ozone depletion. Likewise, the emission of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide was quite frequently mixed up with the emission of ozone depleting gasses such as Freon. In fact, the burning of fossil fuels was hardly ever associated with the term 'greenhouse effect'. Almost every second respondent expected the government and its agencies to be able to prevent climate change. The population should be better informed about the extent of the Danish carbon dioxide emission, about the reduction necessary to bring the human contribution to the climate change to a halt, about the most important sources of carbon dioxide emissions at the consequences on weather and nature. And there is a need for the population to learn more about how the green house effect is generated as a different matter than the depletion of the ozone layer. (au)
To take action on climate impacts, practitioners must understand how climate change will effect their region, and the country. Training provided here by EPA and partners allow users to better grasp the issues and make decisions based on current science.
This paper intends to introduce briefly the thematic progression patterns in Systemic- Functional Grammar, then analyze its application in "The Great Learning" which is one of the classics of the Confucius and his disciples. The analysis of the thematic progression patterns of "The Great Learning" is meaningful for both understanding and appreciating "The Great Learning".
闫鹤; 张峥; 杨森; 陈亮
近几年来,虚拟地理环境系统得到广泛应用.专题图制作在制图学上有着悠久的历史.但是在虚拟地理环境浏览系统中(如Google Earth)对专题要素的表达没有得到足够的重视.文中研究如何利用KML制作专题符号,并在三维虚拟地理环境浏览系统中利用基于KML的专题符号实现定点符号法、分区图表法、质别底色法等专题图表示方法.通过实验说明KML在专题图的制作中具有巨大潜力,但同时也有一些重点问题需要解决.%The use of geobrowsers has increased considerably over the last few years. Thematic mapping has a long history in cartography, but the new geobrowsers (like Google Earth) tend not to focus on this aspect of geographical information representation. The paper examines how Keyhole Markup Language (KML) can be used for thematic mapping. This paper also researches to realize some thematic map express methods based on thematic symbol which created by KML in geobrowsers system. These experiments show that KML and geobrowsers offer great potential for thematic mapping, but there are significant issues that need to be resolved.
Draeger, Vicki Lee
This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five problems the unit was written to address. Citing The National Center for Education Statistics 2000 version of The Nation's Report Card, the problems with current practices in science education resulting in poor student performance are presented. References to Project 2061: Science for All Americans help to demonstrate that students with disabilities are seldom considered when physical science curriculum is being developed, supporting the position that equity in science education is necessary, while maintaining challenging subject matter. The problem of the poor quality of many physical science texts is addressed, with an emphasis on the importance of curricular connections. The poor quality of physical science teacher training in many university teacher training courses is discussed, and the nature of the integrated thematic unit as a curriculum design is examined with reference to what is considered the over-emphasis on "reality-based" content to the exclusion of abstract subject matter. Having presented the problems and supporting their validity, the essay then demonstrated how Kids, Quarks, and Quanta specifically addresses each problem. The two and a half year study of Dr. John Hubisz and the committee he formed under The David and Lucille Packard Foundation grant to review and critique the physical science textbooks currently used with early adolescents is often referenced to support both the problems of teacher training and the poor quality of many texts. Recent brain research conducted by researchers of the National Institute of Mental Health is used to support the presentation of more abstract
Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos
The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain
Robinson, Jude; Wiggers, John
Objective To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies of the barriers, motivators and enablers of smoke-free homes (SFHs). Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE, EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, Informit and EMBASE, combining terms for families, households and vulnerable populations; SFH and secondhand smoke; and qualitative research, were supplemented by searches of PhD theses, key authors, specialist journals and reference lists. Study selection We included 22 articles, reporting on 18 studies, involving 646 participants. Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed; English language; published from 1990 onwards (to week 3 of April 2014); used qualitative data collection methods; explored participants’ perspectives of home smoking behaviours; and the barriers, motivators and enablers to initiating and/or maintaining a SFH. Data extraction 1 of 3 authors extracted data with checking by a second. Data synthesis A thematic synthesis was performed to develop 7 core analytic themes: (1) knowledge, awareness and risk perception; (2) agency and personal skills/attributes; (3) wider community norms and personal moral responsibilities; (4) social relationships and influence of others; (5) perceived benefits, preferences and priorities; (6) addiction and habit; (7) practicalities. Conclusions This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. Trial registration number CRD42014014115. PMID:26988351
Obregón, A.; Nitsche, H.; Körber, M.; Kreis, A.; Bissolli, P.; Friedrich, K.; Rösner, S.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) around the world to create science-based climate information on a regional scale within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The paper introduces the satellite component of the WMO Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM) for Europe and the Middle East. The RCC-CM product portfolio is based on essential climate variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), spanning the atmospheric (radiation, clouds, water vapour) and terrestrial domains (snow cover, soil moisture). In the first part, the input data sets are briefly described, which are provided by the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facilities (SAF), in particular CM SAF, and by the ESA (European Space Agency) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In the second part, the derived RCC-CM products are presented, which are divided into two groups: (i) operational monitoring products (e.g. monthly means and anomalies) based on near-real-time environmental data records (EDRs) and (ii) climate information records (e.g. climatologies, time series, trend maps) based on long-term thematic climate data records (TCDRs) with adequate stability, accuracy and homogeneity. The products are provided as maps, statistical plots and gridded data, which are made available through the RCC-CM website (www.dwd.de/rcc-cm).
Steiner, R. V.
The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the
Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R.W.; Barsi, J.A.
The Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was launched on March 01, 1984, with a design life of three years. Incredibly, the L5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has collected data for 23 years. Over this time, the detectors have aged, and its radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data; however, users with data that were processed prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing Level 1 (L1) products without having to purchase reprocessed data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The accuracy of the recalibration is dependent on the knowledge of the prior calibration applied to the data. The ""Work Order" file, included with standard National Land Archive Production System (NLAFS) data products, gives parameters that define the applied calibration. These are the Internal Calibrator (IC) calibration parameters or the default prelaunch calibration, if there were problems with the IC calibration. This paper details the recalibration procedure for data processed using IC, in which users have the Work Order file. ?? 2001 IEEE.
Pettigrew, Simone; Archer, Catherine; Harrigan, Paul
Introduction Various forms of social media are used by many mothers to maintain social ties and manage the stress associated with their parenting roles and responsibilities. 'Mommy blogging' as a specific type of social media usage is a common and growing phenomenon, but little is known about mothers' blogging-related experiences and how these may contribute to their wellbeing. This exploratory study investigated the blogging-related motivations and goals of Australian mothers. Methods An online survey was emailed to members of an Australian online parenting community. The survey included open-ended questions that invited respondents to discuss their motivations and goals for blogging. A thematic analysis using a grounded approach was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained from 235 mothers. Results Five primary motivations for blogging were identified: developing connections with others, experiencing heightened levels of mental stimulation, achieving self-validation, contributing to the welfare of others, and extending skills and abilities. Discussion These motivations are discussed in terms of their various properties and dimensions to illustrate how these mothers appear to use blogging to enhance their psychological wellbeing.
Full Text Available Purpose. Composing a thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to biological characteristics of burbot of different ecological and zoographical zones, as well as to the aspects of its cultivation and fishing in Ukraine and abroad. Methods. In the process of systematic search when preparing this publication, we applied both complete and selective methods. The bibliographic core was formed of literature sources on the abovementioned topic from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. A list of 65 sources containing characteristics of burbot as a representative of Lotidae family have been formed from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS for the period from 1927 to 2016. The literary sources were arranged in alphabetical order by author or title and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of cultivation, fishing, and research of the biological features of Lotidae family.
Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro
Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image classification scheme for benthic coral reef images that can be applied to both single image and composite mosaic datasets. The proposed method can be configured to the characteristics (e.g., the size of the dataset, number of classes, resolution of the samples, color information availability, class types, etc. of individual datasets. The proposed method uses completed local binary pattern (CLBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, Gabor filter response, and opponent angle and hue channel color histograms as feature descriptors. For classification, either k-nearest neighbor (KNN, neural network (NN, support vector machine (SVM or probability density weighted mean distance (PDWMD is used. The combination of features and classifiers that attains the best results is presented together with the guidelines for selection. The accuracy and efficiency of our proposed method are compared with other state-of-the-art techniques using three benthic and three texture datasets. The proposed method achieves the highest overall classification accuracy of any of the tested methods and has moderate execution time. Finally, the proposed classification scheme is applied to a large-scale image mosaic of the Red Sea to create a completely classified thematic map of the reef benthos.
Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Lin, Guang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yaocun
The current tuning process of parameters in global climate models is often performed subjectively, or treated as an optimization procedure to minimize the difference between model fields and observations. The later approach may be generating a set of tunable parameters that approximate the observed climate but via an unrealistic balance of physical processes and/or compensating errors over different regions in the globe. In this study, we run the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional model constrained by the reanalysis data over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) where abundant observational data from various resources are available for calibration of the input parameters and validation of the model results. Our goal is to quantify the uncertainty ranges and identify the optimal values of five key input parameters in a new Kain-Frisch (KF) convective parameterization scheme incorporated in the WRF model. A stochastic sampling algorithm, Multiple Very Fast Simulated Annealing (MVFSA), is employed to efficiently sample the input parameters in KF scheme based on the skill score so that the algorithm progressively moves toward regions of the parameter space that minimize model errors. The results based on the WRF simulations with 25-km grid spacing over the SGP show that the model bias for precipitation can be significantly reduced by using five optimal parameters identified by the MVFSA algorithm. The model performance is very sensitive to downdraft and entrainment related parameters and consumption time of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). Simulated convective precipitation decreases as the ratio of downdraft to updraft flux increases. Larger CAPE consumption time results in less convective but more stratiform precipitation. The simulation using optimal parameters obtained by only constraining precipitation generates positive impact on the other output variables, such as temperature and wind. By using the optimal parameters obtained at 25 km
Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D
To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context.
ZHANG Hailin; HE Baoyin
By analyzing the enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) images of September 1999, and quality observation data for many consecutive years in several parts of the Donghu Lake in Wuhan, China, the authors discovered a good linear relation between grey scale (GS) abstracted from ETM b5, b7 images and eutrophication level of the lakes, and extended the study to eight other major lakes in the area of Wuhan by using lake eutrophication models. Based on the in situ monitoring data, we also evaluated the eutrophication level of the lakes with modified trophic index method brought by M. Aizaki et al. The results of the two methods showed that the most of the lakes were eutrophicated, and even hyper-eutrophicated in some areas. Six of the 8 lakes had very similar trophic state index (TSI) values. Although two of them differed in TSI value, but within an order, while it was different largely from the one by traditional method. The difference of the results between the two methods might have been due to three causative reasons. First, remote sensing technology reflects the overall status of a certain area corresponding to the ETM images in a certain period, but the modified TSI reflects the annual average values of the monitoring spots. Second, the time the ETM images taken is later than that of in situ data. Third, ETM images are affected by clouds, water depth, and suspended matter. In short, remote sensing result agreed greatly with the in situ monitoring data, indicating that remote sensing technology is feasible and effective for monitoring and evaluating the lake eutrophication in the Wuhan area and it also can be used to evaluate large-scope lake eutrophication.
Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Morel, Olivier
Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed and will be implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.
Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Svenning, J.-C.; Olesen, Jørgen E
More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular......; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference...
Mélo, Alain; Ployon, Estelle; Wilhelm, Bruno; Arnaud, Fabien
Floods are complex multifactor events. As it can occur randomly on a given region, a given singular event does not clearly inform about climate variations. On the contrary, long-time series of well documented events, each one being replaced in its historical and geographical context, should bring valuable information. Such successions can be built-up using heterogeneous historical documentation taken from various social contexts. This is the case of small drainage basin of river Arve and its tributaries (Northern French Alps), on which this paper will focus. We used a plentiful and rich documentation which was elaborated quite exclusively to report damages in the aim of claiming tax abatement. As a consequence each text requires a hard critic to reach the necessary objectivity. The analysis of 18th century treasury archives led first to a geographical reconstruction of floods impacts and second to an unambiguous chronology of events. The contrasted morphology of river Arve drainage basin generates various types of floods, depending on geographical situations: summer flash-floods in the higher parts of valleys (Chamonix, Sixt) or torrential tributaries (Borne); autumn large floods in lower parts (Bonneville); some unusual events concern the whole basin (1733, 1778...). The constitution of long continuous series was thus possible. However, this does not allow evidencing any trend because most of the events are randomly-distributed flash-floods. In return, meteorological contextualization of each event replaces it in a larger climatic perception. Using this way (meteorological archives, comparisons with recently well-documented event) led us to corroborate connections between flood events and changing patterns. In order to go a step further, we led a pilot-study aiming at representing our data in space-time information system using concepts and tools of time geography. This study was limited to year 1930 AD which was rich in various meteorological events leading to
general introduction to climate sensitivity and related issues. In the Key Conclusions session, a group of three senior researchers provided their considered views of what they heard throughout the workshop on particular topics. Finally, Section 4 covers the thematic plenary sessions that covered the workshop topics described in Section 1.2.
Wong, M. M.; McLaughlin, B. D.; Huang, T.; Baynes, K.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. To assist the scientific community and general public in achieving a greater understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of Earth science and of key environmental and climate change topics, the NASA Earthdata web infrastructure is integrating new methods of presenting and providing access to Earth science information, data, research and results. This poster will present the process of integrating thematic web portal capabilities into the NASA Earthdata web infrastructure, with examples from the Sea Level Change Portal. The Sea Level Change Portal will be a source of current NASA research, data and information regarding sea level change. The portal will provide sea level change information through articles, graphics, videos and animations, an interactive tool to view and access sea level change data and a dashboard showing sea level change indicators. Earthdata is a part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project. EOSDIS is a key core capability in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program. It provides end-to-end capabilities for managing NASA's Earth science data from various sources - satellites, aircraft, field measurements, and various other programs. It is comprised of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Computing Facilities (SCFs), data discovery and service access client (Reverb and Earthdata Search), dataset directory (Global Change Master Directory - GCMD), near real-time data (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS - LANCE), Worldview (an imagery visualization interface), Global Imagery Browse Services, the Earthdata Code Collaborative and a host of other discipline specific data discovery, data access, data subsetting and visualization tools.
气候变化、全球变暖不仅作为环境问题成了全球热点问题,而且已经上升到了经济、政治等领域.对于全球变暖及温室效应,国内外科学界都有不同看法.从历史、现实和科学的角度看,全球气候变暖这一观点难以成立.即使全球气候真变暖,也是利弊都有,不必恐慌.一味宣传全球变暖,危害很大.而应把厉行节约、遏制全球"变脏"作为环保的主要目标,并坚持以科学的态度,全面客观地介绍各种观点与现象.%Now,tbe climatic change and global warming not only become the hotspot problems in the environment,but also extend into the economic,political and international area. But scientific community at home and abroad has not agreed on the view of global wanning and greenhouse effect. They are difficult to be prove to be true in the history, realistic and scientific point of view. Even if the globe is getting wanner, it has the advantages and disadvantages effects. So it is not necessary for us to be frightened out of our wits. It does ann us to publicize global wanning blindly. We should strictly enforce save and hold back the pace of getting dirty of the globe,and regard them as the goal of the environmental protection.We should compre-bensively and objectively introduce all kinds of viewpoints and phenomenon in the science manner.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive holds data collected by the Landsat suite of satellites. The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), a...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS). ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of...
Leeuwen, van L.J.; Tiesinga, L.J.; Jochemsen, H.
This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students’ competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that m
Prior, Suzanne M; Rafuse, Lindsay P
Skin cancers are becoming more prevalent even though many can be prevented. Women are more knowledgeable than men about skin cancer, yet they are more likely to sunbathe deliberately and to use artificial tanning equipment. The purpose of this article is to examine messages that women receive about the benefits of a tan. Particularly, we focused on how the indoor UV tanning industry represents the value of a tan to women. We subjected five issues of Smart Tan Canada to thematic analysis. We examined language in advertisements and articles that promote an artificial tan to women. Four themes emerged: Be Beautiful and Sexy; Look Young; Feel Better; and Science, Health, and Nature. These themes are especially effective in a culture that routinely objectifies women and places a high degree of value on their appearance. We suggest that appearance-based interventions, media literacy training, and legislation could counteract the messages in the themes.
Álvaro Antônio Caretta
Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the contribution of thematic projects for the dialogic-discursive teaching of Portuguese language. Given the dialogic theory of discourse and the social discursive interactionism, we emphasize the importance of working with the genres in different axes in teaching Portuguese language classes. To this end, in line with the proposals made in the PCNs, we noted that the development of thematic projects is an efficient and productive strategy.
