WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate study background

  1. Reforestation and climate change mitigation: A background study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lin; Næss, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O'Brien, Karen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper institutional settings in host countries. The study is motivated by the growing interest for reforestation projects in developing countries through the Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism. Particular emphasis is given to the role of property rights. The relationship between va...

  2. Climate change. Scientific background and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes briefly the natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past. It also discusses the future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  3. Background studies: climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research into some climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land disposal environments for radioactive wastes in Britain. The work has supported development of the TIME2 simulation code. Modelling approaches are presented and discussed, along with supporting data, for climatic change, ice sheet growth and decay, groundwater effects and denudation. The potential effects of periglacial processes on a repository are also briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg; Weikart, Lynne A.

    2008-01-01

    This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The…

  5. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  6. Climate change - New directions for the Northeast: background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This background paper was developed in preparation for a workshop to bring forward action options to be used for developing an action plan for the consideration of the next meeting of New England Governors/ Eastern Canadian Premiers Conference in September 2001. The background paper is the product of the cooperative effort of all eleven jurisdictions. The paper examines climate science in its global and regional aspects; climate changes impacts, identifying environmental, natural resources and infrastructure issues; monitoring of emission levels and progress in reductions; policy processes, such as leadership, cooperation, emission trading and Kyoto mechanisms; mitigation action options to reduce emissions in the Northeast context, adaptation options and their effects on the natural environment, such a coastal and forestry concerns; infrastructure development; and common Northeast issues and opportunities. A series of options in each of these areas have been identified, including gaps in options. Attention is drawn to the need to consider social and ecological objectives which will become more acute as more climate change policies and programs are implemented. 45 refs

  7. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  8. Guatemala : Investment Climate Assessment, Volume 2. Background Notes on Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Guatemala has achieved substantial progress in improving its investment climate since 2004. Despite these achievements, Guatemala continues to face significant challenges. Guatemala's overall ease of doing business ranking is still relatively low-114th out of 178 countries, and it falls well behind the rankings of comparator countries such as El Salvador (69), Nicaragua (93), and Panama (6...

  9. LAr instrumentation studies for low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicsko Csathy, Jozsef [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    We investigated different options to instrument a large volume of liquid Argon in a low background experiment like GERDA with special regard to alternatives to PMTs. The difficulty consists in producing all the components with a radiopurity that is compatible with the background goal of the experiment. WLS fibers read out with SiPMs seem to offer the best compromise between veto efficiency and induced background. We present optimization studies for about one ton instrumented LAr volume and preliminary results from our test stand at TUM.

  10. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decrease in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decrease in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate in modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change; thus, warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Our analysis reveals that the latitudinal temperature change largely results from the climate conditions in which deforestation occurs and is less influenced by the magnitude of individual biophysical changes such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency.

  11. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN ARGENTINA: BACKGROUND AND QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism study and keeps on failing to provide data that allows for learning about the working conditions and the professional profile of the Argentinean journalists.

  12. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions, but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decreases in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decreases in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate on modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry climate favors larger (smaller evapotranspiration change, thus warming (cooling is more likely to occur. Further analysis on the contribution of individual biophysical factors (albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency reveals that the latitudinal signature embodied in the temperature change probably result from the background climate conditions rather than the initial biophysical perturbation.

  13. AMS Climate Studies: Improving climate literacy through undergraduate education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P., Jr.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    professors have been selected to pilot the program in Spring 2010, with major emphasis placed on representing a diverse array of institution types, degree programs, course delivery methods, academic backgrounds, etc. The materials will be vigorously tested and updated accordingly. AMS Climate Studies will be available for implementation at your institution beginning Fall 2010.

  14. Permafrost in Svalbard: a review of research history, climatic background and engineering challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Humlum, Ole; Instanes, Arne; Sollid, Johan Ludvig

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews permafrost in High Arctic Svalbard, including past and current research, climatic background, how permafrost is affected by climatic change, typical permafrost landforms and how changes in Svalbard permafrost may impact natural and human systems. Information on active layer dynamics, permafrost and ground ice characteristics and selected periglacial features is summarized from the recent literature and from unpublished data by the authors. Permafrost thickness ranges from l...

  15. Climate change: Some elements from the scientific background and the scientific process; Klimafaglig oppdatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the background on mechanisms behind climate variations in the past and man-made climate change and also briefly what is said by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) about the likely future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. The IPCC is presented in some detail. The problem of climate change is not important mainly because of increased global average temperature, but because of a potential variability and instability of the global climate and the local weather. In the past, the climate system has fluctuated strongly and rapidly for natural causes. But the stable climate regime observed after the last ice age is currently perturbed by the large outpouring of greenhouse gases from a variety of human activities. Can the stability of the current climate regime withstand this disturbance? The problem of climate change is riddled with uncertainties, and our main challenge to this situation is to find out how to respond in a rational way. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  17. Oscillation characteristics of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley and relevant climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the summer precipitation data from the Huaihe River valley and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River from 1922 to 2007,we analyzed the interannual and interdecadal oscillation and probability distribution characteristics of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley during the same period,using the wavelet transform and generalized extreme distribution methods.Whereby,we studied the climate background of East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM),Sea Surface Temperature (SST),East Asia telecorrelation circulation,and their relationship with the interannual and interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley.We further compared the difference of interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation and the relevant climate background between the Huaihe River valley and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.The results show that:1) The intensity change of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley is consistent with that of interdecadal oscillation.The summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley has been more than normal since the end of the 1990s,and the QBO is very significant.Meanwhile,the probability of occurrence of extreme heavy rainfall increased obviously.2) The interdecadal oscillation of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley has a close relationship with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and interdecadal oscillation of EASM.When PDO is in the cold phase and EASM weakens,the summer precipitation will be greater than normal.3) QBO of summer precipitation in the Huaihe River valley is mainly controlled by that of EASM,and it has a relationship with a circulation pattern of "positive-negative-positive" from the high to the low latitudes in East Asia.4) There is interdecadal phase difference in summer precipitation between the Huaihe River valley and the middle and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River,which is mainly related to the intensity and

  18. CITYZEN climate impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutz, Martin (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    We have estimated the impact of climate change on the chemical composition of the troposphere due to changes in climate from current climate (2000-2010) looking 40 years ahead (2040-2050). The climate projection has been made by the ECHAM5 model and was followed by chemistry-transport modelling using a global model, Oslo CTM2 (Isaksen et al., 2005; Srvde et al., 2008), and a regional model, EMEP. In this report we focus on carbon monoxide (CO) and surface ozone (O3) which are measures of primary and secondary air pollution. In parallel we have estimated the change in the same air pollutants resulting from changes in emissions over the same time period. (orig.)

  19. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  20. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  1. Pythia Jet Finding Study with Trento Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Joseph [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    We present results applying the Pythia SlowJet Finder to Pythia generated QCD and QED hard processes in the presence of simulated heavy ion backgrounds. The hard process events are generated with Pythia version 8.219 for √sNN=200 GeV proton-proton collisions and the backgrounds are generated by the Reduced Thickness Event-by-event Nuclear Topology model TRENTo for Au-Au collisions with a nucleon-nucleon cross-section of 4.23 fm2. The TRENTo model is used to calculate the initial entropy and ellipticity from which the total charged particle multiplicity and elliptic ow are determined. We report results in the form of event displays, total pT distributions, and fragmentation distributions for SlowJet applied to Pythia events with and without the simulated heavy ion backgrounds.

  2. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; GONG Qiang; ZHAO Lian-wei

    2005-01-01

    By using, summer temperature data in 26 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

  3. Genetic Background and Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence in a Mapuche Population from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Suarez, María F.; Urrets-Zavalia, Julio A.; Serra, Horacio M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. Methods To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated indiv...

  4. Choice of Study and Persistence in Higher Education by Immigrant Background, Gender, and Social Background

    OpenAIRE

    Støren, Liv Anne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present documentation of new analyses carried out at NIFU STEP concerning differences by immigrant background, gender and social background with regard to choice of type study programme in higher education, as well as educational attainment and persistence in higher education. Many studies have been undertaken concerning completion of upper secondary education and enrolment into higher education in relation to immigrant background. Little is known, however, about ...

  5. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  6. SKA synergy with Microwave Background studies

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barbosa, Domingos; Blanchard, Alain; De Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Jones, Michael; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Molinari, Diego; Negrello, Mattia; Paoletti, Daniela; Perrotta, Francesca; Scaramella, Roberto; Trombetti, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    The extremely high sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be useful for addressing a wide set of themes relevant for cosmology, in synergy with current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) projects. Many of these themes also have a link with future optical-IR and X-ray observations. We discuss the scientific perspectives for these goals, the instrumental requirements and the observational and data analysis approaches, and identify several topics that are important for cosmology and astrophysics at different cosmic epochs.

  7. Climatic water balance and agricultural productivity dynamics in Dobrogea, southeastern Romania, against the background of climate change over the past decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoc, Georgeta; Pravalie, Remus

    2015-04-01

    Interdisciplinary analyses of the relationship between climate system dynamics and agricultural system variation are an essential component for increasing the efficiency of water resource management, and for adapting crops at local level. This paper analyzes the dynamics of the climate water balance (CWB) in the past five decades in Romania's most arid region, Dobrogea, against the background of climate change, as well as the statistical relationship between the variation of CWB values and that of regional agricultural systems. Thus, a first stage consisted in detailed climatic analyses of CWB value variation between 1961 and 2009, based on climatic data provided by 9 regional weather stations. The study mainly focused on CWB trends (mm) recorded annually and seasonally (winter, spring, summer and autumn), using statistical methods such as the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope method, as well as GIS methods in order to visualize the results. The second main stage was directed towards the analysis of the statistical relationship between the aforementioned climate indicator's dynamics and agricultural yields (t / ha / year) in the administrative-territorial units overlapping Dobrogea (generally the plateau region), while corn was considered for the case study as it is one of the region's main crops. In this instance, the agro-climatic data were analyzed / statistically correlated in the 1990-2003 period (depending on data availability for corn production output at administrative unit level), based on Thiessen-Voronoi polygons which were considered to be compact spatial units in which both data categories can be grouped in order to establish interannual relationships. In terms of climate, the results indicated an annual increase of the climatic water deficit at the stations located in the northern region of the study area, with maximum rates of -3.2 mm / year. In contrast, CWB values decreased seasonally (the climatic water deficit increased) roughly throughout

  8. A new scenario framework for climate change research. Background, process, and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, LLC, Los Altos, CA (United States); Hallegatte, Stephane [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Kram, Tom [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arnell, Nigel W. [Walker Inst. for Climate System Research, Reading (United Kingdom); Carter, Tim [Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States); Kriegler, Elmar [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Mathur, Ritu [TERI, New Delhi (India); O' Neill, Brian [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Riahi, Keywan [International Inst. for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Winkler, Harald [Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa); Van Vuuren, Detlef P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Zwickel, Timm [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (Germany)

    2013-09-27

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  9. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues : a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development.  Background: Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation ...

  10. Simulating the vegetation response in western Europe to abrupt climate changes under glacial background conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woillez, M.-N.; Kageyama, M.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Krinner, G.

    2013-03-01

    The last glacial period has been punctuated by two types of abrupt climatic events, the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (HE) events. These events, recorded in Greenland ice and in marine sediments, involved changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and led to major changes in the terrestrial biosphere. Here we use the dynamical global vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the response of vegetation to abrupt changes in the AMOC strength. We force ORCHIDEE offline with outputs from the IPSL_CM4 general circulation model, in which the AMOC is forced to change by adding freshwater fluxes in the North Atlantic. We investigate the impact of a collapse and recovery of the AMOC, at different rates, and focus on Western Europe, where many pollen records are available for comparison. The impact of an AMOC collapse on the European mean temperatures and precipitations simulated by the GCM is relatively small but sufficient to drive an important regression of forests and expansion of grasses in ORCHIDEE, in qualitative agreement with pollen data for an HE event. On the contrary, a run with a rapid shift of the AMOC to a hyperactive state of 30 Sv, mimicking the warming phase of a DO event, does not exhibit a strong impact on the European vegetation compared to the glacial control state. For our model, simulating the impact of an HE event thus appears easier than simulating the abrupt transition towards the interstadial phase of a DO. For both a collapse or a recovery of the AMOC, the vegetation starts to respond to climatic changes immediately but reaches equilibrium about 200 yr after the climate equilibrates, suggesting a possible bias in the climatic reconstructions based on pollen records, which assume equilibrium between climate and vegetation. However, our study does not take into account vegetation feedbacks on the atmosphere.

  11. Simulating the vegetation response in western Europe to abrupt climate changes under glacial background conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Woillez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last glacial period has been punctuated by two types of abrupt climatic events, the Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO and Heinrich (HE events. These events, recorded in Greenland ice and in marine sediments, involved changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and led to major changes in the terrestrial biosphere. Here we use the dynamical global vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the response of vegetation to abrupt changes in the AMOC strength. We force ORCHIDEE offline with outputs from the IPSL_CM4 general circulation model, in which the AMOC is forced to change by adding freshwater fluxes in the North Atlantic. We investigate the impact of a collapse and recovery of the AMOC, at different rates, and focus on Western Europe, where many pollen records are available for comparison. The impact of an AMOC collapse on the European mean temperatures and precipitations simulated by the GCM is relatively small but sufficient to drive an important regression of forests and expansion of grasses in ORCHIDEE, in qualitative agreement with pollen data for an HE event. On the contrary, a run with a rapid shift of the AMOC to a hyperactive state of 30 Sv, mimicking the warming phase of a DO event, does not exhibit a strong impact on the European vegetation compared to the glacial control state. For our model, simulating the impact of an HE event thus appears easier than simulating the abrupt transition towards the interstadial phase of a DO. For both a collapse or a recovery of the AMOC, the vegetation starts to respond to climatic changes immediately but reaches equilibrium about 200 yr after the climate equilibrates, suggesting a possible bias in the climatic reconstructions based on pollen records, which assume equilibrium between climate and vegetation. However, our study does not take into account vegetation feedbacks on the atmosphere.

  12. LN2-free HPGe detector for low background studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background minimization is critical for rare event studies like ονββ decay measurement where T1/2 > 1020 years or dark matter search. These experiments are housed in underground locations for reducing cosmogenic background together with auxiliary low background setups for material qualifications and trace impurity measurement. Cryogen free HPGe detectors, which have recently become available, are ideal choice for underground locations. With this motivation, a liquid nitrogen (LN2) free low background HPGe detector has been successfully tested at TIFR. This paper reports a comparison of the cryogen free HPGe with a conventional LN2 cooled HPGe detector

  13. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  14. Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future. National strategy for implementation of the Kyoto protocol. Background report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared as background material for renewal of the national Energy and Climate Strategy. The first chapter of the report highlights the premises set for Strategy preparation by the Government programme and statements by Parliament. The second chapter describes the international operating environment and recent changes therein, while chapters 3 and 4 include an outlook of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and the EU. Chapters 5 to 8 of the report suggest procedures for managing Finland's greenhouse gas emission obligations with the methods currently in use, both during the Kyoto obligation period and after it. In addition, the impacts of emission obligations with different objectives are described for the time after the Kyoto obligation period with regards to Finland's emission balances. Chapters 9 and 10 review the development of the energy market and other key sectors in relation to the objectives set for energy and climate policy. Chapter 11 discusses Finland's goals for negotiations on limiting emissions after the year 2012, and chapter 12 reviews domestic measures in use for implementing the strategy. Numerous studies have been commissioned in preparing the strategy, evaluating the impacts of various factors on the energy market, energy costs for energy consumers, the public finances and aggregates of national economy - such as gross domestic product - households' consumption expenditure, employment and production in various producing sectors. Chapter 13 summarises the key results of these studies. The background report is produced in co-operation with several ministries (the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Environment) so that each has been responsible for the production and acquisition of material within its own branch of administration. The Ministry of Trade and Industry

  15. Energy and Climate Policy Outlines for the Near Future - National Strategy for Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Background report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared as background material for renewal of the national Energy and Climate Strategy. The first chapter of the report highlights the premises set for Strategy preparation by the Government programme and statements by Parliament. The second chapter describes the international operating environment and recent changes therein, while chapters 3 and 4 include an outlook of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and the EU. Chapters 5 to 8 of the report suggest procedures for managing Finland's greenhouse gas emission obligations with the methods currently in use, both during the Kyoto obligation period and after it. In addition, the impacts of emission obligations with different objectives are described for the time after the Kyoto obligation period with regards to Finland's emission balances. Chapters 9 and 10 review the development of the energy market and other key sectors in relation to the objectives set for energy and climate policy. Chapter 11 discusses Finland's goals for negotiations on limiting emissions after the year 2012, and chapter 12 reviews domestic measures in use for implementing the strategy. Numerous studies have been commissioned in preparing the strategy, evaluating the impacts of various factors on the energy market, energy costs for energy consumers, the public finances and aggregates of national economy - such as gross domestic product - households' consumption expenditure, employment and production in various producing sectors. Chapter 13 summarises the key results of these studies. The background report is produced in co-operation with several ministries (the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Environment) so that each has been responsible for the production and acquisition of material within its own branch of administration. The Ministry of Trade and Industry

  16. Northern China maximum temperature in the summer of 1743:A historical event of burning summer in a relatively warm climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De'er; Demaree Gaston

    2004-01-01

    In the context of historical climate records of China and early meteorological measurements of Beijing discovered recently in Europe, a study is undertaken on the 1743 hottest summer of north China over the last 700 a, covering Beijing, Tianjin, and the provinces of Hebei, Shanxi and Shandong, with the highest temperature reaching 44.4℃ in July 1743 in Beijing, in excess of the maximum climate record in the 20th century. Results show that the related weather/climate features of the 1743 heat wave, e.g., flood/ drought distribution and Meiyu activity and the external forcings, such as solar activity and equatorial Pacific SST condition are the same as those of the 1942 and 1999 heat events. It is noted that the 1743 burning summer event occurs in a relatively warm climate background prior to the Industrial Revolution, with a lower level of CO2 release.

  17. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  18. Background Studies for the pn-CCD Detector of CAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the data taking period of 2003 and 2004 of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of background with different origin. The background study performed for this detector show that the level of background (8.00±0.07)x10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 7 keV is dominated by the external gamma background due to natural activities at the experimental site, while radioactive impurities in the detector itself and cosmic neutrons contribute with a smaller fraction

  19. A study of the background corona near solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Poland, A. I.; Munro, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Equatorial and polar K and F coronal components during the declining phase of the solar cycle are studied through use of the white light coronagraph data obtained by Skylab. At this phase of the solar cycle, streams and holes dominate the equatorial corona (approximately 50 and 30% of the time, respectively) between 2.5 and 5.5 solar radii; however, two episodes are noted when equatorial background density of the corona could be distinguished. The derived background density is less than 15% below values predicted by the models of Newkirk (1967) and Saito (1970). The brightness of the F-corona is also discussed.

  20. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipi- tation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951― 2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed. The results indicate that the SWI variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia, Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite in- creases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWI in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  1. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZhuGuo; FU CongBin

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951 -2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed.The results indicate that the SWl variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia,Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite increases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWl in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  2. Selecting representative climate models for climate change impact studies : An advanced envelope-based selection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Arthur F.; ter Maat, Herbert W.; Biemans, Hester; Shrestha, Arun B.; Wester, Philippus; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact studies depend on projections of future climate provided by climate models. The number of climate models is large and increasing, yet limitations in computational capacity make it necessary to compromise the number of climate models that can be included in a climate change impa

  3. Forest ecosystems and the global climatic change. Background and need to act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the climatic change and of the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer are of global significance and can only be controlled through worldwide measures. Mainly fossil fuels which cover most of our energy demand, industrial production, traffic, industrial intensive agriculture, and deforestation are responsible for trace gases which cause the greenhouse effect. The possible effects of the expected climatic change are discussed, and suitable political, social and silvicultural approaches to the maintenance of stable forest ecosystems are pointed out. Emphasis is placed on forestry and on ecosystems research in Central Europe. (MG)

  4. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  5. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  6. A study of background radioactivity level for Tekirdag (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of background radiation for Tekirdag province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. Radon concentrations in indoor air were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors and the average 222Rn activity was found to be 86 Bq m-3 (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 2.2 mSv). Measurements of gamma doses in air were performed using plastic scintillators and the average absorbed gamma dose rates for indoor and outdoor were found to be 5.7 and 5 μR h-1, respectively, corresponding to an annual effective dose of 300 μSv. The radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 29, 39 and 580 Bq kg-1 for the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively, and 5.2 Bq kg-1 for the fission product 137Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose of 75 μSv. The radioactivity levels of drinking water samples were measured as 0.044 and 0.1 Bq l-1 for gross alpha and gross beta activities using a low-background counting technique (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 9 μSv). The results of this study showed that the region's background radioactivity level is in agreement with most Turkish cities. (authors)

  7. Climate@Home: Utilizing Citizen Science for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Yang, C.; Li, Z.; Sun, M.; Li, J.; Xu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has become a serious and urgent issue in the past decades (Stern N. 2007). It will influence many domains such as agriculture, economy, ecosystem, and others. To help scientists to simulate the climate change, NASA conducted a project, Climate@Home, to develop a cyberinfrastructure for running the modelE climate model. ModelE contains over 500 variables and needs many days to finish a 10 year analysis task. If scientists need to run 300 tasks, it may need about 3 years to complete the task using a single machine. As an exploratory study, an infrastructure was constructed to recruit citizen volunteers for harvesting computing resources from citizens based on the citizen science mechanism. However, there are challenges in order to build the infrastructure: 1) modelE is a Linux based model but volunteers may have different operating system platforms such as Windows, Apple OSX etc (Anderson et al. 2006); 2) modelE has big downloading file and generates big results file, how to download and upload files efficiently? 3) currently the task schedule uses first-come-fist-get mechanism, how to schedule task efficiently? We address these challenges with several designs: 1) virtual machines are used to package the modelE, an operating system and configured running environments; 2) Building FTPS based on users' spatiotemporal information for data downloading and uploading; 3) crafting the schedule system to grant tasks based on the volunteers spatiotemporal information and computing conditions such as CPU, memory and bandwidth. Key words: Volunteer Computing, Climate Change, Spatiotemporal, References: 1. Anderson, D. P., Christensen, C., & Allen, B. (2006, November). Designing a runtime system for volunteer computing. In SC 2006 Conference, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE (pp. 33-33). IEEE. 2. Stern, N. N. H. (Ed.). (2007). The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University Press.

  8. Higgs boson events and background lep. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs boson production at LEP using e+ e- to Z 0 to H0 + e+ e- has been studied by Monte Carlo generation of events with realistic errors of measurement added. The results show the recoil mass (Higgs boson mass) resolution to be reasonably good for boson masses bigger than 5 Ge V. The events are found to populate a phase space region free of physical background for all boson masses below about 35 GeV. For masses above 40 GeV the Higgs boson signal merges with the physical background produced by semileptonic decays of heavy flavour quarks while diminishing in strength to low levels. The geometrical acceptance of a detector like DELPHI is about 80 per cent for Higgs boson events. (Author)

  9. The Role of the Land Surface Background State in Climate Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    Skill in ensemble-mean dynamical seasonal climate hindcasts with a coupled land-atmosphere model and specified observed sea surface temperature is compared to that for long multi-decade integrations of the same model where the initial conditions are far removed from the seasons of validation. The evaluations are performed for surface temperature and compared among all seasons. Skill is found to be higher in the seasonal simulations than the multi-decadal integrations except during...

  10. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  11. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  12. CATO-2 Deliverable WP 2.3-D03 Background paper on 'Role of CCS in the international climate regime'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its recent roadmap the IEA argued that CCS, in order to be effective, needs to be implemented on an international level. International cooperation is necessary to reduce costs, exchange ideas with implementation issues learned from experience and increase CCS implementation in developing countries. The aim of this study is to analyse ways to increase international cooperation in order to roll out CCS globally in developed but also developing countries. In this paper, we reviewed current international support mechanisms for CCS. Under the international climate agreement, the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, CCS does not play a major role. The clean development mechanism (CDM) is an instrument that could potentially support CCS in developing countries, but currently does not allow CCS and has no approved methodology for this technology. There are some promising developments in other areas of the international negotiations under the UNFCCC, but it is open as to what role CCS will play in them. Possible instruments include nationally appropriate mitigation actions, and climate technology innovation centres under a Technology Mechanism. We conclude that it is promising to consider bilateral and multilateral country partnerships outside the UNFCCC process. A review of existing CCS-related partnerships, undertaken within this study, showed that a growing number of such partnerships exist. These processes tend to focus on a limited number of issues, namely financing and implementation of R and D projects in the power sector, general knowledge exchange and capacity building as well as broad regulatory studies, and regions such as China. They do not sufficiently cover other important issues, such as financing and the implementation of regulatory frameworks. Partnerships with countries other than China, such as South Africa and India, are only small in size to this date. Considering the background information as analysed in this paper, we suggest three possible non

  13. Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestas, A.M.; Jones, L.A.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks about climate change for host communities close to the research sites. A kiosk for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) community was installed at the Iupiat Heritage Center in 2003, and a kiosk for the Tropical Western Pacific locales will be installed in 2005. The kiosks feature interviews with local community elders, regional agency officials, and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program scientists, which highlight both research and local observations of some aspects of environmental and climatic change in the Arctic and Pacific. The kiosks offer viewers a unique opportunity to learn about the environmental concerns and knowledge of respected community elders, and to also understand state-of-the-art climate research. An archive of interviews from the communities will also be distributed with supplemental lessons and activities to encourage teachers and students to compare and contrast climate change studies and oral history observations from two distinct locations. The U.S. Department of Energy's ACRF supports education and outreach efforts for communities and schools located near its sites. ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks at the request of the communities to provide an opportunity for the public to learn about climate change from both scientific and indigenous perspectives. Kiosks include interviews with ARM scientists and provide users with basic information about climate change studies as well as interviews with elders and community leaders

  14. The background of the climate problem; De achtergrond van het klimaatprobleem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strengers, B.; Meyer, L. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Dorland, R. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Climate change is a much discussed topic, both in science and in the public domain. A major difference is that in the public domain questions are frequently addressed which are barely an issue anymore in the scientific domain. These are usually issues of a more general nature such as the question whether the earth is truly warming up and if man is the main causer. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute jointly wrote this note, in which recent literature is used to outline what the current status quo of climate science is in a number of crucial areas. It is also indicated with which degree of certainty certain statements can be made [Dutch] Er is veel discussie over klimaatverandering, zowel in de wetenschap als in het publieke domein. Een belangrijk verschil is dat er in het publieke domein regelmatig vragen aan de orde komen die in het wetenschappelijke domein nauwelijks meer een issue zijn. Dit zijn veelal meer algemene issues zoals de vraag of de aarde echt wel opwarmt en of de mens de belangrijkste veroorzaker. Het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) en het KNMI (Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut) hebben bovenstaande notitie geschreven, waarin op basis van recente literatuur wordt gepoogd om in hoofdlijnen aan te geven wat de huidige stand van de klimaatwetenschap is op een aantal cruciale terreinen. Daarbij wordt aangegeven met welke mate van zekerheid bepaalde uitspraken gedaan kunnen worden.

  15. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  16. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Awareness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, Pierre; Auger, Genevieve; Perreault, Claude

    2003-01-01

    This study falls within the enhancing awareness and understanding theme of the National Climate Change Strategy. It was conducted by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in January/February 2001 and involved 1,643 farming operation, feeder cattle, dairy cattle, hogs and poultry producers. The purpose of this study is to assess producers' level of awareness of climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as their understanding of the role of agriculture in the emissions of GHG. This s...

  17. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge to > 2 . 1026 yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of -3 cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for 42K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Qββ energy of 76Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  18. On epidemiological studies of high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the epidemiological studies of high background radiation areas (HBRA) have 'received relatively little attention', and sometimes even ignored, e.g. UNSCEAR omitted the studies in Kerala from a table of epidemiological studies of radiation and cancer. Authoritative reports on the effects from ionizing radiation such as those from the National Research Council, UNSCEAR, and ICRP instead rely on other sources of information - most notably the A-bomb survivor cohort, medically irradiated cohorts, cohorts of miners exposed to high levels of radon, and the residential radon case-control studies. No doubt this is because HBRA studies typically have had relatively large potential for bias and confounding, low statistical power, and limitations relating to dosimetry. However, great efforts have been made recently to improve HBRA studies, particularly in Kerala and the Yuangjiang area of China. It is anticipated that some of these studies may be able to provide important direct information on health effects from chronic low-dose radiation exposures, a primary concern for radiation protection. In fact, the width of 90% confidence intervals for ERR/Gy reported for incidence from the Kerala study (-0.58, 0.46), and mortality in Yangjiang (-0.67, 0.69), is already comparable to that for some prominent studies of low-dose rate health effects such as of incidence in the Techa River Cohort (0.3, 1.9) and of mortality in the 15-Country Nuclear Workers Study (0.27, 1.80). However, it should be stressed that these intervals do not account for non-sampling sources of uncertainty such as errors in dosimetry and residual confounding. This presentation will focus on ways to further improve HBRA studies around the world, with particular emphasis on the ones in India and China. This will include ways to increase statistical power - such as ways to combine information from different HBRA studies, and possible extensions of the studies such as those designed to better

  19. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C, and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1. The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition.

  20. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  1. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor

  2. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  3. Study of Fast Neutron Background Detection at Deep Underground Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect very low flux neutron background at deep underground laboratory, a low background fast neutron detector will be developed. The detector is a Gd loaded liquid scintillator contained in a Φ30 cm×40 cm cylindrica

  4. A study of the LSD-2 experiment background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present experimental results on the background at the LSD-2 detector. After a presentation of the gamma spectra the background sources consisting of 238U and capture of cosmic neutrons are discussed. Then shielding effects on triggering are discussed. (HSI)

  5. Background Radiation Studies at LHCb Using Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Folger, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the feasibility studies performed to evaluate the background radiation levels in the LHCb experiment with Geant4. LHCb is one of the experiments that will operate at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) under construction at CERN. The simulation toolkit Geant4 has been used to model the interactions of particles with the detector. Geant4 is a software toolkit developed and maintained by a world-wide collaboration of physicists and computer scientists. The principal monitored distributions in this study are the dose and the fluence of certain particles in specific locations of the experiment. The dose is defined as the energy delivered in a volume per unit of the volume mass, while the fluence is defined as the number of particles passing through a surface per unit of area. Energy spectra need also to be evaluated to take into account the energy distribution of these particles, since specific problems in the electronics can be caused by particles of certain energies. For ...

  6. Background radiation studies at LHCb using Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, Giuseppe Giovanni; Folger, Günter

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results of simulation studies performed to evaluate the background radiation levels in the LHCb experiment are presented in the paper. LHCb is one of the experiments that will operate at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) under construction at CERN. The simulation toolkit Geant4 has been used to model the interactions of particles with the detector. Geant4 is a software toolkit developed and maintained by a world-wide collaboration of physicists and computer scientists. The principal monitored distributions in this study are the dose and fluence of certain particles in specific locations of the experiment. Energy spectra need also to be evaluated in order to take into account the energy distribution of these particles, since specific problems in the electronics can be raised by particles of certain energies. To this purpose, we need: 1) Tallying doses and fluences in Geant4. 2) These quantities are generally calculated on a plane or a cylindrical surface that should not interfere with the real geomet...

  7. Recent Amazon climate as background for possible ongoing and future changes of Amazon humid forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M.; Barichivich, J.; Ziv, G.; Brienen, R.; Schöngart, J.; Peylin, P.; Ladvocat Cintra, B. Barcante; Feldpausch, T.; Phillips, O.; Baker, J.