With reference to the issue of climate change, each sovereign state concerns too much about the pros and cons of the national interest but pays little attention to the moral obligations, which results in a serious imbalance between the interests and morality. Facts have proved that the conflicts of interests among sovereign states that lack the moral foundation will only make the problem of climate change more difficult to solve. Each sovereign state must promote the formation of a basic ethical consensus so that agreement on climate change that the World Climate Conference reached can be implemented consciously and effectively. As for the international community, the formation of moral consensus needs each sovereign state to go beyond national egoism and a strong global government. Cultivation and popularization of ecological values is conducive to go beyond national egoism.%在气候变化问题上，各主权国家过多关心国家利益，极少关注相关的道德义务，造成了利益与道德严重失衡的现象。事实证明，主权国家之间缺乏道德基础的利益纷争只会使气候变化问题更加难以解决，必须促进各主权国家形成基本的道德共识，世界气候大会达成的气候变化协议才会得到自觉而有效的实施。就目前的国际社会而言，道德共识的形成需要超越国家利己主义，需要强有力的全球政府。生态价值观的培育与普及有利于超越国家利己主义。
Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process.
吴军; 张称意; 徐海根
近年来,生物多样性与气候变化的关系逐渐成为《生物多样性公约》下的焦点议题,各缔约方就此问题展开了激烈的多边谈判.本文梳理了《生物多样性公约》下气候变化问题谈判的发展历程,探讨了其中的焦点问题及各方的主要立场,指出以欧盟为代表的发达国家和以巴西、哥伦比亚、中国为代表的发展中生物多样性大国是针锋相对的两大主要谈判集团.谈判焦点问题主要包括:(1)气候变化问题的扩大化.欧盟希望将气候变化问题扩大化,使其全面渗透到《生物多样性公约》下的各议题中,并促进《生物多样性公约》、《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《联合国防治荒漠化公约》(简称里约三公约)之间的联合；而发展中国家对此比较谨慎和保守.(2)地球工程(geoengineering)和海洋施肥(ocean fertilization).欧盟提出全面禁止地球工程,并建立全球管制框架；而发展中国家认为可遵循“预先防范”原则.(3)减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制.欧盟要求为该机制建立“生物多样性保障”制度,而发展中国家表示反对.两大集团产生分歧的原因主要是发展中国家担心欧盟的快速推进会使自己将来受到制约,这也反映了在环境领域发达国家和发展中国家之间的固有矛盾,而这种矛盾未来还会继续深化.本文最后还就我国的应对策略和工作方向提出了建议:(1)要加强国内相关主管部门之间的沟通与协调；(2)要总结和宣传我国在气候变化领域成功的做法和经验；(3)要加强对减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制的研究.%Recently, the issue of biodiversity and climate change is becoming a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and parties to the convention have carried out heavy multilateral negotiations on the issue. This paper reviews the background pertaining to biodiversity and climate
The National Center for Science Education (NCSE), which has long been in the lead in defending the teaching of evolution in public schools, has expanded its core mission to include defending climate science, the organization announced in January. “We consider climate change a critical issue in our own mission to protect the integrity of science education,” said NSCE executive director Eugenie Scott. “Climate affects everyone, and the decisions we make today will affect generations to come. We need to teach kids now about the realities of global warming and climate change so that they're prepared to make informed, intelligent decisions in the future.”
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the benefits of a network in emergency and unscheduled care research, a six week scoping study was undertaken. Objectives were to: draw together stakeholders; identify and prioritise research topics; identify sites for recruitment to studies; and agree a research strategy for a network. Methods A workshop was held to discuss and agree a research strategy based on results from four activities: visits to established research centres in emergency and unscheduled care; a literature overview; interviews with stakeholders in a GP out-of-hours service; and an exploration of the potential for routine data to support research in emergency care. Results Participants attended the workshop from user groups, primary care, the ambulance service, social care, the national telephone based health helpline, the Welsh Assembly Government and the academic sector. Site visits identified opportunities for collaboration. Gaps in knowledge were identified concerning the effectiveness of alternative models of emergency care delivery. Interview data highlighted a lack of evidence related to the quality of out-of-hours provision of primary care. The All Wales Injury Surveillance System (AWISS was found to offer the potential to use routine data to support quantitative studies in emergency care. Three key issues emerged across all activities: working across boundaries; patient involvement; and triage. Conclusion The study included views from patient, provider, policy and academic perspectives and built the case for a research network in emergency care. Now funded, TRUST (Thematic Research network for emergency and UnScheduled Treatment will allow the development of research proposals, building of research teams and recruitment of sites and patients both in Wales and across the UK. It aims to address the imbalance between investment and research in this area and help support provision of 'the right care to the right people at the right time'.
In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and\\ud predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role\\ud of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational\\ud and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined.\\ud In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes i...
Genio, Anthony Del
As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.
Clear, timely, and accurate climate data and information that frame the influence of climate variability and change are in strong demand by many sectors and user groups. Yet the practices and tools required to meet this demand are fragmented across many entities. This session overview will lay out current and evolving organizational models of climate services developed to meet user needs in a systematic fashion. Such models generally adhere to thematic and/or sectoral emphases, with attention to climate information delivery and assessments directed at mitigation and adaptation responses.
Full Text Available The data-based research on which this article is based aimed at (1 describing the thematic progression variation of The Great Gatsby texts, (2 describing the contextual factors that motivate the variation in question, and (3 describing the effects of the variation on the texts as translational texts. The study applied a qualitative approach which employed a sematic-translational content analysis of qualitative and quantiative data. The results show that thematic progression variation falls into the low category at average indicated by the mean score of 0.76. The most prominent variation was repre-sented by the low category of variation. The variations were performed by adding or omitting Themes, splitting one units of thematic structure into more than one unit, downranking, not expressing and creating new clauses. The factors that motivate the variation are the different linguistic properties bet-ween English and Bahasa Indonesia and the situational contexts. In terms of effects, the variation caused dangling clauses which cannot be identified from which they are developed. Keywords: thematic progression, thematic structure, Theme, Rheme
Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.
Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.
This book provides a fresh and innovative perspective on climate change policy. By emphasizing the multiple facets of climate policy, from mitigation to adaptation, from technological innovation and diffusion to governance issues, it contains a comprehensive overview of the economic and policy dimensions of the climate problem. The keyword of the book is balance. The book clarifies that climate change cannot be controlled by sacrificing economic growth and many other urgent global issues. At the same time, action to control climate change cannot be delayed, even though gradually implemented. Therefore, on the one hand climate policy becomes pervasive and affects all dimensions of international policy. On the other hand, climate policy cannot be too ambitious: a balanced approach between mitigation and adaptation, between economic growth and resource management, between short term development efforts and long term innovation investments, should be adopted. I recommend its reading. Carlo Carraro, President, Ca�...
Khokher, Zeigham Islam
As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In
Chan, J. Y. H.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Evans, S. G.
Glacierized regions are one of the most dynamic land surface environments on the planet (Evans and Delaney, In Press). They are susceptible to various types of natural hazards such as landslides, glacier avalanches, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). GLOF events are increasingly common and present catastrophic flood hazards, the causes of which are sensitive to climate change in complex high mountain topography (IPCC, 2013). Inundation and debris flows from GLOF events have repeatedly caused significant infrastructure damages and loss of human lives in the high mountain regions of the world (Huggel et al, 2002). The research is designed to develop methods for the consistent detection of glacier lakes formation during the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) era (1982 - present), to quantify the frequency of glacier lake development and estimate lake volume using Landsat imagery and digital elevation model (DEM) data. Landsat TM scenes are used to identify glacier lakes in the Shimshal and Shaksgam valley, particularly the development of Lake Virjeab in year 2000 and Kyagar Lake in 1998. A simple thresholding technique using Landsat TM infrared bands, along with object-based segmentation approaches are used to isolate lake extent. Lake volume is extracted by intersecting the lake extent with the DEM surface. Based on previous studies and DEM characterization in the region, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM is preferred over Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) GDEM due to higher accuracy. Calculated errors in SRTM height estimates are 5.81 m compared with 8.34 m for ASTER. SRTM data are preferred because the DEM measurements were made over short duration making the DEM internally consistent. Lake volume derived from the Landsat TM imagery and DEM are incorporated into a simple GLOF model identified by Clague and Matthews (1973) to estimate the potential peak discharge (Qmax) of a GLOF event. We compare the simple Qmax estimates with
Full Text Available This paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The discussion follows the emerging field of sustainable human resource management and the contribution that this can make to meeting both the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to enhancing the recognition of workforce and employment issues within the related debate in tourism. The body of the paper highlights examples of key dimensions of work and employment across varied tourism contexts, where sustainability is of increasing consequence and significance. The paper concludes by drawing together the implications of these “mini-cases” and locating them within key principles of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Beckers, Jean-Marie; Buga, Luminita; Debray, Noelie
Data quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is an important issue in oceanographic data management, especially for the creation of multidisciplinary and comprehensive databases which include data from different and/or unknown origin covering long time periods. The data-collection methods i...... inconsistent data quality flags and the need for coordination and harmonization of practices. A dedicated workshop was organized to review the different practices and agree on a common methodology for data QA/QC and Diva products generation for EMODnet Chemistry....... will contribute considerably to the validation of large data collections. This report intends to be a reference manual for EMODnet Chemistry data QA/QC and the subsequent product generation. In fact, during the first data validation loop, each region adopted its own protocol and the results showed many...
The contributions collected in this section deal with some of the most crucial issues addressed in the Report on "Social Responsibility and Health" of the International Bioethics Committee: the importance of 'social responsibility' in the promotion of health, i.e. far beyond the context of the ethics of management and private companies where the term was introduced at first; the role of solidarity as a necessary presupposition for a genuinely universalistic morality of justice; the content of the right to health care, especially when we consider it as a 'legal' right; the quest for efficiency in health care policies, which is indispensable if we want to effectively extend the enjoyment of progressively higher standard of health; the sense of responsibility in the context of professional activities; the decision making procedures that are to be implemented in order to achieve a fair and just allocation of resources.
Zahid Ali Veesar
Full Text Available This study focuses on the thematic structure of the Sindhi verbs to find theta roles in the Sindhi language. The study tries to answer the research questions; “What are the thematic structures of Sindhi verbs?” and “What are the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language?” It examines the argument/thematic structure of Sindhi verbs and also finds the theta roles assigned by the Sindhi verbs to their arguments along with the most prominent theta roles used in the Sindhi language. The data come from the two interviews taken from two young native Sindhi speakers, which consist of 2 hours conversation having 1,669 sentences in natural spoken version of the Sindhi language. Towards the end, it has been found that the Sindhi language has certain theta roles which are assigned by the verbs to their arguments in sentences. Each verb phrase in our data is thus examined and studied in detail in terms of Argument/Thematic structure in order to find theta roles in Sindhi language. Thus, in this regard, each verb phrase (in a sentence has been examined with the help of Carnie’s theoretical framework (Thematic Relation and Theta Roles: 2006 in order to find the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language. The data have been examined and analysed on the basis of the Carnie’s theoretical framework. The study finds that the Sindhi language has all (09 theta roles which have been proposed by Carnie (2006. It has been found that six prominent theta roles out of nine are used prominently in Sindhi. The six prominent theta roles in Sindhi language are: agent, theme, beneficiary, recipient, locative and goal. Keywords: Sindhi Language, Syntax, Semantics, Theta role/thematic relations, prominent theta roles
Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.
A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.
Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This paper uses national greenhouse gas emission abatement costing studies as a case to discuss influential factors that determine their outcome and achievement. Costing studies are seen as part of an interconnected whole social process where actors (decision makers, clients, facilitators, experts....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying...
Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira; Verdingovas, Vadimas
Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface contamina...
Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN; Chowdhury, M. Jahangir Alam
Climate change, as an international environmental issue, is getting a lot of attention. The negative effects of climate change have become one of the most talked about issues among Governments, scientists, environmentalists and others. It is said that business activities are affecting the climate negatively. In order to minimize the negative effects of climate change, the activities of the businesses should be controlled and encouraged to perform in a socially responsible manner. The article ...
周冬梅; 童新华; 李连进
The geographical distribution of dialect and dialect features with label distribution map form,is an important research topic in Linguistics and geography disciplines concerned.Based on ArcGIS technology and CoreDraw software, the process and key issues of dialect thematic map production were studied in this paper. The spatial distribution features and spatial relationships of different dialects were performed, by adopting the expression function of spatial information of ArcGIS. Meanwhile, the aesthetic property of dialect thematic map was enhanced, by applying the powerful editing landscaping features of CorelDraw. The results show that, to make dialect thematic maps, the combination of ArcGIS and CorelDraw can improve the efficiency of cartography and catrtographic quality, enhance information presentation and readability of the dialect map, and better satisfy the requirements of making dialect thematic maps.%用地图的形式标示方言分布和方言特征的地理空间分布情况，是语言学和地理学学科关注的重要研究课题。文章综合运用ArcGIS的空间信息制图表达功能和CorelDraw的编辑美化功能，突出表达方言特征的空间分布情况和空间关系，增强方言地图的美观性。研究结果表明，结合ArcGIS软件和CorelDraw软件对方言专题图进行编制，有利于提高制图效率和制图质量，增强方言地图的信息表达和可读性，更好地满足方言专题图制作的要求。
Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten
The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....
Pursitasari, Indarini Dwi; Nuryanti, Siti; Rede, Amran
This study was conducted to explain the effect of thematic based integrated science learning to the student's critical thinking skills and character. One group pretest-posttest design is involving thirty students in one of the junior high school in the Palu city. A sample was taken using purposive sampling. Data of critical thinking skills…
Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.
Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…
Resor, Cynthia; Gandy, S. Kay
Throughout history humans have dreamed of a better life. This concept of utopia can be used as a central focus for thematic and interdisciplinary instruction. This approach has three key advantages. First, students recognize that certain themes are consistent across time and place and that realization can lead students to explore their own dreams…
Full Text Available The article summarizes the main findings of a contrastive and diachronic study of a corpus of 109 Finnish and German thematic openings of linguistic journal articles from the periodicals Virittäjä and Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur. The methodology used is based on a modification of Fredrickson/Swales (1994.
Korson, Cadey; Kusek, Weronika
The benefits of a regional or thematic approach to the study and presentation of world geography have long been debated. The goal to not reimagine these debates or to promote one approach over another; the aim is to explore how world geography courses are currently being taught in American universities. By polling and sharing information about…
Nielsen, Jan Alexis
The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers' (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students' innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher…
Cunningham, Charles E.; Rimas, Heather; Mielko, Stephanie; Mapp, Cailin; Cunningham, Lesley; Buchanan, Don; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Chen, Yvonne; Deal, Ken; Marcus, Madalyn
Prevention programs yield modest reductions in bullying in North American schools. This study explored the perspective of educators regarding factors limiting the impact of these initiatives. Transcripts from nineteen 90-min focus groups with 103 educators were coded thematically. Educators felt that off-site incidents, cyberbullying, and the…
Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey
Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…
Silleborg, Ellen; Bendixen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Christian
What set of eyes do you put forward when you array a thematic audit trail – e.g. the eyes of a judge, a listener or a negotiator? A preliminary answer to this could be: “What we learn from an audit depends on our methodology”. Yes – so let’s work with it! The workshop is dedicated to questions like...
Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Shah, V. P.; Younan, N. H.
There is a growing demand for digital databases of topographic and thematic information for a multitude of applications in environmental management, and also in data integration and efficient updating of other spatially oriented data. These thematic data sets are highly heterogeneous in syntax, structure and semantics as they are produced and provided by a variety of agencies having different definitions, standards and applications of the data. In this paper, we focus on the semantic heterogeneity in thematic information sources, as it has been widely recognized that the semantic conflicts are responsible for the most serious data heterogeneity problems hindering the efficient interoperability between heterogeneous information sources. In particular, we focus on the semantic heterogeneities present in the land cover classification schemes corresponding to the global land cover characterization data. We propose a framework (semantics enabled thematic data Integration (SETI)) that describes in depth the methodology involved in the reconciliation of such semantic conflicts by adopting the emerging semantic web technologies. Ontologies were developed for the classification schemes and a shared-ontology approach for integrating the application level ontologies as described. We employ description logics (DL)-based reasoning on the terminological knowledge base developed for the land cover characterization which enables querying and retrieval that goes beyond keyword-based searches.
Howard, Jay R.; Novak, Katherine B.; Cline, Krista M. C.; Scott, Marvin B.
Identifying and assessing core knowledge has been and continues to be a challenge that vexes the discipline of sociology. With the adoption of a thematic approach to courses in the core curriculum at Butler University, faculty teaching Introductory Sociology were presented with the opportunity and challenge of defining the core knowledge and…
Newgent, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Kristin K.; Belk, Stephanie E.; Behrend, Bonni A. Nickens; Dunbar, Kelly A.
Group counseling has been highlighted as one effective intervention for at-risk students, yet debate remains as to the comparable efficacy of traditional interventions versus thematic interventions. This study compared two psychosocial educational programs, the PEGS and ARK Programs, designed to help elementary school students with social skills…
Maintains that the multiage primary school approach is rapidly gaining advocates across the nation. Asserts that the thematic approach used in the National Council for the Social Studies national standards provides a structure for this curriculum schema. Discusses teachers' concerns about curriculum change and strengths of the nongraded primary…
This paper will provide a methodology and progress report from a multivocal thematic synthesis being conducted on an extensive, diverse body of empirical studies. The study data includes a corpus of peer-reviewed empirical literature sharing a common reference published in English between 2000 and 2014. In this study, data to be synthesized share…
This paper presents a fuzzy set-based method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic map and computing several ecological indicators while taking into account spatial variation of accuracy associated with different land cover types and other factors (e.g., slope, soil type, etc.)...
Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan
An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…
Wepner, Shelley B.
Uses a thematic unit on Japan to show how software can become an additional resource for elementary students' literacy learning in social studies, science, language arts, and art. Notes that the five-week unit addresses Japan's culture and customs. (RS)
Hopkins, Todd A.; Samide, Michael
This article describes an approach to general chemistry that involves teaching chemical concepts in the context of two thematic laboratory modules: environmental remediation and the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These modules were designed based on active-learning pedagogies and involve multiple-week projects that dictate what…
Amin Victor Luna
Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.
Winter, David G.; McClelland, David C.
The development and validation of the Test of Thematic Analysis (TTA) are described. The TTA measures the effects of liberal education as distinct from other kinds of education and general maturation. Scores were higher among seniors than freshmen at traditional liberal arts colleges. No significant differences were obtained at two vocationally…
Akgun, Bora; Tuter, Levent; Kurnaz, Mehmet Levent
Climate change is a reality of today. Paleoclimatic proxies and climate predictions based on coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models provide us with temperature data. Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, we are investigating the statistical connection between the climate types of the present and these local temperatures. We are relating this issue to some well-known historic climate shifts. Our main result is that the temperature fluctuations with or without a temperature scale attached to them, can be used to classify climates in the absence of other indicators such as pan evaporation and precipitation.
The author warmly thanks Marie-Françoise André (university Blaise-Pascal Clermont-Ferrand 2) for the editing of the French version of the paper. In recent years an increasing number of papers have been published in international journals on the various geomorphological aspects of human impact on landscapes. Bilateral seminars and international conferences have been organised to exchange experience concerning the influences of urban sprawl, land cultivation, industrial development (including m...
MAXWELL A CAMERON
Full Text Available This overview finds evidence for concern about the ability of the governments in Colombia and Venezuela to hold free and fair elections and a trend toward the concentration of executive power in most countries in the sub-region. The separation of powers has been most sharply eroded in Venezuela; but Bolivia and Ecuador are moving in a similar direction. Colombia has a robust constitutional order, including a remarkably independent judiciary, which has resisted the concentration of executive power by refusing to let the president stand for a third term. At the same time, most Andean countries are experimenting with new mechanisms of participation. There are sharp contrasts between the model of participation in Bolivia and Venezuela, two countries often lumped together by observers; and, despite ideological differences, striking similarities in the presidential styles of Presidents Uribe and Chávez. Among Andean nations, only Chile is not undergoing a revolution in participation. Finally, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador have re-written their constitutions in an attempt to encourage the exercise of constituent power. These cases exhibit variation in terms of the degree to which deliberative, pluralistic, lawful, and constitutional procedures were used.Esta síntesis concluye con preocupación respecto a la habilidad de los gobiernos de Colombia y Venezuela para celebrar elecciones libres y justas. También se reporta una tendencia presente en la mayoría de los países de la subregión, en cuanto a la concentración de poder en la rama ejecutiva del gobierno. La separación de poderes se encuentra profundamente comprometida en Venezuela, al tiempo que tanto en Bolivia como en Ecuador se vislumbran movimientos en la misma dirección. Colombia tiene un orden constitucional robusto, incluyendo la meritoria presencia de un Poder Judicial independiente capaz de frenar la creciente concentración de poder en el Ejecutivo con su rechazo a la posibilidad de una tercera elección presidencial. Sin embargo, la creciente concentración de poder en el Ejecutivo compromete el orden constitucional. Al mismo tiempo, la mayoría de los países andinos están experimentando con nuevos mecanismos de participación ciudadana. En este sentido, se verifica un amplio contraste entre dos casos usualmente vistos como similares en la literatura (Bolivia y Venezuela, junto con tendencias convergentes, entre casos cuyos liderazgos presidenciales (Alvaro Uribe y Hugo Chávez poseen orientaciones ideológicas muy diferentes (Venezuela y Colombia. Entre los países andinos, sólo Chile no se encuentra viviendo una revolución participativa. Vinalmente, Venezuela, Bolivia y Ecuador han reformado sus constituciones, en un intento por promover el poder constituyente. Estos tres casos exhiben diferencias en términos de la legalidad, el pluralismo, y el tipo de proceso deliberativo que condujo a la reforma constitucional.
Rosenzweig, C.; Horton, R.
The Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup is comprised of NASA Earth scientists, applications researchers and institutional stewards, tasked with assisting the development of Climate Change Adaptation strategies for NASA as a whole as well as at individual Centers. In an Executive Order dated October 5, 2009, titled "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance" the President mandates that all agencies "evaluate agency climate-change risks and vulnerabilities to manage the effects of climate change on the agency's operations and mission in both the short and long-term." To further these goals, the CASI Workgroup contributes to the scientific advancement of relevant climate and impacts studies at the Center-scale, contributes to a body of knowledge on how to apply Earth science in decision-making and ensures that NASA institutional stewards' decision-making process benefits from the best available scientific information. Climate variability and climate change pose a range of hazards to the NASA Centers located throughout the country. These changing climate hazards may challenge key NASA missions by threatening operations and damaging critical infrastructure. Studying and understanding these hazards are essential to ensuring effective risk management for the centers. By developing climate change adaptation strategies tailored to the specific impacts that are anticipated, NASA decision makers will be able to minimize negative effects of climate and climate change, while leveraging positive outcomes. The NASA CASI Workgroup will perform a variety of tasks including development of climate projections for each Center, inventory of climate and climate impact data and project activities within NASA, assessment of adaption approaches and Center-level planning strategies, recommendations for future research initiatives, and leading of thematic and region-specific workshops.
A review of research on climate variability, fluctuations and climate change in Mexico is presented. Earlier approaches include different time scales from paleoclimatic to historical and instrumental. The nature and causes of variability in Mexico have been attributed to large-scale southward/northward shifts of the mid-latitude major circulation and more recently to the ENSO cycle. Global greenhouse warming has become a major environmental issue and has spawned a large number of climate-chan...
Wanner, H.; Grosjean, M.; Roethlisberger, R.; Xoplaki, E. [NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Erlachstrasse 9a, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
Based on the book with the same title. The book provides an integrated assessment of issues related to climate variability and change, predictability and risks. The book deals with both the technical aspects of variability and (abrupt) climate change and the agricultural and economical impacts and consequences.
Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.
In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.
Pollack, Rachel H.
Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…
atmosphere, which is causing warming of global temperatures as well as more extreme and less predictable weather patterns. While this issue is debated in...develop unique, policy-relevant solutions to complex global challenges. About the CCAPS Program The Climate Change and African Political Stability...political circles, scientists overwhelmingly agree that human-induced or anthropogenic climate change is real. Given the complexity of the issue, there
Johnson, Craig; Bansha Dulal, Hari; Prowse, Martin Philip
This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject.......This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject....
Climate change mitigation can be implemented through the approach of engineering technologies at a large geographic scale. Geo-engineering refers to, in the large Earth yardstick or scale, all kinds of artificial approaches of engineering technologies in temperature reduction by removing CO2 in the atmosphere or directly controlling solar radiation, instead of emission reductions related to production and consumption of energy, and to the management of industrial production process. It is mainly classified into three big categories; approach of green biological technology, carbon capture and storage, and control and management technology of solar radiation. This kind of geo-engineering approach has a series of implications in economy, technology, environment, ethics, security, and uncertainty. The present paper makes an analysis and conducts a discussion on several recent international key issues of the possible technological options for mitigation of climate change, involving definitions of concept, technological features, possible effects and governance framework, etc.. The author argues that geo-engineering approach directly acting on carbon, such as biological sinks and carbon capture and storage technologies, are assessed with relatively low risk and high level of control. Through temperature reduction effects by artificially emitting SO, into the atmosphere and aerosols, solar radiation management technology is used to control the rise of the Earth's temperature, which, though having not a high economic cost of use but practical maneuverability, has huge uncertainty and possible implication of security, needing enough attention. Ethically, there are disputes over whether or not the contemporary people have the right to carry on geo-engineering of solar radiation management technology with such huge scientific uncertainty, and in such scientific uncertainty, to take any action will lose the ethnic basis. Legally, human intervention in solar radiation, even
At a time when corporations are addressing increasingly complex, global corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, this study examines and evaluates the strategies used in Vattenfall’s challenging and innovative CSR campaign which aimed at establishing the energy company as a credible climate...
Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.
Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…
Agger, Annika; Jelsøe, Erling; Jæger, Birgit
to include the voice of the citizens into complex scientific and technological issues. The purpose of WWV was to pass on the opinions of ordinary citizens to political decision-makers at The United Nations Climate Summit, COP15, in Copenhagen in December 2009. The authors made a study of the Danish WWV event...
Full Text Available AbstractAimsTo examine the self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity of those who hear voices and explore whether they are associated with the theme of voice content and appraisals of voice power and voice expressed emotion. MethodA cross-sectional design was used, combining semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. Data on symptomatology, self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity, thematic voice content and appraisals of voice power and expressed emotion were collected from 74 voice-hearers in Birmingham, UK. Results Common themes of voice content reflected issues of shame, control and affiliation. Controlling content was the most prevalent theme, however, no significant predictor of this theme was found; shaming thematic voice content linked with reduced capacity to self-reassure following self-critical thoughts. Voice-hearers with the greatest level of self-critical thoughts appraised their voices as powerful and high in voice expressed emotion ConclusionsFindings suggest that voice-hearers self-critical thoughts are reflected in the type of relationship they have with their voice. However, access to self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity may serve as a protective factor for those who hear voices, resulting in more benign voice content. These findings highlight the importance of this specific meta-cognitive capacity and will inform future therapeutic interventions for the management of voices in this vulnerable group.
The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.
Alberto Pace, CSC Director
tCSC2015 continues the concept trialled over the last two years. It aims to complement the existing portfolio of CSC events: the traditional main summer school, organised since 1970, the inverted CSCs (iCSCs) organised since 2005, and the special schools, like that organised in 2006 in Bombay. Shorter, smaller, focused are the three distinguishing features of the "thematic CSC" (tCSC). But, though different from the main CSCs, the tCSCs maintain the same guiding principles: 1. Academic dimension on an advanced topic 2. Theory and practice 3. Networking and socialisation. The third thematic CSC will take place in Split, Croatia, from 18 to 23 May 2015. All applicants are welcome, including former and future CSC participants in the main summer school. The theme is "Efficient, Parallel Programming and I/O", covering: 1. Programming for concurrency: modern and performing C++, expressing par...
Havemann, Frank; Gläser, Jochen; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander
The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess three algorithms for the identification of overlapping thematic structures in networks of papers. We implemented three recently proposed approaches to the identification of overlapping and hierarchical substructures in graphs and applied the corresponding algorithms to a network of 492 information-science papers coupled via their cited sources. The thematic substructures obtained and overlaps produced by the three hierarchical cluster algorithms were compared to a content-based categorisation, which we based on the interpretation of titles, abstracts, and keywords. We defined sets of papers dealing with three topics located on different levels of aggregation: h-index, webometrics, and bibliometrics. We identified these topics with branches in the dendrograms produced by the three cluster algorithms and compared the overlapping topics they detected with one another and with the three predefined paper sets. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of applying the three approaches to paper networks in research fields.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess three algorithms for the identification of overlapping thematic structures in networks of papers. We implemented three recently proposed approaches to the identification of overlapping and hierarchical substructures in graphs and applied the corresponding algorithms to a network of 492 information-science papers coupled via their cited sources. The thematic substructures obtained and overlaps produced by the three hierarchical cluster algorithms were compared to a content-based categorisation, which we based on the interpretation of titles, abstracts, and keywords. We defined sets of papers dealing with three topics located on different levels of aggregation: h-index, webometrics, and bibliometrics. We identified these topics with branches in the dendrograms produced by the three cluster algorithms and compared the overlapping topics they detected with one another and with the three predefined paper sets. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of applying the three approaches to paper networks in research fields.
Mitchell, Sandra A; Fisher, Cheryl A; Hastings, Clare E; Silverman, Leanne B; Wallen, Gwenyth R
The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes, (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge, (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry, and (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes.
Lara L. Jones
Full Text Available Word pairs may be integrative (i.e., combination of two concepts into one meaningful entity; e.g., fruit - cake, thematically related (i.e., connected in time and place; e.g., party - cake, and/or taxonomically related (i.e., shared features and category co-members; e.g., muffin - cake. Using participant ratings and computational measures, we demonstrated distinct patterns across measures of similarity and co-occurrence, and familiarity for each relational construct in two different item sets. Overall, target RTs and priming magnitudes were consistent across the SOAs for both item sets. However, results of a standard lexical decision task with various delays between prime and target presentation further demonstrated distinct patterns among these three relations on some of the underlying measures influencing target word recognition (LSA, Google, and BEAGLE. These distinct patterns suggest different mechanisms of lexical priming and further demonstrate that integrative relations are distinct from thematic and taxonomic relations.
Hoehndorf, Robert; Haendel, Melissa; Stevens, Robert; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich
Over the past 15 years, the biomedical research community has increased its efforts to produce ontologies encoding biomedical knowledge, and to provide the corresponding infrastructure to maintain them. As ontologies are becoming a central part of biological and biomedical research, a communication channel to publish frequent updates and latest developments on them would be an advantage. Here, we introduce the JBMS thematic series on Biomedical Ontologies. The aim of the series is to disseminate the latest developments in research on biomedical ontologies and provide a venue for publishing newly developed ontologies, updates to existing ontologies as well as methodological advances, and selected contributions from conferences and workshops. We aim to give this thematic series a central role in the exploration of ongoing research in biomedical ontologies and intend to work closely together with the research community towards this aim. Researchers and working groups are encouraged to provide feedback on novel developments and special topics to be integrated into the existing publication cycles.
Lee, Debbiesiu L; Sheridan, Daniel J; Rosen, Adam D; Jones, Isaiah
This study examined thematic differences in the multicultural case conceptualization content of 61 psychotherapy trainees across three different cases and trainee demographics (number of multicultural courses completed, years of supervised clinical practicum completed, and White trainee vs. trainee of color). Themes across cases included general counseling skills (attend to affect, build rapport, focus on specific client concerns, use of specific clinical interventions, and use of external resources not related to culture), as well as multicultural specific counseling skills (focus on culture, focus on discrimination, use of culturally competent interventions, and use of external resources related to culture). Thematic differences across case were found in three of the nine themes (affect, culture, discrimination). No systematic differences were found across multicultural training, clinical training, or race. Implications of these results are discussed.
Wodrich, D L; Thull, L M
26 children, one-half of whom were diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome, were administered the Thematic Apperception Test. A pilot investigation suggested that children with Tourette's syndrome produced high rates of responses in four categories: references to physical aggression, supernatural power, character names, and specific quantities. When compared with other children treated for emotional and behavioral problems at the same facility and matched on demographic variables and IQ, children with Tourette's syndrome were not more likely to produce Thematic Apperception Test responses in any of the four categories. This study shows that a recognizable pattern on projective testing was not easily established among these 13 children with Tourette's syndrome and further highlights the importance of using mental health comparison groups when investigating clinical disorders.
Simoni Tormöhlen Gehlen
Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges and potentialities related to the insertion of Thematic Approach in disciplines that compose the curriculum of three Physics Teachers’ Training Courses from different institutions. Thus, the investigation focuses the implementation process of such discussions within the initial teacher training. Methodologically, the study comprises the analysis of the thematic proposals elaborated by undergraduates and questionnaires answered by them, both analyzed through DiscursiveTextual Analysis. Among the results, it was possible to identify elements that point in direction of a vision more critical from undergraduates in selecting, organizing and approach the content, which reverts to: (1 The nature of the themes and appreciation of the learningsubject, and (2 The selection of content and another look at the curricular organization. It is intended with this reflection, contribute to the universe of proposals that seek to training teachers more autonomous and critical, so that they may be part of the process of drawing up curricula.