    2015-09-01

    Recent analyses of Amazon runoff and gridded precipitation data suggest an intensification of the hydrological cycle over the past few decades in the following sense: wet season precipitation and peak river runoff (since ˜1980) as well as annual mean precipitation (since ˜1990) have increased, while dry season precipitation and minimum runoff have slightly decreased. There has also been an increase in the frequency of anomalously severe floods and droughts. To provide context for the special issue on Amazonia and its forests in a warming climate we expand here on these analyses. The contrasting recent changes in wet and dry season precipitation have continued and are generally consistent with changes in catchment-level peak and minimum river runoff as well as a positive trend of water vapor inflow into the basin. Consistent with the river records, the increased vapor inflow is concentrated to the wet season. Temperature has been rising by 0.7°C since 1980 with more pronounced warming during dry months. Suggestions for the cause of the observed changes of the hydrological cycle come from patterns in tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Tropical and North Atlantic SSTs have increased rapidly and steadily since 1990, while Pacific SSTs have shifted during the 1990s from a positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase with warm eastern Pacific temperatures to a negative phase with cold eastern Pacific temperatures. These SST conditions have been shown to be associated with an increase in precipitation over most of the Amazon except the south and southwest. If ongoing changes continue, we expect forests to continue to thrive in those regions where there is an increase in precipitation with the exception of floodplain forests. An increase in flood pulse height and duration could lead to increased mortality at higher levels of the floodplain and, over the long term, to a lateral shift of the zonally stratified floodplain forest communities. Negative effects on

  8. Climatic variability related to El Niño in Ecuador − a historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arteaga

    2006-01-01

    appeared to represent significant long-term climate changes.

  9. Spitzer and DIRBE Studies of the Infrared Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Hauser, Michael; Wright, Edward; Arendt, Rick; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Levenson, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL), defined as the sky surface brightness of all radiation arising from outside the Milky Way, carries in the 1-5um region the imprint of the nearby Universe, of red-shifted light from the first galaxies, and of any possible pre-galactic contributions. The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite has measured the total sky brightness, the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIRB), over the entire sky at 3.6um. The CIRB is the sum of the zodiacal light, galactic starlight, radiation from the ISM, and the EBL. Although the determinations of the EBL are presently limited by uncertainties in the zodiacal light model, experiments now under way can reduce those uncertainties. This Spitzer proposal prepares for that reduction by eliminating other uncertainties. We will use Spitzer to determine the point source components of CIRB at 3.6um, the wavelength of the minimum in the bright foreground from interplanetary dust. We will measure essentially all of the stellar contribution, and more than 80% of the integrated light from resolved galaxies; this can be extrapolated using other Spitzer data to determine IGL. The ultimate objective of this type of study is to search for a currently unknown diffuse component of EBL, DEBL. Symbolically, DEBL = EBL-IGL. In this program, we will execute the following steps aimed at reducing the uncertainties in DEBL once the zodiacal uncertainty in CIRB is minimized and a correction for ISM emission is applied: 1. Cross calibrating DIRBE and Spitzer so that EBL and IGL are on the same flux scale; 2. Reducing the uncertainties in EBL by measuring stars as faint as 19th mag at 3.6um. 3. Determining EBL and IGL at six widely separated positions so that the isotropy - and hence the cosmological significance - of any detection of DEBL can be assessed. We emphasize that this important investigation can be carried out only with Spitzer, and this scientific opportunity is perishable due to Spitzer's finite lifetime.

  10. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  11. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; E. L. Davin; Zeng, N; S. Motesharrei; S.C. Li; Kalnay, E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the s...

  12. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly o...

  13. Study on a focusing, low-background neutron delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various fields of neutron scattering there is a tendency to use smaller and smaller samples. There are various reasons for this, e.g. the limited size in high pressure cells, the restrictions given by growth methods of thin films, or the impossibility to grow larger single crystals. With conventional guides this leads to the situation that a white beam with some 50 cm2 cross-section and a broad divergence is to illuminate a sample of some mm2 area. Thus more than 99% of the neutrons leaving the guide are not needed and cause background and radiation problems. It is suggested to change the order of the optical elements and the design of the guide section to filter neutrons not intended to hit the sample as early as possible. As an example a set-up for specular reflectivity on small samples is presented. A double monochromator some meters behind the source cuts away all neutrons of the wrong wavelength even before they enter the guide. The guide itself is one branch of an ellipse. It maps the divergent beam from the monochromator to a convergent beam at the sample position. An entry aperture at the first focal point, a bit larger than the sample, guarantees that just enough neutrons enter the guide to bath the sample. There is no direct line of sight to the source and the guide ends far away from the sample position, so that there are only few spacial restrictions. Detailed McStas calculations and a design study for a down-scaled test device, both for reflectometry and diffraction, are presented.

  14. Study on a focusing, low-background neutron delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahn, J., E-mail: jochen.stahn@psi.c [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, WHGA/142, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Panzner, T.; Filges, U. [Laboratory for Development and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Marcelot, C. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, WHGA/142, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Boeni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    In various fields of neutron scattering there is a tendency to use smaller and smaller samples. There are various reasons for this, e.g. the limited size in high pressure cells, the restrictions given by growth methods of thin films, or the impossibility to grow larger single crystals. With conventional guides this leads to the situation that a white beam with some 50 cm{sup 2} cross-section and a broad divergence is to illuminate a sample of some mm{sup 2} area. Thus more than 99% of the neutrons leaving the guide are not needed and cause background and radiation problems. It is suggested to change the order of the optical elements and the design of the guide section to filter neutrons not intended to hit the sample as early as possible. As an example a set-up for specular reflectivity on small samples is presented. A double monochromator some meters behind the source cuts away all neutrons of the wrong wavelength even before they enter the guide. The guide itself is one branch of an ellipse. It maps the divergent beam from the monochromator to a convergent beam at the sample position. An entry aperture at the first focal point, a bit larger than the sample, guarantees that just enough neutrons enter the guide to bath the sample. There is no direct line of sight to the source and the guide ends far away from the sample position, so that there are only few spacial restrictions. Detailed McStas calculations and a design study for a down-scaled test device, both for reflectometry and diffraction, are presented.

  15. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The ai...

  16. Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Framework of Regional Ecosystem under the Global Climate Change Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global changes are driving ecosystem alterations, and the effects are becoming more and more obvious. Ecosystem management clarifies the fundamental supporting functions of ecosystems for human survival and sustainable development. Integrated ecosystem monitoring and assessment has become a popular topic of ecology study. However, many scientific questions need to be addressed, including what assessment contents and methods are optimal for temporal and spatial measurements. Therefore, the development of a scientific evaluation framework that includes certain core contents and indicators is very important. This paper proposes a regional integrated ecosystem assessment framework involving comprehensive monitoring. Satellite images are the main data source for different ecosystem and ecological parameters, and these need to be supplemented with the help of surveys or field observation data. A healthy ecosystem is the basis of human survival and sustainable development, and ecological service should be taken as the core of integrated ecosystem assessment. This is decided by the spatial distribution, classification, and patterns of regional ecosystems. That is to say, ecological service, together with ecosystems distribution and pattern, ecological problem indicators, and ecological stress, needs to be integrated analyzed and evaluated.

  17. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  18. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  19. Background Studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering Reactor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnolet, G; Barker, D; Beck, R; Carroll, T J; Cesar, J; Cushman, P; Dent, J B; De Rijck, S; Dutta, B; Flanagan, W; Fritts, M; Gao, Y; Harris, H R; Hays, C C; Iyer, V; Jastram, A; Kadribasic, F; Kennedy, A; Kubik, A; Ogawa, I; Lang, K; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martin, R D; Mast, N; McDeavitt, S; Mirabolfathi, N; Mohanty, B; Nakajima, K; Newhouse, J; Newstead, J L; Phan, D; Proga, M; Roberts, A; Rogachev, G; Salazar, R; Sander, J; Senapati, K; Shimada, M; Strigari, L; Tamagawa, Y; Teizer, W; Vermaak, J I C; Villano, A N; Walker, J; Webb, B; Wetzel, Z; Yadavalli, S A

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 meters) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5 to 20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  20. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  1. A Computing Infrastructure for Supporting Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Bambacus, M.; Freeman, S. M.; Huang, Q.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Xu, C.; Wojcik, G. S.; Cahalan, R. F.; NASA Climate @ Home Project Team

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges facing us on the Earth planet in the 21st century. Scientists build many models to simulate the past and predict the climate change for the next decades or century. Most of the models are at a low resolution with some targeting high resolution in linkage to practical climate change preparedness. To calibrate and validate the models, millions of model runs are needed to find the best simulation and configuration. This paper introduces the NASA effort on Climate@Home project to build a supercomputer based-on advanced computing technologies, such as cloud computing, grid computing, and others. Climate@Home computing infrastructure includes several aspects: 1) a cloud computing platform is utilized to manage the potential spike access to the centralized components, such as grid computing server for dispatching and collecting models runs results; 2) a grid computing engine is developed based on MapReduce to dispatch models, model configuration, and collect simulation results and contributing statistics; 3) a portal serves as the entry point for the project to provide the management, sharing, and data exploration for end users; 4) scientists can access customized tools to configure model runs and visualize model results; 5) the public can access twitter and facebook to get the latest about the project. This paper will introduce the latest progress of the project and demonstrate the operational system during the AGU fall meeting. It will also discuss how this technology can become a trailblazer for other climate studies and relevant sciences. It will share how the challenges in computation and software integration were solved.

  2. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  3. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed

  4. MECCA coordinated research program: analysis of climate models uncertainties used for climatic changes study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international consortium, called MECCA, (Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment) has been created in 1991 by different partners including electric utilities, government and academic groups to make available to the international scientific community, a super-computer facility for climate evolution studies. The first phase of the program consists to assess uncertainties of climate model simulations in the framework of global climate change studies. Fourteen scientific projects have been accepted on an international basis in this first phase. The second phase of the program will consist in the evaluation of a set of long climate simulations realized with coupled ocean/atmosphere models, in order to study the transient aspects of climate changes and the associated uncertainties. A particular attention will be devoted, on the consequences of these assessments on climate impact studies, and on the regional aspects of climate changes

  5. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France)

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  6. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  7. The second national hospital costing study: background, results and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, B; Murray, J; Hindle, D

    1998-01-01

    The costing of hospital outputs, and especially of acute admitted patients categorised by DRG, has been the focus of considerable attention in the last decade. Many individual hospitals now routinely estimate the costs of their main products, several State and Territory health authorities undertake periodic multi-site studies, and there have been a few one-off national studies. This paper summarises the methods and results of the most recent national study, which measured costs at a sample of public and private hospitals around Australia for the 1996-97 financial year. We briefly describe the main results and note some implications. PMID:10185689

  8. Utilizing Cloud Computing to Improve Climate Modeling and Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Sun, M.; XIA, J.; Huang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Climate studies have become increasingly important due to the global climate change, one of the biggest challenges for the human in the 21st century. Climate data, not only observations data collected from various sensors but also simulated data generated from diverse climate models, are essential for scientists to explore the potential climate change patterns and analyze the complex climate dynamics. Climate modeling and simulation, a critical methodology for simulating the past and predicting the future climate conditions, can produce huge amount of data that contains potentially valuable information for climate studies. However, using modeling method in climate studies poses at least two challenges for scientists. First, running climate models is a computing intensive process, which requires large amounts of computation resources. Second, running climate models is also a data intensive process generating Big geospatial Data (model output), which demands large storage for managing the data and large computing power to process and analyze these data. This presentation introduces a novel framework to tackle the two challenges by 1) running climate models in a cloud environment in an automated fashion, and 2) managing and parallel processing Big model output Data by leveraging cloud computing technologies. A prototype system is developed based on the framework using ModelE as the climate model. Experiment results show that this framework can improve climate modeling in the research cycle by accelerating big data generation (model simulation), big data management (storage and processing) and on demand big data analytics.

  9. Background studies: earthquake effects on underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the first stage of a programme of work leading to the development of a seismicity sub-model for the TIME2 simulation code and its successor(s) are presented. Potential future seismic activity levels in Britain are presented, within the context of historic seismicity (the last 800 years), tectonic activity and the effects of glacial advance and retreat. Methodological approaches to the estimation of seismic hazard due to faulting and ground shaking are presented. Seismic effects on rock and soil properties are also reviewed. Finally, recommendations for further studies are made. (author)

  10. Progress in rapid climate changes and their modeling study in millennial and centennial scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Rapid climate change at millennial and centennial scales is one of the most important aspects in paleoclimate study.It has been found that rapid climate change at millennial and centennial scales is a global phenomenon during both the glacial age and the Holocene with amplitudes typical of geological or astronomical time-scales.Simulations of glacial and Holocene climate changes have demonstrated the response of the climate system to the changes of earth orbital parameter and the importance of variations in feedbacks of ocean,vegetation,icecap and greenhouse gases.Modeling experiments suggest that the Atlantic thermohaline circulation was sensitive to the fresh water input into the North Atlantic and was closely related to the rapid climate changes during the last glacial age and the Holocene.Adopting the Earth-system models of inter mediate complexity (EMICs),CLIMBER-2,the response of East Asian climate change to Dansgaard/Oeschger and Heinrich events during the typical last glacial period (60 ka B.P.-20 ka B.P.) and impacts of ice on the Tibetan plateau on Holocene climate change were stimulated,studied and revealed.Further progress of paleoclimate modeling depends on developing finer-grid models and reconstructing more reliable boundary conditions.More attention should be paid on the study of mechanisms of abrupt climatic changes as well as regional climate changes in the background of global climate change.

  11. Exhaustive Study of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies in Quintessential Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Riazuelo, A; Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome; Riazuelo, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Recent high precision measurements of the CMB anisotropies performed by the BOOMERanG and MAXIMA-1 experiments provide an unmatched set of data allowing to probe different cosmological models. Among these scenarios, motivated by the recent measurements of the luminosity distance versus redshift relation for type Ia supernovae, is the quintessence hypothesis. It consists in assuming that the acceleration of the Universe is due to a scalar field whose final evolution is insensitive to the initial conditions. Within this framework we investigate the cosmological perturbations for two well-motivated potentials: the Ratra-Peebles and the SUGRA tracking potentials. We show that the solutions of the perturbed equations possess an attractor and that, as a consequence, the insensitivity to the initial conditions is preserved at the perturbed level. Then, we study the predictions of these two models for structure formation and CMB anisotropies and investigate the general features of the multipole moments in the presenc...

  12. Experiences from studies of leukemia, background radiation and other factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation seems to induce myeloid leukemia of the acute and chronic type, and also acute lymphatic leukemia but not chronic lymphatic leukemia. The effects of low dose radiation in this context as well as for other malignancies, are currently a matter of controversy. On the basis of literary data the carcinogenic effect, and in particular the leukemia inducing effect, of low dose irradiation is discussed. It is concluded that only further studies in the low dose range can create a definite basis for a risk assessment with regard to ionizing radiation. The risk estimates obtained may not necessarily reflect an initiating effect of ionizing radiation, but could involve late stage effects exerted over time. However, such possibilities have so far achieved little attention

  13. Exhaustive study of cosmic microwave background anisotropies in quintessential scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jérôme; Riazuelo, Alain

    2000-11-01

    Recent high-precision measurements of the CMB anisotropies performed by the BOOMERanG and MAXIMA-1 experiments provide an unmatched set of data allowing us to probe different cosmological models. Among these scenarios, motivated by the recent measurements of the luminosity distance versus redshift relation for type Ia supernovas, is the quintessence hypothesis. It consists of assuming that the acceleration of the Universe is due to a scalar field whose final evolution is insensitive to the initial conditions. Within this framework we investigate the cosmological perturbations for two well-motivated potentials: the Ratra-Peebles and the SUGRA tracking potentials. We show that the solutions of the perturbed equations possess an attractor and that, as a consequence, the insensitivity to the initial conditions is preserved at the perturbed level. Then, we study the predictions of these two models for structure formation and CMB anisotropies and investigate the general features of the multipole moments in the presence of quintessence. We also compare the CMB multipoles calculated with the help of a full Boltzmann code with the BOOMERanG and MAXIMA-1 data. We pay special attention to the location of the second peak and demonstrate that it significantly differs from the location obtained in the cosmological constant case. Finally, we argue that the SUGRA potential is compatible with all the recent data with standard values of the cosmological parameters. In particular, it fits the MAXIMA-1 data better than a cosmological constant or the Ratra-Peebles potential.

  14. Study Links Climate Change to Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... policy. More Health News on: Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  15. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  17. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  18. Recent radiation of Brachystelma and Ceropegia (Apocynaceae) across the Old World against a background of climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyns, P V; Klak, C; Hanáček, P

    2015-09-01

    The genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) consist of ±320 species of geophytes and slender climbers with a tendency to stem-succulence in Ceropegia. They occur in and around the semi-arid, mainly tropical parts of the Old World. For 146 species (around half of the total) from most of the geographic range of the genera, we analysed data from two nuclear and five plastid regions. The evolution of Ceropegia is very complex, with at least 13 mostly well-supported lineages, one of which is sister to the ±350 species of stapeliads. Species of Brachystelma have evolved at least four times, with most of them nested within two separate major lineages. So, neither Brachystelma nor Ceropegia is monophyletic. We recover a broad trend, in two separate major lineages, from slender climbers to small, geophytic herbs. Several clades are recovered in which all species possess an underground tuber. Small, erect, non-climbing, geophytic species of Ceropegia with a tuber are nested among species of Brachystelma. Consequently, the distinctive tubular flowers used to define Ceropegia do not reflect relationships. This re-iterates the great floral plasticity in the Ceropegieae, already established for the stapeliads. Both major lineages exhibit a trend from tubular flowers with faint, often fruity odours, pollinated by very small Dipteran flies, to flatter flowers often with a bad odour, pollinated by larger flies. Most of the diversity in Brachystelma and Ceropegia is recent and arose within the last 3my against a background of increased aridification or extreme climatic variability during the Pliocene. In the ingroup, diversity is highest in Southern Africa, followed by Tropical East Africa and other arid parts of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and India. Many disjunctions are revealed and these are best explained by recent, long distance dispersal. In Africa, the diversity arises from the presence of many different lineages over

  19. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  20. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  1. KINETICS OF SECONDARY RECRYSTALLIZATION IN GRAIN-ORIENTED SILICON STEEL STUDIED BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Y.; Fujimoto, K

    1981-01-01

    Secondary recrystallization in grain-oriented silicon steel is studied by the high-temperature background damping. Abnormal grain growth involves an abrupt drop of the background. The temperatures of initiation and completion of the secondary recrystallization are, thus, determined for the same sample from the definite change in background with increasing temperature. The background measured on isothermal annealing yields a transposed sigmoidal curve consisting of three stages when plotted as...

  2. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Morrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design: The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1 the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2 the context within which the policy was developed; 3 the relevant processes; and 4 the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results: The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions: The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should

  3. White book Escrime. Climatic simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESCRIME project aims to manage the analysis realized on the climatic simulations on the framework of the fourth report of the GIEC (group of intergovernmental experts on the climate evolution), in particularly the simulations based on french models. This white book is constituted by 8 chapters: the global scenario, the climatic sensibility, the variation modes, the regionalization and the extremes, the hydrological cycle, the polar regions and the cryo-sphere, the carbon cycle, detection and attributions. (A.L.B.)

  4. Inconsistencies at the interface of climate impact studies and global climate research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most climate impacts studies, whether they deal with, for instance, terristric or marine ecosystems, coastal morphodynamics, storm surges and damages, or socio-economic aspects, utilize ''scenarios'' of possible future climate. Such scenarios are always based on the output of complex mathematical climate models, whenever they are in any sense detailed. Unfortunately, the user community of such scenarios usually is not well informed about the limitations and potentials of such models. On the other hand, the climate modeller community is not sufficiently aware of the demands on the side of the ''users''. The state of the art of climate models is revieved and the principal limitations concerning the spatial/time resolution and the accuracy of simulated data are discussed. The need for a ''downscaling strategy'' on the climate modeller side and for an ''upscaling'' strategy on the user side is demonstrated. Examples for successful exercieses in downscaling seasonal mean precipitation and daily rainfall sequences are shown. (orig.)

  5. Several Suggestions on the Climate Change and Its Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the abundant studies,the relevant information and comprehensive analysis of the climate changes,several important problems on the climate changes and its studies were proposed.Based on the temporal distribution of the meteorological disaster of agriculture,the wave theory was expounded so as to draw people's attention on climate changes and to be objective,just and careful about the study.

  6. A long-term satellite study of aerosol effects on convective clouds in Nordic background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sporre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute a~major uncertainty in future climate predictions. This study combines 10 yr of ground-based aerosol particle measurements from 2 Nordic background stations (Vavihill and Hyytiälä with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data of convective clouds. The merged data are used to examine the indirect aerosol effects on convective clouds over the Nordic countries. From the satellite scenes, vertical profiles of cloud droplet effective radius (re are created by plotting re against cloud top temperature. The profiles have been divided according to aerosol loading but also modeled meteorological parameters from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts. Furthermore, weather radar data from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment and ground based precipitation measurements from several ground-based meteorological measurement stations have been investigated to determine whether aerosols affect precipitation intensity and amount. Higher aerosol number concentrations result in smaller re throughout the entire profiles at both stations. Profiles associated with no or little precipitation have smaller droplets than those associated with more precipitation. Furthermore, an increase in aerosol loadings results in a suppression of precipitation rates, when the vertical extent of the clouds has been taken into account. Clouds with greater vertical extent have the highest precipitation rates and are most sensitive to aerosol perturbations. Nevertheless, meteorological parameters such as the vertical extent of the clouds, the atmospheric instability and the relative humidity in the lower atmosphere affect the amount of precipitation that reaches the ground more than the aerosols do. The combination of these ground-based and remote sensing datasets provides a unique long-term study of the effects of aerosols on convective clouds over the Nordic countries.

  7. Making or breaking climate targets : The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Bauer, Nico; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Petermann, Nils; Bosetti, Valentina; Marcucci, Adriana; Otto, Sander; Paroussos, Leonidas; Rao, Shilpa; Arroyo Currás, Tabaré; Ashina, Shuichi; Bollen, Johannes; Eom, Jiyong; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Longden, Thomas; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Sano, Fuminori; Schaeffer, Michiel; Wada, Kenichi; Capros, Pantelis; P. van Vuuren, Detlef; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This study explores a situation of staged accession to a global climate policy regime from the current situation of regionally fragmented and moderate climate action. The analysis is based on scenarios in which a front runner coalition - the EU or the EU and China - embarks on immediate ambitious cl

  8. [Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change. VII. Change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in arid and semi-arid region of Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-jun; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng; Xu, Chao

    2011-07-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 ground observation data from 55 meteorological stations in arid and semi-arid region of Tibetan Plateau, and by using 5-day moving average method and ArcGIS-IDW module, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal change characteristics and climatic trend rates of agricultural climate resources in the region in 1961-1980 (period I) and 1981-2007 (period II). In 1961-2007, the sunshine duration during the growth season of chimonophilous crops in the study region changed less, while that during the growth season of thermophilic crops increased but with little spatial change. Comparing with those in period I, the average value of accumulated temperature in period II showed an increasing trend, and the area with > or = 1500 degrees C x d during the growth season of thermophilic crops increased by 33.9%. The precipitation decreased gradually from southeast to northwest. During the growth season of chimonophilous crops, the precipitation in the southeast in the two periods reached 800 mm, but the climatic trend in other areas was positive or negative, and the change rate was small. The area with precipitation > or = 400 mm during the growth season of thermophilic crops in period II expanded by 40%, as compared in period I. The reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) generally increased slightly, and shared the similar spatial distribution pattern with sunshine duration and accumulated temperature. During the growth season of thermophilic crops, the area with ET0 > or = 400 mm in period II expanded by 35.7%, compared with that in period I. In the study period, the heat and precipitation resources during crop growth seasons in Tibet Plateau increased in a certain degree, which was very beneficial to the agriculture-stock production. However, the increase of reference crop evapotranspitation indicated the increase of potential evaporation. Thereby, the researches about the possible effects of climate change on agriculture-stock production should be further

  9. Climate Literacy: Progress in AMS Climate Studies Undergraduate Course in Meteorology Program at Jackson State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide and increasing involvement of under-represented groups The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project Workshop participation is on a first-come, first-serve basis as determined by the date-of-receipt of the License Order Form. To grow AMS Diversity Programs to their fullest extent, institutions are encouraged to nominate course instructors who did not previously attend Diversity Project workshops. Until three months before the workshop, two-thirds of the workshop positions would be reserved for institutions new to AMS Diversity Projects. The AMS five day course implementation workshop was held in Washington, DC, during May 24-29, 2012. It covered essential course topics in climate science and global climate change, and strategies for course implementation. Talks would feature climate science and sustainability experts from Federal agencies and area research institutions, such as NASA, NOAA, University of Maryland, Howard University, George Mason University, and other Washington, DC, area institutions. The workshop would also include visits to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2014. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places

  10. Policy Case Study – Food Labelling: Climate for Sustainable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cosbey, Aaron; Marcu, Andrei; Belis, David; Stoefs, Wijnand; Tuokko, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study, which is part of the project entitled “Climate for Sustainable Growth“, focuses on one particular policy tool used in the agricultural sector, food labelling. It reviews food carbon labelling when put in place with clear objectives to address climate change. This study examines whether food carbon labels, as climate mitigation tools, are put in place in a sustainable way, by identifying their impacts on the three dimensions of sustainable development: 1) economic 2) social and ...

  11. Policy of gradualism. Background information and results on the first UN conference of the parties to the climate framework convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not quite three years after Rio, representatives from altogether 167 states met in Berlin for the First UN Conference of the Parties (1. VSK) to the Climate Framework Convention (KRK) from 28 March to 7 April 1995. By the end of the Conference altogether 128 states (including the European Union) had ratified the Climate Framework Convention. One hundred and seventeen of the states that had incorporated the United Nations Convention in their national legal system were present in Berlin. A total of around 4000 government representatives, journalists, scientists, industrial representatives, and members of environmental associations and other socially relevant groups took part in the Conference. The 1. VSK has to date been the largest event of the United Nations to take place in Germany. (orig./UA)

  12. Renewable energies and climate protection. Background information - methodologies - facility planning - economic ananlysis; Erneuerbare Energien und Klimaschutz. Hintergruende - Techniken - Anlagenplanung - Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, V. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The book covers the following topics: energy demand; possibility of a climate collapse; from wastage of energy to energy saving and carbon dioxide reduction,; carbon dioxide-free energy supply - vision or utopia? photovoltaics, energy from sand; solar thermal energy - thermal comfort using sunlight; solar power plants - even more power from the sun; wind power plants; hydropower stations; geothermal power; heat pumps; biomass - energy from nature; hydrogen systems and fuel cells; examples for a sustainable energy supply.

  13. STUDY OF NORTHERN WINTER ATMOSPHERIC ACTIVE CENTERS (AAC) CLIMATE BASE-STATE WITH ITS CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The study of low-frequency oscillations is an important part of climate variability research. In view of insufficient efforts spent on multidecadal and ENSO-scale changes of the climate, the present paper undertakes study of > 30 year slowly-varying means, called climate base state (CBS), of northern winter AAC's in the past 100 years and more, with the CBS variability and its temporal evolution investigated, indicating that Aleutian low and Icelandic low (North Pacific high and North American high) experience maximum (minimum) variation in the CBS. The CBS exhibits two modes for its variation. The positive (negative) phase of mode I presents a weak (strong) NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), a weaker (stronger) NPO (North Pacific Oscillation), a robust (feeble) Siberian high and a quite weak (vigorous) Aleutian low whilst the positive (negative) phase of mode II reveals a feeble (strong) Aleutian low and a weak (robust) Siberian high. Also, the research shows that the recent CBS of northern circulations is in a remarkably negative phase of mode I and a noticeably positive phase of mode II, viz., in the background of slowly-varying circulations of an exceptionally weak Siberian high, an extremely vigorous Aleutian low and an intense NAO. The background field is likely to persist for a matter of 30 years such that northern winter temperature is expected to be in such a warm situation for a long period to follow.

  14. Coupled Climate Model Appraisal a Benchmark for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; AchutaRao, K; Bader, D; Covey, C; Doutriaux, C M; Fiorino, M; Gleckler, P J; Sperber, K R; Taylor, K E

    2005-08-22

    The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has produced an extensive appraisal of simulations of present-day climate by eleven representative coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) which were developed during the period 1995-2002. Because projections of potential future global climate change are derived chiefly from OAGCMs, there is a continuing need to test the credibility of these predictions by evaluating model performance in simulating the historically observed climate. For example, such an evaluation is an integral part of the periodic assessments of climate change that are reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The PCMDI appraisal thus provides a useful benchmark for future studies of this type. The appraisal mainly analyzed multi-decadal simulations of present-day climate by models that employed diverse representations of climate processes for atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, as well as different techniques for coupling these components (see Table). The selected models were a subset of those entered in phase 2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2, Covey et al. 2003). For these ''CMIP2+ models'', more atmospheric or oceanic variables were provided than the minimum requirements for participation in CMIP2. However, the appraisal only considered those climate variables that were supplied from most of the CMIP2+ models. The appraisal focused on three facets of the simulations of current global climate: (1) secular trends in simulation time series which would be indicative of a problematical ''coupled climate drift''; (2) comparisons of temporally averaged fields of simulated atmospheric and oceanic climate variables with available observational climatologies; and (3) correspondences between simulated and observed modes of climatic variability. Highlights of these climatic aspects manifested by different CMIP2+ simulations are briefly

  15. Significance of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some area in the world are known as background levels of radiation are 3-5 times higher than the world average. The studies in high background area (HBRA) residents provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate radiation. (author)

  16. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Goldman, Charles

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of the possible physical impacts of climate change on the electric power system, and how these impacts could be incorporated into resource planning in the Western United States. While many aspects of climate change and energy have been discussed in the literature, there has not yet been a systematic review of the relationship between specific physical effects and the quantitative analyses that are commonly used in planning studies. The core of the problem is to understand how the electric system is vulnerable to physical weather risk, and how to make use of information from climate models to characterize the way these risks may evolve over time, including a treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, to provide the necessary technical background in climate science, we present an overview of the basic physics of climate and explain some of the methodologies used in climate modeling studies, particularly the importance of emissions scenarios. We also provide a brief survey of recent climate-related studies relevant to electric system planning in the Western US. To define the institutional context, we discuss the core elements of the resource and reliability planning processes used currently by utilities and by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. To illustrate more precisely how climate-related risk could be incorporated into modeling exercises, we discuss three idealized examples. Overall, we argue that existing methods of analysis can and should be extended to encompass the uncertainties related to future climate. While the focus here is on risk related to physical impacts, the same principles apply to a consideration of how future climate change policy decisions might impact the design and functioning of the electric grid. We conclude with some suggestions and recommendations on how to begin developing this approach within the existing electric system planning framework for the West.

  17. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN ENGINEERING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khootizal Kubara; M. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy; M.Chinna Swamy Naidu; A. Sivapriya

    2014-01-01

    Organizational climate has a long history in organizational psychology organizational behavior and is an important topic of study in organizational development. The organizational climate is a major factor influencing the effective work performance of the employee. Climate consists of a set of characteristics that describe an organization, distinguish it from other organizations, are relatively enduring over time and influence the behavior of people in it. The individual worker...

  18. Urban climate studies: addressing the role of urban green spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Artur (Ed.); Ribeiro, A.C.; Maia, Filipe; Pinto, M.V.; Feliciano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Cities present a wide range of climate transformations resulting from changes induced by buildings and other artificial structures, including such effects as the urban heat island (UHI) and the changes in the ventilation patterns. Under these conditions, urban climate analysis is increasingly considered as a necessary activity that should be part of the urban planning practice. Although there has been a wide development of climate studies across different countries, further improvement is...

  19. Chemical feedbacks in climate sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmüller, Simone; Ponater, Michael; Sausen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Interactively coupled climate chemistry models extend the number of feedback mechanisms in climate change simulations by allowing a variation of several radiatively actice chemical tracers that are prescribed in conventional climate models. Different perturbation experiments including chemical feedbacks were performed using the chemistry-climate model system EMAC coupled to the mixed layer ocean model MLO. The influence of the chemical feedbacks O3, CH4 and N2O on climate response and climate sensitivity is quantified for a series of CO2-perturbation simulations: Equilibrium climate sensitivity is dampened, if chemical feedbacks are included. In case of a CO2 doubling simulation chemical feedbacks decrease climate sensitivity by -3.6% and in case of a 4*CO2 simulation by -8.1%. Analysis of the chemical feedbacks reveals, that the negative feedback of ozone, mainly the feedback of stratospheric ozone, is responsible for this dampening. The radiative feedbacks of CH4 and N2O are negligible, mainly because the model system does not allow interactive emission feedbacks at the Earth's surface for these gases. The feedback of physical parameters is significantly modified by the presence of chemical feedbacks. In case of the CO2-perturbation experiments the negative stratospheric ozone feedback is accompanied by a negative stratospheric H2O feedback change of the same order of magnitude. So the dampening effect of the direct O3 radiative feedback is enhanced. A non-linearity in the damping is found with increasing CO2 concentrations. Reasons are the nonlinear feedbacks of ozone, temperature, and stratospheric water vapor. Additional 6*CO2 simulations with and without chemical feedbacks included show, that the presence of chemic feedbacks helps to prevent a runaway greenhouse effect, as the O3 distribution can react to the upward shift of the tropopause. Also experiments driven by anthropogenic NOx- and CO-emissions were performed, where chemically active trace gases act

  20. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels. PMID:19759431

  1. Climate change and greenhouse gas awareness study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, C.; Aubin, P.; Auger, G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions result from agricultural production activities. This report assessed the level of understanding that farmers have on the issue of climate change and GHG emissions. It also examined the impact that their decisions have on soil, land, and livestock management. This information is intended to assist governments and industry in the development of policies aimed at meeting Canada's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. In January-February of 2001, Leger Marketing conducted interviews with 1,643 producers from across Canada whose main farm type was field crops, beef cattle, dairy, hogs or poultry and whose annual gross farm revenues exceeded $10,000. The objective was to determine the farmers' level of awareness of climate change issues and GHG emissions in agriculture. The results of the survey indicated that producers generally do not understand how the agricultural sector contributes to climate change and GHG emissions. 5 tabs., 39 figs.

  2. Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yang; Kuai Shuguang; Zhou Weixi; Peng Sheng; Tian Mi; Liu Kangjun; Zhou Xingtao

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years,computers have been intensively used at home.In contrast to paper-based books and documents,computer screen is self-illuminated with larger screen-background luminance difference,which greatly induces visual discomfort.To compensate for that,one effective solution is to offer an additional background luminance.In this study,we investigated whether and to what extent additional background lighting is needed in looking at a computer display comfortably.Methods In this study,60 healthy children aged from 9 to 12 years and 58 adults aged from 21 to 39 years participated in the experiments.They were asked to choose their most preferred background luminance intensities at three screen luminance levels.The data were analyzed by Matlab (R2012b) and SPSS 20.0.Results Both children and adult participants selected a non-dark background as their comfortable lighting condition when watching a computer display (children:t (59)=22.0,P <0.01,adults:t (57)=15.5,P <0.01).Comparatively,children preferred brighter background in general (F (1,116)=7.0,P <0.01).More importantly,participants' preferred background luminance levels were linearly correlated with screen luminance intensities (children:slope=0.97,R2=0.98; adults:slope=0.38,R2=1.00).Conclusion These results indicate that varying background luminance to maintain screen-background luminance ratio is beneficial to human visual comfort.

  3. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Hyönä

    Full Text Available Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.

  4. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  5. Experimental study of neutron induced background noise on gated x-ray framing cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temporally gated x-ray framing camera based on a proximity focus microchannel plate is one of the most important diagnostic tools of inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, fusion neutrons produced in imploded capsules interact with structures surrounding the camera and produce background to x-ray signals. To understand the mechanisms of this neutron induced background, we tested several gated x-ray cameras in the presence of 14 MeV neutrons produced at the Omega laser facility. Differences between background levels observed with photographic film readout and charge-coupled-device readout have been studied.

  6. Self-amplifying Hawking radiation and its background: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauer, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study an analogue black hole with two horizons with similar parameters to a recent experiment. We find that the Hawking radiation exists on a background which contains a density oscillation, a zero-frequency ripple. The Hawking radiation evolves from spontaneous to self-amplifying, while the background ripple grows steadily with no qualitative change. It is seen that the self-amplifying Hawking radiation has a non-zero frequency. The background ripple appears even before the inner horizon is created, in contrast to predictions. This work is in agreement with the recent observation of self-amplifying Hawking radiation, and explains some of the features seen. In contrast to recent works, our study differentiates between the Hawking radiation observed, and the evolution of the background.

  7. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  8. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were rec...

  9. Characterization of the low-background gamma spectrometer at INSTEC for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC for environmental proposes is studied. Fifty three γ-lines were fixed in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activities for 210Pb, 238U, 226Ra, 137Cs, 232Th and 40K were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulated detector volumetric efficiency. The radionuclide activities in marine sediment standard were determined by absolute and relative methods for validation. (Author)

  10. PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF RETROSPECTIVE NUMERICAL SCHEME AND THE CLIMATE PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wenjie; CHOU Jieming; FENG Guolin

    2004-01-01

    The retrospective numerical scheme (RNS) is a numerical computation scheme designed for multiple past value problems of the initial value in mathematics and considering the selfmemory property of the system in physics. This paper briefly presents the historical background of RNS, elaborates the relation of the scheme with other difference schemes and other meteorological prediction methods, and introduces the application of RNS to the regional climatic self-memory model,simplified climate model, barotropic model, spectral model, and mesoscale model. At last, the paper sums up and points out the application perspective of the scheme and the direction for the future study.

  11. QCD jet simulation with CMS at LHC and background studies to H to gamma gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V; Shevchenko, S; Wisniewski, N

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated and reconstructed one million of QCD jet events. This study was done with CMS full detector simulation, based on GEANT3 package, and object-oriented CMS C++ reconstruction program. The understanding of QCD jet background is important for the Higgs search in two-photon decay mode. The comparison with other types of backgrounds was also done. It was shown that the isolation tools were important ones to isolate the signal process from the huge background one. Using the isolation criteria based on the information from PbWO /sub 4/ electromagnetic calorimeter and the tracker we were able to reduce the QCD jet background to 15% of the total one. (9 refs).

  12. Study of technogenic radiation contaminated territories background and environmental plants sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : A certain amount of radioactive elements are spread in the land, water and air in these regions. In the raw oil-polluted areas radioactive elements ae rich with various metal oxides and non-metal elements increasing the radiation background in the water and in the air. The radioactive elements in the composition of the air are spread as the last product of the fuel of the transport facilities. All other creatures plants respond against ecological environmental factors with the special adaptation. As in medicine it is used from roentgen rays to find out complications in the human body, in the field of biology and agriculture it is used from the isotopes of the radioactive elements in formation of seeds embryo and elements movement in individual tissues during metabolism or gathering. Soil climate conditions of the Absheron peninsula are known to researchers. Radioactive elements are radiation background forming elements in the water, soil and weather of Absheron peninsula. Radioactive elements existing in water, air and land influence more to the plants growing rapidly and plants with high photosynthesis process

  13. Comparative study of mutational factors in high background and control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of further study of the socioeconomic environmental factors concerning with mutations in the high background radiation area and the control area are presented in this paper. The factors studied can be divided into two categories: (1) those which have been confirmed to be related to mutations, including occupations involved with poisonous and noxious substances, application of pesticides, smoking, alcohol drinking, and exposure to medical X-ray, etc; (2) those which may not necessarily relate to mutations, such as socioeconomic states etc. Case-control study has been used. 'Case' and 'control' were selected from the inhabitants in the high background and control areas respectively by means of two-stage sampling method, and matched by sex and age. The data were collected by interview. There were 459 pairs available for analysis. The results of studied factors of category 1 show that no significant difference was found between two areas except that the frequency of medical X-ray exposure of the people in the control area was a little higher than that in the high background area. For the factors of category 2, the results show that the economic condition and educational level of the control group were better than those of the high background group. Besides, the papulation of high background area was more steady than that of control area

  14. Study of the Residual Background Events in Ground Data from the ASTRO-HSXS Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S.; Watanabe, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Yamada, S.; Tsujimoto, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Tashiro, M.

    2015-01-01

    The measured instrumental background of the XRS calorimeter spectrometer of Suzaku had several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. Prior to the launch of Suzaku, several data sets were taken without x-ray illumination to study the characteristics and timing of background signals produced in the array and anti-coincidence detector. Even though the source of the background in the laboratory was different from that in low-earth orbit (muons and environmental gamma-rays on the ground versus Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and alpha particles in space), the study of correlations and properties of populations of rare events was useful for establishing the preliminary screening parameters needed for selection of good science data. Sea-level muons are singly charged minimum-ionizing particles, like the GCR protons, and thus were good probes of the effectiveness of screening via the signals from the anti-coincidence detector. Here we present the first analysis of the on-ground background of the SXS calorimeter of Astro-H. On XRS, the background prior to screening was completely dominated by coincident events on many pixels resulting from the temperature pulse arising from each large energy deposition (greater than 200 keV) into the silicon frame around the array. The improved heat-sinking of the SXS array compared with XRS eliminated these thermal disturbances, greatly reducing the measured count rate in the absence of illumination. The removal of these events has made it easier to study the nature of the residual background and to look for additional event populations. We compare the SXS residual background to that measured in equivalent ground data for XRS and discuss these preliminary results.

  15. A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate studies involve petabytes of spatiotemporal datasets that are produced and archived at distributed computing resources. Scientists need an intuitive and convenient tool to explore the distributed spatiotemporal data. Geovisual analytical tools have the potential to provide such an intuitive and convenient method for scientists to access climate data, discover the relationships between various climate parameters, and communicate the results across different research communities. However, implementing a geovisual analytical tool for complex climate data in a distributed environment poses several challenges. This paper reports our research and development of a web-based geovisual analytical system to support the analysis of climate data generated by climate model. Using the ModelE developed by the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS as an example, we demonstrate that the system is able to (1 manage large volume datasets over the Internet; (2 visualize 2D/3D/4D spatiotemporal data; (3 broker various spatiotemporal statistical analyses for climate research; and (4 support interactive data analysis and knowledge discovery. This research also provides an example for managing, disseminating, and analyzing Big Data in the 21st century.

  16. Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

  17. Numerical study of Spherically Symmetric solutions on a Cosmological Dynamical Background using the BSSN Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Rekier, Jeremy; Fuzfa, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully relativistic numerical method for the study of cosmological problems in spherical symmetry. This involves using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formalism on a dynamical Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. The regular and smooth numerical solution at the center of coordinates proceeds in a natural way by relying on the Partially Implicit Runge-Kutta (PIRK) algorithm described in Montero and Cordero-Carri\\'on [arXiv:1211.5930]. We generalize the usual radiative outer boundary condition to the case of a dynamical background. We show the stability and convergence properties of the method in the study of pure gauge dynamics on a de Sitter background and present a simple application to cosmology by reproducing the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) solution for the collapse of pressure-less matter.

  18. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the

  19. Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrián, S; Kuster, M; Beltrán, B; Carmona, J M; Gómez, H; Hartmann, R; Irastorza, I G; Kotthaus, R; Luzón, G; Morales, J; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Ruz, J; Strüder, L; Villar, J A

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) s...

  20. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safety climate could be used to identify those areas of safety that need more attention and improvement. The dynamic nature of safety climate, which has the ability to change on daily basis, means there is a great need for reliable tools that can measure safety climate. Safety climate is a leading performance indicator that can provide insight into safety performance before accidents have occurred. In the present study a questionnaire was framed to ascertain safety climate in major construction rganizations across India involved in construction of Thermal power plants, Hydro power plants, Highway projects, Bridge works, Refinery works, High rise works, Pipe line works and Dam woks and its content validity was verified. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Data was collected based on questionnaire from employees working in various construction firms in India. The results of questionnaires survey was tested statistically by using the Kruskal – Wallis test to ascertain the attitudes of different categories of employees towards safety climate.

  1. High-resolution varve studies in Baldeggersee (Switzerland): Project overview and limnological background data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrli, B.; Lotter, A.F.; Schaller, T.; Sturm, M.

    1997-01-01

    This introduction to a series of high-resolution varve studies in Baldeggersee provides both an overview of the different subprojects as well as background information on relevant limnologial trends. The project was based on a new method of in-situ freezing of unconsolidated surficial sediments in d

  2. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required, was executed after the birth of the child; (5) The child, as appropriate in light of his or her... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in... for Convention Accreditation and Approval Standards for Cases in Which A Child Is Emigrating from...

  3. The formal political system in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. A background study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Andreas

    2010-03-15

    The text presented here is the background study on the political system in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. It deals with the development of the formal political system as well as its practical application. In our analysis, we focus on the direct policy outcomes of the interaction between political and economic elites in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan since the end of the Soviet Union. (orig.)

  4. Search for Supersymmetry in ATLAS with two or three leptons: background studies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2110114

    2016-01-01

    A study of the modeling of $t\\bar{t}V (V=W$ or $ Z)$ production at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV has been conducted. This is one of the main backgrounds in the search for Supersymmetry with same-sign dileptons or three leptons final state.

  5. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Leonel C.; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners’ mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate,...

  6. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners : exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Leonel C.; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundDespite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners’ mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, ...

  7. Low-background spectrometer for the study of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khriachkov, V. A.; Ketlerov, V. V.; Mitrofanov, V. F.; Semenova, N. N.

    2000-04-01

    An α-particle spectrometer based on an ionization chamber with Frisch grid and a waveform digitizer has been developed for studies of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions. The information on the energy of the α-particle and its emission angle can be obtained from the amplitude and rise time of the digitized anode signal. For a situation where both the solid target on the cathode of the ionization chamber and the working gas are the α-particle sources, a new method for the suppression of the neutron-induced background is proposed. The background due to gaseous α-particles was reduced by a factor of 30.

  8. Low-background spectrometer for the study of fast neutron-induced (n,alpha) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khriachkov, V A; Mitrofanov, V P; Semenova, N N

    2000-01-01

    An alpha-particle spectrometer based on an ionization chamber with Frisch grid and a waveform digitizer has been developed for studies of fast neutron-induced (n,alpha) reactions. The information on the energy of the alpha-particle and its emission angle can be obtained from the amplitude and rise time of the digitized anode signal. For a situation where both the solid target on the cathode of the ionization chamber and the working gas are the alpha-particle sources, a new method for the suppression of the neutron-induced background is proposed. The background due to gaseous alpha-particles was reduced by a factor of 30.

  9. Low-background spectrometer for the study of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An α-particle spectrometer based on an ionization chamber with Frisch grid and a waveform digitizer has been developed for studies of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions. The information on the energy of the α-particle and its emission angle can be obtained from the amplitude and rise time of the digitized anode signal. For a situation where both the solid target on the cathode of the ionization chamber and the working gas are the α-particle sources, a new method for the suppression of the neutron-induced background is proposed. The background due to gaseous α-particles was reduced by a factor of 30

  10. Combating climate change : A case study of Statoil′s climate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Josefin; Eklöf, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Level:                           Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics   Title:             Combating climate change – a case study of Statoil’s climate strategy   Problem:       The world is facing an environmental situation where we no longer can ignore problems like climate change, losses of species and an overall environmental degradation. Many actors have to take their responsibility and do as much as they can for a sustainable developme...

  11. Comprehensive Study and Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Background Sub-traction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods proposed for Back-ground Subtraction algorithm in past years. Background subtraction algorithm is widely used for real time moving object detection in video surveillance system. In this paper we have studied and implemented different types of meth-ods used for segmentation in Background subtraction algo-rithm with static camera. This paper gives good under-standing about procedure to obtain foreground using exist-ing common methods of Background Subtraction, their complexity, utility and also provide basics which will useful to improve performance in the future . First, we have explained the basic steps and procedure used in vision based moving object detection. Then, we have debriefed the common methods of background subtraction like Sim-ple method, statistical methods like Mean and Median filter, Frame Differencing and W4 System method, Running Gaussian Average and Gaussian Mixture Model and last is Eigenbackground Model. After that we have implemented all the above techniques on MATLAB software and show some experimental results for the same and compare them in terms of speed and complexity criteria.

  12. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by 214Bi, 208Tl and 42K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from 42K and 214Bi beta-rays, and 210Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  13. A Monte Carlo study for the shielding of γ backgrounds induced by radionuclides for CDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; MA Hao; H.W.Wong; XUE Tao; ZENG Zhi; YUE Qian; TANG Chang-Jian; CHENG Jian-Ping; KANG Ke-Jun; LI Jian-Min; LI Jin; LI Yu-Lan; LI Yuan-Jing

    2011-01-01

    The CDEX(China Dark matter EXperiment)Collaboration will carry out a direct search for WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)using an Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity Germanium(ULE-HPGe)detector at the CJPL(China JinPing deep underground Laboratory).A complex shielding system was designed to reduce backgrounds and a detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation was performed to study the achievable reduction of T rays induced by radionuclides and neutron backgrounds by D(γ,n)p reaction.Furthermore,the upper level of allowed radiopurity of shielding materials was estimated under the constraint of the expected goal.Compared with the radiopurity reported by other low-background rare-event experiments,it indicates that the shielding used in the CDEX can be made out of materials with obtainable radiopurity.

  14. Spline-based Study of the Extragalactic Background Light Spectrum using Gamma-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anoushka; Rathmann-Bloch, Julia; Biteau, Jonathan; Williams, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is made of all the light emitted by stars and galaxies throughout cosmic history. Expanding on the work of Biteau & Williams 2015, we develop a novel natural cubic spline model of the local EBL spectrum and constrain its parameters using the gamma-ray spectra of 38 blazars measured in the high-energy (HE, 0.1 to 100 GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE, 0.1 to 20 TeV) bands. Starting from this best-fit model, we then study the so-called "delta gamma" (ΔΓ) observable, defined as the difference between the VHE and HE photon indices. This second study is focused on a subset of nine BL Lac objects. The application of a scaling factor to the cosmic optical background (0.1 - 10 nm) significantly impacts the predicted ΔΓ as a function of redshift, whereas a similar modification of the cosmic infrared background (10 - 1000 nm) has no impact. We conclude that the simple delta gamma approach can only constrain part of the EBL spectrum, while a detailed study of the spectra, such as presented in the first part of this research, is needed to constrain the cosmic infrared background.

  15. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  16. Remark on the studies of the muon-induced neutron background in the liquid scintillator detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Zbiri, Karim

    2009-01-01

    This article gives a point of view on the studies of the muon-induced background for the underground experiments using a liquid scintillator detectors. The results obtained are in good agreement with the data, especially for the neutron yield production. This is the first time, when a study of this kind successes to get the same neutron yield as the one obtained from the experiment.

  17. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  18. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lara; Hoffman, Jennifer; Drews, Carlos; Mielbrecht, Eric

    2010-02-01

    To be successful, conservation practitioners and resource managers must fully integrate the effects of climate change into all planning projects. Some conservation practitioners are beginning to develop, test, and implement new approaches that are designed to deal with climate change. We devised four basic tenets that are essential in climate-change adaptation for conservation: protect adequate and appropriate space, reduce nonclimate stresses, use adaptive management to implement and test climate-change adaptation strategies, and work to reduce the rate and extent of climate change to reduce overall risk. To illustrate how this approach applies in the real world, we explored case studies of coral reefs in the Florida Keys; mangrove forests in Fiji, Tanzania, and Cameroon; sea-level rise and sea turtles in the Caribbean; tigers in the Sundarbans of India; and national planning in Madagascar. Through implementation of these tenets conservation efforts in each of these regions can be made more robust in the face of climate change. Although these approaches require reconsidering some traditional approaches to conservation, this new paradigm is technologically, economically, and intellectually feasible. PMID:20121842

  19. 气候变化视野中的自愿环境协议%Voluntary Environmental Agreements in the Background of Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏旭

    2011-01-01

    The comprehensiveness and wide-range of climate change result in that each social member shall lead to, directly and indirectly, climate change. The traditional environmental governance principles rest the responsibility of environmental management and environment improvement on the public interest moralists such as governments and environmental NGOs. However, the pure strength of these public interest moralists has been not enough to form an effective social mechanism under the background of climate change. At the meantime, many long sighted enterprises have realized the importance of their environmental responsibilities and social images and aspire to help mitigate climate change through self-commitments. Voluntary environmental agreements provide mechanism platform for all these two sides of needs. Actually some countries have used voluntary environmental agreements as one important mechanism in their climate change strategies since long time ago and China has also started related experimental work on voluntary environmental agreements. Therefore, it is a new problem in the environmental governance as of how we shall correctly treat voluntary environmental agreement with its soft governance function, as well as how we may promote its positive effects in the climate change strategy of China.%气候变化问题的综合性和广泛性决定整个社会每一分子都直接或间接地对气候变化有不可分割的作用.传统环境治理思想过多地将环境管理和提高义务置于诸如政府、环保团体等公共利益卫道士之手,单纯依靠公共利益团体的力量在气候变化背景下已不足以形成有效的社会约束机制,许多高瞻远瞩的企业已意识到自身环境责任与社会形象的重要性,通过自我约束行为为缓解气候变化添砖加瓦,自愿环境协议为此提供了制度平台.国际上早已有将自愿环境协议作为气候变化应对战略的一项重要措施的实践,我国的相关试点工

  20. A study on relationship between organizational climate and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between organizational climate and women employees' creativity of Tabriz Red Crescent Organization. The research method is descriptive correlation performed among 120 women employed at the Red Crescent and 100 cases were selected for the proposed study. For data collection, Hoy and Miskel (2005's organizational climate and Randsyp creativity questionnaires with 0.78 and 0.82 Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used. Pearson correlation and multiple regressions were used to analyze research hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between two indices of manager and subordinate behaviors and creativity. In addition, in investigating the relationship between climate and creativity components, findings showed that there was a significant relationship only between cooperation and pretending to job dimensions and creativity. This study also has shown that managers' behavior is closed and employees' behavior is more open than managers are.

  1. Study of background radiation along the east coast of Tamil Nadu- a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of natural background radiation along the east coast of Tamil Nadu has been undertaken. Thirty three sites were selected along the coast. Ambient gamma radiation levels were measured both on shore and inland at each site and these are presented and discussed in this paper. Soil, terrestrial and marine matrices have been collected and are being subjected to gamma ray spectral analysis. Preliminary results from the spectral analysis of soil samples reveal that the higher radiation levels, wherever observed, are due to the presence of monazite content. The complete analysis and measurements of the samples from the various matrices are being taken up and a more comprehensive report of the distribution of natural background radiation along the coast would facilitate a deeper study. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  2. Some research data on the relation between cultural background and study results in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Depreeuw, Eric; Debrabandere, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The research at hand has been carried out in a Flemish school for economic higher education in Brussels (professional bachelor degree) during the second semester of the academic year 2005 - 2006. All the students of the first and second year were invited to participate in the project during the classes. We asked the students to fill in some demographic data, study career data, daily spoken languages and ethnic background. Students were also asked to fill in the questionnaires concerning the p...

  3. Molecular Markers Allow to Remove Introgressed Genetic Background: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Amador; Miguel Ángel Toro; Jesús Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of genetically differentiated populations can be important for several reasons (whether for wild species or domestic breeds of economic interest). When those populations are introgressed by foreign individuals, methods to eliminate the exogenous alleles can be implemented to recover the native genetic background. This study used computer simulations to explore the usefulness of several molecular based diagnostic approaches to recover of a native population after suffering an i...

  4. Use of legal reserve areas as geochemical background in hydrosedimentology studies¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Juchen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In hydrosedimentology studies the determination of the trace element concentrations at the study site is imperative, since this background can be used to assess the enrichment of sediments with these elements. This enrichment can be the result of the natural process of geological formation or of anthropogenic activities. In the latter case, guidelines are used to indicate the concentrations at which trace elements cause ecotoxicity effects on the environment. Thus, this study used legal reserve areas in the municipality of Toledo, PR, where natural forests are maintained, with no or minimal human interference to establish background levels. The results of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma showed that the legal reserves have lower levels of trace elements than other theoretical references, but equivalent concentrations to the safety levels recommended by international guidelines. It was concluded that determining values is fundamental to recommend this background as scientific database for research in the area of hydrosedimentology of this site and also as a way of environmental management of the watershed of this municipality.

  5. Valores de background geoquímico e suas implicações em estudos ambientais Geochemical background values and its implications in environmental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    , the principal objective of this article is to present and discuss the reasons for which the establishment of background geochemical values has implications in environmental studies. Throughout this article some concepts of the geochemical background used by various authors is presented and the main methods used for assessing background concentration of elements (direct and indirect methods. In addition, some examples of studies developed in Brazil are presented. Studies involving the establishment of background geochemical values are important because they allow the evaluation of potential contamination risks and the identification of natural trace-element concentrations in a determined area.

  6. Studying the human dimensions of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent scientific interest in climate change has come a need to address substantive issues over very long periods of time and over virtually the entire globe. There is also a growing recognition not only of the links between physical and biological systems but also of the key roles played by human activities and institutions in interaction with the physical and biological world. Hence, the study of climate change presents a host of important questions to social scientists, for which they are not fully prepared. The problems inherent in studying the human dimensions of global climate change do not occur in a scientific vacuum. Rather, they are in part created by, and in part reflect, important gaps in scientific understanding of the physical and biological dimensions. To set the stage, therefore, the general nature of these gaps needs to be briefly reviewed

  7. The study of correlation on indoor radon concentration and geological background in Beijing and Guangdong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of indoor radon was studied under different geological backgrounds in Guangdong Area and Beijing Area. Indoor radon concentration was measured by pulse chamber radon monitor ALPHAGUARD in the two regions, then indoor radon concentration level and distribution in these areas were analyzed. In Beijing, a RaA radon monitor (FD-3017) and a HPGe gamma spectrometer was used to measure the soil radon concentration and radium contents in soil samples. The results showed that geological background is one of the most important influencing factors to in- door radon. The concentration of indoor radon in the granite area is higher than that in the other lithology areas; The level of indoor radon in Guangdong Area is apparently higher than that in Beijing Area. Ventilation rate is also a main influencing factor to indoor radon measurement results. It's a guide to the indoor radon survey points selection that the study on the distribution and level of indoor radon combined with geological background. Meanwhile, it has important practical value for regional scale indoor radon evaluation. (authors)

  8. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. PMID:26298416

  9. Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu

    2016-06-01

    We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  10. A comparative study of background flow geometries in Schwarzschild metric with shock

    CERN Document Server

    Tarafdar, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of discontinuity in general relativistic axially symmetric background fluid flow in the Schwarzschild metric. The discontinuities, or 'shocks', are incorporated using general relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. A general shock-invariant quantity is thus derived analytically for three distinct geometric configurations of the background fluid flow, viz., constant height discs, quasi-spherical discs and discs in hydrostatic equilibrium in the vertical direction. As already pointed out in our previous works, even identical initial conditions may lead to completely different phase-space behaviour of the stationary solutions for separate flow geometries. Hence it is then useful to investigate and compare the influence of geometric configuration of the flow described by various thermodynamic equations of state, on different important properties and manifestations of such physical discontinuities.

  11. Study of the neutron background noise generated by muons in the Edelweiss-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contributes to the Edelweiss experiment whose aim is to detect interactions between neutralinos and target nuclei. Bolometers used in Edelweiss combine the detection of phonons with the detection of electric charges generated by the energy deposition. This double detection enables us to discard background signals due to electronic interactions and soon detection sensitivity of the experiment will be limited by the neutron background noise due to residual cosmic muons. This work is dedicated to a detailed study of muon inelastic interactions and the consequent production of neutrons. Simulations show that the expected neutron flux is so high that the direct detection of muons is required in order to link it to the neutron signal issued by the bolometer. Results from simulations show that plastic scintillators might be the main components of the muon detector

  12. Studies with a low-background germanium detector in the Holborn Underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the performance and use of a low background HPGe detector, which was operated in the Holborn Underground laboratory from May 1990 to July 1993, and on some of the results obtained from it. The analysis includes sections on measuring the efficiency of the system and a discussion of the contributions to the background. Most of the materials studied were those being considered for use in the Solar Neutrino Observatory or in the UK Dark Matter programme. Results for the natural radioactivity in various classes of materials include those for the glass used in photomultipliers, the extent of non-equilibrium in the main decay series of thorium and uranium and the presence of protactinium in samples of zirconium oxide. There is also a summary of the cosmogenic isotopes found in the meteorite Glatton which fell in 1991. ((orig.))

  13. Studies with a low-background germanium detector in the Holborn Underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. C.

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports on the performance and use of a low background HPGe detector, which was operated in the Holborn Underground laboratory from May 1990 to July 1993, and on some of the results obtained from it. The analysis includes sections on measuring the efficiency of the system and a discussion of the contributions to the background. Most of the materials studied were those being considered for use in the Solar Neutrino Observatory or in the UK Dark Matter programme. Results for the natural radioactivity in various classes of materials include those for the glass used in photomultipliers, the extent of non-equilibrium in the main decay series of thorium and uranium and the presence of protactinium in samples of zirconium oxide. There is also a summary of the cosmogenic isotopes found in the meteorite Glatton which fell in 1991.

  14. Family Background and Student Achievement : A Comparative Study Utilizing Data from PISA 2006 to Investigate a Potential Relationship between Family Background and Student Achievement in Norway and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the possible relationships between a numbers of factors related to family background (such as educational level of parents, occupational status of parents, family wealth, cultural level of parents, immigrant status and the language spoken at home) and student achievement in PISA 2006 with focus on the scientific literacy. In this survey Norway and Finland are studied and compared. The approach preferred is a quantitative comparative method, and existing data from the ...

  15. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    , etc.) interact to analyse and solve important decision problems by applying methodologies. A simple framework is used to identify several sources of contradictions that may have a significant impact on studies carried out in the single countries as well on the implementation of abatement measures....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying such...... methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  16. Team climate, intention to leave and turnover among hospital employees: Prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen Marianna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hospitals, the costs of employee turnover are substantial and intentions to leave among staff may manifest as lowered performance. We examined whether team climate, as indicated by clear and shared goals, participation, task orientation and support for innovation, predicts intention to leave the job and actual turnover among hospital employees. Methods Prospective study with baseline and follow-up surveys (2–4 years apart. The participants were 6,441 (785 men, 5,656 women hospital employees under the age of 55 at the time of follow-up survey. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Results Among stayers with no intention to leave at baseline, lower self-reported team climate predicted higher likelihood of having intentions to leave at follow-up (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation decrease in team climate was 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4–1.8. Lower co-worker assessed team climate at follow-up was also association with such intentions (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4–2.4. Among all participants, the likelihood of actually quitting the job was higher for those with poor self-reported team climate at baseline. This association disappeared after adjustment for intention to leave at baseline suggesting that such intentions may explain the greater turnover rate among employees with low team climate. Conclusion Improving team climate may reduce intentions to leave and turnover among hospital employees.