TÜRKDOĞAN, Ali; Güler, Mustafa; BÜLBÜL, Buket Özüm; Şahin DANİŞMAN
This study aimed to investigate the articles which entreated misconceptions in mathematics education from 1999 to 2013 in Turkey in a thematic frame. In order to reach this aim, survey method which is one of the descriptive research methods was adopted for this study. Within the scope of the study, 45 articles published between stated years in Turkish language and accessed through the relevant databases consisted the sample of the study. The articles accessed were analyzed by using categorica...
Clarke, V.; Braun, V.
With qualitative research methods an integral part of the psychology curriculum, questions arise of what approaches to teach, and how to teach them. We think thematic analysis (TA) offers a useful – and a relatively easy to teach and learn – basic introduction to qualitative analysis (see Braun & Clarke, 2006; 2012, 2013; Clarke & Braun, 2013); yet even teaching a fairly accessible approach like TA presents challenges in the classroom. Drawing on our experiences, and 38 responses from psychol...
Normally users of a virtual health library have different professional profiles (physicians, nurses, pharmacists...) and/or they are from different specialties (Primary Health Care, Internal Medicine, Oncology...). This poster shows the experience of the Virtual Health Sciences Library of the Balearic Islands (Bibliosalut) of creating thematic web portals, which aims is to improve the experience of our users to browse and query to information resources and services of the virtual library and ...
Clerc, Sebastien; Tuhoy, Eimear; Mangin, Antoine; Datcu, Mihai; Vignudelli, Stefano; Illuzzi, Diomede; Craciunescu, Vasile; Aspetsberger, Michael; Leone, Rosemarie; Campbell, Gordon
The Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform (CTEP) is an on-going ESA project to develop a platform dedicated to the observation of the coastal environment to support management and monitoring; this paper explains how the innovations of the CTEP will provide new means to handle the technical challenges of observation of coastal areas and contribute to improved understanding and decision-making with respect to coastal resources and environments.
Wong, Minnie; Baynes, Kathleen E.; Huang, Thomas; McLaughlin, Brett
This poster will present the process of integrating thematic web portal capabilities into the NASA Earth data web infrastructure, with examples from the Sea Level Change Portal. The Sea Level Change Portal will be a source of current NASA research, data and information regarding sea level change. The portal will provide sea level change information through articles, graphics, videos and animations, an interactive tool to view and access sea level change data and a dashboard showing sea level change indicators.
O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang
Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.
Swim, Janet K.; Fraser, John
Climate Change is a complex set of issues with large social and ecological risks. Addressing it requires an attentive and climate literate population capable of making informed decisions. Informal science educators are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate engagement, but many have resisted the topic because of self-doubt about…
Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P
Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
Abstract NOF 2014 Acknowledging the back patient. A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review. Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories and ar...... a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.......Abstract NOF 2014 Acknowledging the back patient. A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review. Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories...... and are associated with heavy personal costs and hospitalisations. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The thematic synthesis aims...
Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese
Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance.
Bedford, D. P.
One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.
Full Text Available This thematic issue brings together papers by researchers who are studying the ways that today’s adolescents interact with their peers, families, and the larger media environment in the digital age. The contributors highlight both the challenges and the opportunities that this new age presents for the healthy development of young people.
Valenti, Patricia Dunlavy
"The Old Man and the Sea" remains one of Ernest Hemingway's most beloved works. This casebook helps readers interpret and appreciate the thematic concerns of the novel, as well as the contextual issues it explores. Topic chapters provide information on Cuba, including its natural geography, sociopolitical history, and the ethnic…
With a scientific consensus reached regarding the anthropogenic effect on global mean temperature,developing reliable regional climate projections has emerged as a new challenge for climate science.A national project was launched in China in 2012 to study ocean's role in regional climate change.This paper starts with a review of recent advances in the study of regional climate response to global warming,followed by a description of the Chinese project including the rationale,objectives,and plan for field observations.The 15 research articles that follow in the special issue are highlighted,representing some of the initial results from the project.
Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.
Davidson, O.; Halsnæs, K.; Huq, S.;
This paper explores an alternative approach to future climate policies in developing countries. Although climate change seems marginal compared to the pressing issues of poverty alleviation and economic development, it is becoming clear that the realisation of development goals may be hampered...... in the climate negotiations. First, elements are presented for an integrated approach to development and climate; second, the approach is elaborated for food and energy security in sub-Saharan Africa; and third, possibilities are outlined for international mechanisms to support such integrated development...
Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene
More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.
Schoedinger, S. E.; Chambers, L. H.; Karsten, J. L.; McDougall, C.; Campbell, D.
community colleges. These efforts are expected to continue in FY12 and beyond under NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE). A solicitation for the NICE project is currently anticipated in Summer 2012. Through its core programs, NSF supports a variety of efforts designed to improve teaching and learning about CCE in formal and informal settings, often through leveraging NSF-supported climate research. In 2009, dedicated CCE funding supported 10 new awards aimed at focusing NSF investments in key areas: preparing innovators for the workforce; strategies for scaling up and disseminating effective curricula and instructional resources; assessment of student learning of complex climate issues; and, increasing access to CCE and professional development for learners, educators, and policymakers. Phase I of the Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) program, launched in 2010, supports strategic planning activities within 15 regional and thematic partnerships that bring together climate scientists, learning scientists, and education practitioners. A solicitation for CCEP Phase II implementation is anticipated in Fall 2011. We will discuss agency funding opportunities, examples of collaborations, and common metrics/sharing tools for evaluation of CCE projects.
Full Text Available This study was designed to verify the effect of thematic classes on English vocabulary learning. Thematic class is an educational project, which recently started to be used in junior high schools in Iran. The ministry of Education in Iran has launched the project of thematic classes to improve learning in 2010 with the hope of copying with some of the educational problems so that students experience deeper learning. For subjects of the study, 90 7th grade students of junior high school in Taybad, Khorasan e Razavi were selected. Three groups were used in this study: two experimental groups and one control group. Each group consisted of 30 female students, who settled randomly in the groups, respectively. Their range of age was between 13 and 14. A vocabulary-based test, which was designed by the researcher, was used as the main measurement tool in the study to evaluate the students' achievement in the course. The course lasted 10 weeks, two sessions per week. The results reflected the positive effect of thematic classes on vocabulary learning. Therefore, educational implication of thematic class for junior high school is suggestible. Keywords: Thematic Class, Cooperative Learning, Vocabulary, Visual Aids, Audio Visual Aids, Motivation
Walsh, J. E.; Chapman, W. L.
Informal learners interested in climate issues can find a wealth of information in the print and online media related to climate and climate change. Throughout these resources, the equal use of generic terms like 'global warming' and 'climate change' suggest a level of nuance in the science that is not easy to convey in this conventional media. Perhaps more than any other discipline, climate literacy has the most potential to be enhanced via the process of cognitive construction and reconstruction, rather than simple transmission of knowledge. Constructionism suggests that meaningful learning happens most effectively if the learner is actively engaged in constructing a product in the real world rather than absorbing information passively. Recent technological innovations have introduced mobile computing devices with sufficient power to do serious data analysis. The potential of these devices to augment climate literacy by turning citizens into scientists has yet to be exploited. We introduce ClimatePad, an iPad application that permits students and public to actively browse climate datasets, construct trends, plot time series, create composite differences and view animations of real-world climate data. Interactions with the ClimatePad permits varying the starting and ending dates of trends and differences. Climate analysis maps and animations can be customized with different color palettes, enticing the user to delve into and absorb the subtleties of the regional and temporal variations of the recent climate record. Finally, user-generated climate visualizations created with ClimatePad can be emailed to friends and shared via Facebook, entraining even more active learners.
Arts and climate science have more in common points than it appears at first glance. Artistic works can help us to directly or indirectly learn about climatic conditions and weather events in the past, but are also very efficient in raising awareness about climate change nowadays. Long scientific articles get very little response among general public, because most people don't want to read long articles. There is a need to communicate climate change issues more powerfully and more directly, with simple words, pictures, sculptures, installations. Artistic works can inspire people to take concrete action. A number of communication media can fit this purpose. Artists can speak to people on an emotional and intellectual level; they can help people to see things from another perspective and in new ways. Artists can motivate change; they have the freedom to weave facts, opinions, thoughts, emotion and colour all together. Paintings are witnesses of the past climatic conditions. We can learn from paintings, architectural constructions and sculptures about the vegetation, weather events, animals, and way of living. Mentioning only some few examples: old paintings in caves, also Flemish painters are often shown for their winter landscapes, and paintings are very useful to illustrate how fast glaciers are melting. At the end, we shall not forget that dilapidation of art masterpieces often depends on climatic conditions.
Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H
Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.
Full Text Available This article is a part of the research result conducted in Jember, East Java, about metafunctions, register, and generic structures of Friday sermon texts. The focus of this article is the techniques of topic development through thematic patterns as one of the realizations of textual meanings. The data of the research were collected by recording four different khatib’s (preacher’s speeches in four different Friday sermons through participatory observations in January, February, and September 2012. The recorded data were transcribed into a written text called Friday sermon texts (FSTs. Next, the data were analyzed to study the topic development in the clause complex level, in the paragraph level, and in the text level. The result of the research shows that the topics in Friday sermon texts in the clause levels were developed through three thematic patterns, namely: Pattern 1: Theme-Theme, Pattern 2: Theme-Rheme-Theme, and Pattern 3: Theme-Theme-Rheme-Theme. The development of the topics in the paragraph level is done mainly by a deductive method, that is by placing a Hyper-theme in the initial position of the paragraph. In the text level, the topic discussion is developed through Macro-theme and Macro-rheme structure, in which the Macro-themes mostly occupy the beginnings of the texts, namely: the first paragraph (FST 3, the second paragraph (FST 1 and 4 and the third paragraph (FST 2. In addition to be the device for developing the topics, thematic patterns also contribute to build a coherent text.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current recommendations do not support the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM for low risk women during labour, yet EFM remains widespread in clinical practice. Consideration of the views, perspectives and experiences of individuals directly concerned with EFM application may be beneficial for identifying barriers to and facilitators for implementing evidence-based maternity care. The aim of this paper is to offer insight and understanding, through systematic review and thematic analysis, of research into professionals’ views on fetal heart rate monitoring during labour. Methods Any study whose aim was to explore professional views of fetal monitoring during labour was considered eligible for inclusion. The electronic databases of MEDLINE (1966–2010, CINAHL (1980–2010, EMBASE (1974–2010 and Maternity and Infant Care: MIDIRS (1971–2010 were searched in January 2010 and an updated search was performed in March 2012. Quality appraisal of each included study was performed. Data extraction tables were developed to collect data. Data synthesis was by thematic analysis. Results Eleven studies, including 1,194 participants, were identified and included in this review. Four themes emerged from the data: 1 reassurance, 2 technology, 3 communication/education and 4 midwife by proxy. Conclusion This systematic review and thematic analysis offers insight into some of the views of professionals on fetal monitoring during labour. It provides evidence for the continuing use of EFM when caring for low-risk women, contrary to current research evidence. Further research to ascertain how some of these views might be addressed to ensure the provision of evidence-based care for women and their babies is recommended.
Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.
An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) has huge potential. Primary drivers in the global market are the patient's awareness of infectious diseases, the introduction of advanced molecular and tissue diagnostic tests for patient-stratified and targeted anti-cancer therapy and, last but not least, the growing geriatric population. Rapid progress in device miniaturization and information technology (IT) offers new possibilities in decentralized testing. Grand View Research Inc. expects the global market for IVD to reach US $ 74.3 billion by 2020. Hence the launch in 2015 by the NTN Swiss Biotech - together with the driving forces of Biotechnet Switzerland - of the 'Thematic Platform in vitro Diagnostics'.
Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.
The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.
Rossomando, Philip J.
A description is given of UNICORN, a prototype system developed for the purpose of investigating artificial intelligence (AI) concepts supporting spacecraft autonomy. UNICORN employs thematic reasoning, of the type first described by Rodger Schank of Northwestern University, to allow the context-sensitive control of multiple intelligent agents within a blackboard based environment. In its domain of application, UNICORN demonstrates the ability to reason teleologically with focused knowledge. Also presented are some of the lessons learned as a result of this effort. These lessons apply to any effort wherein system level autonomy is the objective.
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Zakharova, Nadezhda; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Videen, Gorden; Wriedt, Thomas
The T-matrix method is one of the most versatile and efficient direct computer solvers of the macroscopic Maxwell equations and is widely used for the computation of electromagnetic scattering by single and composite particles, discrete random media, and particles in the vicinity of an interface separating two half-spaces with different refractive indices. This paper is the seventh update to the comprehensive thematic database of peer-reviewed T-matrix publications initiated by us in 2004 and includes relevant publications that have appeared since 2013. It also lists a number of earlier publications overlooked previously.
Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.
CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in
Srokosz, M A
In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined. In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes in the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic. The paper concludes with some speculative comments about potential mechanisms for rapid changes.
Kroonenberg, Salomon B
Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.
... QUALITY Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance With Executive... (CEQ) is issuing instructions to Federal agencies for integrating climate change adaptation into agency... instructions to implement the Executive Order. The Instructions for Implementing Climate Change...
Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen
A 2008 Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions Science 320 889-92 Handoh I C and Lenton T M 2003 Periodic mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events linked by oscillations of the phosphorus and oxygen biogeochemical cycles global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 1092 MacDonald G K, Bennett E M, Potter P A and Ramankutty N 2011 Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world_s croplands Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 3086-91 Malthus T 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population (available at http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/m\\#a1411 Smil V 2000 Phosphorus in the environment: Natural flows and human interferences Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25 53-88 Rockström J et al 2009 A safe operating space for humanity Nature 461 472-5 Sanchez P A and Swaminathan M S 2005 Cutting world hunger in half Science 307 357-9 Schlesinger W H 2009 Planetary boundaries: Thresholds risk prolonged degradation Nature Reports Climate Change doi:10.1038/climate.2009.93 Smith V H and Schindler D W 2009 Eutrophication science: where do we go from here? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24 201-7 Van Kauenbergh S J 2010 World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources (Muscle Shoals, AL: International Fertilizer Development Center) Vitousek P M, Naylor R, Crews T, David M B, Drinkwater L E, Holland E, Johnes P J, Katzenberger J, Martinelli L A, Matson P A, Nziguheba G, Ojima D, Palm C A, Robertson G P, Sanchez P A, Townsend A R, Zhang F S 2009 Nutrient Imbalances in Agricultural Development Science 324 1519-20
The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.
Gounaridis, Dimitrios; Koukoulas, Sotirios
Urban land cover mapping has lately attracted a vast amount of attention as it closely relates to a broad scope of scientific and management applications. Late methodological and technological advancements facilitate the development of datasets with improved accuracy. However, thematic resolution of urban land cover has received much less attention so far, a fact that hampers the produced datasets utility. This paper seeks to provide insights towards the improvement of thematic resolution of urban land cover classification. We integrate existing, readily available and with acceptable accuracies datasets from multiple sources, with remote sensing techniques. The study site is Greece and the urban land cover is classified nationwide into five classes, using the RandomForests algorithm. Results allowed us to quantify, for the first time with a good accuracy, the proportion that is occupied by each different urban land cover class. The total area covered by urban land cover is 2280 km2 (1.76% of total terrestrial area), the dominant class is discontinuous dense urban fabric (50.71% of urban land cover) and the least occurring class is discontinuous very low density urban fabric (2.06% of urban land cover).
tCSC2013 is a new concept prototyped for the first time in 2013. It aims at complementing the existing portfolio of CSC events: the historical main summer school, organised since 1970, the inverted CSCs (iCSCs) organized since 2005, and the special schools, as organised in 2006 in Bombay. Shorter, smaller, focused are the three distinguishing features of the thematic CSC (tCSC). But, though different from the main CSCs, the tCSCs maintain the same guiding principles: Academic dimension on advanced topic Theory and practice Networking and socialization. The first thematic CSC will take place in Split, Croatia, from 3 to 7 June. All applicants are welcome, including former and future CSC participants in the main summer school. The theme is "Mastering state-of-the-art computing", covering: Data-oriented design: Designing for data, data-inten...