  17. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  18. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  19. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ''develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ''damages'' or ''benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed

  20. A study on the effect of gamma background in low power startup physics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low power physics tests should be performed for the domestic pressurized light water reactors (PWRs) after refueling. The tests are performed to ensure that operating characteristics of the core are consistent with predictions and that the core can be operated as designed. But in some low power physics tests, slow but steady reactivity increasing phenomena were noticed after step reactivity insertion by the control rod movement. These reactivity increasing phenomena are due to the low flux level and the gamma backgroud because an uncompensated ion chamber (UIC) is used as the ex-core neutron detector. The gamma background may affect the results of the low power physics tests. The aims of this paper are to analyze the grounds of such phenomena, to simulate a reference bank worth measurement test and to present a resolution quantitatively. In this study, the gamma background level was estimated by numerically solving the point kinetics equations accounting the gamma background effect. The reactivity computer check test was simulated to verify the model. Also, an appropriate neutron flux level was determined by simulating the reference bank worth measurement test. The determined neutron flux level is approximately 0.3 of the nuclear heating flux. This level is about 3 times as high as the current test upper limit specified in the test procedure. Then, the findings from this work were successfully applied to Kori unit 4 cycle 7 and Yonggwang unit 1 cycle 7 physics tests. (Author)

  1. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-04-24

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by {sup 214}Bi, {sup 208}Tl and {sup 42}K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from {sup 42}K and {sup 214}Bi beta-rays, and {sup 210}Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  2. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  3. Climate mission study n.10, january 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note aims to explain the evolution of the intensity of the the developed economies of the greenhouse gases emission. This study concerns only the countries called industrialized without the developing countries and those of the old east soviet bloc. In the first part the authors aim to know if the carbon intensity evolution of the economies go with convergence or divergence phenomena. The second part is more devoted to the impacts of the energetic choices on the adopted policies of the countries. Finally a particular attention is given to the characteristics of the european union countries which present a unique policy among the developed countries. (A.L.B.)

  4. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection.Study design. Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination.Methods. A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 ...

  5. ForCent model development and testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parton, W.J.; Hanson, P. J.; Swanston, C.; Torn, M.; Trumbore, S. E.; Riley, W.; Kelly, R.

    2010-10-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool {sup 14}C signature ({Delta} {sup 14}C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the {sup 14}C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass {Delta} {sup 14}C data, and with soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experimental treatments on soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  6. Does internal climate variability overwhelm climate change signals in streamflow? The upper Po and Rhone basin case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatichi, S., E-mail: simone.fatichi@ifu.baug.ethz.ch; Rimkus, S.; Burlando, P.; Bordoy, R.

    2014-09-15

    Projections of climate change effects in streamflow are increasingly required to plan water management strategies. These projections are however largely uncertain due to the spread among climate model realizations, internal climate variability, and difficulties in transferring climate model results at the spatial and temporal scales required by catchment hydrology. A combination of a stochastic downscaling methodology and distributed hydrological modeling was used in the ACQWA project to provide projections of future streamflow (up to year 2050) for the upper Po and Rhone basins, respectively located in northern Italy and south-western Switzerland. Results suggest that internal (stochastic) climate variability is a fundamental source of uncertainty, typically comparable or larger than the projected climate change signal. Therefore, climate change effects in streamflow mean, frequency, and seasonality can be masked by natural climatic fluctuations in large parts of the analyzed regions. An exception to the overwhelming role of stochastic variability is represented by high elevation catchments fed by glaciers where streamflow is expected to be considerably reduced due to glacier retreat, with consequences appreciable in the main downstream rivers in August and September. Simulations also identify regions (west upper Rhone and Toce, Ticino river basins) where a strong precipitation increase in the February to April period projects streamflow beyond the range of natural climate variability during the melting season. This study emphasizes the importance of including internal climate variability in climate change analyses, especially when compared to the limited uncertainty that would be accounted for by few deterministic projections. The presented results could be useful in guiding more specific impact studies, although design or management decisions should be better based on reliability and vulnerability criteria as suggested by recent literature. - Highlights:

  7. Does internal climate variability overwhelm climate change signals in streamflow? The upper Po and Rhone basin case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projections of climate change effects in streamflow are increasingly required to plan water management strategies. These projections are however largely uncertain due to the spread among climate model realizations, internal climate variability, and difficulties in transferring climate model results at the spatial and temporal scales required by catchment hydrology. A combination of a stochastic downscaling methodology and distributed hydrological modeling was used in the ACQWA project to provide projections of future streamflow (up to year 2050) for the upper Po and Rhone basins, respectively located in northern Italy and south-western Switzerland. Results suggest that internal (stochastic) climate variability is a fundamental source of uncertainty, typically comparable or larger than the projected climate change signal. Therefore, climate change effects in streamflow mean, frequency, and seasonality can be masked by natural climatic fluctuations in large parts of the analyzed regions. An exception to the overwhelming role of stochastic variability is represented by high elevation catchments fed by glaciers where streamflow is expected to be considerably reduced due to glacier retreat, with consequences appreciable in the main downstream rivers in August and September. Simulations also identify regions (west upper Rhone and Toce, Ticino river basins) where a strong precipitation increase in the February to April period projects streamflow beyond the range of natural climate variability during the melting season. This study emphasizes the importance of including internal climate variability in climate change analyses, especially when compared to the limited uncertainty that would be accounted for by few deterministic projections. The presented results could be useful in guiding more specific impact studies, although design or management decisions should be better based on reliability and vulnerability criteria as suggested by recent literature. - Highlights:

  8. Study of neutron-induced background and its impact on the search of 0$\

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Ghosh, C; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Pal, S; Bhushan, K G; Shrivastava, A

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced background has been studied in various components of the TIN.TIN detector, which is under development for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in $\\rm^{124}Sn$. Fast neutron flux $\\sim10^{6}~n~cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ covering a broad energy range ($ \\sim0.1$ to $ \\sim18$~MeV) was generated using $^{9}Be(p,n)^{9}B$ reaction. In addition, reactions with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were also studied using $^{7}Li(p,n)^{7}Be$ reaction. Among the different cryogenic support structures studied, Teflon is found to be preferable compared to Torlon as there is no high energy gamma background ($E_\\gamma >$ 1 MeV). Contribution of neutron-induced reactions in $\\rm ^{nat, 124} $Sn from other Sn isotopes (A = 112 -- 122) in the energy region of interest, namely, around the $Q_{\\beta\\beta}$ of $\\rm^{124}Sn$ ($E \\sim$ 2.293 MeV), is also investigated.

  9. Immunological studies relating to the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the effects of ultra-violet radiations on the integrity of their immunological system, a hematologic and immunological study was carried out in 30 clinically healthy children aged between 10 and 15; 15 of each sex, who come from a region in Bielorussia that was affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and who received medical and recreational services at the 'Jose Marti' Pioneers'City, located Tarara Beach (Havana, Cuba) from July 9,1990 to August 27,1990. Data from the initial evaluations upon their arrival in Cuba were compared whit the final results before their return to Bielorussia, in the following variables: haemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, absolute counts of lymphocytes and neutrophylous polymorphonuclears, levels of sericeus of Igs G, A, M, and E sericas and (CH50), as well as the presence of circulating immuno complexes; besides spot-forming cellular clusters (spontaneous, active, and medial by the receptor Fc in neutrophylous) and the cells identified with monoclonal antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD8 and CD4/CD8 quotient. Cutaneous response to antigen and lymphoblastic transformation in the presence of PHA and PwN were also assessed. Results of this research allow to infer that the adequate and monitored position against ultra-violet rays from the solar radiation in children exposed to low doses of ionizing irradiation does not deteriorate the human immunological system, and do favor its regulation and normal performance

  10. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  11. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaardhøje, J. J.; Tabassam, H.

    2014-04-01

    We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged) particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  12. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaardhøje J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  13. 'Initial' Soil Moisture Effects on the Climate in China——A Regional Climate Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xueli

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of 'initial' soil moisture (SM) in arid and semi-arid Northwestern China on subsequent climate were investigated with a regional climate model. Besides the control simulations (denoted as CTL), a series of sensitivity experi-ments were conducted, including the DRY and WET experiments, in which the simulated 'initial' SM over the region 30-50°N, 75 -105°E was only 5% and 50%, and up to 150% and 200% of the simulated value in the CTL, respectively. The results show that SM change can modify the subsequent climate in not only the SM-change region proper but also the far downstream regions in Eastern and even Northeastern China. The SM-change effects are generally more prominent in the WET than in the DRY experiments. After the SM is initially increased, the SM in the SM-change region is always higher than that in the CTL, the latent (sensible) heat flux there increases (decreases), and the surface air temperature decreases. Spatially, the most prominent changes in the WET experiments are surface air temperature decrease, geopotential height decrease and corresponding abnormal changes of cyclonic wind vectors at the mid-upper troposphere levels. Generally opposite effects exist in the DRY experiments but with much weaker intensity. In addi-tion, the differences between the results obtained from the two sets of sensitivity experiments and those of the CTL are not always consistent with the variation of the initial SM. Being different from the variation of temperature, the rainfall modifications caused by initial SM change are not so distinct and in fact they show some common features in the WET and DRY experiments. This might imply that SM is only one of the factors that impact the subsequent climate, and its effect is involved in complex processes within the atmosphere, which needs further investigation.

  14. A study on safety climate at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, we define safety climate as an organizational environment that induces members of the organization to give consideration to safety or take safety actions. It is of utmost importance that people holding managerial positions in an organization have a good understanding of the characteristics of the safety climate of the organization and implement safety promotion activities effectively. In the current research, we studied the rating scales and the characteristics of a safety climate. A survey was conducted, targeting technical engineers who belong to the three power stations of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The questionnaire mainly consisted of questions concerning safety measures taken by individuals and questions concerning safety measures taken by the organization, to which the individuals belong. As a result of a factor analysis of the responses, we extracted five factors, namely, 'confidence in knowledge and skill', attitude of supervisors,' 'safety education in workplace', 'clarity of tasks' and 'safety confirmation/report'. In studying the rating scales of the safety climate, we selected five items from each of the above five factors, and used the total scores of the ratings of the five items as scores of each factor. Then, we examined the correlation between scores of personal factors and scores of organizational environment factors. We treated the scores of safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill', which are personal factors, as criterion variables, and the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety education in workplace' and 'clarity of tasks', which are organizational environment factors, as predictor variables. As a result, we found that levels of 'safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill' can be deduced from the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety education in workplace' and 'clarity of tasks.' Hence, we have decided to use these three organizational environment

  15. Complementarity among climate related energy sources: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Raynaud, Damien; Borga, Marco; Vautard, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power are important contributors to the transitions to a low-carbon economy. Past studies, mainly based on solar and wind powers, showed that the power from such energy sources fluctuates in time and space following their driving climatic variables. However, when combining different energy sources together, their intermittent feature is smoothed, resulting to lower time variability of the produced power and to lower storage capacity required for balancing. In this study, we consider solar, wind and hydro energy sources in a 100% renewable Europe using a set of 12 regions following two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine wind and solar irradiance data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Vautard et al., 2014), temperature data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) and runoff from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC, 1999) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 30 years. The use of this set of 12 regions across Europe allows integrating knowledge about time and space variability for each different energy sources. We then assess the optimal share of each energy sources, aiming to decrease the time variability of the regional energy balance at different time scales as well as the energy storage required for balancing within each region. We also evaluate how energy transport among regions contributes for smoothing out both the energy balance and the storage requirement. The strengths of this study are i) to handle with run-of-the-river hydro power in addition to wind and solar energy sources and ii) to carry out this analysis

  16. Preliminary study on the measurement of background radiation dose at Antarctica during 32nd expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant proportion (10%) of the natural background radiation is of cosmic origin. Cosmic ray consists of gamma, protons, electrons, pions, muons, neutrons and low Z nuclei. Due to the geomagnetic effect, cosmic radiation levels at poles are higher. As a consequence, personnel working in Antarctica (or Arctic) are subjected to high level of cosmic radiation. The present study gives the details of the estimation of background radiation (neutrons, gamma and electrons) dose rate around the Indian station at Antarctica named 'Bharati' measured during 32nd Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica (32nd INSEA). The measurement was carried out by passive dosimeters such as TLDs and CR-39 and active dosimeter such as RadEye G portable gamma survey meter. Gamma and electron components were measured using TLDs and survey meter, whereas CR-39 SSNTDs and neutron sensitive TLDs were used for neutron measurements. These detectors were deployed at few selected locations around Bharati station for about 2½ months during summer expedition. The neutron detectors used in the study were pre-calibrated with 241Am-Be fast/thermal neutron source. The fast neutron dose rate measured based on CR-39 detector was found to about 140-420 nSv/h. The gamma dose rate evaluated by TLDs/survey meter are in the range of 290-400 nSv/h. (author)

  17. Analysis of China’s Haze Days in the Winter Half-Year and the Climatic Background during 1961-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lian-Chun; GAO Rong; LI Ying; WANG Guo-Fu

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of haze days and the climatic background are analyzed by using daily observations of haze, precipitation, mean and maximum wind speed of 664 meteorological stations for the period of 1961-2012. The results show that haze days occur significantly more often in eastern China than in western China. The annual number of haze days is 5-30 d in most parts of central-eastern China, with some areas experiencing more than 30 d, while less than 5 d are averagely occurring in western China. Haze days are mainly concentrated in the winter half-year, with most in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and then summer. Nearly 20% of annual haze days are experienced in December. The haze days in central-eastern China in the winter half-year have a significant increasing trend of 1.7 d per decade during 1961-2012. There were great increases in haze days in the 1960s, 1970s and the beginning of the 21st century. There was also significant abrupt changes of haze days in the early 1970s and 2000s. From 1961 to 2012, haze days in the winter half-year increased in South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and North China, but decreased in Northeast China, eastern Northwest China and eastern Southwest China. The number of persistent haze is rising. The Longer the haze, the greater the proportion to the number persistent haze. Certain climatic conditions exacerbated the occurrence of haze. The correlation coefficient between haze days and precipitation days in the winter half-year is mainly negative in central-eastern China. The precipitation days show a decreasing trend in most parts of China, with a rate of around -4.0 d per decade in central-eastern China, which reduces the sedimentation capacity of atmospheric pollutants. During the period of 1961-2012, the correlation coefficients between haze days and mean wind speed and strong wind days are mainly negative in central-eastern China, while there exists positive correlation between haze days and

  18. Supporting NGSS-aligned Study of Authentic Data about Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of climate change holds tremendous opportunity for students to learn how scientists use data to develop and test theories of how the natural world works and appreciate how climate change instantiates cross-cutting NGSS science themes like stability and change, energy and matter, and cause and effect. To do so, students and teachers need help seeing in authentic Earth system data complex climate interactions and generate plans for building greater understanding of the complexities through further data investigation. With ever-growing repositories of global and regional public data and user friendly tools for their display, K-12 educators are challenged to help students study data independently rather than through the usual pre-filtered didactic presentations of data found in textbooks. The paper will describe strategies for facilitating critical thinking about authentic climate-related data in two climate change education projects funded by NASA and NSF, as well as learning outcomes. Data Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (dicce.sri.com) brings data from NASA satellite missions to classrooms. Studying Topography, Orographic Rainfall, and Ecosystems with Geospatial Information Technology (store.sri.com) provides recent climatological and vegetation data about certain study areas in California and New York plus geospatially distributed projected values of temperature, precipitation, and land cover in 2050 and 2099, derived from NCAR's A2 climate change model. Supportive resources help students move from naïve conceptions of simple linear relationships between variables into critical analysis of what other variables could be mediating those relationships. DICCE contains guides for how to interpret multiyear trends that are evident in the NASA mission data in relation to what we know about current climate change. If a learner plots a line of best fit across multiple months or years of regional data and notices that the line is either

  19. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  20. Agricultural Climate Change and Wetland Agriculture Study under the Climate Change in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhua; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun

    2009-01-01

    With linear curvefitting, Mann-kendall method and Yamamoto method, ≥10 ℃accumulated temperature and precipitation from May to September of 6 meteorological stations (Baoqing, fujin, Jiamusi, Hegang, Jixi and Hulin) from 1978 to 2007 were used to explore 30-year agricultural climate change and trend in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature of the 6 stations have risen by 141.0 ℃ to 287.4 ℃ when estimated by their significant linear trends (n=30, α=0.05) over the last 30 years (1978 to 2007). The rates of warming for the last 30 years range from 4.70 ℃per year to 9.58 ℃ per year. There are not significant linear trends on precipitation from May to September of the 6 stations over the last 30 years. The period of 1978 to 1998 in which ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature is lower is consistent with that in which there is more precipitation from May to September, and warming and drying period has occurred in the Sanjiang Plain since 1999. Under the background of warming and drying agricultural climate, high yield cultivation of Phragmites australis and establishment of Phragmites australis-fish (crab) symbiosis ecosystem in natural mire are the ways for reasonable use of natural wetland. The area of paddy fields has been increasing from 7.25×104 ha in 1978 to 121.2×104 ha in 2006. It is proposed that paddy field range should not be expanded blindly toward the north in the Sanjiang Plain, and chilling injury forecast and prevention should be pay attention to. In the area that the chilling injury happens frequently, the rotation between rice and other crops should be implemented. Measures, which combine drainage, store and irrigation, should be taken instead of single drainage on comprehensive control of regional low and wet croplands to ensure controlling drought and flood.

  1. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity.

  2. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  3. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations. PMID:27179801

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  5. MeCP2 Related Studies Benefit from the Use of CD1 as Genetic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobolli Gigli, Clementina; Scaramuzza, Linda; Gandaglia, Anna; Bellini, Elisa; Gabaglio, Marina; Parolaro, Daniela; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Bedogni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    MECP2 mutations cause a number of neurological disorders of which Rett syndrome (RTT) represents the most thoroughly analysed condition. Many Mecp2 mouse models have been generated through the years; their validity is demonstrated by the presence of a broad spectrum of phenotypes largely mimicking those manifested by RTT patients. These mouse models, between which the C57BL/6 Mecp2tm1.1Bird strain probably represents the most used, enabled to disclose much of the roles of Mecp2. However, small litters with little viability and poor maternal care hamper the maintenance of the colony, thus limiting research on such animals. For this reason, past studies often used Mecp2 mouse models on mixed genetic backgrounds, thus opening questions on whether modifier genes could be responsible for at least part of the described effects. To verify this possibility, and facilitate the maintenance of the Mecp2 colony, we transferred the Mecp2tm1.1Bird allele on the stronger CD1 background. The CD1 strain is easier to maintain and largely recapitulates the phenotypes already described in Mecp2-null mice. We believe that this mouse model will foster the research on RTT. PMID:27097329

  6. Sub-Kelvin cooler configuration study for the Background Limited Infrared Submillimeter Spectrometer BLISS on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W.; Bock, J. J.; Matt Bradford, C.; Chui, T. C. P.; Koch, T. C.; Lamborn, A. U.; Moore, D.; Paine, C. G.; Thelen, M. P.; Yazzie, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Background Limited Infrared Submillimeter Spectrometer (BLISS) is an instrument proposed for the Japanese space borne telescope mission SPICA. The BLISS concept is a suite of grating spectrometers which combine to cover the 40-400 μm range at resolving power R˜700 with detector sensitivity approaching the natural photon background limits. To achieve the high sensitivity, the BLISS detectors require cooling to 50 mK, well below the 1.7 K cold stage provided on the SPICA spacecraft. We present a thermal architecture for BLISS that includes a thermal intercept stage actively cooled to a temperature in between the 1.7 K cold tip and the detector stage at 50 mK. This architecture requires, essentially, two coolers; one to cool the intercept stage from 1.7 K and one to cool the detectors from the intercept stage temperature to 50 mK. We compared several configurations of flight-heritage coolers to cool the intercept and detector stages. Of the various configurations studied, a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for each stage has the highest maturity, lowest heat dump at 1.7 K and total mass comparable to other approaches. Other options, such as a Herschel 3He sorption cooler-ADR hybrid and the recently demonstrated closed cycle version of the dilution cooler on Planck are also feasible for BLISS on SPICA.

  7. Shadowing the soft x-ray background by infrared cirrus: A study of selected regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Yu, Ka Chun

    1995-01-01

    Using the ROSAT and IRAS data achieves, we studied shadows in the diffuse 0.25 keV background toward infrared cirrus clouds to infer the distribution of the hot interstellar medium (ISM). Surprisingly, we found that anticorrelation between infrared emission from cirrus clouds and background x-ray intensity was present in all five galactic latitude (b approx. greater than 25 deg) fields that we selected. In two fieds, the anticorrelation is more than 30% deep, and shows particularly convincing evidence that they are due to x-ray absorption by the clouds. Assuming an average density for the local x-ray-emitting gas (T approximately 10(exp 6) K), we estimated the minimum distances to the clouds based on our best-fit x-ray intensities originating in front of the clouds. These distances are in the range of 60 to 160 pc. Therefore, we conclude that there are a considerable number of degree-size, x-ray-absorbing gas clouds at approximately 10(exp 2) pc and that large amounts of x-ray-emitting gas exist in regions beyonds these clouds.

  8. Studies of muon-induced neutrons as background for direct Dark Matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluck, Holger; Kozlov, Valentin [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: EDELWEISS-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Ambient and muon-induced neutrons constitute a prominent background for Direct Dark Matter search experiments, since neutrons lead to nuclear recoils and thus can mimic a Dark Matter signal. EDELWEISS is a Ge-bolometer experiment searching for WIMP dark matter. It is located in the underground laboratory, Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM, France). The collaboration performs monitoring of the thermal neutron flux with {sup 3}He detectors and has measured muon-induced neutrons by means of the neutron counter based on Gd-loaded liquid scintillator. Studies of muon-induced neutrons will be the main focus of the presentation and include development of the appropriate MC model based on GEANT4 and analysis of a 1000-days measurement campaign. We find a good agreement between measured rates of muon-induced neutrons and those predicted by the developed model with full event topology. The impact of the neutron background on current EDELWEISS data-taking as well as for next generation experiments such as EURECA is discussed.

  9. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  10. A Pilot Study Assesing Climate Change Impacts on Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Sevilay; Sen, Burak; Turkes, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on the growth and yield of major cereals (first and second-crop corn) as well as wheat grown in Cukurova Region in the southern Turkey have been assessed, by combining the outputs from a regional climate model with a crop growth simulation model. With its 1.1 million ha of agricultural land, the Cukurova Region is one of the major agricultural production regions in Turkey. Wheat dominates in rain-fed areas while corn crops are grown in more than 50 % of the irrigated land in the region. Thus, the Region is providing half of the country's total cereal production. Since the region has a typical Mediterranean climate with almost no rain and high temperatures during the summer months, agricultural production is vulnerable to changes in climate in terms of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and consequently shortage of water resources. To predict the future climate for the period 2070-2100, the regional climate model RegCM3 conditions was performed using IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario, and climatic parameter such as daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, radiation as well as total annual precipitation were selected for the simulation study. Data for the period 1961 to 1990 were used as historical reference. The WOFOST model was used to simulate cereal growths and yields for two different water availability senarios: 1) potential production and 2) water-limited production conditions. Potential growth represents the conditions where no limiting factor such as water and nutrients is present, however due to the water-limited production situation, water for irrigation is limited as a consequence of water shortage. The detailed results of previous field experiments carried out with three cereal crops in different locations with different regional soil and climate conditions were used for the verification of the WOFOST model. According to the verification results, the model simulated the yield with less than 5

  11. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  12. Ethnic Background and Overweight among 5-Year-Old Children: The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lydian Veldhuis; Mara van Dooremaal; Willemieke Kroeze; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A.; Hein Raat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates the association between ethnic background and overweight (obesity included) among 5 year olds. Methods. We used baseline data from 5 year olds (n = 7801) and their parents collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. A child was considered to be of non-Dutch ethnic background when at least one of the parents was born abroad. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results. Compared to children of Dutch ethnic background, f...

  13. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Moloud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002. Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  14. Background-oriented schlieren for the study of large flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Buckner, Ben; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Modern digital recording and processing techniques combined with new lighting methods and relatively old schlieren visualization methods move flow visualization to a new level, enabling a wide range of new applications and a possible revolution in the visualization of very large flow fields. This paper traces the evolution of schlieren imaging from Robert Hooke, who, in 1665, employed candles and lenses, to modern digital background oriented schlieren (BOS) systems, wherein image processing by computer replaces pure optical image processing. New possibilities and potential applications that could benefit from such a capability are examined. Example applications include viewing the flow field around full sized aircraft, large equipment and vehicles, monitoring explosions on bomb ranges, cooling systems, large structures and even buildings. Objectives of studies include aerodynamics, aero optics, heat transfer, and aero thermal measurements. Relevant digital cameras, light sources, and implementation methods are discussed.

  15. Large Area Transition Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters for Diffuse X-ray Background Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing transition edge sensor (TES) mirocalorimeters with large area (0.72 mm) absorbers to study the keV diffuse X-ray background. The goal is to develop a 2 cm array of 256 pixels for a sounding rocket payload. We present a pixel design which includes a Mo/Au bilayer TES coupled to a large (850 x 850 x 0.2 m) gold absorber. Our simulations indicate that such a design can achieve energy resolution as good as 1.6 eV FWHM in our target bandpass of 0.05-1 keV. Additionally, thermal modelling shows that for typical gold layers, the position-dependent variation of the pulse shape over the large area of the absorber is not expected to significantly degrade this energy resolution. An array of devices will be fabricated in late 2013 to test this design.

  16. Study of neutron-induced background in nat,124Sn and natZr for double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tin cryogenic bolometer to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) in 124Sn is under development at INO. In a rare decay process like NDBD where T1/2 > 1024 yrs, background understanding and minimization is critical in improving the sensitivity of the 0νββ measurement. A low background counting setup with special lead shielding has been made at TIFR for radiation background studies and material characterisation. Study of neutron-induced background becomes very crucial and will be useful to estimate n-induced background from fission in surrounding rocks at INO. With this motivation, n-induced background is investigated in nat,124Sn and natZr. In addition, n-induced reactions in ETP Cu (used in the cryostat of the dilution refrigerator) are also studied

  17. Climate, Land, Energy & Water Strategies: A Case Study of Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; H.T. van Velthuizen; Wiberg, D.; Hermann, S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the Island of Mauritius presented here is a collaborative effort between the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, the Royal Swedish Institute of Technology in Stockholm, the Agricultural Research & Extension Unit in Quatre Bornes, Mauritius and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). The Climate, Land, Energy and Water Strategies project (CLEWS) deals with integration of water, energy and land-use models to quantify resource use, greenhouse...

  18. Studies of urban climates and air pollution in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to an assessment of the factors that are responsible for urban climate change, this paper describes climatological studies and peculiarities of some Swiss cities. Although these cities are small, urban air pollution presents a real problem for urban planning. This is a result of the narow street canyons, the high traffic concentration and the complex topography, which favors air stagnation during anticyclonic weather conditions

  19. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  20. Study of Saudi Arabian climatic conditions using Hurst exponent and climatic predictability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper utilizes Hurst exponent to study the persistency of meteorological parameters individually and dependency of rainfall/precipitation on pressure and temperature using climate predictability index. For the purpose, daily averages of surface pressure and temperature and daily total rainfall data for a period of 7 years for three locations and 14 years for seven locations has been utilized. The Hurst exponents (H) for above mentioned meteorological parameters were calculated using rescaled range analysis (R/S) and absolute moments methods. These H values were used to calculate the fractal dimension D for pressure, temperature and rainfall data. Finally, these D's were used to calculate the climate predictability index PIC in terms of pressure predictability index (PIP), temperature predictability index (PIT) and rainfall predictability index (PIR). The Hurst exponent analysis showed that H values for rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed time series data for all the stations were >0.5 which is indicative of persistence behavior of the parameters on the previous values while for pressure and temperature H values were <0.5 means anti-persistence behavior. The climate predictability index showed that in most of the cases the rainfall was dependent on both pressure and temperature predictability indices. In some cases it was more dependent on pressure index than the temperature and in some cases otherwise. In Saudi Arabia there is no prevalent or established rainy season and the present analysis could not result into concrete results. It is therefore recommended to analyze the data by breaking the entire data set into seasons and further into different years.

  1. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  2. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  3. Estimating mobilized private climate finance for developing countries - A Norwegian pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn; Narbel, Patrick; Lund, Harald Francke

    2015-01-01

    The point of departure for this study is the available data in Norway on climate finance for developing countries. The bottleneck in tracking mobilized private climate finance is availability and quality of data. The main challenge is that Norwegian public institutions sourcing public support for climate finance have not yet implemented sufficient systems for measurement, reporting and verification of mobilized private climate finance. In addition, climate finance tracking is constrained by m...

  4. Climate Literacy: Climate.gov Follow-Up Evaluation—A Study of the Four NOAA Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be

  5. The hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe: background and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bygum Anette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare but serious disease marked by swelling attacks in the extremities, face, trunk, airway, or abdominal areas that can be spontaneous or the result of trauma and other triggers. It can be life-threatening due to the risk of asphyxiation. While there have been major advancements in our understanding of the immunogenetics of HAE, there are significant gaps in the literature regarding understanding of the humanistic and economic impact of the disease, particularly in Europe. The purpose of the HAE Burden of Illness Study-Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe, the development and methodology of which is described here, is to better understand the management and impact of HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. Methods/Design This is a cross-sectional study in which retrospective data were also collected being conducted in Denmark, Germany and Spain. The study is open to patients ages 12 and older with a diagnosis of HAE-I or HAE-II. Data collection includes: (i a survey on individuals’ health care resource use, direct and indirect medical costs, impact on work and school, treatment satisfaction, and emotional functioning (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and (ii one-on-one interviews to collect detailed descriptive data and patient testimonials on the impact of HAE on patients’ health-related quality of life. Discussion The present manuscript describes the development and plans for implementing a multi-country European study with the aim of characterizing the humanistic and economic burden of HAE from the patient perspective. This study will help raise awareness of HAE as a rare but debilitating condition with wide-ranging impacts.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  7. Recovery of 1960's Nimbus Satellite Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Campbell, G.

    2013-12-01

    The project completed the rescue of visible reflectance Advanced Vidicon Camera System (AVCS) and Image Dissector Camera System data (IDCS) as well as window channel High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) from Nimbus I (1964), II (1966) and III (1969) satellites. This was done to provide a resource for climate studies in the first decade of satellite data. While the current 30-year, satellite based climate record is now long enough for typical climate-scale change, it is still relatively short. Adding the data from the early Nimbus satellites pushes the record back by another 15 years. The project developed several novel methods for the recovery of data from both 35mm black and white film and the thousands of Nimbus digital tapes in the National Archive. The Nimbus HRIR Instrument (Nimbus I, II, and III) used a lead Selenide (PbSe) detector to detect +/- 10 K IR Radiation in the 3.4 and 4.2 micron bands. The AVCS digitization effort captured over 200,000 aging 112-35mm and 70-70mm film images so that they could be reanalyzed. It was critical to recover both the HRIR data and the visible light AVCS/IDCS data. The HRIR sea ice extents could not be validated without calibration to the AVCS data and during winter months the visible light AVCS data would not always be available. The project had four principle components: 1) the conversion and harmonic correction of the raw HRIR digital files recovered by Goddard Space Flight Center; 2) Scanning, geo-rectification and quality control of picture data from AVCS and IDCS held by National Climate Data Center; 3) Create sea ice extents from the recovered data on a monthly basis and 4) Release the reprocessed datasets. The digital Nimbus HRIR data represents the oldest digital satellite data in NASA's data holdings. A qualitative analysis of the early NASA Nimbus missions has revealed Antarctic sea ice extents that are significant larger and smaller than the historic 1979-2012 passive microwave record. That research study

  8. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  9. Selection of AGN to study the extragalactic background light with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is all the electromagnetic energy released by resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources since the recombination era. Its intensity and spectral shape provide information about the evolution of galaxies throughout cosmic history. Since direct observations of the EBL are very difficult to perform, the study of the interaction between the low energy EBL photons and high energy photons from distant extragalactic sources becomes relevant to constrain the EBL intensity. The main goal of this study is to investigate the opacity of the EBL to gamma rays by observing a sample of active galaxies nuclei (AGN) with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory. Current gamma-ray observations up to 20 TeV performed by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have constrained the EBL intensity in the 0.1-50 $\\mu$m region. HAWC, which monitors the gamma-ray sky in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range, will be able to detect about 10 AGN with the first year...

  10. Issues in Establishing Climate Sensitivity in Recent Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fasullo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous attempts have been made to constrain climate sensitivity with observations [1-10] (with [6] as LC09, [8] as SB11. While all of these attempts contain various caveats and sources of uncertainty, some efforts have been shown to contain major errors and are demonstrably incorrect. For example, multiple studies [11-13] separately addressed weaknesses in LC09 [6]. The work of Trenberth et al. [13], for instance, demonstrated a basic lack of robustness in the LC09 method that fundamentally undermined their results. Minor changes in that study’s subjective assumptions yielded major changes in its main conclusions. Moreover, Trenberth et al. [13] criticized the interpretation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO as an analogue for exploring the forced response of the climate system. In addition, as many cloud variations on monthly time scales result from internal atmospheric variability, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation, cloud variability is not a deterministic response to surface temperatures. Nevertheless, many of the problems in LC09 [6] have been perpetuated, and Dessler [10] has pointed out similar issues with two more recent such attempts [7,8]. Here we briefly summarize more generally some of the pitfalls and issues involved in developing observational constraints on climate feedbacks. [...

  11. Climate for Culture: assessing the impact of climate change on the future indoor climate in historic buildings using simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Leissner, J; Kilian, R; Kotova, Lola; Jacob, Daniela; Mikolajewicz, U; Brostrom, T; Ashley-Smith, J; Schellen, HL Henk; Martens, MHJ Marco; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Antretter, F.; Winkler, M.; Bertolin, C.; Camuffo, D; Simeunovic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study reports results from the large-scale integrated EU project "Climate for Culture". The full name, or title, of the project is Climate for Culture: damage risk assessment, economic impact and mitigation strategies for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change. This paper focusses on implementing high resolution regional climate models together with new building simulation tools in order to predict future outdoor and indoor climate cond...

  12. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  13. Groundwater and climate change in Africa : review of recharge studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; A M. Macdonald

    2010-01-01

    The review of recharge studies was conducted as part of a one year DFID-funded research programme, aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and local livelihoods – see http://www.bgs.ac.uk/GWResilience/. The review is one of a series of components within the project. The overall outputs of the project are: Two hydrogeological case studies in West and East Africa – which assess the storage and availability of groundwater in different aquifers a...

  14. Implications of recent multimodel attribution studies for climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is inferred from estimates of instrumental-period warming attributable solely to greenhouse gases (AW), as derived in two recent multi-model detection and attribution (D&A) studies that apply optimal fingerprint methods with high spatial resolution to 3D global climate model simulations. This approach minimises the key uncertainty regarding aerosol forcing without relying on low-dimensional models. The "observed" AW distributions from the D&A studies together with an observationally-based estimate of effective planetary heat capacity (EHC) are applied as observational constraints in (AW, EHC) space. By varying two key parameters—ECS and effective ocean diffusivity—in an energy balance model forced solely by greenhouse gases, an invertible map from the bivariate model parameter space to (AW, EHC) space is generated. Inversion of the constrained (AW, EHC) space through a transformation of variables allows unique recovery of the observationally-constrained joint distribution for the two model parameters, from which the marginal distribution of ECS can readily be derived. The method is extended to provide estimated distributions for transient climate response (TCR). The AW distributions from the two D&A studies produce almost identical results. Combining the two sets of results provides best estimates (5-95 % ranges) of 1.66 (0.7-3.2) K for ECS and 1.37 (0.65-2.2) K for TCR, in line with those from several recent studies based on observed warming from all causes but with tighter uncertainty ranges than for some of those studies. Almost identical results are obtained from application of an alternative profile likelihood statistical methodology.

  15. Long-term comparative study of columnar and surface mass concentration aerosol properties in a background environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, Y. S.; Cachorro, V. E.; Mateos, D.; Burgos, M. A.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between columnar and surface aerosol properties is not a straightforward problem. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE), and ground-level Particulate Matter (PMX, x = 10 or 2.5 μm) data have been studied from a climatological point of view. Despite the different meanings of AOD and PMx both are key and complementary quantities that quantify aerosol load in the atmosphere and many studies intend to find specific relationships between them. Related parameters such as AE and PM ratio (PR = PM2.5/PM10), giving information about the predominant particle size, are included in this study on the relationships between columnar and surface aerosol parameters. This study is based on long measurement records (2003-2014) obtained at two nearby background sites from the AERONET and EMEP networks in the north-central area of Spain. The climatological annual cycle of PMx shows two maxima along the year (one in late-winter/early-spring and another in summer), but this cycle is not followed by the AOD which shows only a summer maximum and a nearly bell shape. However, the annual means of both data sets show strong correlation (R = 0.89) and similar decreasing trends of 40% (PM10) and 38% (AOD) for the 12-year record. PM10 and AOD daily data are moderately correlated (R = 0.58), whereas correlation increases for monthly (R = 0.74) and yearly (R = 0.89) means. Scatter plots of AE vs. AOD and PR vs. PM10 have been used to characterize aerosols over the region. The PR vs. AE scatterplot of daily data shows no correlation due to the prevalence of intermediate-sized particles. As day-to-day correlation is low (especially for high turbidity events), a binned analysis was also carried out to establish consistent relationships between columnar and surface quantities, which is considered to be an appropriate approach for environmental and climate studies. In this way the link between surface concentrations and columnar remote sensing data is shown to

  16. Natural background radiation exposure in the western coastal villages of Tamil Nadu, India - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External gamma radiation fields have been measured in eleven villages situated at the southern coastal peninsular India. The average fields in the villages range from 0.7 to 3.0 μGyh-1 at the outdoor environment. The ratio between the outdoor and indoor radiation field works out to 1.7. The sea beaches adjoining the villages show average radiation fields ranging from 0.5 to 20 μGyh-1. High outdoor occupancy of the inhabitants, extending 12 hours per day, related to occupation rest and recreation is observed in the area. Significant diurnal changes are seen in the concentrations of 220Rn progeny in the indoor and outdoor atmosphere. Based on the external gamma radiation fields, occupancy factors and internal exposures, total dose of the population at the natural high background radiation area (NHBRA) has been estimated. The per capita average exposure in the coastal villages from Midalam to Muttom works out to 17 mSv per year which is 3 times higher than the earlier reported value from the NHBRA at Chavara-Neendakara. Nearly 90% of the exposure is contributed by external gamma radiation. The NHBRA which is inhabited by nearly 1 lakh fishermen offers a unique population group for radiation dosimetry and epidemiological studies. (author)

  17. Making maps of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization for B-mode studies: the POLARBEAR example

    CERN Document Server

    Poletti, Davide; Jeune, Maude Le; Peloton, Julien; Arnold, Kam; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Ducout, Anne; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaffe, Andrew H; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Keating, Brian; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T; Leon, David; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Navaroli, Martin; Paar, Hans; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Reichardt, Christian L; Ross, Colin; Siritanasak, Praween; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Stompor, Radek; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tajima, Osamu; Teply, Grant; Whitehorn, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) datasets typically requires some filtering of the raw time-ordered data. Filtering is frequently used to minimize the impact of low frequency noise, atmospheric contributions and/or scan synchronous signals on the resulting maps. In this work we explicitly construct a general filtering operator, which can unambiguously remove any set of unwanted modes in the data, and then amend the map-making procedure in order to incorporate and correct for it. We show that such an approach is mathematically equivalent to the solution of a problem in which the sky signal and unwanted modes are estimated simultaneously and the latter are marginalized over. We investigate the conditions under which this amended map-making procedure can render an unbiased estimate of the sky signal in realistic circumstances. We then study the effects of time-domain filtering on the noise correlation structure in the map domain, as well as impact it may have on the performance of the popular pseudo...

  18. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. PMID:24706527

  19. Modelling flood damages under climate change conditions – a case study for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; O. Burghoff; Willems, W.; Österle, H.; Büchner, M.; Kundzewicz, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze and discuss possible climate change impacts on flood damages in Germany. The study was initiated and supported by the German insurance sector whereby the main goal was to identify general climate-related trends in flood hazard and damages and to explore sensitivity of results to climate scenario uncertainty. The study makes use of climate scenarios regionalized for the main river basins in Germany. A hydrological model (SWIM) ...

  20. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Gök

    2009-01-01

    The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate an...

  1. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Gök, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and ...

  2. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  3. Stressing ‘Mental Stress’ in Hypertension: A Rural Background Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, Sachin Bhanudasrao; Jatti, Gajanan Madhukarrao; Jadhav, Asmita Sachin; Rajderkar, Shekhar Sakharam; Naik, Jayshree Dayanand; Nandimath, Viresh Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modern life is full of hassles, deadlines, frustrations and demands. Mental stress or psychosocial stress is one of the major risk factor for hypertension which itself is the risk factor for various other cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Climate and atmospheric modeling studies. Climate applications of Earth and planetary observations. Chemistry of Earth and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during the past year in the climate and atmospheric modeling programs concentrated on the development of appropriate atmospheric and upper ocean models, and preliminary applications of these models. Principal models are a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, a three-dimensional global climate model, and an upper ocean model. Principal applications have been the study of the impact of CO2, aerosols and the solar 'constant' on climate. Progress was made in the 3-D model development towards physically realistic treatment of these processes. In particular, a map of soil classifications on 1 degree x 1 degree resolution has been digitized, and soil properties have been assigned to each soil type. Using this information about soil properties, a method was developed to simulate the hydraulic behavior of soils of the world. This improved treatment of soil hydrology, together with the seasonally varying vegetation cover, will provide a more realistic study of the role of the terrestrial biota in climate change. A new version of the climate model was created which follows the isotopes of water and sources of water (or colored water) throughout the planet. Each isotope or colored water source is a fraction of the climate model's water. It participates in condensation and surface evaporation at different fractionation rates and is transported by the dynamics. A major benefit of this project has been to improve the programming techniques and physical simulation of the water vapor budget of the climate model.

  5. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  6. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted. PMID:24847295

  7. Advancing Collaborative Climate Studies through Globally Distributed Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Percivall, G.

    2009-12-01

    (note: acronym glossary at end of abstract) For scientists to have confidence in the veracity of data sets and computational processes not under their control, operational transparency must be much greater than previously required. Being able to have a universally understood and machine-readable language for describing such things as the completeness of metadata, data provenance and uncertainty, and the discrete computational steps in a complex process take on increased importance. OGC has been involved with technological issues associated with climate change since 2005 when we, along with the IEEE Committee on Earth Observation, began a close working relationship with GEO and GEOSS (http://earthobservations.org). GEO/GEOS provide the technology platform to GCOS who in turn represents the earth observation community to UNFCCC. OGC and IEEE are the organizers of the GEO/GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot (see http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIpilot). This continuing work involves closely working with GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) and WMO (World Meteorological Organization). This session reports on the findings of recent work within the OGC’s community of software developers and users to apply geospatial web services to the climate studies domain. The value of this work is to evolve OGC web services, moving from data access and query to geo-processing and workflows. Two projects will be described, the GEOSS API-2 and the CCIP. AIP is a task of the GEOSS Architecture and Data Committee. During its duration, two GEO Tasks defined the project: AIP-2 began as GEO Task AR-07-02, to lead the incorporation of contributed components consistent with the GEOSS Architecture using a GEO Web Portal and a Clearinghouse search facility to access services through GEOSS Interoperability Arrangements in support of the GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas. AIP-2 concluded as GEOS Task AR-09-01b, to develop and pilot new process and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common

  8. Recent Progress in Studies of Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyu; DING Yihui; ZHAO Zongci; ZHENG Jingyun; WU Tongwen; TANG Guoli; XU Ying

    2012-01-01

    An overview of basic research on climate change in recent years in China is presented. In the past 100 years in China,average annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) has increased at a rate ranging from 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 to 0.12℃ (10 yr)-1.This warming is more evident in northern China and is more significant in winter and spring.In the past 50 years in China,at least 27% of the average annual warming has been caused by urbanization.Overall,no significant trends have been detected in annual and/or summer precipitation in China on a whole for the past 100 years or 50 years. Both increases and decreases in frequencies of major extreme climate events have been observed for the past 50 years. The frequencies of extreme temperature events have generally displayed a consistent pattern of change across the country,while the frequencies of extreme precipitation events have shown only regionally and seasonally significant trends.The frequency of tropical cyclone landfall decreased slightly,but the frequency of sand/dust storms decreased significantly.Proxy records indicate that the annual mean SAT in the past a few decades is the highest in the past 400-500 years in China,but it may not have exceeded the highest level of the Medieval Warm Period (1000-1300 AD).Proxy records also indicate that droughts and floods in eastern China have been characterized by continuously abnormal rainfall periods,with the frequencies of extreme droughts and floods in the 20th century most likely being near the average levels of the past 2000 years.The attribution studies suggest that increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to be a main factor for the observed surface warming nationwide.The Yangtze River and Huaihe River basins underwent a cooling trend in summer over the past 50 years,which might have been caused by increased aerosol concentrations and cloud cover.However,natural climate variability might have been a main driver for the mean and

  9. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  10. Using large-scale climate indices in climate change ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen; Post, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns......Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns...

  11. The importance of glacier and forest change in hydrological climate-impact studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. Köplin; B. Schädler; D. Viviroli; R. Weingartner

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land cover alter the water balance components of a catchment, due to strong interactions between soils, vegetation and the atmosphere. Therefore, hydrological climate impact studies should also integrate scenarios of associated land cover change. To reflect two severe climate-induced changes in land cover, we applied scenarios of glacier retreat and forest cover increase that were derived from the temperature signals of the climate scenarios used in this study. The climate s...

  12. The importance of glacier and forest change in hydrological climate-impact studies

    OpenAIRE

    Köplin, Nina; Schädler, Bruno; Viviroli, Daniel; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Changes in land cover alter the water balance components of a catchment, due to strong interactions between soils, vegetation and the atmosphere. Therefore, hydrological climate impact studies should also integrate scenarios of associated land cover change. To reflect two severe climate-induced changes in land cover, we applied scenarios of glacier retreat and forest cover increase that were derived from the temperature signals of the climate scenarios used in this study. The climate scenario...

  13. A cross-region study: climate change adaptation in Malawi's agro-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Assa, Maganga Mulagha; Gebremariam, Gebrelibanos G.; Mapemba, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture in Malawi is vulnerable to the impacts of changing climate. Adaptation is identified as one of the options to abate the negative impacts of the changing climate. This study analyzed the factors influencing different climate change adaptation choices by smallholder farmers in Malawi. We sampled 900 farmers from all three regions of Malawi, using the multistage sampling procedure, study piloted in 2012. We analyzed smallholder farmers’ climate change adaptation choices with Multinom...

  14. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  15. An Overview of BCC Climate System Model Development and Application for Climate Change Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tongwen; WU Fanghua; LIU Yiming; ZHANG Fang; SHI Xueli; CHU Min; ZHANG Jie; FANG Yongjie; WANG Fang; LU Yixiong; LIU Xiangwen; SONG Lianchun; WEI Min; LIU Qianxia; ZHOU Wenyan; DONG Min; ZHAO Qigeng; JI Jinjun; Laurent LI; ZHOU Mingyu; LI Weiping; WANG Zaizhi; ZHANG Hua; XIN Xiaoge; ZHANG Yanwu; ZHANG Li; LI Jianglong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM) and its four component models (atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice). Two recent versions are described: BCC-CSM1.1 with coarse resolution (approximately 2.8125◦×2.8125◦) and BCC-CSM1.1(m) with moderate resolution (approximately 1.125◦×1.125◦). Both versions are fully cou-pled climate-carbon cycle models that simulate the global terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles and include dynamic vegetation. Both models well simulate the concentration and temporal evolution of atmospheric CO2 during the 20th century with anthropogenic CO2 emissions prescribed. Simulations using these two versions of the BCC-CSM model have been contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase fi ve (CMIP5) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). These simulations are available for use by both national and international communities for investigating global climate change and for future climate pro jections. Simulations of the 20th century climate using BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1(m) are presented and validated, with particular focus on the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of precipitation and surface air temperature on global and continental scales. Simulations of climate during the last millennium and pro jections of climate change during the next century are also presented and discussed. Both BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1(m) perform well when compared with other CMIP5 models. Preliminary analyses in-dicate that the higher resolution in BCC-CSM1.1(m) improves the simulation of mean climate relative to BCC-CSM1.1, particularly on regional scales.

  16. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan Arunachalam; Alejandro Valencia; Yasuyuki Akita; Serre, Marc L.; Mohammad Omary; Valerie Garcia; Vlad Isakov

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scal...

  17. Elitism and Equality in Chinese Higher Education : Studies of Student Socio-economic Background, Investment in Education, and Career Aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lihong

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an empirical pattern of social equity in Chinese higher education by investigating university students. Student socio-economic background influences access to, and socio-economic conditions in, higher education, and this, in turn, influences student career aspirations. The theoretical background of the study is interdisciplinary and a conceptual framework built on theories and previous research is used to analyse Chinese higher education in a historical...

  18. The Influence of Climate Change on Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury in the Arctic—A Model Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kaj M.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant with adverse health effects on humans and wildlife. It is of special concern in the Arctic due to accumulation in the food web and exposure of the Arctic population through a rich marine diet. Climate change may alter the exposure of the Arctic population to Hg. We have investigated the effect of climate change on the atmospheric Hg transport to and deposition within the Arctic by making a sensitivity study of how the atmospheric chemistry-transport model Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) reacts to climate change forcing. The total deposition of Hg to the Arctic is 18% lower in the 2090s compared to the 1990s under the applied Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES-A1B) climate scenario. Asia is the major anthropogenic source area (25% of the deposition to the Arctic) followed by Europe (6%) and North America (5%), with the rest arising from the background concentration, and this is independent of the climate. DEHM predicts between a 6% increase (Status Quo scenario) and a 37% decrease (zero anthropogenic emissions scenario) in Hg deposition to the Arctic depending on the applied emission scenario, while the combined effect of future climate and emission changes results in up to 47% lower Hg deposition. PMID:26378551

  19. Circulating Influenza Virus, Climatic Factors, and Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Time Series Study in England and Wales and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Hayward, Andrew; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lo, Su-Vui; Wong, Chit-Ming; Ellis, Joanna; Pebody, Richard; Smeeth, Liam; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Previous studies identifying associations between influenza and acute cardiac events may have been confounded by climatic factors. Differing seasonal patterns of influenza activity in Hong Kong and England and Wales provide a natural experiment to examine associations with myocardial infarction (MI) independent of cold weather effects. Methods. Weekly clinical and laboratory influenza surveillance data, environmental temperature and humidity data, and counts of MI-associated hospi...

  20. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan DARVISH; Mehdi ROOSTAEI; Azizi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In ...

  1. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  2. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  3. Studies of Background Levels for the NIF Yield Diagnostics from Neutron and Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Eder, D; Moran, M; Landen, O; O' Brien, D; Hsing, W

    2007-08-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is nearing completion of construction and is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) with potentially significant yield in 2010. The design of a wide range of yield diagnostics in and outside the target-bay of the NIF must consider scattered background neutrons and neutron-induced gamma rays to measure neutrons and x-rays from target. The large and complex target chamber and facility make the calculation of scattered neutrons and gamma rays extremely challenging. The NIF was designed with shielded locations for many of the yield diagnostics including the neutron alcove and four diagnostic mezzanines. Accurate calculation of the background levels in these shielded locations requires advanced Monte Carlo techniques, e.g., variance reduction. Placement, size, and materials of collimators on the line of sight (LOS) through the shielding must be evaluated to trade off signal levels and unwanted backgrounds. The background at these locations is also affected by neutrons that pass through the laser beam tubes and scatter off of structures and walls in the switch yards. Detailed 3D Monte Carlo analyses are performed to determine neutron and gamma fluxes for some of the yield diagnostics.

  4. Photon correlation study of background suppressed single InGaN nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Maekawa, Michiru; Imanishi, Yusuke; Ishizawa, Shunsuke; Nakaoka, Toshihiro; Kishino, Katsumi

    2016-04-01

    We report on a linearly polarized non-classical light emission from a single InGaN/GaN nanocolumn, which is a site-controlled nanostructure allowing for pixel-like large-scale integration. We have developed a shadow mask technique to reduce background emissions arising from nitride deposits around single nanocolumns and defect states of GaN. The signal to background ratio is improved from 0.5:1 to 10:1, which allows for detailed polarization-dependent measurement and photon-correlation measurements. Polarization-dependent measurements show that linearly polarized emissions arise from excitonic recombination involving a heavy-hole-like electronic state, corresponding to the bulk exciton of an in-plane polarized A exciton. The second-order coherence function at time zero g (2)(0) is 0.52 at 20 K without background correction. This value is explained in terms of a statistical mixture of a single-photon emission with residual weak background emissions, as well as efficient carrier injection from other localized states.

  5. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Study on the climate system and mass transport by a climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER), an organ of the National Institute for Environmental Studies of the Environment Agency of Japan, was established in October 1990 to contribute broadly to the scientific understanding of global change, and to the elucidation of and solution for our pressing environmental problems. CGER conducts environmental research from interdisciplinary, multiagency, and international perspective, provides research support facilities such as a supercomputer and databases, and offers its own data from long-term monitoring of the global environment. In March 1992, CGER installed a supercomputer system (NEC SX-3, Model 14) to facilitate research on global change. The system is open to environmental researchers worldwide. Proposed research programs are evaluated by the Supercomputer Steering Committee which consists of leading scientists in climate modeling, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and computer science. After project approval, authorization for system usage is provided. In 1995 and 1996, several research proposals were designated as priority research and allocated larger shares of computer resources. The CGER supercomputer monograph report Vol. 3 is a report of priority research of CGER's supercomputer. The report covers the description of CCSR-NIES atmospheric general circulation model, lagragian general circulation based on the time-scale of particle motion, and ability of the CCSR-NIES atmospheric general circulation model in the stratosphere. The results obtained from these three studies are described in three chapters. We hope this report provides you with useful information on the global environmental research conducted on our supercomputer

  8. Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

  9. A multi-model study of impacts of climate change on surface ozone in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Langner, J.; M. Engardt; A. Baklanov; J. H. Christensen; Gauss, M.; C. Geels; G. B. Hedegaard; Nuterman, R.; Simpson, D.; Soares, J; Sofiev, M.; Wind, P.; Zakey, A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of climate change on surface ozone over Europe was studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models (CTMs) and one online regional integrated climate-chemistry model (CCM), driven by the same global projection of future climate under the SRES A1B scenario. Anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors from RCP4.5 for year 2000 were used for simulations of both present and future periods in order to isolate the impact of climate change and to assess the...

  10. Study on Characteristics of Climatic Variation in Yanhe Watershed during 1974-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes of Yanhe watershed during 1974-2004. [Method] The monthly temperature and precipitation during 1974-2004 in seven representative stations in Yanhe watershed were chosen. By dint of climate statistics analysis method, accumulated anomaly and signal/noise ratio method, the regional temperature and precipitation changes in recent 31 years were expounded and its changes features and the year having climate mutation were found out. [Result] The climate changes...

  11. A hyperspectral imager for high radiometric accuracy Earth climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Joey; Drake, Ginger; Heuerman, Karl; Kopp, Greg; Lieber, Alex; Smith, Paul; Vermeer, Bill

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a visible and near-infrared prototype pushbroom hyperspectral imager for Earth climate studies that is capable of using direct solar viewing for on-orbit cross calibration and degradation tracking. Direct calibration to solar spectral irradiances allow the Earth-viewing instrument to achieve required climate-driven absolute radiometric accuracies of instrument features an attenuation system that uses an optimized combination of different precision aperture sizes, neutral density filters, and variable integration timing for Earth and solar viewing. The optical system consists of a three-mirror anastigmat telescope and an Offner spectrometer. The as-built system has a 12.2° cross track field of view with 3 arcmin spatial resolution and covers a 350-1050 nm spectral range with 10 nm resolution. A polarization compensated configuration using the Offner in an out of plane alignment is demonstrated as a viable approach to minimizing polarization sensitivity. The mechanical design takes advantage of relaxed tolerances in the optical design by using rigid, non-adjustable diamond-turned tabs for optical mount locating surfaces. We show that this approach achieves the required optical performance. A prototype spaceflight unit is also demonstrated to prove the applicability of these solar cross calibration methods to on-orbit environments. This unit is evaluated for optical performance prior to and after GEVS shake, thermal vacuum, and lifecycle tests.

  12. Radiation climate and water use studies in intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to find out radiation climate and water use in intercropping in order to select suitable crop components. Mustard, gram and pea were grown as intercrops of wheat at four irrigation water depth (IW) and cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) ratios. The photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was again observed to be maximum (0.73 to 0.94 langley min-1) in mustard as compared to pure wheat (0.75 - 0.84 langley min-1), pea (0.20 - 0.84 langley min-1) and gram (0.64 - 0.82 langley min-1) in the mixture. Total radiation in wheat (1.33 - 1.5 langley min-1) with mustard as intercrop was very close to that of pure wheat. Light intensity (LI) was also higher (84.0 - 107.6 x 1000 lux) in mustard compared to pea (77.5 - 98.0 x 1000 lux) and gram (95.8 - 104.4 x 1000 lux). Wheat and mustard mixture was more productive than other intercrops with better water use efficiency and maximum utilization of radiation climate

  13. Molecular dynamics study of nanoparticle evolution in a background gas under laser ablation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouriet, K.; Zhigilei, L. V.; Itina, T. E.

    2009-03-01

    Long-time evolution of nanoparticles produced by short laser interactions is investigated for different materials. To better understand the mechanisms of the nanoparticle formation at a microscopic level, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyse the evolution of a cluster in the presence of a background gas with different parameters (density and temperature). In particular, we compare the simulation results obtained for materials with different interaction potentials (Morse, Lennard-Jones, and Embedded Atom Model). Attention is focused on the evaporation and condensation processes of a cluster with different size and initial temperature. As a result of the MD calculations, we determinate the influence of both cluster properties and background gas parameters on the nanoparticle evolution. The role of the interaction potential is discussed based on the results of the simulations.

  14. Using Octupoles for Background Control in Linear Colliders an Exploratory Conceptual Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pitthan, R

    1999-01-01

    If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires co operation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octup...

  15. Optimization of a fluorescence X-ray source and background studies for a prospective CNNS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is predicted by the Standard Model but hasn't been measured yet. A good background discrimination and shielding is essential for the achievement of a prospective experiment. We show the results of simulations for background discrimination and suppression using a myon veto system in combination with a shielding around a cryostat. With CNNS, the expected nuclear recoil energy for reactor anti-neutrinos is in the range of < or similar 4 keV. Thus a calibration source within this energy region is necessary. Two different methods to create fluorescence are discussed and measured energy spectra will be shown. Finally results of an improved fluorescence x-ray source with nine clearly separated energy lines between ∝1 keV and 6.5 keV are shown.

  16. Challenging current approaches to climate change adaptation : A study of climate change adaptation in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The world is on track for four degrees Celsius of global warming under current carbon emission trends, and with this the limits for human and environmental adaptation are likely to be exceeded in many parts of the world. Climate changes affect normal people in their complex everyday lives in contexts of different risks and challenges Adaptation happens in different ways in different places, resulting in different local outcomes responding to a global phenomenon. Today’s climate change adaptat...

  17. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  18. A review of the studies on the high background radiation areas of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important places among the well documented high background radiation areas (HBRA) of the world inhabited by sizable populations are : Guarapari (Brazil), Yangjiang (China), Chavara and Manavalakkurichy (India), and Ramsar (Iran). While the source of the high background radiation is monazite deposits in the first three cases, radium in soil/water and radon in air are the sources of high background radiation in Ramsar. In India, there are quite a few monazite placer deposits along its long coastal line: Ullal (Karnataka), Chavara (Kerala), Manavalakkurichy and Kalpakkam (Tamilnadu), and Chatrapur (Orissa). During the last three decades many investigations have been carried out in these areas covering various aspects such as radiation dosimetry, biological effects, ecological effects, epidemiology etc. Reports, often vague and inconclusive, continue to appear in literature on topics like genetic effects, cancer risk, hormesis, radon dose estimates etc. A summary of all the important results reported so far, as well as some thoughts on possible future programmes in these areas are presented. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch Simon; Waters Elizabeth; McNair Ruth; Power Jennifer; Davis Elise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experi...

  20. A qualitative study of the background and in-hospital medicolegal response to female burn injuries in India

    OpenAIRE

    Daruwalla, N.; Belur, J.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V; Sarabahi, S.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Most burns happen in low- and middle-income countries. In India, deaths related to burns are more common in women than in men and occur against a complex background in which the cause – accidental or non-accidental, suicidal or homicidal – is often unclear. Our study aimed to understand the antecedents to burns and the problem of ascribing cause, the sequence of medicolegal events after a woman was admitted to hospital, and potential opportunities for improvement. Methods We conduc...

  1. Rural/urban Background, Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Chinese College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Heng; Jian LI; Loerbroks, Adrian; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. Methods A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins’ Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R). Associations between rural vs. urban background, dep...

  2. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  3. Reframing climate change as a public health issue: an exploratory study of public reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is taking a toll on human health, and some leaders in the public health community have urged their colleagues to give voice to its health implications. Previous research has shown that Americans are only dimly aware of the health implications of climate change, yet the literature on issue framing suggests that providing a novel frame - such as human health - may be potentially useful in enhancing public engagement. We conducted an exploratory study in the United States of people's reactions to a public health-framed short essay on climate change. Methods U.S. adult respondents (n = 70, stratified by six previously identified audience segments, read the essay and were asked to highlight in green or pink any portions of the essay they found "especially clear and helpful" or alternatively "especially confusing or unhelpful." Two dependent measures were created: a composite sentence-specific score based on reactions to all 18 sentences in the essay; and respondents' general reactions to the essay that were coded for valence (positive, neutral, or negative. We tested the hypothesis that five of the six audience segments would respond positively to the essay on both dependent measures. Results There was clear evidence that two of the five segments responded positively to the public health essay, and mixed evidence that two other responded positively. There was limited evidence that the fifth segment responded positively. Post-hoc analysis showed that five of the six segments responded more positively to information about the health benefits associated with mitigation-related policy actions than to information about the health risks of climate change. Conclusions Presentations about climate change that encourage people to consider its human health relevance appear likely to provide many Americans with a useful and engaging new frame of reference. Information about the potential health benefits of specific mitigation

  4. The influence of hot arid climate on the use of outdoor urban spaces and thermal comfort: do cultural and social backgrounds matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aljawabra, Faisal; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2010-01-01

    Climate-sensitive open spaces within cities may benefit the three dimensions of sustainability affecting economic, social and environmental factors. Aiming to improve microclimatic conditions in urban spaces can enable people to spend more time outdoors, with the potential to influence the social cohesion of a space and increase economic activity. The wider aim of this research was to develop a better understanding of the complex relation between microclimate and human behaviour in open publi...

  5. a Low-Background Detector for the Study of Electron - Interactions on Deuterons and Protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Steven Paul

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is a detector system capable of a high-precision measurement of the cross section for the disintegration of the deuteron via neutral and charged current interactions with reactor antineutrinos (|nu_{e}d to |nu_{e}pn and |nu_{e}d to e^ {+}nn). In the past, the background to this reaction due to cosmic-rays interacting in the surrounding materials was high--around 300 per day--compared to the signal rate of 50 per day. It will be shown that improvements to the active and passive shielding, as well as improvements to the data collection system have reduced this background rate to less than 50 per day. Based on the measured backgrounds, an experimental precision of 4% is extrapolated for the determination of the isovector-axialvector coupling constant (beta) of the hadronic weak neutral current. At the low energies available at a nuclear reactor, the neutral current disintegration cross section is directly proportional to the square of this coupling constant and is independent of the other possible couplings. In the standard electroweak theory of Weinberg and Salam, the isovector-axialvector coupling is independent of the Weinberg angle, thus measurement of the neutral current disintegration provides an unambiguous test of this component of the theory. An improved method of detecting neutrino oscillation using the ratio of measured to predicted cross sections for the neutral and charged current reactions is also explored. By measuring the cross section for the charged current reaction on the proton instead of the deuteron, it will be shown that the experimental uncertainty in the ratio of cross sections can be reduced to the 1% level.