Full Text Available This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel disenfranchised by the wider society. The data comprise (614 written graffiti taken from both highway and in-city vehicles from different parts of Egypt. This paper employs Fairclough's (1995 post-structuralist model of discourse analysis which extends the concept of discourse from the traditional and natural 'language in use' to be a social practice per se. One of the aims of this study is to explore the various discourse domains of vehicle graffiti in Egypt through thematically analyzing their patterns of usage. For this aim, the authors have devised a four-pronged thematic classification of such graffiti. The paper also tackles some of the lexical features of graffiti and addresses the language and language variations used. Results show that religious expressions constitute more than half the data. It is also shown that graffiti about the self or car are positive whereas statements about 'the other' are negative. The analysis reveals a strong positive inclination in the social and philosophical expressions with almost nonexistent political graffiti. Keywords: Graffiti, post-structuralist model, Discourse Analysis, discourse domains, Egypt
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the articles which entreated misconceptions in mathematics education from 1999 to 2013 in Turkey in a thematic frame. In order to reach this aim, survey method which is one of the descriptive research methods was adopted for this study. Within the scope of the study, 45 articles published between stated years in Turkish language and accessed through the relevant databases consisted the sample of the study. The articles accessed were analyzed by using categorical analysis technique in the context of sample/study group, topic, education level, publication year, misconception determination technique. Findings revealed that although there is an observable increase in the number of studies related to the misconceptions recently, those studies are mostly about determining the misconceptions and the number of the studies about removing the misconceptions is limited. According to the results of the present study, it can be suggested that studies should be carried out using different and multiple techniques to remove the misconceptions along with the studies determining them. Furthermore, in addition to the multiple choice questions which have been used quite often in order to determine the misconceptions in mathematics education, the techniques such as concept map, semantic analysis chart, prediction-observation-explanation, etc. are considered to be helpful for in-depth examination of the misconceptions.Keywords: Mathematics education, misconception studies, thematic review.
Shan-long LU; Xiao-hua SHEN; Le-jun ZOU; Chang-jiang LI; Yan-jun MAO; Gui-fang ZHANG; Wen-yuan WU; Ying LIU; Zhong ZHANG
The classification of thematic mapper imagery in areas with strong topographic variations has proven problematic in the past using a single classifier, due to the changing sun illumination geometry. This often results in the phenomena of identical object with dissimilar spectrum and different objects with similar spectrum. In this paper, an integrated classification method that combines a decision tree with slope data, tasseled cap transformation indices and maximum likelihood classifier is introduced, to find an optimal classification method for thematic mapper imagery of plain and highland terrains. A Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired over Hangzhou Bay, in eastern China was used to test the method. The results indicate that the performance of the integrated classifier is acceptably good in comparison with that of the existing most widely used maximum likelihood classifier. The integrated classifier depends on hypsography (variation in topography) and the characteristics of ground truth objects (plant and soil). It can greatly reduce the influence of the homogeneous spectrum caused by topographic variation. This integrated classifier might potentially be one of the most accurate classifiers and valuable tool for land cover and land use mapping of plain and highland terrains.
Dadang S. Anshori
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text that are obtainable from thematic interpretation of the Koran of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Data analysis was performed on the following topics: the origins of the creation of men and women, women's leadership, women and inheritance rights, women and ownership, and women's testimony. The research findings show: (1 The lingual and religious discourse containing gender cognition are present in the forms of words, phrases, and sentences. The lingual form of religious discourse is related to the meaning of technical vocabulary that contains appropriate understanding of the discourse topic. (2 Discourse representing gender cognition is found on three topics: women leadership (nation leadership, waris (inheritance, and women’s testimony. In terms of inheritance and women’s testimony, this interpretation refers to conditions that are explicitly stated in the Holy Koran. Meanwhile, this interpretation views leadership of the nation as more worthy to be given to men than women. book looks is more worthy of leadership in the countries was given to men than women.
Kristina Kočan Šalamon
Full Text Available The paper examines the immediate responses that emerged in American poetry after the terrorist attacks on 11 September, 2001. The aim of the paper is not to summarize the tragic events of 9/11, but to show how poets reacted to the terrorist attacks. In response to 9/11, a great deal of poetry emerged that expresses the poetic and completely personal, intimate side of the crisis, and many printed publications appeared in which poets addressed 9/11. Although one can find a range of features in American poetry after the attacks, there are notable similarities among the poetry being produced. The post-9/11 poetry can be divided into thematic clusters. This paper is, however, limited to responses that deal only with feelings of disorientation, loss and despair after 9/11. Furthermore, the paper presents poetic reactions that involve a sense of disillusionment and the idea that everything changed after the attacks. Each thematic cluster offers examples of 9/11 poetry that are interpreted with the help of close reading.
Blount, Grady; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.
Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combining thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.
Price, Kevin Paul
Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.
Coma Del Corral, María Jesús; Guevara, José Cordero; Luquin, Pedro Abáigar; Peña, Horacio J; Mateos Otero, Juan José
UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports one multidisciplinary community of doctoral students, who receive most of the courses on the network. The evident advantages of distance learning by Internet, in terms of costs, comfort, etc., require a previous evaluation of the system, focusing on the learning outcomes of the student. The aim was to evaluate the real learning of the students of doctorate courses, by comparing the effectiveness of distance learning in UniNet with traditional classroom-based teaching. Five doctorate courses were taught simultaneously to two independent groups of students in two ways: one, through the UniNet Network, and the other in a traditional classroom. The academic knowledge of students was evaluated at the beginning and end of each course. The difference in score was considered as a knowledge increase. The comparison was made using Student's t-test for independent groups. There were no significant statistical differences in the outcomes of the two groups of students. This suggests that both teaching systems were equivalent in increasing the knowledge of the students. Both educational methods, the traditional system and the online system in a thematic network, are effective and similar for increasing knowledge.
In giving public presentations about climate change, we face the barriers of mis-information in the political debate and lack of science literacy that extends to science phobia for some. In climate issues, the later problem is compounded by the fact that the science - reconstruction of past climate through the use of proxy sources, such as isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen - is complex, making it more challenging for general audiences. Also, the process of science, particularly peer review, is suspected by some to be a way of keeping science orthodox instead of keeping it honest. I approach these barriers by focusing on the data and the fact that the data have been carefully acquired over decades and centuries by dedicated people with no political agenda. I have taught elderhostel courses twice and have given many public talks on this topic. Thus I have experience in this area to share with others. I would also like to learn of others' approaches to the vast amount of scientific information and getting past the politics. A special interest group on climate change will allow those of us to speak on this important topic to share how we approach both the science and the politics of this issue.
Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber
funded projects (always with international participation) in the United States, Russian Federation, China, European Union, Japan, and Canada have been mutually united to explore the scientifically significant Northern Eurasian region. NEESPI scientists have been quite productive during the past two years (2005 2006) publishing more than 200 books, book chapters, and papers in refereed journals. NEESPI sessions at international conferences are open to everyone who works on environmental and climate change problems in Northern Eurasia and the circumpolar boreal zone. This thematic issue brings together articles from the authors who presented their latest results at the Annual Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco (December 2006). The research letters in this issue are preceded by two editorial papers (Leptoukh et al and Sherstyukov et al) devoted to informational support of research in the NEESPI domain that is critical to the success of the Initiative. The following papers are quite diverse and are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions in the NEESPI domain and the circumpolar boreal zone. Focus on Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Editorials NASA NEESPI Data and Services Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Information Gregory Leptoukh, Ivan Csiszar, Peter Romanov, Suhung Shen, Tatiana Loboda and Irina Gerasimov NEESPI Science and Data Support Center for Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia B G Sherstyukov, V N Razuvaev, O N Bulygina and P Ya Groisman Climate and hydrology Changes in the fabric of the Arctic's greenhouse blanket Jennifer A Francis and Elias Hunter Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973 2005 Heejun
Hare, B. (ed.); Welp, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) (Germany)
The objective of the conference was to bring together international business and NGO representatives, leading scientists, climate negotiators and other experts on climate change and energy technology to discuss some of the major issues related to climate change and sustainability transition. Four main issues were on the agenda of the ECF Autumn Conference 2002. These were: (a) What is dangerous climate change?; (b) Emission targets and timing; (c) Technological transitions; (d) Policy perspectives: Europe, US and developing countries. (orig.)
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of the 21st Century. Mathematics is involved at every level of understanding climate change, including the description, prediction and communication of climate change. As a highly complex issue, climate change is an example of "post-normal" science -- it is urgent, complex and involves a…
M. P-L Shipp
Full Text Available This Study explores Somali and Ethiopian community leaders’ perceptions about health issues in their communities and the barriers to access and utilization of primary health care services. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders and thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews. Participants identified chronic diseases, the unhealthy behaviors associated with them, and mental health as major health issues. Infectious diseases were secondarily mentioned as important health concerns. Lack of insurance and limited understanding of the health system were viewed as barriers to utilizing health care services. Other identified needs were: better education within immigrant communities about major health issues, enhanced cultural awareness of health care providers, improved health care access, and assistance with the acculturation process. Recommendations to improve the communities’ health status included enhancing providers' cultural competence, educating immigrants about major health issues, and increasing mental health care access.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments within the United Kingdom's (UK health care system have re-awakened interest in community hospitals (CHs and their role in the provision of health care. This integrative literature review sought to identify and assess the current evidence base for CHs. Methods A range of electronic reference databases were searched from January 1984 to either December 2004 or February 2005: Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, BNI, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA, PsychInfo, SIGLE, Dissertation Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Kings Fund website, using both keywords and text words. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes across the literature; narrative analyses were written for each theme, identifying unifying concepts and discrepant issues. Results The search strategy identified over 16,000 international references. We included papers of any study design focussing on hospitals in which care was led principally by general practitioners or nurses. Papers from developing countries were excluded. A review of titles revealed 641 potentially relevant references; abstract appraisal identified 161 references for review. During data extraction, a further 48 papers were excluded, leaving 113 papers in the final review. The most common methodological approaches were cross-sectional/descriptive studies, commentaries and expert opinion. There were few experimental studies, systematic reviews, economic studies or studies that reported on longer-term outcomes. The key themes identified were origin and location of CHs; their place in the continuum of care; services provided; effectiveness, efficiency and equity of CHs; and views of patients and staff. In general, there was a lack of robust evidence for the role of CHs, which is partly due to the ad hoc nature of their development and lack of clear strategic vision for their future. Evidence for the effectiveness and efficiency of the services provided was limited. Most people admitted to CHs
To get green is glorious? An empirical analysis of how and why state-owned companies in China take measures to combat climate change and environmental issues through Corporate Social Responsibility; To get green is glorious. Kinesiske statseide bedrifters samfunnsansvarsarbeid for baerekraftige utvikling
This report is based on an empirical analysis that examines how state-owned companies in China are utilizing Corporate Social Responsibility to combat issues related to climate change and other environmental problems. The analysis was conducted at two levels in order to study the implementation of the different CSR measures: the first part examines different causes for the Chinese government's increasing attention on environmental issues, and the implications for the state-owned companies. In the second part the focus of the empirical analysis is on how the government and other stakeholders forces companies to integrate CSR in their business strategy. The purpose of the analysis is better to understand what affects the degree of integration of CSR, and try to understand how serious the companies are in their CSR strategies: Is CSR primarily related to public relations and reputation management, or are the measures are done in an attempt to create green, sustainable solutions and combat climate change?(eb)
Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others
Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.
Macpherson, Cheryl Cox
One manifestation of climate change is the increasingly severe extreme weather that causes injury, illness and death through heat stress, air pollution, infectious disease and other means. Leading health organisations around the world are responding to the related water and food shortages and volatility of energy and agriculture prices that threaten health and health economics. Environmental and climate ethics highlight the associated challenges to human rights and distributive justice but rarely address health or encompass bioethical methods or analyses. Public health ethics and its broader umbrella, bioethics, remain relatively silent on climate change. Meanwhile global population growth creates more people who aspire to Western lifestyles and unrestrained socioeconomic growth. Fulfilling these aspirations generates more emissions; worsens climate change; and undermines virtues and values that engender appreciation of, and protections for, natural resources. Greater understanding of how virtues and values are evolving in different contexts, and the associated consequences, might nudge the individual and collective priorities that inform public policy toward embracing stewardship and responsibility for environmental resources necessary to health. Instead of neglecting climate change and related policy, public health ethics and bioethics should explore these issues; bring transparency to the tradeoffs that permit emissions to continue at current rates; and offer deeper understanding about what is at stake and what it means to live a good life in today's world.
Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, C.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.
Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily trans
Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions.
Climate change is one of the most hotly debated issues of today. Increasing global temperatures will impact all of us. There are more questions than answers, however, and sweeping statements on the subject made by public figures, often with little scientific understanding, only further confuses public opinion. Astronomical factors, apart from passing references to the Sun, are given short shrift in relation to climate change. However, they might be amongst the major determinants of it. A presentation of those that have been studied that some scientists suspect might be involved are featured in this book. Included is an in-depth look at the physics of climate itself, the potential effects of the Sun, solar storms, sunspots, solar variability, the magnetosphere, solar cycles, influences of nearby planets, orbital factors, cosmic rays, possible galactic influences, monitoring from space, even climate change elsewhere in the solar system, and much more. The greatest challenge climate change scientists face is d...
Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van
This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth pathwa
Harney, John O.
More than 250 higher education leaders from campuses across the U.S. met last week in Boston for the 2014 Presidential Summit on Climate Leadership. The summit was organized by Second Nature, the supporting organization for the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Almost 700 colleges and universities have…
Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg
The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory
Full Text Available The climate change issue has become increasingly present in our society in the last decade and central also to communication studies. In the e-book “Communicating Climate Change: Discourses, Mediations and Perceptions”, edited by Anabela Carvalho, various scholars investigate how climate change challenges communication by looking at three main aspects: the discourses of a variety of social actors on climate change; the reconstruction of those discourses in the media; the citizens’ perceptions, understandings and attitudes in relation to climate change.
Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".
Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".
Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges
Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...
Watts, Nick; Adger, W Neil; Ayeb-Karlsson, Sonja; Bai, Yuqi; Byass, Peter; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Colbourn, Tim; Cox, Peter; Davies, Michael; Depledge, Michael; Depoux, Anneliese; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Drummond, Paul; Ekins, Paul; Flahault, Antoine; Grace, Delia; Graham, Hilary; Haines, Andy; Hamilton, Ian; Johnson, Anne; Kelman, Ilan; Kovats, Sari; Liang, Lu; Lott, Melissa; Lowe, Robert; Luo, Yong; Mace, Georgina; Maslin, Mark; Morrissey, Karyn; Murray, Kris; Neville, Tara; Nilsson, Maria; Oreszczyn, Tadj; Parthemore, Christine; Pencheon, David; Robinson, Elizabeth; Schütte, Stefanie; Shumake-Guillemot, Joy; Vineis, Paolo; Wilkinson, Paul; Wheeler, Nicola; Xu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Yin, Yongyuan; Yu, Chaoqing; Gong, Peng; Montgomery, Hugh; Costello, Anthony
The Lancet Countdown: tracking progress on health and climate change is an international, multidisciplinary research collaboration between academic institutions and practitioners across the world. It follows on from the work of the 2015 Lancet Commission, which concluded that the response to climate change could be "the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century". The Lancet Countdown aims to track the health impacts of climate hazards; health resilience and adaptation; health co-benefits of climate change mitigation; economics and finance; and political and broader engagement. These focus areas form the five thematic working groups of the Lancet Countdown and represent different aspects of the complex association between health and climate change. These thematic groups will provide indicators for a global overview of health and climate change; national case studies highlighting countries leading the way or going against the trend; and engagement with a range of stakeholders. The Lancet Countdown ultimately aims to report annually on a series of indicators across these five working groups. This paper outlines the potential indicators and indicator domains to be tracked by the collaboration, with suggestions on the methodologies and datasets available to achieve this end. The proposed indicator domains require further refinement, and mark the beginning of an ongoing consultation process-from November, 2016 to early 2017-to develop these domains, identify key areas not currently covered, and change indicators where necessary. This collaboration will actively seek to engage with existing monitoring processes, such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and WHO's climate and health country profiles. The indicators will also evolve over time through ongoing collaboration with experts and a range of stakeholders, and be dependent on the emergence of new evidence and knowledge. During the course of its work, the Lancet Countdown will adopt a collaborative and
Eells, Tracy D
Thematic mapping (TM) is a transtheoretical, transdiagnostic, pattern-focused method of case formulation. It involves systematically gathering a broad range relevant client information, collecting representative behavioral episodes, using inductive and deductive reasoning to identify themes and subthemes that characterize a client's dysfunctional patterns, and then developing a treatment plan to address them. The TM method includes debiasing steps to minimize clinician judgment errors and addresses a client's cultural context. TM was developed in response to several "case misconceptualizations" that the authors contend have created a crisis in the field of case conceptualization. This commentary critiques the case misconceptualizations and the TM method is evaluated. Acknowledging multiple innovations of TM, the commentary recommends a stronger evidence-based focus, and discusses the benefits of theory-guided case formulation, reasons to consider diagnosis in case formulation, and research as a means to resolve case misconceptualizations.
Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Fernandez, R. N.; Johannsen, Chris J.
Neural networks have been successful in image classification and have shown potential for classifying remotely sensed data. This paper presents classifications of multitype Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data using neural networks. The Landsat TM Image for March 23, 1987 with accompanying ground observation data for a study area In Miami County, Indiana, U.S.A. was utilized to assess recognition of crop residues. Principal components and spectral ratio transformations were performed on the TM data. In addition, a layer of the geographic information system (GIS) for the study site was incorporated to generate GIS-enhanced TM data. This paper discusses (1) the performance of neuro-classification on each type of data, (2) how neural networks recognized each type of data as a new image and (3) comparisons of the results for each type of data obtained using neural networks, maximum likelihood, and minimum distance classifiers.