  6. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256

  7. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices. (author)

  8. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano S, A. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico))

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices.

  9. Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrián, S.; Rodríguez, A; M. Kuster(Technische Universität Darmstadt); Beltrán, B; Carmona, J.M.; H Gómez; Hartmann, R.; Irastorza, I. G.; R. Kotthaus; Luzón, G.; MORALES, J., CRUZ, D., DELGADO, P., LIZANA, M., LÓPEZ, V.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz(Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain); Ruz, J.; Strüder, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components...

  10. A simulation-based study of the neutron backgrounds for NaI dark matter experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, E. J.; Kim, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with a significance of 9.2σ. Recently, Jonathan Davis claimed that the DAMA modulation may be interpreted on the basis of the neutron scattering events induced by the muons and neutrinos together. We tried to simulate the neutron backgrounds at the Gran Sasso and Yangyang laboratory with and without the polyethylene shielding to quantify the effects of the ambient neutrons on the direct detection experiments based on the crystals.

  11. Beam Induced Background Simulation Studies at IR1 with New High Luminosity LHC Layout

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218654; Gibson, Stephen; Bruce, Roderik; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Lechner, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the collimation system will be upgraded in the high-luminosity experimental regions. Additional protection is planned for the Q4 and Q5 magnets that are located further upstream of the tertiary collimators that protect the inner triplet magnets. We evaluate the effect of this proposed collimation layout for the incoming beam 1 on machine-induced background in the experimental area of IR1 (ATLAS). The main scenario is the round optics with β$^∗$ of 15 cm, but a flat scenario is also briefly discussed

  12. A qualitative study on the role of cultural background in patients' perspectives on rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheermesser Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is one of the major concerns in health care. In Switzerland, musculoskeletal problems represent the third largest illness group with 9.4 million consultations per year. The return to work rate is increased by an active treatment program and saves societal costs. However, results after rehabilitation are generally poorer in patients with a Southeast European cultural background than in other patients. This qualitative research about the rehabilitation of patients with LBP and a Southeast European cultural background, therefore, explores possible barriers to successful rehabilitation. Methods We used a triangulation of methods combining three qualitative methods of data collection: 13 semi-structured in-depth interviews with patients who have a Southeast European cultural background and live in Switzerland, five semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with health professionals, and a literature review. Between June and December 2008, we recruited participants at a Rehabilitation Centre in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results To cope with pain, patients prefer passive strategies, which are not in line with recommended coping strategies. Moreover, the families of patients tend to support passive behaviour and reduce the autonomy of patients. Health professionals and researchers propagate active strategies including activity in the presence of pain, yet patients do not consider psychological factors contributing to LBP. The views of physicians and health professionals are in line with research evidence demonstrating the importance of psychosocial factors for LBP. Treatment goals focusing on increasing daily activities and return to work are not well understood by patients partly due to communication problems, which is something that patients and health professionals are aware of. Additional barriers to returning to work are caused by poor job satisfaction and other work

  13. Study of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in soil using low background gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing concern in the state of Punjab arising due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) after high concentration levels of uranium was observed in ground water besides nails and hair of children. The concentration levels of 238U, 232 Th and 40K in top soil were measured using low background gamma ray spectrometric setup. The concentration of NORM was found to be similar to what is expected as a result of their normal abundance but was found to be lower than what has been observed in the state of Jharkhand. In addition to NORM the fall out radionuclide 137Cs was also observed in soil samples. (author)

  14. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  15. Contribution of anthropology to the study of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica; Dove, Michael; Lahsen, Myanna; Mathews, Andrew; McElwee, Pamela; McIntosh, Roderick; Moore, Frances; O'Reilly, Jessica; Orlove, Ben; Puri, Rajindra; Weiss, Harvey; Yager, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the challenge that climate change poses and crafting appropriate adaptation and mitigation mechanisms requires input from the breadth of the natural and social sciences. Anthropology's in-depth fieldwork methodology, long engagement in questions of society-environment interactions and broad, holistic view of society yields valuable insights into the science, impacts and policy of climate change. Yet the discipline's voice in climate change debates has remained a relatively marginal one until now. Here, we identify three key ways that anthropological research can enrich and deepen contemporary understandings of climate change.

  16. Selected applications of isotopes in studies of ocean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present and discuss applications of isotope and other tracer data (3H, 3 He, Ne and 18O) to studies of ocean climate. Specifically, we address the variability of deep water formation the Greenland Sea, the variability in Arctic Ocean freshwater components, and the addition of glacial meltwater to the shelves around Antarctica. Changes in deep water formation rates in the Greenland Sea (ca. 80% from 0.5 to 0.1 Sv) were determined using a time series of tritium/3 He data. Reduction of the fraction of meteoric water along a section across the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean occupied in 1991 and 1996 were derived from δ18O and salinity measurements. Ne and δ18O data were used to calculate fractions of glacial meltwater (ca. 4 per mille) in plumes of ice shelf water flowing out from underneath the Ross Ice Shelf. (author)

  17. Quantitative study of unstable chromosome aberrations following life time exposure of high background radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To obtain a quantitative data regarding high background radiation-induced human chromosome aberrations by using advanced techniques. Methods: Environmental exposure dose for each individual was carefully measured. The estimated life-time doses ranged 25.2-244.8 and 5.4-51.7 mGy for individuals from the high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area, respectively. Peripheral blood specimens were taken from 28 family members of three different generations in both areas. Purified lymphocyte culture technique for chromosome preparation was adopted and a total number of 70000 metaphases were scored. Results: In the case of HBRA, the frequencies of Dic + Rc increased with age, but no age-dependency was observed in subjects from the control area. The mean aberration yields significantly in excess of control value were seen in two older age groups. The aberration frequencies increased in proportion to the cumulative dose of the individuals living in HBRA. The estimated rate of increase per mGy was 1.5 x 10-5 per cell. Conclusion: It seems that Dic can continuously accumulated over life-time chronic low dose exposure and can serve as a reliable biological indicator. When the dose reduces to about 50 mGy, however, it becomes difficult to use to current method for quantitative analysis

  18. Investigating the Contributions of Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension Strategies to L2 Reading Comprehension: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2011-01-01

    While a number of studies have investigated the influence of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies on comprehension, no L2 research exists examining and comparing the unique contributions of these two variables examined together. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the combined and individual…

  19. STUDY OF CLIMATE EVOLUTION OF THE TITU-OGREZENI IRRIGATION SYSTEM PERIMETER BY ANALYSIS OF CLIMATIC DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Zamfir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our country's climate shows great changes both in time and space. These changes are also reflected on agriculturalproductions that also sometime presents substantial differences from one year to another and from one area to another.Based on statistical analyses on large arrays of years, it results that in Romania, the dry years are in very highproportion going up to 70%.For getting to knowing requirements from water of major agricultural crops, by the study achieved mainly thenecessary dimensioning of water for irrigations using the climate deficit method has been considered.From the chronological sequence analysis of years, under the climatic deficit, the change of this in a positive way thatleads to the need for irrigations is come out. Given the set of climatic parameters, the model that approximates the bestthe evolution tendency as some parametrical equations has been studied. Since 2009, for the next 57 years the trendline of the evolution of climatic deficit is clearly increasing in the months May-August.

  20. Solar cycle study of interplanetary Lyman-alpha variations - Pioneer Venus Orbiter sky background results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVO observations of the interplanetary Ly-alpha (IPL) background, obtained over an entire solar cycle (SC) from 1979 to 1985, are compiled and analyzed statistically, along with data from other instruments and earlier solar cycles. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Findings reported include SC variation of 1.8 for the longitudinally averaged IPL intensity (in agreement with the variation of the 27-d disk-averaged integrated solar Ly-alpha flux), yearly averaged ecliptic H-atom lifetime at 1 AU equal to 1.0 Ms at solar minimum and 1.5 Ms at solar maximum, interplanetary H density equal to 0.07 + or - 0.01/cu cm, and interplanetary H/He within the heliopause but far from the sun of 7 + or - 3. 74 references

  1. Procedures for treating common cause failures in safety and reliability studies: Analytical background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume I of this report presents a framework for the inclusion of the impact of common cause failures in risk and reliability evaluations. Common cause failures are defined as that subset of dependent failures for which causes are not explicitly included in the logic model as basic events. The emphasis here is on providing procedures for a practical, systematic approach that can be used to perform and clearly document the analysis. The framework and the methods discussed for performing the different stages of the analysis integrate insights obtained from engineering assessments of the system and the historical evidence from multiple failure events into a systematic, reproducible, and defensible analysis. This document, Volume 2, contains a series of appendices that provide additional background and methodological detail on several important topics discussed in Volume I

  2. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  3. Study of fluctuation induced particle flux in the background of ETG plasma in LVPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and numerical investigations on plasma transport in fusion devices suggest that turbulent electron thermal transport due to ETG turbulence is probably a major source for plasma loss in fusion devices. Direct identification of this instability in fusion devices is a very difficult task because of its extremely small-scale length but indirect inferences support the theoretical work. Unambiguous excitation of Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) turbulence is demonstrated in the steady state, collision less Argon plasma of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) because of measurable length-scale and time-scale. In this paper, we report the fluctuation-induced particle transport in ETG unstable regime of the LVPD. In LVPD, investigations on fluctuation induced plasma transport is carried out for two different plasmas namely, when ETG turbulence is present i.e., γ = Ln/LT > 2/3, where Ln and LT are the gradient scale lengths of plasma density and electron temperature and when ETG is absent. We have measured particle flux by measuring the fluctuations of plasma density and plasma potential, making use of a 6- pin probe assembly. Poloidally separated pair of emissive probes is used to measure the potential fluctuations as finite temperature fluctuations (δTe/Te ∼ 13 %) are present in the background plasma. The time-averaged flux is calculated in both scenarios and initial results do indicate that the direction of flux is radially inward in an ETG dominated regime and the ETG absent regime has radially outward particle flux. The calculated Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for the particle flux, density and potential fluctuations is found to be non- Gaussian. It is leptokurtic with its peak at the centre and fatter wings. The inward particle flux in the background of ETG is an interesting observation and detailed experimental and theoretical discussion on it will be presented at the conference. (author)

  4. Joint implementation: a pioneer mechanism within the limits of emissions - Climate study nr 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors first notice that much has been written about the Clean Development mechanism defined in the Kyoto protocol, but also that the Joint Implementation mechanism has an always increasing importance. Provided that always more countries would adopt greenhouse gas emissions thresholds and the Joint Implementation after the Durban conference, they analyse the Joint Implementation mechanism operation in comparison with the Clean Development mechanism. They address the economic and environmental background of the Joint Implementation. Then, they analyse quantitative aspects of this mechanism, develop a model for the assessment of the potential offer in carbon credits. They discuss the qualitative aspects of the Joint Implementation mechanism: environmental integrity, double accounting, perceived concurrence of national climate policies. Case studies are presented (Russia, Ukraine, France, EU, etc.)

  5. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    environment change, formation mechanism and prediction theory of major climate and weather disasters in China, technologies of efficient use of clean energy, energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency, development and utilisation technology of renewable energy and new energy. The EU recognises that developing countries, such as China and India, need to strengthen their economies through industrialisation. However this needs to be achieved at the same time as protecting the environment and sustainable use of energy. The EU has committed itself to assisting developing countries to achieve their goals in four priority areas: 1) raising the policy profile of climate change; 2) support for adaption to climate change; 3) support for mitigation of climate change; and 4) capacity development. This comparative study is part of the EU funded SPRING project which seeks to understand and assess Chinese and European competencies, with the aim of facilitating greater cooperation in future climate and environment research.

  6. Planning for climate change: The need for mechanistic systems-based approaches to study climate change impacts on diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Levy, Karen; Zimmerman, Julie; Elliott, Mark; Bartram, Jamie; Carlton, Elizabeth; Clasen, Thomas; Dillingham, Rebecca; Eisenberg, Joseph; Guerrant, Richard; Lantagne, Daniele; Mihelcic, James; Nelson, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Increased precipitation and temperature variability as well as extreme events related to climate change are predicted to affect the availability and quality of water globally. Already heavily burdened with diarrheal diseases due to poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, communities throughout the developing world lack the adaptive capacity to sufficiently respond to the additional adversity caused by climate change. Studies suggest that diarrhea rates are positively correlated with increased temperature, and show a complex relationship with precipitation. Although climate change will likely increase rates of diarrheal diseases on average, there is a poor mechanistic understanding of the underlying disease transmission processes and substantial uncertainty surrounding current estimates. This makes it difficult to recommend appropriate adaptation strategies. We review the relevant climate-related mechanisms behind transmission of diarrheal disease pathogens and argue that systems-based mechanistic approaches incorporating human, engineered and environmental components are urgently needed. We then review successful systems-based approaches used in other environmental health fields and detail one modeling framework to predict climate change impacts on diarrheal diseases and design adaptation strategies. PMID:26799810

  7. Characteristics of the spatiotemporal distribution of daily extreme temperature events in China: Minimum temperature records in different climate states against the background of the most probable temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhong-Hua; Hu Jing-Guo; Feng Guo-Lin; Cao Yong-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the skewed function,the most probable temperature is defined and the spatiotemporal distributions of the frequencies and strengths of extreme temperature events in different climate states over China are investigated,where the climate states are referred to as State Ⅰ,State Ⅱ and State Ⅲ,i.e.,the daily minimum temperature records of 1961-1990,1971-2000,and 1981-2009.The results show that in space the frequency of high temperature events in summer decreases clearly in the lower and middle reaches of the Yellow River in State Ⅰ and that low temperature events decrease in northern China in State Ⅱ.In the present state,the frequency of high temperature events increases significantly in most areas over China except the north east,while the frequency of low temperature events decreases mainly in north China and the regions between the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.The distributions of frequencies and strengths of extreme temperature events are consistent in space.The analysis of time evolution of extreme events shows that the occurrence of high temperature events become higher with the change in state,while that of low temperature events decreases.High temperature events are becoming stronger as well and deserve to be paid special attention.

  8. A Review of Decadal/Interdecadal Climate Variation Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇银; 何金海; 朱锦红

    2004-01-01

    Decadal/interdecadal climate variability is an important element in the CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability) and has received much attention in the world. Many studies in relation to interdecadal variation have also been completed by Chinese scientists in recent years. In this paper, an introduction in outline for interdecadal climate variation research in China is presented. The content includes the features of interdecadal climate variability in China, global warming and interdecadal temperature variability,the NAO (the North Atlantic Oscillation)/NPO (the North Pacific Oscillation) and interdecadal climate variation in China, the interdecadal variation of the East Asian monsoon, the interdecadal mode of SSTA (Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly) in the North Pacific and its climate impact, and abrupt change feature of the climate.

  9. Background Oriented Schlieren Applied to Study Shock Spacing in a Screeching Circular Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.; Fagan, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a recent development of the schlieren and shadowgraph methods. The BOS technique has the ability to provide visualizations of the density gradient in both the axial and radial directions. The resultant magnitude of the density gradients allows for comparison with shadowgraph images. This paper first compares data obtained by the BOS and shadowgraph techniques at identical conditions in a free jet. The patterns and spacing of the shock trains obtained by the two techniques are found to be consistent with one another. This provides confidence in the shock spacing measurement by the BOS technique. Due to its simpler setup, BOS is then applied to investigate the shock spacing associated with the screech phenomenon, especially during stage jumps. Screech frequencies from a 37.6 mm convergent nozzle, as a function of jet Mach number (M(sub j)), are shown to exhibit various stages. As many as eight stages are identified with the present nozzle over the range 1.0 < M(sub j) <1.7. BOS images are acquired at various screech conditions and the shock spacing is examined as a function of M(sub j).

  10. High-impedence NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nones, Claudia; Benoit, Alain; Bergé, Laurent; Bideau, Aurelien; Camus, Philippe; Dumoulin, Louis; Monfardini, Alessandro; Rigaut, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology, because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based s...

  11. Study of thorium uptake by inhabitants of a high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buena, located in the North of Rio de Janeiro, is characterized by its high natural radiation background, due to large deposits of monazite sand. The foodstuffs consumed by the population are basically composed of local products, which contain significant amounts of thorium. The analysis of complete cooked meals have shown an average daily intake of 18 mBq.d-1 of 232Th and 189 mBq.d-1 of 228Th. The average urine to feces ratio of 232Th from samples of volunteers was found equal to 7.5x10-2 . The comparison of the experimental data with the predicted urine to feces ratios derived using the biokinetic model for thorium described by the ICRP publication 69 and simulating inhalation and ingestion separately, lead to the conclusion that the thorium intake is a combination of inhalation and ingestion. The clearance rate of thorium of monazite in lungs has apparently behaved as Type M compound. Inhalation is the biggest contributor for the committed effective dose due to thorium internal exposure. (author)

  12. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Study of v interactions and background estimation in the OPERA emulsion film detector

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus ) experiment or CNGS1 was approved in 2001 by CERN and presently is under construction. Data-taking is expected to start in 2006. The experiment is designated to the νμ  ντ oscillation search. OPERA is a hybrid detector comprising a number of electronic detectors and a specially designed nuclear emulsion stack interlaced with lead plates. The total target mass of the detector will be about 1.8 kt. This impressive mass needed for neutrino detection is combined with an even more impressive spatial resolution of about a m , characteristic of the nuclear emulsion technique. The detection of ντ is based on the observation of the decay of the τ lepton. The fine grained structure of nuclear emulsions offers the possibility to directly observe such a decay and by the means of kinematical analysis can be clearly separated from background events. Nuclear emulsions will be produced and processed in industrial quantities and the readout will be don...

  14. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the IRAS Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at λ > 100 μm. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at Td = 20 endash 30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with Td ∼ 10 endash 15 K suggest that between 2%endash 100% of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 μm suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by IRAS and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65%. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  15. The Impact of a Mastery Motivational Climate on Obese and Overweight Children's Commitment to and Enjoyment of Physical Activity: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kent; Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obese and overweight children are often cast as being lazy or unmotivated in regards to participation in physical activity. Purpose: Based on the social cognitive principle of triadic reciprocality, this pilot study was designed to examine the impact of a mastery motivational climate on overweight and obese children's commitment to,…

  16. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa; Manissha Srivastav

    2013-01-01

    Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers’ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristic...

  17. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion The TOHNN study has the

  18. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Eirin Holde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design: Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79 and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world. Results: From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3% people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3% were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3% and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%. There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001 and education level (p < 0.001. The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion: The TOHNN

  19. Candidate Genes Detected in Transcriptome Studies are Strongly Dependent on Genetic Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Loeschcke, Volker; Paige, Ken N; Sørensen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate gene...

  20. Climate change and its impacts on crop production: A case study in Khotang district of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Kabindra

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to study climate change and its impacts on major crops production in Khotang district of Nepal. The effect of climate variables on crops yield and farmers` respond to climate change in the last eight to ten years were studied and analyzed. Monthly precipitation data in Aiselukharka, Kuruleghat, Khotangbajar and Diktel; and monthly minimum and maximum air temperatures data in Okhaldhunga, Chainpur East and Udayapur Gadhi available from the Department of Hydrology ...

  1. Study of the influence of solar variability on a regional (Indian) climate: 1901-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin

    2014-01-01

    We use Indian temperature data of more than 100 years to study the influence of solar activity on climate. We study the Sun-climate relationship by averaging solar and climate data at various time scales; decadal, solar activity and solar magnetic cycles. We also consider the minimum and maximum values of sunspot number (SSN) during each solar cycle. This parameter SSN is correlated better with Indian temperature when these data are averaged over solar magnetic polarity epochs (SSN maximum to...

  2. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  3. Hotspots and social background of urban traffic crashes: A case study in Cluj-Napoca (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, József; Ciobanu, Silviu Marian; Man, Titus Cristian

    2016-02-01

    Mobility practices have changed dramatically in Romanian towns over the last 25 years, following the collapse of socialist mobility restrictions. Urban areas like Cluj-Napoca are facing both increasing immigration and car mobility, and therefore increasing levels of road traffic crashes. The analysis of traffic crashes is one of the most important elements for improving the road safety policy. This paper is divided in two parts. In the first one, the authors focus on identifying the traffic crash hotspots along the street network, while in the second part they discuss the social background of road traffic crash occurrence. The first step in analyzing traffic crashes is to determine crash hotspots. A four-year record (2010-2013) provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD) was used. As a method of hotspot determination, the Kernel Density Estimation tool was employed, in the frame of the spatial analysis along network (SANET). The outcome was the hotspot map of traffic crashes in Cluj-Napoca. The results have revealed 4 categories of street segments: not-dangerous, low-dangerous, medium-dangerous and high-dangerous. Based on this classification, at least 4 dangerous areas were identified, located at the city entrances-exits (in the West, North-West and East) and the city center (the most dangerous zone). The second part of the paper focuses on social groups involved in car crashes. The following are considered: age, gender and blood alcohol concentration of the person (driver or pedestrian) found guilty for every individual crash. PMID:26680130

  4. Renewable energy sources and climate protection. Background information - technologies - projecting - economic efficiency. 2. upd. ed.; Erneuerbare Energien und Klimaschutz. Hintergruende - Techniken - Anlagenplanung - Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW), Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet ' ' Regenerative Energiesysteme' '

    2010-07-01

    Every year, it becomes clearer that the global climate change has already started. As an effective countermeasure, experts have long been calling for a fast restructuring of our power supply system. Renewable energy sources will be capable of taking over completely within just a few decades. This new edition of the book outlines the vast spectrum of renewable energy sources, from solar and wind power to geothermal heat and biomass. The technologies are described, along with information on their current state of the art and future prospects, and information is provided for projecting and construction of renewable power supply systems. Legal regulations and available financial incentives are listed. Environmental aspects and interdependences between the various technologies are discussed as well as their economic efficiency. In spite of the wealth of information it provides, the book is written in a clear and sometimes even humorous manner and addresses experts as well as the lay public. (orig.)

  5. Background reduction in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using segmented detectors-A Monte Carlo study for the GERDA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of gamma radiation is essential for a new generation of double beta decay experiments. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy, uses germanium, enriched in Ge76, as source and detector, and aims at a background level of less than 10-3counts/(kgkeVy) in the region of the Qββ-value. For the first time highly segmented detectors will be installed in a double beta decay experiment. A detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo study was performed to evaluate the background reduction achievable by anti-coincidence cuts between crystals and segments. Within the overall geometry of GERDA, the segmentation scheme considered here provides around an order of magnitude of extra background reduction

  6. Study on spatial resolution of micromegas as a neutron detector under condition of high neutron flux and γ ray background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Xin; ZHANG Yi; WANG Ji-Jin; HU Bi-Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper Micromegas has been designed to detect neutrons. The simulation of the spatial reso-lution of Micromegas as neutron detector is carried out by GEANT4 toolkit. The neutron track reconstruction method based on the time coincidence technology is employed in the present work. The influence of the flux of incident 14 MeV neutron and high gamma background on the spatial resolution is carefully studied. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the detector is sensitive to the neutron flux, but insensitive to the intensity of γ background if the neutron track reconstruction method proposed by our group is used. The γ insensitivity makes it possible for us to use the Micromegas detector under condition which has high γ-rays background.

  7. Study of the low energy background radiation and the effects of the 222Rn in the LSD underground experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of the low energy background radiation has been performed under several conditions in the underground experiment at Mt. Blanc laboratory. The information gathered using three different types of detectors: LSD (90 tons of liquid scintillator) with energy threshold Eth > 800 KeV, Nal (5'x5') with Eth > 220 KeV and a Radon-meter (alpha spectrometer) running at the same time, has been analyzed during long and continuous time periods. It was found that the variations in counting rate of the low energy background is due to the presence of 222Rn in the laboratory room. Three types of variations were found: 1) a correlation with the tunnel ventilation system, 2) a daily modulation and 3) a sporadic increase in the counting rate not correlated to any man-made intervention. We emphasize the importance of knowing the background and its variations in underground laboratories dedicated to low energy neutrinos and dark mater searches. (orig.)

  8. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  9. The meaning and measurement of implementation climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmire Dawn M; Belden Charles M; Weiner Bryan J; Johnston Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Climate has a long history in organizational studies, but few theoretical models integrate the complex effects of climate during innovation implementation. In 1996, a theoretical model was proposed that organizations could develop a positive climate for implementation by making use of various policies and practices that promote organizational members' means, motives, and opportunities for innovation use. The model proposes that implementation climate--or the extent to whic...

  10. Providing a Scientific Foundation in Climate Studies for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Lambert, J.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; O'Neill, K. L.; Hyre, H. R.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change has become a politically charged topic, creating the necessity for a scientifically literate population. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society (AMS), in partnership with NASA, has produced an introductory level, climate science course that engages students, allows for course flexibility, and boosts scientific knowledge about climate. This course shares NASA’s goal of observing, understanding, and modeling the Earth system, to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life. In Spring 2010, AMS Climate Studies was piloted to determine the most effective method to foster an understanding of some of the more difficult concepts of climate science. This study was offered as part of the NASA grant. This presentation will report the results of that study. Faculty and students from fourteen colleges and universities throughout the country evaluated the course using pre- and post-test questions, which included multiple choice and short answer questions, weekly course content evaluations, and an extensive post-course evaluation. The large majority of participating teachers rated the overall course, scientific content, internet delivery, and study materials as ‘good’, the most positive response available. Feedback from faculty members as well as suggestions from NASA reviewers were used to enhance the final version of the textbook and Investigations Manual for the Fall 2010 academic semester. Following the proven course work of AMS Weather and AMS Ocean Studies, AMS Climate Studies is a turnkey package utilizing both printed and online materials. It covers topics such as the water in Earth’s climate system, paleoclimates, along with climate change and public policy. The Investigations include 30 complimentary lab-style activities including the Conceptual Energy Model, which explores the flow of energy from space to Earth. Additionally, the course website features Current Climate Studies where

  11. Preparing for an Unbiased Study of the H → γγ Background with the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smestad, Lillian; Bugge, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The Higgs mechanism is the best candidate theory for explaining how elementary particles obtain masses, but the Higgs boson predicted by this theory is as of today not observed. The Higgs to gamma gamma channel is one of the most promising decay channels for finding a light Higgs boson with the ATLAS detector at CERN. ATLAS is one of four detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. In this thesis, a study of this channel with emphasis on a background study has been made using full simulation. A search for a signal-free area has been made, in order to study the background without being disturbed or biased by the signal. A test was carried through of whether the invariant mass distribution of the signal and/or background was distorted by the choice of region in the parameter plane of missing transverse momentum versus non-planarity of the gamma gamma pair. The ideal case, what is desired, is that the signal and background distributions remain unaffected by the choice of parameter regions. Testing this, fits of the ...

  12. Study of the influence of solar variability on a regional (Indian) climate: 1901-2007

    CERN Document Server

    Aslam, O P M

    2014-01-01

    We use Indian temperature data of more than 100 years to study the influence of solar activity on climate. We study the Sun-climate relationship by averaging solar and climate data at various time scales; decadal, solar activity and solar magnetic cycles. We also consider the minimum and maximum values of sunspot number (SSN) during each solar cycle. This parameter SSN is correlated better with Indian temperature when these data are averaged over solar magnetic polarity epochs (SSN maximum to maximum). Our results indicate that the solar variability may still be contributing to ongoing climate change and suggest for more investigations.

  13. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  14. Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Nelson, Bron; Cheung, Samson; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2013-01-01

    One of the current challenges in tropical cyclone (TC) research is how to improve our understanding of TC interannual variability and the impact of climate change on TCs. Recent advances in global modeling, visualization, and supercomputing technologies at NASA show potential for such studies. In this article, the authors discuss recent scalability improvement to the multiscale modeling framework (MMF) that makes it feasible to perform long-term TC-resolving simulations. The MMF consists of the finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM), supplemented by a copy of the Goddard cumulus ensemble model (GCE) at each of the fvGCM grid points, giving 13,104 GCE copies. The original fvGCM implementation has a 1D data decomposition; the revised MMF implementation retains the 1D decomposition for most of the code, but uses a 2D decomposition for the massive copies of GCEs. Because the vast majority of computation time in the MMF is spent computing the GCEs, this approach can achieve excellent speedup without incurring the cost of modifying the entire code. Intelligent process mapping allows differing numbers of processes to be assigned to each domain for load balancing. The revised parallel implementation shows highly promising scalability, obtaining a nearly 80-fold speedup by increasing the number of cores from 30 to 3,335.

  15. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  16. Background and introduction to the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Schmidtke, A; Kerkhof, A J; De Leo, D; Lönnqvist, J; Platt, S; Sampaio Faria, J

    1995-01-01

    In most European countries, suicidal behavior is a major public health problem and a considerable drain on resources at both the primary and secondary health care levels. Unfortunately, due to cross-cultural differences both in medical treatment of nonfatal suicidal behavior and in research methodologies, it has proved almost impossible to make valid comparisons between countries. It is therefore imperative that international studies based on the same definitions and methodologies be facilitated if we want to extend our knowledge of suicidal behavior and be able to make suggestions for intervention and prevention. The WHO Regional Office for Europe decided to support a collaborative multicenter study, designed to provide a reliable epidemiological picture of parasuicide in Europe. This article provides an introduction to the study. PMID:7587294

  17. Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-06-01

    A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

  18. Historical background to the studies of the transfer of Chernobyl fallout in swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the studies on the transfer of radionuclides in the agricultural environment goes back to the fifties when the super powers extended their testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. In Sweden a cooperation to last for more than 20 years was then started for these studies between the Institute of National Defense and a research unit, prof. L. Fredriksson and co workers, which was fore running the present Department of Radioecology at the University of the Agricultural Sciences at Uppsala. (au)

  19. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makowski, D.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Bassu, S.; Durand, J.L.; Martre, P.; Adam, M.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Baron, C.; Basso, B.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Boogaard, H.; Boote, K.J.; Brisson, N.; Cammarano, D.; Challinor, A.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Corbeels, M.; Deryng, D.; Sanctis, De G.; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grassini, P.; Hatfield, J.L.; Heng, L.; Hoek, S.B.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Jones, J.W.; Kemanian, R.A.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Kim, S.H.; Lizaso, J.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.J.; Olesen, J.E.; Osborne, T.M.; Palosuo, T.; Pravia, M.V.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A.C.; Sau, F.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stöckle, C.O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Teixeira, E.; Thorburn, P.; Timlin, D.; Travasso, M.; Roetter, R.P.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many simulation studies have been carried out to predict the effect of climate change on crop yield. Typically, in such study, one or several crop models are used to simulate series of crop yield values for different climate scenarios corresponding to different hypotheses of temperature, CO2 concent

  20. Studying Computer Science in a Multidisciplinary Degree Programme: Freshman Students' Orientation, Knowledge, and Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Kofoed, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    Teachers at universities are facing an increasing disparity in students' prior IT knowledge and, at the same time, experience a growing disengagement of the students with regard to involvement in study activities. As computer science teachers in a joint programme in computer science and business administration, we made a number of similar…

  1. The Role of Forests in Mitigating Climate Change – a Case Study for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    GÁLOS, Borbála; Hänsler, Andreas; Kindermann, Georg; Rechid, Diana; Sieck, Kevin; Jacob, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    A regional-scale case study has been carried out to assess the possible climatic benefits of forest cover increase in Europe. For the end of the 21st century (2071–2090) it has been investigated, whether the projected climate change could be reduced assuming potential afforestation of the continent. The magnitude of the biogeophysical effects of enhanced forest cover on temperature and precipitation means and extremes have been analyzed relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal a...