García Ureta, Irene
The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.
Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Weber, C
Two severely aphasic patients were compared in their abilities to comprehend and produce locative prepositional phrases and reversible S-V-O sentences using English and C-VIC, a computer-based iconographic communication system. One patient demonstrated a significant dissociation between his performance in interpreting symbol order in C-VIC prepositional phrases vs. S-V-O sentences. Patients were able to comprehend order in C-VIC S-V-O sentences significantly better than they were able to assign symbol order when they produced these sentences. These data suggest that the procedures for assigning thematic roles to nouns in sentences are at least partially distinct for comprehension and production and that the ordering of nouns around prepositions involves conceptual processes distinct from those involved in ordering nouns around verbs.
Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander
We implemented three recently proposed approaches to the identification of overlapping and hierarchical substructures in graphs and applied the corresponding algorithms to a network of 492 information-science papers coupled via their cited sources. The thematic substructures obtained and overlaps produced by the three hierarchical cluster algorithms were compared to a content-based categorisation, which we based on the interpretation of titles and keywords. We defined sets of papers dealing with three topics located on different levels of aggregation: h-index, webometrics, and bibliometrics. We identified these topics with branches in the dendrograms produced by the three cluster algorithms and compared the overlapping topics they detected with one another and with the three pre-defined paper sets. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of applying the three approaches to paper networks in research fields.
Grivas Theodoros B
Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.
Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form
Borri, Claudio; Guberti, Elisa; Maffioli, Francesco
Accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering is surely an argument which stimulates a great interest not only in the Italian level but above all in the European perspective. It appears strategic that Europe is equipped with a system which permits to compare the degree programmes in Engineering offered by various universities in Europe also in view of a major competition in the area of higher education in the European Union, in comparison with third countries. This appears the principal basis of different actions financed by the European Commission, which have among their own objectives also the study of an accreditation system of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe. In this article 3 SOCRATES Thematic Networks are presented, which, one after the other, starting from 1998, have been operational in the European panorama. Among their objectives there is a recurrent motive: accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe.
Bassan, N D; D'Ottavio, A E
This paper intends to clarify a concept with multiple meanings and a complex reality. It starts providing varied histological and embryological examples apt to contribute the stimulation of teacher and student imaginations in favor of a crucial skill, as thematic integration is, into the present and changing curricula in Medicine in particular and Health Sciences in general. In this sense, it offers linear and branched sequences as well as consolidation graphics which focusing in both disciplines may also include other basic ones, key for clinic diagnosis, among the competences to be developed. After registering some preliminary results revealing the need of its continuous and progressive training along the complete medical career, its own integrative value and the integrative one for their teachers due to its natural link with other basic ones is outlined, its relevance for undergraduate is reaffirmed and possible future variations for them are previewed, considering the present exponential growth of science and technology.
Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.
Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.
Rodham, K; Gavin, J; Lewis, S P; St Dennis, J M; Bandalli, P
The objetive of the study was to identify a) the motivations for communicating about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a publicly accessible online forum, b) The significance (if any) of the "publicness" of the behavior. Using a Thematic Analysis of 423 text-based posts from an online NSSI forum, 5 motivations for using the site were identified: confessional, marking a turning point, acting as a deterrent, dispelling myths and offering or seeking support. Motivations for using the site differ markedly from motivations for engaging in NSSI and tend to be more outwardly focused. The publicness of the site therefore seems to be significant in terms of bearing witness, providing the opportunity to confront negative stereotypes, and the ability to seek and offer support to like-minded individuals.
Carmen Pérez-Llantada Auría
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse some sociocultural implications involved in the process of technical writing. In particular, the analysis will focus on those socially and ideologically-related rhetorical mechanisms of linguistic interaction that engineers use when writing thematic articles. As a selected corpus maps out, concepts such as ideology, power, politeness or a persuasive rhetoric prove to be key factors in determining the appropriate linguistic choices in those social interactions within this community. In the light of social pragmatics, the extent to which institutional and cultural factors affect research writing in the field of technology will therefore call for a redefinition of the ‘classical’ objectivity sought in these specialised discourse practices.
This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...
Frazier, B. E.; Cheng, Yaan
Soils of the Palouse region of eastern Washington State were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band ratios to discriminate areas where erosion has caused paleosols to be exposed. Ratioed data were clustered and plotted to show soil lines which could be subdivided into various levels of organic matter and iron oxides. Successfully classified scenes of a summer fallow (bare soil) field were obtained with band ratios 1/4, 3/4, and 5/4 to map organic carbon and 3/4, 5/4, and 5/3 for the iron/carbon ratio indicator of erosion. Regression models were made with 5/4 data and organic carbon and 5/3 data and the iron/carbon ratio. Based on this analysis, 21 percent of the test field soils are exposed or nearly exposed paleosols.
Habermas, Tilmann; de Silveira, Cybèle
Extending the study of autobiographical narratives to entire life narratives, we tested the emergence of globally coherent life narratives in adolescence, as hypothesized by McAdams (1985). Participants were 102 children and young adults (ages 8, 12, 16, and 20 years) who narrated their lives twice. Between narrations, half of each age group participated in tasks designed to train autobiographical reasoning; the other half participated in control tasks. Coherence was measured by the relative frequency of local temporal, causal, and thematic linguistic indicators identified qualitatively at the level of propositions, as well as by quantitative global rating scales measuring the impressions of the listeners. Coherence increased across the age span. Overall, repeated narrating and training did not increase coherence. Crystallized and fluid intelligence, number of negative life events, and frequency of biographical practices and confiding in others did not contribute substantially to the prediction of coherence beyond age. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent identity development.
International Labour Organization. Geneva
Triblex is a thematic database on the case law of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization, which hears complaints from serving and former officials of the ILO, or of one of the thirty-odd international organizations that recognise its jurisdiction, about breach of the terms of their appointment or staff rules or regulations. Relevant passages of the Tribunal's reasoning can be located in the Triblex database in various ways, mainly using terms (descriptors) from the Triblex Thesaurus. The database is in English and French and can be searched in either language. It is intended for litigants, counsel, staff representatives, personnel managers and anyone with an interest in the law of the international civil service. Triblex est une base de données thématique sur la jurisprudence du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail. La saisine du Tribunal est ouverte aux fonctionnaires ou anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du ou des normes statutaires o...
Shaw, C.; Hellsten, I.; Nerlich, B.; Crichton, J.; Candlin, C.N.; Firkins, A.S.
The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate cha
Johnson, Phyllis J.; Asmaro, Deyar; Suedfeld, Peter; Gushin, Vadim
Anecdotal evidence and qualitative research attest to the importance of work-family interactions pre-, during and post-missions. This study uses thematic content analysis to quantify characteristics of work-family interactions and how these changed by stage of cosmonauts' career, identifying the effect of space career variables (e.g., time in space and station) on such interactions during and post-career. Using a thematic scoring scheme developed for this study, we coded work-family interactions identified from interviews with 20 retired male cosmonauts. The majority of work-family interactions were ones in which work overlapped into family life and work hindered or interfered with the family situation. The most common resolution was that family adjusted to work, and the mood or tone about this outcome was almost equally divided among negative, positive and neutral. Changes in work-family interactions and their resolution over the cosmonaut's life showed that the significant interactions were most evident during the cosmonaut career. Although the cosmonaut career has high work demands, it did adjust for family when the need arose. The Russian Space Agency (RKS) eased the impact of the periodic absences, especially through regular communication sessions. Positive work-family interactions, i.e., work or family helping the opposite role, were more likely for those who had been on ISS, not Mir, and for those whose last flight was after 2000. Our data reflect retired cosmonauts' recollections of work-family interactions during their career. Examples of work overlapping into family life and work viewed as interfering with family life were possibly more salient or better remembered than work or family helping the other role.
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...
Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.
Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.
Since it was first put forward by the Czech linguist Mathesius, the concept of theme and rheme has aroused the interest of a great many linguists. They have made a lot of analysis and research on the thematic structure and thematic progression. Among these studies, the Prague School approach and the Hallidayan func-tional approach are the most influential.This paper adopts Halliday's functional approach and treats the thematic structure as part of textual function in functional grammar. The paper introduces the definition of theme and rheme, discusses different types of theme and illustrates its representation in different mood. By analyzing the thematic structure and patterns of thematic progression of the essay Glories of the Storm, the paper also at-tempts to explore the application of thematic analysis in discourse analysis and show the significance of thematic structure in discourse organization and development.% 捷克语言学家马泰修斯于1939年首次提出了主位述位的概念。这一概念一经提出，便引起了国内外诸多语言学家的关注。国内外许多学者都对语篇中的主述位结构以及主位推进模式进行了有益的探讨与研究。在这些研究中，最有影响力的是布拉格学派和以韩礼德为代表的系统功能语言学派。文章以韩礼德的系统功能语法为基础，尝试运用主述位结构及主位推进模式对散文《辉煌壮丽的暴风雨》进行分析，旨在观察和研究其信息分布及语篇构建模式，以帮助我们更好地理解原文，并探究主位结构和主位推进模式在语篇分析中的具体应用及作用。
Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu
Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…
Shafer, M.; Boone, M.; Keim, B. D.
With the rapidly-increasing number of climate services providers, the landscape for putting climate into practice is getting both easier to access and more confusing. Each provider serves a different clientele, and in so doing draws more stakeholder organizations into the sphere of those using climate information in decision-making. The challenge has been in connecting these new stakeholders with expertise that may reside within a different provider organization. To help close the gap, the Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP; http://www.southernclimate.org), a NOAA RISA Team, initiated a summer internship program, where students with expertise in meteorology or climatology would work for an organization more closely aligned with another climate services provider network. The format was patterned after the successful NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at the National Weather Center, where students are selected from undergraduate programs across the nation to spend a summer conducting research under a scientific mentor. The SCIPP initiative flipped this model, instead sending students to organizations with operational needs for climate information to work under their mentorship in partnership with SCIPP scientists. Over the past two summers, SCIPP has recruited students to work at landscape-based (Gulf Coast Joint Venture and National Wetlands Research Center) and community-based (Tulsa Partners) organizations. Students worked alongside the organizations' staff on a daily basis and were supported through periodic calls with the SCIPP team to help identify appropriate datasets and work through methodological issues. This presentation will discuss how these relationships were created, the expertise of each of the organizations involved, and outcomes from the projects.
Richardson, K.; Steffen, W.; Liverman, D.; Barker, T.; Jotzo, F.; Kammen, D.M.; Leemans, R.; Lenton, T.M.; Munasinghe, M.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Stern, N.; Vogel, C.; Waever, O.
Providing an up-to-date synthesis of knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultu
Silverman, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Policy
This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...
... events, such as hurricanes and wildfires. These can cause death, injuries, stress, and mental health problems. Researchers are studying the best ways to lessen climate change and reduce its impact on our health. NIH: ...
Tanaka, K.; Yokohata, T.; Nishina, K.; Takahashi, K.; Emori, S.; Kiguchi, M.; Iseri, Y.; Honda, Y.; Okada, M.; Masaki, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Yoshimori, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Ito, A.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Lim, W. H.; Miyazaki, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.
It is now widely recognized that climate change is affecting various sectors of the world. Climate change impact on one sector may spread out to other sectors including those seemingly remote, which we call "interconnections of climate risks". While a number of climate risks have been identified in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), there has been no attempt to explore their interconnections comprehensively. Here we present a first and most exhaustive visualization of climate risks drawn based on a systematic literature survey. Our risk network diagrams depict that changes in the climate system impact natural capitals (terrestrial water, crop, and agricultural land) as well as social infrastructures, influencing the socio-economic system and ultimately our access to food, water, and energy. Our findings suggest the importance of incorporating climate risk interconnections into impact and vulnerability assessments and call into question the widely used damage function approaches, which address a limited number of climate change impacts in isolation. Furthermore, the diagram is useful to educate decision makers, stakeholders, and general public about cascading risks that can be triggered by the climate change. Socio-economic activities today are becoming increasingly more inter-dependent because of the rapid technological progress, urbanization, and the globalization among others. Equally complex is the ecosystem that is susceptible to climate change, which comprises interwoven processes affecting one another. In the context of climate change, a number of climate risks have been identified and classified according to regions and sectors. These reports, however, did not fully address the inter-relations among risks because of the complexity inherent in this issue. Climate risks may ripple through sectors in the present inter-dependent world, posing a challenge ahead of us to maintain the resilience of the system. It is
The objective of the current study is to compare how Thai EFL writers develop and express their oppositional ideas in arguments and to compare their use of oppositional connectors in arguments to those of published scholars in the field of health science. An investigation of thematic progression pattern was conducted to examine whether a certain…
Full Text Available The author discuss effectiveness of cartographic presentations. The article includes opinions of cartographers regarding effectiveness, readability and efficiency of a map. It reminds the principles of map graphic design in order to verify them using examples of small-scale thematic maps.
苏志军; 李嘉星; 刑光成
为提高专题地图色彩设计的智能化水平,结合专题地图制图的实际需求,给出了一种专题地图色彩智能设计算法；其基本思路为以设计者的配色期望、色彩情感数据库和色彩协调理论为基础,采用粒子群算法进行配色方案的选取,借助孟·斯宾瑟的美度公式对配色方案进行进一步优化,进而得出专题地图智能设色的最优方案.%To improve the intelligence level of thematic map color design, combined with the actual demand of thematic mapmaking, this paper provided a kind of thematic map color intelligent design algorithm. The basic idea was as follows. Based on the expectation color of the designer, the color emotional database and the color coordination theory, particle swarm algorithm was used to select the color scheme. Then, with Mido formula, the color scheme was further optimized and thus the optimal solution of thematic maps intelligence color was drawn.
Rodda, S. N.; Lubman, D. I.; Cheetham, A.; Dowling, N. A.; Jackson, A. C.
Despite the exponential growth of non-appointment-based web counselling, there is limited information on what happens in a single session intervention. This exploratory study, involving a thematic analysis of 85 counselling transcripts of people seeking help for problem gambling, aimed to describe the presentation and content of online…
Lewis, James K.
Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.
Kim, Y.; Horta, H.; Jung, J.
This article analyzes higher education research published in international higher education journals by researchers from China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Malaysia from 1980 to 2013. It does so based on publication counts, and co-authorship and cross-citation mapping, examining these countries' publication patterns in terms of thematic approach and…
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Adami, Saba
To investigate the effects of semantic mapping, thematic clustering, and notebook keeping on L2 vocabulary recognition and production, four groups of intermediate level learners in an EFL institute in Zanjan, Iran participated in the study. Three experimental groups consisted of semantic mapping, semantic feature analysis, and vocabulary notebook…
Miller, Jean Sawyer
This study used four novels by Hermann Hesse as models to illustrate for secondary school English teachers a thematic analysis of the search for identity motif using the triadic view of individual growth. The novels are "Peter Camenzind,""Beneath the Wheel,""Demian," and "Siddhartha." In summary, this study…
Yi, Kwangoh; Li, Degao; Park, Woon Seok; Park, Kyung-hee; Shim, Tae-taek; Kwern, Ohgoo; Kim, Jung Yeon
Individuals' relative awareness of thematic and taxonomic relations is influenced by factors such as language and background knowledge. Relatively weak in Korean language skills and also having relatively limited social opportunities, Korean deaf adolescents might be different from hearing adolescents in how they make decisions in taxonomically…
Miller, Jean Sawyer
This study used four novels by Hermann Hesse as models to illustrate for secondary school English teachers a thematic analysis of the search for identity motif using the triadic view of individual growth. The novels are "Peter Camenzind,""Beneath the Wheel,""Demian," and "Siddhartha." In summary, this study (1) found that analysis of the question…
LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.
Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.
The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy…
The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy of…
Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.
Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...
Druyan, Leonard M.
Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.
Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin
When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges
Martinez-Rios, Juan Jose
Soil is an essential part of any terrestrial ecosystem. Scientists, technicians, and farmers have studied its physical and chemical properties for many years for agriculture and soil conservation. These studies usually require field sampling and laboratory analysis that are time-consuming and destructive to the samples being analyzed. Remotely sensed data are an alternative that provides reliable information at low cost based on a non-destructive technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Landsat Thematic Mapper data to classify soils in and lands. To this end, two Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from the Chihuahuan Desert were used: (1) the calibration area scene in Dona Ana County, NM, mapped with the Soil Taxonomy System, and (2) the study area scene at Mapimi, Mexico mapped with the FAO system. Furthermore, four remote sensing approaches were created to determine the best method to identify soil mapping units. They were named simple , technical, scaled, and complex. The agreement of TM and soils maps was tested using the error matrix approach in a supervised classification. Spectral signatures were selected by separability analysis applying the transformed divergency technique. Once determined on the calibration area, the best approach was applied to the scene in Mexico. The results revealed that the simple approach, based on thermal band discrimination, obtained classification accuracies of 70.67%, suggesting bands 2, 4, and 7 as the best for identifying soil mapping units. The technical approach, based on the principal components analysis technique, obtained accuracies of 66.86%, suggesting that data reduction is possible through this technique. The scaled approach, based on band ratios, achieved accuracies of 61.43%, suggesting ratios 1/5, 3/4, and 5/4 as the best transformations. The complex approach, based on indices, obtained accuracies of 28.50%, distinguishing SAVI, SVI, and albedo as the best data transformations. Based on its
Full Text Available The articles in this thematic issue suggest both opportunities and hazards for the health and development of adolescents in the digital age. We place these concerns in the context of improving health for young people in the US and elsewhere, and suggest that based on evidence uncovered to date, increasing digital connection may be having no less favorable than adverse effect on adolescents.