  2. Prospective Study of GMO in Korea: Harnessing GMO for Solving Problems of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sungmin Lee; Ha Eun Chun

    2014-01-01

    There is no doubt that the climate change is a pressing worldwide issue, considering its impacts on both the environment and the society, and various scientific means are to be adopted to solve this problem. We conducted a prospective study of GMO in Republic of Korea and recognized its potential to solve the problem of climate change. Its ability to endure harsh conditions and improve productivity can extend the range of possibilities in restricting climate change. This thesis shows the stat...

  3. Influence of climate on clinical diagnostic dry eye tests: pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Tesón, Marisa; López-Miguel, Alberto; Neves, Helena; Calonge, Margarita; González-García, María J.; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze dry eye disease (DED) tests and their consistency in similar nonsymptomatic population samples living in two geographic locations with different climates (Continental vs. Atlantic). Methods. This is a pilot study including 14 nonsymptomatic residents from Valladolid (Continental climate, Spain) and 14 sex-matched and similarly aged residents from Braga (Atlantic climate, Portugal); they were assessed during the same season (spring) of two consecutive years. Phe...

  4. Data base of climatic change simulations for the impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data used for the study of the climatic change impact on the environment and the society come from climate models and are affected by uncertainties. It is necessary to quantify the resulting errors in the models. The data base provides a comparison of simulations of climatic change in France. The final report presents the project methodology. Three projects using the distributed simulations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. A Study on Predictor Variables of Organizational Climate in Educational Institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Gudivada Venkat Rao

    2014-01-01

    The Organization Climate is a fancied term which is relevant at any point of time and is transient. The contextual reference of Organizational Climate is made for its ability to attract, retain and nurture talent. But, even though higher education in India is important; it failed to attract the best talent. The Organizational Climate and its contents were subjected to further scrutiny in this paper in Institutes of Higher Education in Visakhapatnam. The study examines the profile ...

  6. Modelling the effects of climate change on the energy system-A case study of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this work is to identify the effects of climate change on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. Changes in the future wind- and hydro-power resource potential, and changes in the heating and cooling demand are analysed to map the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change is evaluated with an energy system model, the MARKAL Norway model, to analyse the future cost optimal energy system. Ten climate experiments, based on five different global models and six emission scenarios, are used to cover the range of possible future climate scenarios and of these three experiments are used for detailed analyses. This study indicate that in Norway, climate change will reduce the heating demand, increase the cooling demand, have a limited impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro-power potential. The reduction of heating demand will be significantly higher than the increase of cooling demand, and thus the possible total direct consequence of climate change will be reduced energy system costs and lower electricity production costs. The investments in offshore wind and tidal power will be reduced and electric based vehicles will be profitable earlier. - Highlights: → Climate change will make an impact on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. → An impact is lower Norwegian electricity production costs and increased electricity export. → Climate change gives earlier profitable investments in electric based vehicles. → Climate change reduces investments in offshore wind and tidal power.

  7. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  8. Historical background and overview of epidemiological studies on the effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation dates from the early part of this century, when an increased frequency of skin cancer and leukemia was first reported in radiologists. In the interim, systematic epidemiological studies have disclosed additional carcinogenic effects in radiation workers, A-bomb survivors, patients exposed to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation, and other groups. The studies have provided sufficient data on dose-incidence relationships, the distribution of cancer in relation to age at irradiation and time after exposure, and organ-variations in susceptibility to enable attempts at quantitative assessment of the risks of low-level irradiation. Such assessments, although tentative and controversial, have exerted an important influence on developments in radiological protection

  9. Studies of geothermal background and isotopic geochemistry of thermal waters in Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terrestrial heat flow measurement, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in Jiangxi Province. Results show that the thermal waters in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature convective geothermal system, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with deep magmatic heat sources. It has been proven that the isotope and geochemical techniques are very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. (13 refs., 14 tabs., 8 figs.)

  10. Climate change and climate variability impacts on rainfed agricultural activities and possible adaptation measures. A Mexican case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, C.; Ferrer, R. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Circuito Exterior, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: e-mail: conde@servidor.unam.mx; Orozco, S. [Escuela de Agrobiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Climate extreme events (such as those associated to strong El Nino events) highly affect Mexican agriculture, since more than sixty percent of it is rainfed. The basic crop cultivated is maize, which is still the main source of nutrients for a large portion of the rural population in the country. Within the project Capacity Building for Stage II Adaptation to Climate Change in Central America, Mexico and Cuba, we analyze the strategies developed by maize producers in the central region of the country to cope with climatic adverse events. Impact on rainfed maize due to climate variability and climate change conditions are studied using a crop simulation model. Several adaptation measures can be evaluated using that model. However, the effect of other stressors must be considered in an assessment of the adaptive capacity of small farmers to climate variability and change. Key stakeholders' involvement in the region helped us to decide which of the adaptive measures could be viable under the current conditions and under future climatic conditions. The construction of greenhouses, the use of compost, and dripping irrigation, were some of the techniques selected with the participation of the stakeholders. The enthusiastic responses to these measures allow us to consider that they can prevail in the future, under climate change conditions. However, the adaptation to climate change includes -besides the stated techniques- the generation of the capacities to cope with climatic adverse events, that is, to enhance the adaptive capacities to climate change among the key stakeholders. [Spanish] Los eventos climaticos extremos (como los asociados con eventos fuertes de El Nino) afectan de manera importante a la agricultura mexicana, ya que mas del sesenta por ciento de ella es de temporal, esto es, depende fundamentalmente de una buena temporada de lluvias para producir. El cultivo que se siembra es basicamente maiz, que todavia es la principal fuente de nutrientes para

  11. Extratropical cyclone classification and its use in climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones have long been known to be important for midlatitude weather. It is therefore important that our current state-of-the-art climate models are able to realistically represent these features, in order that we can have confidence in how they are projected to change in a warming climate. Despite the observation that these cyclones are extremely variable in their structure and features, there have, over the years, been numerous attempts to classify or group them. Such classifications can provide insight into the different cloud structures, airflows, and dynamical forcing mechanisms within the different cyclone types. This review collects and details as many classification techniques as possible, and may therefore act as a reference guide to classifications. These classifications offer the opportunity to improve the way extratropical cyclone evaluation in climate models is currently done by giving more insight into the dynamical and physical processes that occur in climate models (rather than just evaluating the mean state over a broad region as is often done). Examples of where these ideas have been used, or could be used, are reviewed. Finally, the potential impacts of future climate changes on extratropical cyclones are detailed. The ways in which the classification techniques could improve our understanding of future changes in extratropical cyclones and their impacts are given.

  12. Study of tropical clouds feedback to a climate warming as simulated by climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last IPCC report affirms the predominant role of low cloud-radiative feedbacks in the inter-model spread of climate sensitivity. Understanding the mechanisms that control the behavior of low-level clouds is thus crucial. However, the complexity of coupled ocean-atmosphere models and the large number of processes potentially involved make the analysis of this response difficult. To simplify the analysis and to identify the most critical controls of cloud feedbacks, we analyze the cloud response to climate change simulated by the IPSL-CM5A model in a hierarchy of configurations. A comparison between three model configurations (coupled, atmospheric and aqua-planet) using the same physical parametrizations shows that the cloud response to global warming is dominated by a decrease of low clouds in regimes of moderate subsidence. Using a Single Column Model, forced by weak subsidence large-scale forcing, allows us to reproduce the vertical cloud profile predicted in the 3D model, as well as its response to climate change (if a stochastic forcing is added on vertical velocity). We analyze the sensitivity of this low-cloud response to external forcing and also to uncertain parameters of physical parameterizations involved on the atmospheric model. Through a moist static energy (MSE) budget, we highlight several mechanisms: (1) Robust: Over weak subsidence regimes, the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship predicts that a warmer atmosphere leads to a increase of the vertical MSE gradient, resulting on a strengthening of the import of low-MSE from the free atmosphere into the cloudy boundary layer. The MSE budget links changes of vertical advection and cloud radiative effects. (2) Physics Model Dependent: The coupling between shallow convection, turbulence and cloud schemes allows the intensification of low-MSE transport so that cloud radiative cooling becomes 'less necessary' to balance the energy budget (Robust positive low cloud-radiative feedback for the model). The

  13. Radioactive environmental background studies at possible sites for nuclear installations in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate and consider possible Cuban nuclear installations, environmental studies were carried out at three sites: Quebrada nuclear research centre; Juragua nuclear power plant and Holguin north zone. Based on the results, it was concluded that the gamma radiation level is normal, the natural radionuclides in soil, vegetation, superficial waters and foodstuffs are at the same level as the ones reported in the current literature and the total effective dose rate does not exceed one tenth mSv/year. (B.C.A.). 12 refs, 08 tabs, 02 figs

  14. Rural/urban background, depression and suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins' Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R. Associations between rural vs. urban background, depression and suicidal ideation were estimated by multivariable linear regression-based β coefficients, logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The magnitude of indirect effect and bias-corrected 95% CIs were obtained through bootstrap techniques. RESULTS: Rural background was positively associated with depression, which was in turn associated with suicidal ideation. The OR for rural status and suicidal ideation equaled 2.15 (95% CI = 1.36-3.41. This OR was slightly, though significantly (p<0.05 attenuated by additional adjustment for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15-3.44. CONCLUSION: Having a rural background is a determinant of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Depression may only marginally mediate this association.

  15. Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130° magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10−10. This now allows 236U/238U measurements down to the 10−12 level. Systematic studies of the possible background for 236U3+ at the compact TANDY system show that actinide–hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. (232Th1H)3+, (235U1H)3+ and (238U1H)3+ can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the (232Th1H)3+ molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide–hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10−4 can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic (236U/238U = 10−7 to 10−9) and natural samples (236U/238U −10).

  16. Climatic Instability Study of Lanzhou since Last Glacial Maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guifang; Peng Hongxia; Huang Changsheng; Yin Hongfu; Li Chang'an

    2005-01-01

    Organic carbon isotopes, CaCO3 content, coupled with carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes are presented for identifying the climatic instability of Lanzhou from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A wavelet analysis of these indices was conducted in the Hongzuisi Section, Lanzhou area. The results indicate that some important variations dominated by global factors occurred in 11.5, 13.9, and 15.1 kaB.P. Respectively. In addition, several abrupt oscillations on different time scales during the Holocene can be revealed, indicating the complexity of the climatic system. Although the mechanism of these events has not been interpreted successfully, wavelet analysis can offer a valuable mathematic tool for a detailed analysis and greater understanding of climatic instability, thus providing a useful basis for the research of abrupt events.

  17. Recent Studies on Attributions of Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zongci; DING Yihui; LUO Yong; Wang Shaowu

    2005-01-01

    Attributions of floods/cooler along the Yangtze River Valley and droughts/warmer in North China for the last 25 years have been reviewed in this paper. Both natural climate variability and human activities are considered. Some stronger evidences contributed to the natural climate variability, such as decadal and interdecadal variabilities of East Asian summer monsoon, the periodicities and transitions of rainfall and temperature changes in China, abrupt climate change, NAO, AO, AAO, ENSO, and snow cover. The signals produced by the human activities such as greenhouse gases and "brown clouds" likely play the role for the patterns. But the physical feedbacks and mechanisms still keep ambiguous and vague. More researches should be carried out in future to solve this issue.

  18. The Relationships between Climate Variability and Crop Yield in a Mountainous Environment: A Case Study in Lamjung District, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shobha Poudel; Rajib Shaw

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that mountainous countries such as Nepal are more vulnerable to climate change; thus, a changing climate should have a significant impact on crop yields. This work aims to explore the impact of climate change on major crop yields in the mountainous parts of Nepal and to determine their relationships based on a regression model between historical climatic data and yield data for food crops. The study starts with an analysis of the last 30 years of climatic data f...

  19. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gök

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees.In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and work motivation.In the second part, a field research is presented. 252 employees were interviewed in this study. The data that obtained from interviews were analyzed and subsequently evaluated in terms of statistical outcomes. The statistical results demonstrated that organizational climate has a positive influence on motivation of employees.

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  1. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for proton decay to positron and neutral pion searches in water Cherenkov detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blondel, Alain; Borghi, Silvia; Cervera Villanueva, Anselmo; Schroeter, Raphaël; K2K Collaboration

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino background for proton decay to positron and neutral pion in ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors is studied with an artificial accelerator neutrino beam for the first time. In total, about 314,000 neutrino events corresponding to about 10 megaton-years of atmospheric neutrino interactions were collected by a 1,000 ton water Cherenkov detector (KT). The KT charged-current single neutral pion production data are well reproduced by simulation programs of neutrino and s...

  2. An assessment of the solar irradiance record for climate studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp Greg

    2014-01-01

    Total solar irradiance, the spatially and spectrally integrated radiant output from the Sun at a mean Sun-Earth distance of 1 astronomical unit, provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system. Variations in this energy, particularly over long time scales, contribute to changes in Earth’s climate and have been linked to historical glaciation and inter-glacial periods as well as having a small effect on more recent global warming. Accurate measurements of solar irradiances re...

  3. Study of rare neutron induced processes and coincidence analyses to identify and reduce background contributions in the COBRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay, primarily of the isotope 116Cd. The applied semiconductor detectors of cadmium zinc telluride that are 90% to be enriched enable both the detection and the source of this decay. The half-lives of decays of this kind are expected in the range of more than 1026 years. Therefore, the reduction of contributions to the background is of decisive importance. The main subjects of this work are, on the one hand, the time synchronization of the data, which provides the basis for coincidence analysis. This analysis method has access not only to identification of contributions to the background, but also to observe decays involving positron annihilation and decays into excited states. In this study, the intrinsic detector contamination of some decay products of 238U and 232Th was measured and sensitivities to the half-lives of the decays like 120Te and 128Te in each case to the first excited state of daughter products are given. On the other hand, qualitative studies on the importance of neutrons in the COBRA experiment were conducted. These have shown that fast neutrons, thus with energies greater than 10 keV, only result in an insignificant contribution to the background for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 116Cd. Previous studies have also shown that the thermal neutron flux can be in situ determined by coincidence analysis.

  4. Assessing atmospheric temperature data sets for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Cederlöf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observed near-surface temperature trends during the period 1979–2014 show large differences between land and ocean, with positive values over land (0.25–0.27 °C/decade that are significantly larger than over the ocean (0.06–0.12 °C/decade. Temperature trends in the mid-troposphere of 0.08-0.11 °C/decade, on the other hand, are similar for both land and ocean and agree closely with the ocean surface temperature trend. The lapse rate is consequently systematically larger over land than over the ocean and also shows a positive trend in most land areas. This is puzzling as a response to external warming, such as from increasing greenhouse gases, is broadly the same throughout the troposphere. The reduced tropospheric warming trend over land suggests a weaker vertical temperature coupling indicating that some of the processes in the planetary boundary layer such as inversions have a limited influence on the temperature of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, the temperature of the free atmosphere is influenced by advection of colder tropospheric air from the oceans. It is therefore suggested to use either the more robust tropospheric temperature or ocean surface temperature in studies of climate sensitivity. We also conclude that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim can be used to obtain consistent temperature trends through the depth of the atmosphere, as they are consistent both with near-surface temperature trends and atmospheric temperature trends obtained from microwave sounding sensors.

  5. Lidar studies on climate sensitivity characteristics of tropical cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motty, G. S.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget due to their high frequency of occurrence, non-spherical ice crystal formations, and variability in the scattering/absorption characteristics. Mostly, the tropical cirrus clouds are considered as greenhouse modulators. Thus the parameterization of tropical cirrus clouds in terms of the micro- physical properties and the corresponding radiative effects are highly important for the climate studies. For characterizing the radiative properties of cirrus clouds, which depend on the size, shape and number of the ice crystals, the knowledge of extinction coefficient (σ) and optical depth (τ) are necessary. The σ provides information needed for understanding the influence of the scatterers on the radiative budget whereas the τ gives an indication on the composition and thickness of the cloud. Extensive research on the tropical cirrus clouds has been carried out by using a ground based and satellite based lidar systems. In this work, the characteristics of tropical cirrus cloud derived by using the data from the ground based lidar system over the tropical site Gadanki [13.5°N, 79.2°E], India during 2010 are presented. Some of the results are compared with those obtained by us from satellite based CALIOP lidar observations of the CALIPSO mission. It is observed that there is a strong dependence of the some of the physical properties such as occurrence height, cloud temperature and the geometrical thickness on the microphysical parameters in terms of extinction coefficient and optical depth. The correlation of both the σ and τ with temperature is also observed.

  6. Hydrothermal Prospecting and Petrological Sampling in the Lau Basin: Background Data for the Integrated Study Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.; German, C.; Michael, P.; Yoerger, D. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Shank, T. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Edmonds, H. N.; L 2 Team

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2004, Martinez and others (this meeting) carried out an extensive mapping program of the southern Lau Basin spreading centers with high resolution bathymetry and sidescan data. They were also defined the overall distribution of mantle plumes along the ridges using miniature autonomous plume recorders and CTD tow-yos. These important new data were the first step of an integrated RIDGE 2000 program of four cruises to identify the overall tectonic, petrological, hydrothermal and biological characteristics of the spreading centers to permit a well informed selection of targets for more focussed studies in coming years. During September and October of 2004, on board R/V Kilo Moana, we are carrying out the second phase of investigations, with the aim of identifying specific hydrothermal sites and providing regional sampling of lavas from the region. The primary tools of investigation for hydrothermal site discovery are the autonomous benthic explorer (ABE) as well as CTD's and bottom towed cameras. Making use of new CTD data to verify the plumes identified in the Martinez et al cruise, ABE is being used in three different modes. Phase I focusses on the water column at the level of the neutrally buoyant plume. These results enable planning of the more focussed Phase II, closer to the bottom, to provide high resolution bathymetry and characterization of the buoyant plume. Phase III provides photographic coverage of even more limited regions focussed on the vent fields defined in Phase II. Camera tows using TOWCAM are planned to provide the highest resolution images of new hydrothermal sites. This cruise represents the first attempt to use ABE in such a staged and systematic program of regional vent site discovery. Since the ship is free to carry out other investigations during the ABE dives, which can be 24 hours or more in length, high density sampling of the various Lau Spreading Centers will be carried out at the same time as the hydrothermal

  7. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  8. Climate-Smart Farms? Case Studies in Burkina Faso and Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.

    2016-01-01

    The climate-smart agriculture concept aims to encourage reflection on
    the transition to sustainable agricultural systems adapted to climate change. This chapter is based on participatory research studies carried out in Colombia and Burkina Faso to investigate, with farmers, the relevance of new

  9. Climate change and biofuel wheat: A case study of Southern Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed potential impacts of climate change on wheat production as a biofuel crop in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer-Cropping System Model (DSSAT-CSM) was used to simulate biomass and grain yield under three climate change scenarios ...

  10. Study on self-radioactivity of different natural and artificial materials in a under ground low-background chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of detection of ultralow radio activities have been described. The methods can be used to solve problems of neutrino astrophysics and in other studies. The underground low-backgroud chamber of the Baksan neutrino observatory is described. The chamber is located 1700 m above the sea level and is shielded by a rock layer equal to 680 m of water equivalent, which makes it possible to reduce the gamma backround in the chamber than more 200 times. Two types of low-backround NaJ(Tl) detectors are described and gamma-background spectra of materials used in low-background studies, which have been obtained with the help of these detectors are given. Subjected to investigation have been three types of concrete, portland cement and crystalline schist, lead, transformer steel, aluminium, teflon, wood, steel, and some scintillation materials. In the range from 90 to 3000 keV the detector characteristic background constitutes 5.7 and 0.7 pulse/s, and the energy resolution at 662 keV equals to 12%

  11. The influence of model structure on groundwater recharge rates in climate-change impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Numerous modeling approaches are available to provide insight into the relationship between climate change and groundwater recharge. However, several aspects of how hydrological model choice and structure affect recharge predictions have not been fully explored, unlike the well-established variability of climate model chains—combination of global climate models (GCM) and regional climate models (RCM). Furthermore, the influence on predictions related to subsoil parameterization and the variability of observation data employed during calibration remain unclear. This paper compares and quantifies these different sources of uncertainty in a systematic way. The described numerical experiment is based on a heterogeneous two-dimensional reference model. Four simpler models were calibrated against the output of the reference model, and recharge predictions of both reference and simpler models were compared to evaluate the effect of model structure on climate-change impact studies. The results highlight that model simplification leads to different recharge rates under climate change, especially under extreme conditions, although the different models performed similarly under historical climate conditions. Extreme weather conditions lead to model bias in the predictions and therefore must be considered. Consequently, the chosen calibration strategy is important and, if possible, the calibration data set should include climatic extremes in order to minimise model bias introduced by the calibration. The results strongly suggest that ensembles of climate projections should be coupled with ensembles of hydrogeological models to produce credible predictions of future recharge and with the associated uncertainties.

  12. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hempler NF

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nana F Hempler,1 Sara Nicic,1 Bettina Ewers,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; 2Nutrition and Food Services Department, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark Background: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion: Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. Keywords: dietary diabetes

  13. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Luxin [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  14. Climate's Long-term Impact on New Zealand Infrastructure (CLINZI) - A Case Study of Hamilton City, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jollands, Nigel; Ruth, Matthias; Bernier, C.; Golubiewski, N.

    2005-01-01

    Infrastructure systems and services (ISS) are vulnerable to changes in climate. This paper reports on a study of the impact of gradual climate changes on ISS in Hamilton City, New Zealand. This study is unique in that it is the first of its kind to be applied to New Zealand ISS. This study also considers a broader range of ISS than most other climate change studies recently conducted. Using historical climate data and four climate change scenarios, we modelled the impact of climate change on ...

  15. A report on workshops: General circulation model study of climate- chemistry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the discussion on General Circulation Model Study of Climate-Chemistry Interaction from two workshops, the first held 19--21 August 1992 at Oslo, Norway and the second 26--27 May 1993 at Albany, New York, USA. The workshops are the IAMAP activities under the Trace Constituent Working Group. The main objective of the two workshops was to recommend specific general circulation model (GCM) studies of the ozone distribution and the climatic effect of its changes. The workshops also discussed the climatic implications of increasing sulfate aerosols because of its importance to regional climate. The workshops were organized into four working groups: observation of atmospheric O3; modeling of atmospheric chemical composition; modeling of sulfate aerosols; and aspects of climate modeling

  16. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay. PMID:26817913

  17. Background paper on Technology Roadmaps (TRMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, E.; Phaal, R. [Institute for Manufacturing IfM, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Londo, H.M.; Wurtenberger, L.; Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    This background paper reports on the use of technology roadmaps (TRMs) related to climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies. The study is motivated by the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (CoP) request to the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) to catalyse the development and use of TRMs as facilitative tools for action on mitigation and adaptation. Having originated in industry, TRMs are now used extensively in policy settings too, however their widespread use across sectors and by different stakeholders has resulted in a lack of understanding of their real value to help catalyse cooperation towards technological solutions to the problems presented by climate change. Consequently this background paper presents (1) an overview of different TRM methods, (2) an initial analysis of gaps and barriers in existing TRMs, and (3) a review of current TRM good practices.

  18. The MIT IGSM-CAM framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) version 2.3 is an intermediate complexity fully coupled earth system model that allows simulation of critical feedbacks among its various components, including the atmosphere, ocean, land, urban processes and human activities. A fundamental feature of the IGSM2.3 is the ability to modify its climate parameters: climate sensitivity, net aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate. As such, the IGSM2.3 provides an efficient tool for generating probabilistic distribution functions of climate parameters using optimal fingerprint diagnostics. A limitation of the IGSM2.3 is its zonal-mean atmosphere model that does not permit regional climate studies. For this reason, the MIT IGSM2.3 was linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3 and new modules were developed and implemented in CAM in order to modify its climate sensitivity and net aerosol forcing to match that of the IGSM. The IGSM-CAM provides an efficient and innovative framework to study regional climate change where climate parameters can be modified to span the range of uncertainty and various emissions scenarios can be tested. This paper presents results from the cloud radiative adjustment method used to modify CAM's climate sensitivity. We also show results from 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (a median "business as usual" scenario where no policy is implemented after 2012 and a policy scenario where greenhouse-gas are stabilized at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent concentrations by 2100) and three sets of climate parameters. The three values of climate sensitivity chosen are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the observed 20th century climate change with simulations by the IGSM with a wide range of climate parameters values. The associated aerosol forcing values were chosen to ensure a good agreement of the simulations

  19. A SIMULATION STUDY ON THE SHRUNK WETLAND AROUND QINGHAI LAKE AND REGIONAL CLIMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HanJie; JING Li; GAO YunXiao

    2005-01-01

    Because of the increasing concerns about global climate change, it has been known by more and more peoples that there is a close relationship between wetland and/or peatland resources and climate change. This paper presents a new methodology to study the local climate variation caused by wetland shrinking around Qinghai Lake, the largest in-land salty lake in China, by use of a regional climate model (RCM) that commonly used in climate change study. The objective focuses on the regional climate effect of the shrunk wetland coverage in recent years. The results of numerical experiment showed that if the wetland coverage around Qinhai Lake were recovered as if in early 50s of last century,the regional climate in this area could be better with more cloud covers, higher relative humidity and more precipitation. In the other word, the area of wetland reduced is one of the most important reasons that caused regional climate aridification,eco-environmental deterioration and even desertification around Qinhai Lake.

  20. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  1. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    OpenAIRE

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD; K.P.REGHUNATH

    2010-01-01

    Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safe...

  2. The measurement of Matveev-Muradyan-Tavkhelidze-Drell-Yan processes with SPD detector at NICA. Background studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batozskaya V.S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SPD NICA project is under preparation at second interaction point of the NICA collider. The purpose of this experiment is the study of the nucleon spin structure with high intensity polarized light nuclear beams. It is argued that the design of the collider can allow us to reach with proton beams a very high collision energy up to √s ∼ 26 GeV with average luminosity up to 1030 − 1031 cm−2 s−1. At the same time, the respective number for deuteron collisions is also quite considerable: at a collision energy per nucleon up to √s ∼ 12 GeV, the average luminosity reaches up to 1029 − 1030 cm−2 s−1. It is of great importance that both proton and deuteron beams can be effectively polarized. The preliminary design of the SPD detector for spin physics studies is based on the requirements imposed by the MMT-DY and J/ψ productions studies. The some sources of background to the MMT-DY process are the combinatorial background from decays (π0, η and gamma contribution and the decays of charmed-mesons, which are studied now.

  3. Municipal climate change policies. A case study for Amsterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insight in the local policy options with respect to climate change is provided, in this case within the sphere of influence of Amsterdam local authorities. A list of new policy options for CO2 reduction has been made with the assistance of local policy makers and representatives of interest groups. These policy options have been divided into three qualitative scenarios: Institutional Cultural Change, Technological Innovation and Least-Regrets. The environmental, economic and other effects have been described for each policy option. The three most interesting policy options have been selected by local policymakers and representatives of interest groups during a workshop. Implementation strategies have been developed for the options selected. These strategies have been discussed during a second workshop. The reduction target, stabilisation of CO2 emissions in 2015 compared to 1993, can be reached by a combination of all the new policy options. The three selected policy options count for 40% of this total CO2 emission reduction. Finally, a general outline on the methodology can also be applied to other cities and municipalities. For example, this methodology can be used by participants of Cities for Climate Protection, an initiative of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, or the Netherlands Climate Association. 136 refs

  4. Brief Communication: An update of the article "Modeling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Hoffmann, P.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-12-01

    In our first study on possible flood damages under climate change in Germany, we reported that a considerable increase in flood related losses can be expected in future, warmer, climate. However, the general significance of the study was limited by the fact that outcome of only one Global Climate Model (GCM) was used as large scale climate driver, while many studies report that GCM models are often the largest source of uncertainty in impact modeling. Here we show that a much broader set of global and regional climate model combinations as climate driver shows trends which are in line with the original results and even give a stronger increase of damages.

  5. Disruptive camouflage tricks the human eye: a study of detection times of two near-similar targets in natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of camouflage, in military as well as in evolutionary perspectives, has been developing over the last 100 years. In that period of time several underlying principles have emerged. It has turned out in the recent decade that background pattern matching alone may not be sufficient to conceal targets because of the ubiquitous and revealing information contained by the edges of a target. In this paper we have studied one concealment strategy, the so-called disruptive coloration, further as it predicts that high contrast patches placed at the target's outline will impede detection, by creating false target edges when exposed to the observer. Such disruptive coloration is contra-intuitive as it may impede detection in spite of the fact that the patches themselves may be poorly concealed. In military environments the "disruptive approach" within camouflage has been textbook material for decades. Still, very little has been reported, supporting this idea, especially when it comes to the concealment of human targets in natural sceneries. We report here experimental evidence from a field study, containing detection data from 12 unique natural scenes (5 testing the disruptive effect, 7 as reference tests), with both human targets and human observers, showing that disruptively colored camouflage patches along a human's outline (its head) may increase detection time significantly as when compared to a similar (human) target concealed only with background matching. Hence, our results support the idea that disruptive coloration may impede detection and similarly that the best concealment is achieved when disruptive coloration is added to a target that matches the background (reasonably) well. This study raises important question to the current understanding of human vision and concealment as well as to any approach to describe the human visual system mathematically.

  6. Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography [obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)] are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs

  7. Simulation of a low-background proton detector for studying low-energy resonances relevant in thermonuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Loureiro, D

    2016-01-01

    A new detector is being developed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to measure low energy charged-particles from beta-delayed particle emission. These low energy particles are very important for nuclear astrophysics studies. The use of a gaseous system instead of a solid state detector decreases the sensitivity to betas while keeping high efficiency for higher mass charged particles like protons or alphas. This low sensitivity to betas minimizes their contribution to the background down to 150 keV. A detailed simulation tool based on \\textsc{Geant4} has been developed for this future detector.

  8. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  9. An intercomparison of regional climate model data for hydrological impact studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Roosmalen, Lieke Petronella G; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Butts, Michael; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jens Christian, Refsgaard

    The use of high-resolution regional climate models (RCM) to examine the hydrological impacts of climate change has grown significantly in recent years due to the improved representation of the local climate. However, the application is not straightforward because most RCMs are subject to...... considerable systematic errors. In this study, projected climate change data from the RCM HIRHAM4 are used to generate climate scenario time series of precipitation, temperature, and reference evapotranspiration for the period 2071-2100 for hydrological impact assessments in Denmark. RCM output for the present...... influenced by the forcing GCM, the emissions scenario, and the choice of RCM. Here, we focus on the choice of RCM and the effect of increasing horizontal resolution. A comparison of HIRHAM4 output to seven similar RCMs showed that for precipitation the HIRHAM4 model is as representative as any of the RCMs in...

  10. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  11. One hundred years: A collective case study of climate change education in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Leonard Mark

    This collective case study examined how five K-12 science teachers taught about climate change during Fall 2013, and asked how the University of Georgia can support climate change education. The participants were all experienced teachers, and included: three high school teachers, a middle school teacher, and an elementary school teacher. 'Postcarbonism', an emerging theoretical framework, shaped the research and guided the analysis. The teachers varied in their teaching practices and in their conceptions of 'climate change', but they were united in: 1) their focus on mitigation over adaptation, and 2) presenting climate change as a remote problem with simple solutions. The teachers drew on varied resources, but in all cases, their most valuable resources were their own skills, knowledge and personality. The University of Georgia can support climate change education by developing locally relevant educational resources. Curriculum developers might consider building upon the work of outstanding teach.