Korsager, Majken; Slotta, James D.
Climate change is not local; it is global. This means that many environmental issues related to climate change are not geographically limited and hence concern humans in more than one location. There is a growing body of research indicating that today's increased climate change is caused by human activities and our modern lifestyle. Consequently,…
Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert
Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…
Kamminga, Menno R.
This article argues that James Gustafson's 'modes of moral discourse' framework is highly valuable for conceptualising the ethics of climate politics, or 'climate ethics'. The moral-philosophical task of developing principles of climate justice, or the issue of how the burdens (and benefits) of glob
Townsend, Barbara K.
This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…
@@ Global climatic change caused by human factors has become a major issue of increasing international concern. Climatic change may lead to irreversible change to the climatic system on the global scale, and thus result in immeasurable change to the living environment of mankind.
Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Shulgina, Tamara
A work is devoted to the application of an information-computational Web GIS "Climate" developed by joint team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS and Tomsk State University to raise awareness about current and future climate change as a basis for further adaptation. Web-GIS "Climate» (http://climate.scert.ru/) based on modern concepts of Web 2.0 provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences by providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is used for the joint development of software applications by distributed research teams, research based on these applications and undergraduate and graduate students training. In addition, the system capabilities allow creating information resources to raise public awareness about climate change, its causes and consequences, which is a necessary step for the subsequent adaptation to these changes. Basic information course on climate change is placed in the public domain and is aimed at local population. Basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are set out and illustrated in accessible language. Particular attention is paid to regional climate changes. In addition to the information part, the course also includes a selection of links to popular science network resources on current issues in Earth Sciences and a number of practical tasks to consolidate the material. These tasks are performed for a particular territory. Within the tasks users need to analyze the prepared within the "Climate" map layers and answer questions of direct interest to the public: "How did the minimum value of winter temperatures change in your area?", "What are the dynamics of maximum summer temperatures?", etc. Carrying out the analysis of the dynamics of climate change contributes to a better understanding of climate processes and further adaptation
Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.
Majgaard Krarup, Jonna
According to Cleo Paskal climatic changes are environmental changes. They are global, but their impact is local, and manifests them selves in the landscape, in our cities, in open urban spaces, and in everyday life. The landscape and open public spaces will in many cases be the sites where...... measurements to handle climatic changes will be positioned and enacted. Measurements taken are mostly adaptive or aimed to secure and protect existing values, buildings, infrastructure etc., but will in many cases also affects functions, meaning and peoples identification with the landscape and the open urban...... be addressed in order to develop and support social sustainability and identification. This paper explore and discuss how the handling of climatic changes in landscape and open urban spaces might hold a potential for them to become common goods....
Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D
The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.
Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.; ,
Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.
Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.
The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.
Full Text Available Final dissertation projects at UOC’s Master's Program in Education and ICT (eLearning, mainly developed by teachers and trainers, become an illustrative and fascinating collection of papers that aim to make proposals for introducing ICT in education. A thematic analysis, from the perspective of gender, provides interesting data that reveal trends and behaviours regarding the integration of ICT in education, where increasingly, men and women show similarities despite the identified stereotypes. The current study shows that both genders move almost in parallel and technological skills are not a barrier for women to follow the program paths with higher-level requirements. This has implications for the women influence in eLearning evolution, because currently more women than men are working as a professional in the educational sector.
Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.
Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.
Luke, Jennifer; McIlveen, Peter; Perera, Harsha N
Retirement can no longer be conceptualized as disengagement, as the end of a person's career, as it is in the life-span, life-space theory. Increasingly, retirees are returning to work, in paid, and unpaid positions, in a part-time or full-time capacity, as an act of re-engagement. Vocational psychology theories are yet to adequately conceptualize the phenomenon of retirees' re-engagement in work. The research reported in this paper is the first attempt to understand re-engagement through the theoretical lens of career construction theory (CCT) and its central construct, career adaptability. The study involved intensive interviews with 22 retirees between the ages of 56 and 78 years (M = 68.24), who had retired no less than 1 year prior to the study. Participants were engaged in a discussion about their reasons for returning to the world of work. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts extracted evidence of the four career adaptability resources: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. In addition, the influence of family and making a contribution were discerned as important themes. These findings are the first evidence that the CCT and career adaptability provide a new conceptual lens to theorize and conduct research into the phenomenon of retirement.
Hackett, Bruce; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Larnicol, Gilles; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Santoleri, Rosalia; Roquet, Hervé; Stoffelen, Ad
The MyOcean (2009-2012), MyOcean2 (2012-2014) and MyOcean Follow-On (October 2014 - March 2015) projects, respectively funded by the EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research (FP7 2007-2013) and HORIZON 2020 (EU Research and Innovation programme 2014-2020), have been designed to prepare and to lead the demonstration phases of the nascent European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMS). The observational component of the MyOcean services is embodied in four Thematic Assembly Centres (TACs): Three provide satellite-based products for sea level (SL-TAC), for ocean colour (OC-TAC) and for surface temperature, winds and sea ice (OSI-TAC), while the fourth provides in-situ observations (INS-TAC). All the TAC production is developed from existing capabilities and there is close collaboration with related national and European data providers. Data products include near-real-time data and multi-year reprocessed datasets. Data formatting, dissemination methods and documentation follow uniform MyOcean standards for ease of use. The presentation will track the evolution of the TAC services through the MyOcean projects up to the opening of the CMS.
Full Text Available Retirement can no longer be conceptualized as disengagement, as the end of a person’s career, as it is in the life-span, life-space theory. Increasingly, retirees are returning to work, in paid and unpaid positions, in a part-time or full-time capacity, as an act of re-engagement. Vocational psychology theories are yet to adequately conceptualize the phenomenon of retirees’ re-engagement in work. The research reported in this paper is the first attempt to understand re-engagement through the theoretical lens of career construction theory and its central construct, career adaptability. The study involved intensive interviews with 22 retirees between the ages of 56 and 78 years (M = 68.24, who had retired no less than one year prior to the study. Participants were engaged in a discussion about their reasons for returning to the world of work. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts extracted evidence of the four career adaptability resources: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. In addition, the influence of family and making a contribution were discerned as important themes. These findings are the first evidence that the career construction theory and career adaptability provide a new conceptual lens to theorize and conduct research into the phenomenon of retirement.
Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.
Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.
Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III
The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.
Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J
In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.
Full Text Available The aim of this special thematic section is to bring together recent social psychological research on the topic of citizenship with a view to discerning the emerging trends within the field and its potential contributions to the broader interdisciplinary area of citizenship studies. Eight papers spanning diverse theoretical traditions (including social identity, social representations and discursive approaches apply an array of methods to consider different aspects of citizenship across a variety of cultural and national contexts. Some focus on individuals’ perceptions and discussions of citizenship, others examine the group dynamics which flow from these understandings, and the rest examine the potential for citizenship to exclude as well as include marginalised communities. While diverse, the contributions share some core commonalities: all share a concern in trying to understand citizenship from the perspective of the citizen; all conceptualise citizenship as an active and reflective process occurring between members of a community; and all highlight the irreducibly social and collective nature of the experience and practice of citizenship in everyday life. We propose that these elements of convergence have the potential to give the social psychology of citizenship a solid basis and recognisable profile in order to contribute to the broader arena of citizenship studies.
Pila, Eva; Mond, Jonathan M; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram. Analysis of the volume and type of food revealed the presence of very large quantities (54.5%) of calorie-dense foods (71.3%) that was rated to qualify as an objective binge episode. Photographic content of people commonly portrayed highly-muscular bodies (60.7%) in the act of intentional body exposure (40.0%). Meanwhile, textual content exemplified the idealization of overconsumption, a strict commitment to fitness, and a reward-based framework around diet and fitness. Collectively, these findings position cheat meals as goal-oriented dietary practices in the pursuit of physique-ideals, thus underscoring the potential clinical repercussions of this socially-endorsed dietary phenomenon.
Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.
Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.
Grivas Theodoros B
Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.
Price, Kevin P.
Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.
Lawford, R.; Huang, J.
The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.
Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.
Fournier, A; Young, I; Rajić, A; Greig, J; LeJeune, J
Wildlife is a known reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp. Transmission of these pathogens between wildlife and food animals can lead to damaging impacts on the agri-food industry and public health. Several international case studies have highlighted the complex and cross-sectoral challenges involved in preventing and managing these potential transmission risks. The objective of our study was to develop a better understanding of the socio-economic aspects of the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals to support more effective and sustainable risk mitigation strategies. We conducted qualitative thematic analysis on a purposive sample of 30/141 articles identified in a complementary scoping review of the literature in this area and identified two key themes. The first related to the framing of this issue as a 'wicked problem' that depends on a complex interaction of social factors and risk perceptions, governance and public policy, and economic implications. The second theme consisted of promising approaches and strategies to prevent and mitigate the potential risks from transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. These included participatory, collaborative and multidisciplinary decision-making approaches and the proactive incorporation of credible scientific evidence and local contextual factors into solutions. The integration of these approaches to address 'wicked problems' in this field may assist stakeholders and decision-makers in improving the acceptability and sustainability of future strategies to reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals.
Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…
@@ Mr.Secretary-General, dear colleagues, Global climate change has a profound impact on the survival and development of mankind. It is a major challenge facing all countries.I wish to highlight a few principles that we need to follow in our common endeavor to tackle this issue of climate change.
Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc
Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ± 0.01) to 0.81 (SD ± 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ± 0.008) to 0.91 (SD ± 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered.
Shaw, Chris; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte
The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate change and the risks posed by its impacts (see IPCC, 2013 and 2014), public perception of climate change is still largely framed by uncertainty, especially regarding impacts (Poortinga et al., 2011). ...
Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.
Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.
Gershgoren, Lael; Basevitch, Itay; Filho, Edson; Gershgoren, Aaron; Brill, Yaron S.; Robert J. Schinke; Tenenbaum, Gershon
Aims. The purpose of the current study was to establish a conceptual framework of team chemistry components in sport with an emphasis on Shared Mental Models (SMM).\\ud Method. Elite soccer coaches (n = 6) and players (n = 3) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. An inductive thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results. Four themes related to team chemistry components were identified: (1) members' characteristics (i.e., demographic data, on-field characteris...
Congcong Li; Jie Wang; Lei Wang; Luanyun Hu; Peng Gong
Although a large number of new image classification algorithms have been developed, they are rarely tested with the same classification task. In this research, with the same Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set and the same classification scheme over Guangzhou City, China, we tested two unsupervised and 13 supervised classification algorithms, including a number of machine learning algorithms that became popular in remote sensing during the past 20 years. Our analysis focused primarily on ...
The objective of thisstudy was to assess the thematic and sources of the publicationsin the Me soamerican Journal of Agronomy during theperiod 1990-2010. Mesoamerican Journal of Agronomywas created as a publication of the Ce ntral AmericanCooperative Program for the Improvement of Crops andLivestock (PCCMCA ). From 1990 to date, 629 pape rs havebeen published, of which 63% are scientific articles, 26% aretechnical notes, 8% are analyses and commentarie s, whiletechnical information and litera...
Muhammad Ishaq-ur Rahman
Full Text Available Climate Change has been undoubtedly the most illustrious environmental issue since late 20th century. But neither the discourse merely emerged during that time, nor it was problematized in the same way since its onset. History of Climate Change discourse reveals that from a purely scientific concern it has turned into a public agenda that is nowadays more inclined to be development problem. Transformations have brought about a complete new paradigm every time. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the Climate Change discourse and to do so it captured the underlying philosophy of the issue using Thomas Kuhn’s well-known thesis of ‘paradigm shift’. In particular it discusses about the crisis that lead the issue towards transformations; explores key perspectives around the crisis thus representation of the issue in the environmental discourse over the time. While this paper establishes that with the beginning of the 21st century, the discourse entered into a new paradigm and will reach to a critical point by the end of 2012, it finally postulates some measures that the discourse might integrate with the existing to advance beyond that point.
Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the
integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS is coordinating include: i) regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards. Here we present the successful story of the EPOS Preparatory Phase and the progress towards the implementation of both integrated core services (ICS) and thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We aim to discuss the achieved results and the approach followed to design the implementation phase. The goal is to present and discuss the strategies adopted to foster the implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS, and their integration to develop the new ICS. We will present the prototype of the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth sciences as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. Finally, we will discuss the well-defined role of the EPOS-ERIC Headquarter to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services (through ICS and TCS) looking for an effective commitment by national governments. It will be an important and timely opportunity to discuss the EPOS roadmap toward the operation of the novel multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth sciences.
Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos
The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage
Carson, Katherine; Dawson, Vaille
This paper describes the development and implementation of a three-pillared model for teaching socioscientific issues: teacher professional development; curriculum resources; and classroom support. A professional development program and curriculum resource based on the socioscientific issue of climate change was trialled with 75 Western Australian…
Ültay, Neslihan; Çalık, Muammer
Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords `context-based', `contextual learning' and `chemistry education' in well-known databases (i.e. Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, Springer LINK Contemporary). Further, in case the computer search by key words may have missed a rather substantial part of the important literature in the area, the authors also conducted a hand search of the related journals. To present a detailed thematic review of context-based chemistry studies, a matrix was used to summarize the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methodologies, general knowledge claims, and implications for teaching and learning, implications for curriculum development and suggestions for future research. The general knowledge claims investigated in this paper were: (a) positive effects of the context-based chemistry studies; (b) caveats, both are examined in terms of students' attitudes and students' understanding/cognition. Implications were investigated for practice in context- based chemistry studies, for future research in context- based chemistry studies, and for curriculum developers in context- based chemistry studies. Teachers of context-based courses claimed that the application of the context-based learning approach in chemistry education improved students' motivation and interest in the subject. This seems to have generated an increase in the number of the students who wish to continue chemistry education at higher levels. However, despite the fact that the majority of the studies have reported advantages of context-based chemistry studies, some of them have also referred to pitfalls, i.e. dominant
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale studies have revealed networks of various biological interaction types, such as protein-protein interaction, genetic interaction, transcriptional regulation, sequence homology, and expression correlation. Recurring patterns of interconnection, or 'network motifs', have revealed biological insights for networks containing either one or two types of interaction. Results To study more complex relationships involving multiple biological interaction types, we assembled an integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae network in which nodes represent genes (or their protein products and differently colored links represent the aforementioned five biological interaction types. We examined three- and four-node interconnection patterns containing multiple interaction types and found many enriched multi-color network motifs. Furthermore, we showed that most of the motifs form 'network themes' – classes of higher-order recurring interconnection patterns that encompass multiple occurrences of network motifs. Network themes can be tied to specific biological phenomena and may represent more fundamental network design principles. Examples of network themes include a pair of protein complexes with many inter-complex genetic interactions – the 'compensatory complexes' theme. Thematic maps – networks rendered in terms of such themes – can simplify an otherwise confusing tangle of biological relationships. We show this by mapping the S. cerevisiae network in terms of two specific network themes. Conclusion Significantly enriched motifs in an integrated S. cerevisiae interaction network are often signatures of network themes, higher-order network structures that correspond to biological phenomena. Representing networks in terms of network themes provides a useful simplification of complex biological relationships.
Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Malla, R.
The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to the user community. Previous calibration has been based on information obtained from prelaunch, the onboard calibrator, vicarious calibration attempts, and cross-calibration with Landsat-7. Currently, additional data sources are available to improve this calibration. Specifically, improvements in vicarious calibration methods and development of the use of pseudoinvariant sites for trending provide two additional independent calibration sources. The use of these additional estimates has resulted in a consistent calibration approach that ties together all of the available calibration data sources. Results from this analysis indicate a simple exponential, or a constant model may be used for all bands throughout the lifetime of Landsat-5 TM. Where previously time constants for the exponential models were approximately one year, the updated model has significantly longer time constants in bands 1-3. In contrast, bands 4, 5, and 7 are shown to be best modeled by a constant. The models proposed in this paper indicate calibration knowledge of 5% or better early in life, decreasing to nearly 2% later in life. These models have been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and are the default calibration used for all Landsat TM data now distributed through EROS. ?? 2008 IEEE.
Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,
As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). it is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes. The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.
Full Text Available Background Corcoran (2000, 2001 has suggested that theory of mind judgements can be arrived at using analogical reasoning skills and she has proposed that this is the route that people with schizophrenia take when they make inferences about others' mental states. Recent work has demonstrated a robust relationship between mental state inference and autobiographical memory, providing initial support for the model. This study examines the model further by exploring the assertion that in schizophrenia the ability to infer the mental states of others also depends upon effective social reasoning in conditional contexts. Method 59 people with a DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and 44 healthy subjects performed four versions of the thematic selection task. The versions varied according to the familiarity and social nature of the material they incorporated. The same subjects also completed the Hinting Task, a measure of theory of mind and tests of intellectual functioning and narrative recall. Results The schizophrenia and the normal control groups differed in their performance on all of the measures except that of intellectual functioning. Explorations within the schizophrenia group indicated that social reasoning was most markedly affected in the patients with negative signs and in those with paranoid delusions while for the hinting task, those with negative signs performed significantly worse than those in remission but this difference seemed to be due to these patients' poorer narrative memory. There was evidence in the schizophrenia data to support the hypothesis of a relationship between theory of mind and social conditional reasoning. Conclusion This work provided further support for the idea that in patients with schizophrenia at least, judgements about the mental states of others are achieved using analogical reasoning.
Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter
This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE Orientation: The article discusses the parameters that underlie the perception of risk amongst SME owner-managers.Research purpose: This article draws on research suggesting that interactions between industry-sector (situational differences and cognitive biases may often be decisive in moulding risk perceptions.Motivation for the study: Literature suggests that one of the most significant challenges facing entrepreneurs is the development of a clear understanding of what it means to experience and conceptualise ‘risk’ within the context of business entrepreneurship.Research design, approach and method: Utilising data obtained from a random sample of 446 SME owner-managers in the south-east of England, this study employs a combination of tests, including a non-parametric test, Chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistics test, to derive a series of thematic propositions that contribute to our understanding of how these entrepreneurs perceive decision risk.Main findings: Findings highlight the situational decision factors that influence SME owner-managers to overemphasise possible negative outcomes, thus constraining the creative imagination upon which their entrepreneurship depends.Practical/managerial implications: It is generally accepted that decisions that may be highly innovative are not necessarily risky, unless the entity concerned is innovating in order to survive and its innovations have strategic significance. Based on this, we posit that there is an urgent need for entrepreneurs to focus less on risk associated with innovation and more on comprehensive analysis of all risk and uncertainty present around business-critical decisions.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to growing research examining the relationship between SME risk and innovation, which is at present sparse.
Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha
Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.
Full Text Available The choice to bring this topic consists in choosing the creative vocation of the inventive painter Adem Kastrati, who articulates the artistic work with a unique technique, the usage of brown soil color, as a pictorial material and tool without artificial mixture, stressing also the application of the specific pictorial structure, which is considered unique up to now. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the technical, thematic, symbolic and semiotic authenticity, in Adem Kastrati’s works, which is based on the Albanian traditional history. The artist’s tendency to create a form of art apprehensible to all, through the articulation of a clear figurative language which occupies a specific considered space in the paper, shows the artist’s message transmission to receptive level in reference to psychological-spiritual condition. This paper is based on primary and secondary sources, direct analysis of the artist’s activity, as well as different materials and publishing. As for the idea, technique, theme, variety of signs and symbols reflected, it is important to notice that the artist’ s skill is very original in the universe of inventive values of pictorial art that is why he occupies an important position in the Albanian culture. Consequently, this paper reflects a unique panorama of the authentic synthesis of specifications that characterize this artist’s activity. Therefore through this exposition, we are trying not only to highlight his creativity, but we are also trying to highlight his works to all the competent institutions nationwide, whose art was presented in 50 individual and collective exhibitions in different countries of the world.
The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.
Marston, JB; Williams, Paul D.
The atmosphere and ocean are examples of dynamical systems that evolve in accordance with the laws of physics. Therefore, climate science is a branch of physics that is just as valid and important as the more traditional branches, which include particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and statistical mechanics. This ‘focus on’ collection of New Journal of Physics brings together original research articles from leading groups that advance our understanding of the physics of climate. Areas of climate science that can particularly benefit from input by physicists are emphasised. The collection brings together articles on stochastic models, turbulence, quasi-linear approximations, climate statistics, statistical mechanics of atmospheres and oceans, jet formation, and reduced-form climate models. The hope is that the issue will encourage more physicists to think about the climate problem.
Chadwick, Amy E
Climate change is one of the most serious and pervasive challenges facing us today. Our changing climate has implications not only for the ecosystems upon which we depend, but also for human health. Health communication scholars are well-positioned to aid in the mitigation of and response to climate change and its health effects. To help theorists, researchers, and practitioners engage in these efforts, this primer explains relevant issues and vocabulary associated with climate change and its impacts on health. First, this primer provides an overview of climate change, its causes and consequences, and its impacts on health. Then, the primer describes ways to decrease impacts and identifies roles for health communication scholars in efforts to address climate change and its health effects.
Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James
Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.
Three phrases of the quantitative study of climate-vegetation classification and their characteristics are presented based on the review of advance in climate-vegetation interaction, a key issue of "global change and terrestrial ecosystems (GCTE)" which is the core project of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP): (ⅰ) characterized by the correlation between natural vegetation types and climate; (ⅱ) characterized by climatic indices which have obviously been restricted to plant ecophysiology; (ⅲ) characterized by coupling both structure and function of vegetation. Thus, the prospective of climate-vegetation classification for global change study in China was proposed, especially the study coupling climate-vegetation classification models with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) was emphasized.
Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda
Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.
This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.
Brownlee, Matthew Tyler James; Hallo, Jeffrey C; Wright, Brett A; Moore, Dewayne; Powell, Robert B
Understanding perceptions of global environmental issues, such as climate change, can help inform resource management, policy development, and communication with constituents. Although a considerable amount of research documents citizens' perceptions of climate change, few have investigated how interactions with climate-impacted parks and protected areas influence these perceptions, and consequently elements of environmental management. Using a mixed methods Instrument Development Approach, the researchers examined the stability of park visitors' (N = 429) climate change perceptions during a daylong interaction with climate-sensitive and influenced resources at Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska. Results indicate that global-level beliefs about climate change remained relatively stable during a park experience, but perceptions about climate change at the park-level (e.g., impacts) appeared more malleable. Findings also revealed the type of park experience (terrestrial vs. marine) can influence the degree of change in visitors' perceptions. Implications for communication, outreach, and park management are discussed.
Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Buuren, van A.; Huitema, D.; Meijerink, S.; Rayner, T.; Wiering, M.
Adaptation to climate change raises important governance issues. Notwithstanding the increasing attention on climate adaptation at the global and European level, the variety of local conditions and climate impacts points towards a prime role for regional actors in climate change adaptation. They fac
Dwyer, John; Dinardo, Thomas P.; Muchoney, Douglas M.
The series of Landsat missions has compiled the longest record of satellite observation of the Earth’s land surface, extending for more than 38 years for most areas of the globe. Landsat data are particularly important as long term climate data records because the scale of observation is sufficient to differentiate between natural and human drivers of land cover change. The USGS has established consistent radiometric calibration across the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors, and have extended the calibration back to the earlier MSS sensors. The USGS is developing capabilities to create fundamental climate data records (FCDRs), thematic climate data records (TCDRs), and essential climate variables (ECVs) from the Landsat data archive. Two high priority TCDRs were identified: surface reflectance and land surface temperature because they have direct application or are required as input to the generation of ECVs. We will focus development on a few of the terrestrial ECVs that have a high potential for being derived from Landsat data, that include land cover, albedo, fire disturbance, surface water, snow and ice, and leaf area index (LAI). We are collaborating with scientists who have demonstrated successful algorithm development and application of these science products to develop a framework of processing capabilities to support research projects and land management applications, along with an independent strategy for product validation. Our goal is to scale the creation and validation of these products from specific sites in the conterminous U.S. and Alaska, for extension to continental and global scales.
Jones, R. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, PMB1 Aspendale, Victoria 3195 (Australia)
Issues of uncertainty, scale and delay between action and response mean that 'dangerous' climate change is best managed within a risk assessment framework that evolves as new information is gathered. Risk can be broadly defined as the combination of likelihood and consequence; the latter measured as vulnerability to greenhouse-induced climate change. The most robust way to assess climate change damages in a probabilistic framework is as the likelihood of critical threshold exceedance. Because vulnerability is dominated by local factors, global vulnerability is the aggregation of many local impacts being forced beyond their coping ranges. Several case studies, generic sea level rise and temperature, coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef and water supply in an Australian catchment, are used to show how local risk assessments can be assessed then expressed as a function of global warming. Impacts treated thus can be aggregated to assess global risks consistent with Article 2 of the UNFCCC. A 'proof of concept' example is then used to show how the stabilisation of greenhouse gases can constrain the likelihood of exceeding critical thresholds at both the both local and global scale. This analysis suggests that even if the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the benefits of avoiding climate damages can be estimated, the likelihood of being able to meet a cost-benefit target is limited by both physical and socio-economic uncertainties. In terms of managing climate change risks, adaptation will be most effective at reducing vulnerability likely to occur at low levels of warming. Successive efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases will reduce the likelihood of reaching levels of global warming from the top down, with the highest potential temperatures being avoided first, irrespective of contributing scientific uncertainties. This implies that the first cuts in emissions will always produce the largest economic benefits in terms of avoided
Mihailović, Dragutin T; Arsenić, Ilija
Some issues which are relevant for the recent state in climate modeling have been considered. A detailed overview of literature related to this subject is given. The concept in modeling of climate, as a complex system, seen through Godel's Theorem and Rosen's definition of complexity and predictability is discussed. It is pointed out to occurrence of chaos in computing the environmental interface temperature from the energy balance equation given in a difference form. A coupled system of equations, often used in climate models is analyzed. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponent mostly has positive values allowing presence of chaos in this systems. The horizontal energy exchange between environmental interfaces, which is described by the dynamics of driven coupled oscillators, is analyzed. Their behavior and synchronization, when a perturbation is introduced in the system, as a function of the coupling parameters, the logistic parameter and the parameter of exchange, was studied calculating the Lyapunov expone...
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A forest cover classification of the Kisatchie National Forest, Catahoula Ranger District, was performed with Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Data base retrievals and map products from this analysis demonstrated used of Landsat for forest management decisions.
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These are polygon and raster data sets derived from 2002 Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery that indicates areas of land and areas of water in Louisiana. The...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These are polygon and raster data sets derived from 2002 Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery that indicates areas of land and areas of water in Louisiana. The...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These are polygon and raster data sets derived from 2002 Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery that indicates areas of land and areas of water in Louisiana. The...
Aerts JCJH; Asselt H van; Bakker SJA; Bayangos V; Beers C van; Berk MM; Biermann F; Bouwer LM; Bree L van; Coninck HC de; Dorland K; Elzen ME den; Gupta J; Heemst J van; Jansen JC; Kok MTJ; Nabuurs GJ; Veraert J; Verhagen A; Kok MTJ; Coninck HC de; ECN; KMD
In this study ways are explored to increase the policy coherence between the climate regime and a selected number of climate relevant policy areas, by adding a non-climate policy track to national and international climate strategies. The report assesses first the potential, synergies and trade-offs
The need for health information resources to support climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions is growing, both in the United States and around the world, as the manifestations of climate change become more evident and widespread. In many instances, these information resources are not specific to a changing climate, but have either been developed or are highly relevant for addressing health issues related to existing climate variability and weather extremes. To help address the need for more integrated data, the Interagency Cross-Cutting Group on Climate Change and Human Health, a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, has developed the Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH). MATCH is a gateway to relevant information that can be used to solve problems at the nexus of climate science and public health by facilitating research, enabling scientific collaborations in a One Health approach, and promoting data stewardship that will enhance the quality and application of climate and health research. MATCH is a searchable clearinghouse of publicly available Federal metadata including monitoring and surveillance data sets, early warning systems, and tools for characterizing the health impacts of global climate change. Examples of relevant databases include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Public Health Tracking System and NOAA's National Climate Data Center's national and state temperature and precipitation data. This presentation will introduce the audience to this new web-based geoportal and demonstrate its features and potential applications.
Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Bremer, Scott; Blanchard, Anne
of the situation in northeast Bangladesh. At no point did we decide on the pertinent climatic issues independently of the local people. The success of this interdisciplinary approach so far has depended on time, patience, and humility. In this presentation, we present the narrative approach we have initiated in TRACKS. We will look at some of local climate narratives from the full-scale survey, as well as the challenges and the research questions that resulted from the process. We will also discuss future perspectives of how we re-integrate the new climate science into the dialogue with the local people.
In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…
Erwin, Patricia J
On June 3-5, 2008, international organizations and heads of state met in Rome to discuss the critical situation in global food supplies and prices during the World Food Crisis Summit. The intent of this column is to provide approaches to identifying the complex issues that impact public health, public safety, and nutrition on a global basis. The Web sites selected provide a background for the complex issues involved (energy, climate and environment, agriculture, and politics) and reveal controversial and competing agendas with many far-reaching implications.
Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian
There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...
The presentation explains the climate change and the role of green building in minimising the impact of climate change. The presentation covers the emerging issues, sustainable building, green building certification which covers: sustainable site, water efficiency, energy and
... Geological Survey Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater... titled ``Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States''. The report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and...
Wood, Peter John
This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely.
Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe
Since more than 20 years, "Earth Observation" (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA have provided a wealth of data. In the coming years, the Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions as well as Earth Explorers and other, Third Party missions will provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses major challenges to fully exploit the potential of archived and daily incoming datasets. Those challenges do not only comprise the discovery, access, processing, and visualization of large data volumes but also an increasing diversity of data sources and end users from different fields (e.g. EO, in-situ monitoring, and modeling). In this context, the GTEP (Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform) initiative aims to build an operational distributed processing platform to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future satellite missions for the detection and monitoring of natural hazards. This presentation focuses on the "Optical Image Correlation" Pilot Project (funded by ESA within the GTEP platform) which objectives are to develop an easy-to-use, flexible and distributed processing chain for: 1) the automated reconstruction of surface Digital Elevation Models from stereo (and tristereo) pairs of Spot 6/7 and Pléiades satellite imagery, 2) the creation of ortho-images (panchromatic and multi-spectral) of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Spot 6/7 and Pléiades scenes, 3) the calculation of horizontal (E-N) displacement vectors based on sub-pixel image correlation. The processing chains is being implemented on the GEP cloud-based (Hadoop, MapReduce) environment and designed for analysis of surface displacements at local to regional scale (10-1000 km2) targeting in particular co-seismic displacement and slow
Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanisław; Grasso, Jean Robert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Garcia, Alexander; Cassidy, Nigel; Sterzel, Mariusz; Szepieniec, Tomasz; Dineva, Savka; Biggare, Pascal; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Sileny, Jan; Fischer, Tomas
EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) aims to create new research opportunities in the field of anthropogenic hazards evoked by exploitation of georesources. TCS AH, based on the prototype built in the framework of the IS-EPOS project (https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/), financed from Polish structural funds (POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00), is being further developed within EPOS IP project (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). TCS AH is designed as a functional e-research environment to ensure a researcher the maximum possible freedom for in silico experimentation by providing a virtual laboratory in which researcher will be able to create own workspace with own processing streams. The unique integrated RI is: (i) data gathered in the so- called "episodes", comprehensively describing a geophysical process, induced or triggered by human technological activity, which under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment and (ii) problem-oriented, specific high-level services, with the particular attention devoted to methods analyzing correlations between technology, geophysical response and resulting hazard. Services to be implemented are grouped within six blocks: (1) Basic services for data integration and handling; (2) Services for physical models of stress/strain changes over time and space as driven by geo-resource production; (3) Services for analysing geophysical signals; (4) Services to extract the relation between technological operations and observed induced seismic/deformation; (5) Services to quantitative probabilistic assessments of anthropogenic seismic hazard - statistical properties of anthropogenic seismic series and their dependence on time-varying anthropogenesis; ground motion prediction equations; stationary and time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, related to time-changeable technological factors inducing the seismic process; (6) Simulator for Multi
Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Dietz, A.J. [Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies AGIDS, University of Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
The findings of the Impact of Climate Change on Drylands (ICCD) project were discussed during a workshop held on 26 and 27 April 2001. The aims of the workshop were to disseminate the findings of the ICCD project, create awareness of the possible effects of climate change and contribute to the dialogue on climate change research in West Africa. Both the workshop and the project were financed by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP), Centre Technique de Cooperation de Agricole et Rurale (CTA), Wageningen University (INREF), and Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies (AGIDS)