  12. Comparison of Climate Preferences for Domestic and International Beach Holidays: A Case Study of Canadian Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rutty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However, these studies have not taken into consideration that different forms of holidays (e.g., daytrips, short trips, main annual holiday, “once-in-a-lifetime” trip may have varying degrees of resilience to climatic conditions. This is the first study to explore whether ideal and unacceptable climatic conditions vary between domestic and international tourists. Using an in situ survey, Canadian beach users traveling domestically (n = 359 and internationally (n = 120 were examined. Key findings include statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 between the two sample groups for every climate variable, with the international sample more resilient to a broader range of weather conditions, including a greater acceptance for warm temperatures, longer rainfall durations, higher wind speeds, and greater cloud cover. This study adds further insight into the complexities of evaluating climate for tourism, with implications for the demand response of tourists to climate change.

  13. The importance of glacier and forest change in hydrological climate-impact studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Köplin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land cover alter the water balance components of a catchment, due to strong interactions between soils, vegetation and the atmosphere. Therefore, hydrological climate impact studies should also integrate scenarios of associated land cover change. To reflect two severe climate-induced changes in land cover, we applied scenarios of glacier retreat and forest cover increase that were derived from the temperature signals of the climate scenarios used in this study. The climate scenarios consist of ten regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project; their respective temperature and precipitation deltas are used to run a hydrological model. The relative importance of each of the three types of scenarios (climate, glacier, forest is assessed through an analysis of variance (ANOVA. Altogether, 15 mountainous catchments in Switzerland are analysed, exhibiting different degrees of glaciation during the control period (0–51% and different degrees of forest cover increase under scenarios of change (12–55% of the catchment area. The results show that even an extreme change in forest cover is negligible with respect to changes in runoff, but it is crucial as soon as evaporation or soil moisture is concerned. For the latter two variables, the relative impact of forest change is proportional to the magnitude of its change. For changes that concern 35% of the catchment area or more, the effect of forest change on summer evapotranspiration is equally or even more important than the climate signal. For catchment with a glaciation of 10% or more in the control period, the glacier retreat significantly determines summer and annual runoff. The most important source of uncertainty in hydrological climate impact studies is the climate scenario, though, and it is highly recommended to apply an ensemble of climate scenarios in impact studies. The results presented here are valid for the climatic region they were tested for, i.e. a humid, mid

  14. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  15. Climate change impacts on working people (the HOTHAPS initiative): findings of the South African pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathee, Angela; Oba, Joy; Rose, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. With the prospect of a warmer world, increased attention is being devoted to the implications for worker well-being and work performance. Objectives: The ‘high occupational temperature health and productivity suppression’ (HOTHAPS) programme is a multi-centre health research and prevention programme aimed at characterising and quantify...

  16. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  17. Study of hadron and gamma-ray acceptance of the MAGIC telescopes: towards an improved background estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, E; Da Vela, P; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Colin, P; Fruck, C; Strzys, M; Vovk, Ie

    2015-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are an array of two imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) studying the gamma ray sky at very high-energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). The observations are performed in stereoscopic mode, with both telescopes pointing at the same position in the sky. The MAGIC field of view (FoV) acceptance for hadrons and gamma rays has a complex shape, which depends on several parameters such as the azimuth and zenith angle of the observations. In the standard MAGIC analysis, the strategy adopted for estimating this acceptance is not optimal in the case of complex FoVs. In this contribution we present the results of systematic studies intended to characterise the acceptance for the entire FoV. These studies open the possibility to apply improved background estimation methods to the MAGIC data, useful to investigate the morphology of extended or multiple sources.

  18. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation. A case study of the role of homeowners in the process of climate change adaptation in Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Baron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete ‘Sustainable Urban Drainages System’ (SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study, thereby investigating multiple understandings of urban climate change adaptation. Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main climate problems in the urban environment as well as what are considered to be the best responses to these problems. Building on the actor-network inspired theory of ‘urban green assemblages’ we argue that at least three different assemblages can be identified in urban climate change adaptation. Each assemblage constitutes and connects problems and responses differently and thereby involve homeowners in different ways. As climate change is a problem of unknown character and outcome in the future, we argue that it can be problematic if one way of constituting urban climate change adaptation becomes dominant, in which case some climate problems and adaptation options may become less influential, even though the enrolment of these could contribute to a more resilient city. Furthermore, the case study from Copenhagen also shows that the influence and involvement of homeowners might be reduced if the conception of future climate problems becomes too restricted. The result would be that the potential benefits of involving urban citizens in defining and responding to problems related to climate change would be lost.

  19. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  20. Climate Change Preparedness: A Knowledge and Attitudes Study in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edema Ojomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is projected to adversely impact freshwater resources, and in many settings these impacts are already apparent. In Nigeria, these impacts can be especially severe because of limited adaptive capacity. Understanding the knowledge and attitudes of current and future Nigerian decision-makers is important to preparing Nigeria for climate change impacts. This paper examines the knowledge and attitudes of university students and government officials about the causes, effects, and priority given to climate change in Nigeria. Paper surveys were distributed to 379 study participants in Akwa Ibom and Lagos states of Nigeria. The findings reveal that approximately 90% of study participants believe that human activities are a significant cause of climate change, with no significant difference between ministry officials’ and students’ responses. Participants were less knowledgeable about the effects of climate change on Nigeria as a whole, but more aware of impacts relevant to Southern Nigeria, where study sites were located. Personal experience seemed to play a role in the knowledge and attitudes of respondents. Due to the varied climate of the country, campaigns to ensure comprehensive knowledge of climate change impacts to the entire country may be helpful.

  1. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among inhabitants in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to confirm and explore main risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in cohort members of the investigated areas, and evaluate effects of confounding factors on cancer risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. Methods: The deceased cases of NPC during the period of 1987-1995 were selected as study subjects for each of whom two controls were randomly selected from potential control subjects who died from causes other than malignant tumors and external causes, and matched for sex and years of birth and death (within 5 years). Using structure questionnaire, the relevant information including socioeconomic status, dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, history of illness, agricultural use of pesticide, medical X-ray exposure and familial history of NPC were collected. The odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of association between NPC and the risk factors. Results: 102 cases and 202 controls were successfully investigated. Single factor conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of NPC was closely positively associated with intake of salted fish, pickles, fermented soybeans, cured meats, history of chronic rhinitis and familial history of NPC. Further multiple conditional logistic regression analysis turned out that intake of salted fish, history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC were the independent risk factors of NPC. After controlling for history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC, the results based on multiple conditional logistic regression analysis from high background radiation, intake of salted fish and fermented soybeans, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption showed that only intake of salted fish was a significant risk factor (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.52-5.18), tobacco smoking (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.65-2.22), alcohol consumption (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.38-1.78) and exposure to high background radiation (OR= 0.86, 95% CI 0.44-1.68) did not

  2. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  3. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  4. Detectable change of lung nodule volume with CT in a phantom study with high and low signal to background contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Li, Qin; Zeng, Rongping; Gong, Qi; Myers, Kyle; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    In previous work we developed a method for predicting the minimum detectable change (MDC) in nodule volume based on volumetric CT measurements. MDC was defined as the minimum increase/decrease in a nodule volume distinguishable from the baseline measurement at a specified level of detection performance, assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work we derived volume estimates of a set of synthetic nodules and calculated the detection performance for distinguishing them from baseline measurements. Eight spherical objects of 100HU radio density ranging in diameter from 5.0mm to 5.75mm and 8.0mm to 8.75mm with 0.25mm increments were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom with either no background (high-contrast task) or gelatin background (low-contrast task). The baseline was defined as 5.0mm for the first set of nodules and 8.0mm for the second set. The phantom was scanned using varying exposures, and reconstructed with slice thickness of 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0mm and two reconstruction kernels (standard and smooth). Volume measurements were derived using a previously developed matched- filter approach. Results showed that nodule size, slice thickness, and nodule-to-background contrast affected detectable change in nodule volume when using our volume estimator and the acquisition settings from our study. We also compared our experimental results to the values estimated by our previously-developed MDC prediction method. We found that experimental data for the 8mm baseline nodules matched very well with our predicted values of MDC. These results support considering the use of this metric when standardizing imaging protocols for lung nodule size change assessment.

  5. A short note on integrated assessment modeling approaches : Rejoinder to the review of "Making or breaking climate targets - The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Bauer, Nico; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Petermann, Nils; Bosetti, Valentina; Marcucci, Adriana; Otto, Sander; Paroussos, Leonidas; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Currás, Tabaré Arroyo; Ashina, Shuichi; Bollen, Johannes; Eom, Jiyong; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Longden, Thomas; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Sano, Fuminori; Schaeffer, Michiel; Wada, Kenichi; Capros, Pantelis; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Bertram, Christoph; Bibas, Ruben; Edmonds, Jae; Johnson, Nils; Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; McCollum, David; Jiang, Kejun

    2015-01-01

    We provide a rejoinder to a review (Rosen, 2015) of our original article "Making or breaking climate targets - the AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy" (Kriegler et al., 2015a). We have a substantial disagreement with the content of the review, and feel that it is plagued b

  6. Research on Climate and Dengue in Malaysia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hii, Yien Ling; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives Dengue is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. Climate-based dengue early warning may be a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing surveillance and control. Scientific studies on climate and dengue in local context form the basis for advancing the development of a climate-based early warning system. This study aims to review the current status of scientific studies in climate and dengue and the prospect or challenges of such research on a climate-based de...

  7. Studies to support the IPCC and other climate change discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries and multilateral development banks are recognizing that the capital requirements for increasing energy supply - particularly electricity - and the foreign exchange implications of increasing imports of fossil fuels will become a major constraint to continued economic development for many countries. Thus, for most countries, business-as-usual energy development is not sustainable on strictly economic terms. In addition, the inefficient fossil-fueled energy systems in developing countries are major contributors to the growing local and regional environmental problems in these nations. There is growing recognition in many countries that economic development must be environmentally sustainable as well, and that traditional energy development often does not meet this test. The industrialized countries are becoming concerned about the risks of global climate change. While recognizing that they themselves are the major historic contributors to greenhouse gas build-up, they also can see that rapid economic development in the developing world along traditional energy-intensive patterns could drive future growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The industrialized countries currently provide significant amounts of assistance to developing countries in the energy sector. The concerns about climate change provide strong incentives to these countries to intensify their energy-related assistance, to improve international cooperation in this area and, most importantly, to redirect energy assistance toward more efficient and cleaner technologies

  8. Climate change, poverty and agricultural resource degradation: a case study of district d.g. khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global development agendas are now being bonded with adaptation to climate change. Sustainable biodiversity and community adaptation to climate change are closely associated as depletion of natural resources adversely affects the living standard of people. Rapid climatic changes and intervention to regulate water resources in Indus delta of Pakistan have put the lives of millions of people residing near the Indus river belt at the stake of climate change. Therefore, this study was designed to inquire the socio-economic conditions of the people residing near the Indus river bank and the perceived impact of climate change on river belt agricultural resources specifically in district D. G. Khan. Based on primary data study employed univariate and bivariate analysis which suggested flood, wind storm and temperature as the significant climate change parameters affecting the land fertility, forest and fisheries. The Foster Greer and Thorbeck technique for calculating the poverty indicated that majority (82%) of population was below poverty line and most of them entirely depend on river belt agricultural resources which were found to be depleting due to rapid climate change. (author)

  9. Assessment of climate change impacts on rainfall using large scale climate variables and downscaling models – A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azadeh Ahmadi; Ali Moridi; Elham Kakaei Lafdani; Ghasem Kianpisheh

    2014-10-01

    Many of the applied techniques in water resources management can be directly or indirectly influenced by hydro-climatology predictions. In recent decades, utilizing the large scale climate variables as predictors of hydrological phenomena and downscaling numerical weather ensemble forecasts has revolutionized the long-lead predictions. In this study, two types of rainfall prediction models are developed to predict the rainfall of the Zayandehrood dam basin located in the central part of Iran. The first seasonal model is based on large scale climate signals data around the world. In order to determine the inputs of the seasonal rainfall prediction model, the correlation coefficient analysis and the new Gamma Test (GT) method are utilized. Comparison of modelling results shows that the Gamma test method improves the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of modelling performance as 8% and 10% for dry and wet seasons, respectively. In this study, Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for predicting rainfall in the region has been used and its results are compared with the benchmark models such as K-nearest neighbours (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results show better performance of the SVM model at testing stage. In the second model, statistical downscaling model (SDSM) as a popular downscaling tool has been used. In this model, using the outputs from GCM, the rainfall of Zayandehrood dam is projected under two climate change scenarios. Most effective variables have been identified among 26 predictor variables. Comparison of the results of the two models shows that the developed SVM model has lesser errors in monthly rainfall estimation. The results show that the rainfall in the future wet periods are more than historical values and it is lower than historical values in the dry periods. The highest monthly uncertainty of future rainfall occurs in March and the lowest in July.

  10. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru [Guangdong Inst. of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou (China); Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death ({+-}5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish

  11. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (±5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was

  12. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  13. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Bassu, Simona; Durand, Jean-Louis; Martre, Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Angulo, Carlos; Baron, Chritian; Basso, Bruno; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Biemath, Christian; Boogaard, Hendrik; Boote, Kenneth J.; Brisson, Nadine; Cammarano, Davide; Challinor, Andrew J.; Conijn, Sjakk J. G.; Corbeels, Marc; Deryng, Delphine; De Sanctis, Giacomo; Doltra, Jordi; Gayler, Sebastian; Goldberg, Richard A.; Grassini, Patricio; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heng, Lee; Hoek, Steven; Hooker, Josh; Hunt, Tony L. A.; Ingwersen, Joachim; Izaurralde, Cesar; Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out during the last decade to study the effect of climate change on crop yields and other key crop characteristics. In these studies, one or several crop models were used to simulate crop growth and development for different climate scenarios that correspond to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and rainfall changes (Semenov et al., 1996; Tubiello and Ewert, 2002; White et al., 2011). The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013) builds on these studies with the goal of using an ensemble of multiple crop models in order to assess effects of climate change scenarios for several crops in contrasting environments. These studies generate large datasets, including thousands of simulated crop yield data. They include series of yield values obtained by combining several crop models with different climate scenarios that are defined by several climatic variables (temperature, CO2, rainfall, etc.). Such datasets potentially provide useful information on the possible effects of different climate change scenarios on crop yields. However, it is sometimes difficult to analyze these datasets and to summarize them in a useful way due to their structural complexity; simulated yield data can differ among contrasting climate scenarios, sites, and crop models. Another issue is that it is not straightforward to extrapolate the results obtained for the scenarios to alternative climate change scenarios not initially included in the simulation protocols. Additional dynamic crop model simulations for new climate change scenarios are an option but this approach is costly, especially when a large number of crop models are used to generate the simulated data, as in AgMIP. Statistical models have been used to analyze responses of measured yield data to climate variables in past studies (Lobell et al., 2011), but the use of a statistical model to analyze yields simulated by complex

  14. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  15. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  16. A global database with parallel measurements to study non-climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Victor; Auchmann, Renate; Aguilar, Enric; Auer, Ingeborg; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Brandsma, Theo; Brunetti, Michele; Dienst, Manuel; Domonkos, Peter; Gilabert, Alba; Lindén, Jenny; Milewska, Ewa; Nordli, Øyvind; Prohom, Marc; Rennie, Jared; Stepanek, Petr; Trewin, Blair; Vincent, Lucie; Willett, Kate; Wolff, Mareile

    2016-04-01

    In this work we introduce the rationale behind the ongoing compilation of a parallel measurements database, in the framework of the International Surface Temperatures Initiative (ISTI) and with the support of the World Meteorological Organization. We intend this database to become instrumental for a better understanding of inhomogeneities affecting the evaluation of long-term changes in daily climate data. Long instrumental climate records are usually affected by non-climatic changes, due to, e.g., (i) station relocations, (ii) instrument height changes, (iii) instrumentation changes, (iv) observing environment changes, (v) different sampling intervals or data collection procedures, among others. These so-called inhomogeneities distort the climate signal and can hamper the assessment of long-term trends and variability of climate. Thus to study climatic changes we need to accurately distinguish non-climatic and climatic signals. The most direct way to study the influence of non-climatic changes on the distribution and to understand the reasons for these biases is the analysis of parallel measurements representing the old and new situation (in terms of e.g. instruments, location, different radiation shields, etc.). According to the limited number of available studies and our understanding of the causes of inhomogeneity, we expect that they will have a strong impact on the tails of the distribution of air temperatures and most likely of other climate elements. Our abilities to statistically homogenize daily data will be increased by systematically studying different causes of inhomogeneity replicated through parallel measurements. Current studies of non-climatic changes using parallel data are limited to local and regional case studies. However, the effect of specific transitions depends on the local climate and the most interesting climatic questions are about the systematic large-scale biases produced by transitions that occurred in many regions. Important

  17. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  18. Climate report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Axelsson, Pernilla; Fegler, C. [and others

    1998-11-01

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV, the National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, and the Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, SIKA, have been commissioned by the Government to furnish background material for Sweden`s second national report on climate change. The national report is a commitment vis-a-vis the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Sweden`s first national report was presented in 1994, and the second was completed and adopted by the Government on 3 April 1997. This study is a more detailed account based on NUTEK`s background material for the national report. NUTEK has been Sweden`s central authority within the energy field. The authority`s work with the background material for the national report has primarily been concentrated on projections of the future development of the energy system. However, the forecasts for energy use in the transport sector are mainly based on forecasts of transport activity prepared by SIKA. Furthermore NUTEK has been responsible for the calculations of the effects of policy instruments on the carbon dioxide emissions. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for the calculations of emissions of climate gases in the background material for the national report. These calculations of the energy system`s emissions of carbon dioxide and other climate gases are based on NUTEK`s energy forecasts 13 figs, 38 tabs

  19. Background concentrations of heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes used for biomonitoring in basaltic areas (a case study from central France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Ecology and Nature Protection; Kempers, A.J. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Biogeology

    1999-12-01

    Studies were made of the aquatic bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., Plathypnidium rusciforme (Neck.)Fleisch and Chiloscyphus sp. (Hoffm.)Dum. from streams embedded in basaltic rocks (Le Puy, central France). Water from these streams possessed elevated levels of Cu, Zn, Sr, V, Ba, Ni and Co, reflecting the geochemistry of the basalts, a basic type of igneous rocks containing elevated levels of these elements. The concentration of elements in bryophytes is correlated to the chemical composition of water of their sampling sites. Contents of trace elements in plants were higher than background values. The elevated levels of these elements possibly caused disturbances in the ionic equilibrium within the bryophytes. The molar ratio between contents of Ca and Mg in water (from 0.44 to 1) was different from that typical for natural water. (orig.)

  20. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  1. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Mewton, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Birrell, Louise; Brownhill, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE School...

  2. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd A. Idris; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and moti...

  3. The Health Impacts of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Arigoni Ortiz, Ramon; Markandya, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in patterns of rainfall as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail serious consequences for human health, including the risk of diarrheal diseases. Indeed, there is strong evidence that temperature and rainfall patterns affect the disease pattern. This paper presents the first study that links the incidence of cholera to environmental and socioeconomic factors and uses that relationship to predict how climate change will affect the inciden...

  4. Spurring climate-friendly behaviour change: a case study of the university of Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is definitely a huge challenge for the 21. century. Models in energy economics show that efficiency gains through energy productivity improvement, technical change and technological innovations towards lower carbon technologies will not be sufficient to achieve the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), i.e. stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Mitigation actions that stem from individual behaviour change towards a lower individual carbon footprint are also part of the response to the climate challenge. Depending on their current behaviour, individuals may focus on many different actions to reduce their carbon footprint, be they at home, at work or any other place: for example, they can use the public transportation system or ride their bike instead of driving their car, video conference instead of flying to a conference or a meeting, turn the heating system off if they open the window when it is cold outside or if they are out of town for some time, turn the lights off when leaving a room, set their computer in sleep mode when not using it for some time, install sockets to shut off the standby modes of their multi-media devices, reduce the amount of waste they generate by purchasing products in bulk or with little packaging, consume local products rather than goods imported from other regions or countries, follow a diet with a low-meat content, and much more. All those actions, as insignificant as they seem to be in terms of individual energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions, do have a real impact at the macro-economic level. Furthermore, they are often 'low-hanging fruit' options, easy to implement at nearly zero cost. Studies that illustrate this point are numerous and cover all GHG emitting sectors. For example, lowering room temperatures by 1 deg. C is estimated to save 7

  5. Climate and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.

  6. Study of the Kroll-process to produce ultra-pure Ti for the low background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To construct G2 & G3 low background experiments for direct Dark Matter search, a lot of ultra-pure construction materials will be needed. Our study of various Ti samples shows that the levels of contaminations of commercially available industrial Ti can varies from 0.2 to 100 mBq/kg for U/Th. It means that the metal Ti is such a promising material for future experiments if the way of production in bulk quantities with very low level of contaminations (below ∼1 mBq/kg of 238U /232Th) would be developed. Our study of the industrial Kroll-process is focused on the possible sources of U and Th and their migration during the multistage Kroll process. To understand migration of U and Th during the Kroll process the set of other impurities available due to precise ICP-MS analysis have been studied. Preliminary results confirm that the Kroll process could be used for the ultra pure Ti sponge production while the following stages of the metal Ti production of from the Ti sponge with necessary mechanical properties need to be additionally studied

  7. Study of the Kroll-process to produce ultra-pure Ti for the low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhevitina, Elena [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Chepurnov, Alexander [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow 119234 (Russian Federation); Chub, Alexander [Solikamsk Magnesium Plant, Solikamsk,618541 (Russian Federation); Avetissov, Igor [ARMOLED Ltd, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Glebovsky, Vadim [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Nisi, Stefano; Di Vacri, Maria Laura [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, SS 17 bis km 18+910, 6010 Assergi (Italy); Suvorov, Yury [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, U.S.A (United States); National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-17

    To construct G2 & G3 low background experiments for direct Dark Matter search, a lot of ultra-pure construction materials will be needed. Our study of various Ti samples shows that the levels of contaminations of commercially available industrial Ti can varies from 0.2 to 100 mBq/kg for U/Th. It means that the metal Ti is such a promising material for future experiments if the way of production in bulk quantities with very low level of contaminations (below ∼1 mBq/kg of {sup 238}U /{sup 232}Th) would be developed. Our study of the industrial Kroll-process is focused on the possible sources of U and Th and their migration during the multistage Kroll process. To understand migration of U and Th during the Kroll process the set of other impurities available due to precise ICP-MS analysis have been studied. Preliminary results confirm that the Kroll process could be used for the ultra pure Ti sponge production while the following stages of the metal Ti production of from the Ti sponge with necessary mechanical properties need to be additionally studied.

  8. Long-term ELF background noise measurements, the existence of window regions, and applications to earthquake precursor emission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Jack Y.; Hansen, Peder M.; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1993-04-01

    A Low Frequency Monitoring Network has been under development at Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC), Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division (RDT & E), San Diego, CA, for the last 2 years. Originally developed to monitor space vehicle induced signatures in the 5-12 Hz region, the network now includes monitoring of anomolous broadband signals in the 0.1-20 Hz region that often precede the occurrence of nearby earthquakes. Observations of such events have led to a hypothesis that geological signals are normally present in the ULF (ultra-low frequency, less than 3 Hz) and ELF (extremely low frequency, 3-3000 Hz) bands in addition to the generally accepted signals from micropulsations and lightning discharges. In Southern California, the geological signals are best observed in the 'polarimetric window' regions of (i) 2-5 Hz using horizontally oriented magnetic sensors and, (ii) 2-20 Hz using vertically oriented magnetic sensors. To determine the significance of anomalous events, we conducted a statistical study of the background noise levels. Observations of daily records over a span of several months indicated that the background level in the 1-20 Hz region is stationary. Stationarity is not true below 1 Hz. The APD (amplitude probability density) of 2-12 Hz signals was found to be surprisingly close to a Gaussian distribution. These two results indicated that a determination of long-term averages and variances would be meaningful. Long-term averages and variances were obtained and were used to develop alert-level criteria. Typical deviations over the course of several hours are 1 to 2 dB. The alert-level criteria are used as input parameters in our Automated Monitoring System (AMS), a computerized monitoring and real-time analysis system. The alert levels warn the operator when unusual events are occurring. High alert-levels in conjunction with the fulfilment of several other conditions often presage the occurrence of an

  9. Study of the natural radiation background affected on the human body in some areas of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author had studied the natural radiation background in 68 districts belong 40 provinces and cities of Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. The estimated results clearly show that the average external irradiation dose levels and the average annual external radiation equivalent dose affected on the human body are 0.181± 0.0189 μSv/h and 1599 ± 171.8 μSv/year respectively, both are in normal limit; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Buon Ma Thuot city (DakLak province), Phuoc Son district (Quang Nam province), Tan An district (Long An province). The radon concentration in the human being and the average annual internal inhalation irradiation equivalent dose affected on the human beings are 26.9 ± 15.89 Bq/m3 and 392.88 ± 231.99 μSv/year respectively; the maximums are in Nha Trang city (Khanh Hoa province), Bac Binh district (Binh Phuoc province); the minimums are in Vung Tau city (Ba Ria- Vung Tau province), Tan An district (Long An province), Rach Gia district (Kien Giang province). The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations in the cereals, foodstuffs (rice, meat, vegetables), water, earth and the average annual internal irradiation equivalent dose are 829.2 ± 38.06 Bq/kg and 229.3 ± 67.70 μSv/year respectively; the highest levels are in Phong Tho district (Lai Chau province), Dien Bien city; the lowest levels are in Dong Xoai district (Binh Phuoc province), Tan An district (Long An province). The average total annual natural radiation background effective equivalent dose level affected on the human body is 2206.9 ± 529.30 μSv/year; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Tan An district (Long An province). The 14 maps of Natural Radiation Background in several localized regions belong 40 provinces and cities of Viet Nam had been set up. These results can reserve for serviceman and public health in the both wartime and peacetime. (author)

  10. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  11. The Costs of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Markandya, Anil

    2011-01-01

    to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates......Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the...... risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable...

  12. Criteria for selecting a CO2/climate change region of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort has three near-term goals: (1) to develop robust methods of analysis including the analysis of uncertainty; (2) to develop information systems to support CO2/climate change analysis; and (3) to develop channels of communication among researchers and between researchers and parties potentially affected by CO2/climate change. Initially, the program will focus on a single region of the United States, employ a historical analog climate, and analyze the interactions of all of the resources resident within that region as they might evolve under current conditions and under evolving CO2/climate change over the next 50 years. Five elements of the program will address the issues of: Analysis, Information Systems, Uncertainty, Knowledge Transfer, and Coordination. This paper will give special attention to the analytical framework and in particular to the criteria for selecting a region for study. 19 refs., 2 figs

  13. The effects of error management climate and safety communication on safety: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigularov, Konstantin P; Chen, Peter Y; Rosecrance, John

    2010-09-01

    Work in the construction industry is considered inherently dangerous, despite the technological improvements regarding the safety of work conditions and equipment. To address the urgent need to identify organizational predictors of safety performance and outcomes among construction workers, the present study examined multi-level effects of two important indicators of safety climate, namely contractor error management climate and worker safety communication, on safety behavior, injury, and pain among union construction workers. Data were collected from 235 union construction workers employed by 15 contractors in Midwest and Northwest regions of the United States. Results revealed significant main effects for safety communication and error management climate on safety behaviors and pain, but not on injuries. Our findings suggest that positive safety communication and error management climate are important contributors to improving workplace safety. Specific implications of these results for organizational safety research and practice are discussed. PMID:20538106

  14. Violence against the adolescents of Kolkata: A study in relation to the socio-economic background and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Ray, Mrinalkanti; Bhattacharyya, Banhishikha; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to understand the nature of violence suffered by the adolescents of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) and to identify its relation with their socio-economic background and mental health variables such as anxiety, adjustment, and self-concept. It is a cross-sectional study covering a total of 370 adolescents (182 boys and 188 girls) from six higher secondary schools in Kolkata. The data was gathered by way of a semi-structured questionnaire and three standard psychological tests. Findings revealed that 52.4%, 25.1%, and 12.7% adolescents suffered psychological, physical, and sexual violence in the last year. Older adolescents (aged 17-18 years) suffered more psychological violence than the younger ones (15-16 years) (psexual violence or both. Whatever its nature is, violence leaves a scar on the mental health of the victims. Those who have been through regular psychological violence reported high anxiety, emotional adjustment problem, and low self-concept. Sexual abuse left a damaging effect on self-concept (pself-concept (p<0.05). This study stresses the need to provide individual counselling services to the maltreated adolescents of Kolkata so that their psychological traumas can heal and that they can move on in life with new hopes and dreams. PMID:26957328

  15. From theory to practice: a Canadian case study of the utility of climate change adaptation frameworks to address health impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Berry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is now recognized that climate change affects human health. The question is how to adapt. This article examines mainstreaming climate considerations into public health programs and the utility of climate change and health adaptation frameworks, using Ontario, Canada, as a case study. Methods A literature review identified climate change and health adaptation frameworks for comparison with the Ontario Public Health Standards. Key informant interviews gauged the extent to which cli...

  16. Cloud-Enabled Climate Analytics-as-a-Service using Reanalysis data: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Tamkin, G.; Potter, G. L.; Thompson, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) maintains advanced data capabilities and facilities that allow researchers to access the enormous volume of data generated by weather and climate models. The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NCCS are merging their efforts to provide Climate Analytics-as-a-Service for the comparative study of the major reanalysis projects: ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, JMA JRA25, and JRA55. These reanalyses have been repackaged to netCDF4 file format following the CMIP5 Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention prior to be sequenced into the Hadoop Distributed File System ( HDFS ). A small set of operations that represent a common starting point in many analysis workflows was then created: min, max, sum, count, variance and average. In this example, Reanalysis data exploration was performed with the use of Hadoop MapReduce and accessibility was achieved using the Climate Data Service(CDS) application programming interface (API) created at NCCS. This API provides a uniform treatment of large amount of data. In this case study, we have limited our exploration to 2 variables, temperature and precipitation, using 3 operations, min, max and avg and using 30-year of Reanalysis data for 3 regions of the world: global, polar, subtropical.

  17. Studying the Relationship Between Climatic Factors and Cotton Production by Different Applied Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the statistical relationship between climatic variables and aspects of cotton production (G. barbadense, and the effects of climatic factors prevailing prior to flowering or subsequent to boll setting on flower and boll production and retention in cotton. Also, the study covers the predicted effects of climatic factors during convenient intervals (in days on cotton flower and boll production compared with daily observation. Further, cotton flower and boll production as affected by climatic factors and soil moisture status has been considered. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity , surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The least important variables were found to be surface soil temperature at 0600 h and minimum temperature. The five-day interval was found to be more adequately and sensibly related to yield parameters. Evaporation, minimum humidity and sunshine duration were the most effective climatic factors during preceding and succeeding periods on boll production and retention. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive. The soil moisture status showed low and in significant correlation with flower and boll production. Higher minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  18. Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

  19. Climate Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  20. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers′ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59% of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1% was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%, too many speed breakers (41%, rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42% and bad weather (36%. Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  1. Civic Engagement about Climate Change: A Case Study of Three Educators and Their Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…

  2. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  3. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  4. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  5. A Study on Predictor Variables of Organizational Climate in Educational Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudivada Venkat Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organization Climate is a fancied term which is relevant at any point of time and is transient. The contextual reference of Organizational Climate is made for its ability to attract, retain and nurture talent. But, even though higher education in India is important; it failed to attract the best talent. The Organizational Climate and its contents were subjected to further scrutiny in this paper in Institutes of Higher Education in Visakhapatnam. The study examines the profile factors and their influence on the components of Organizational Climate. Further, the intra and inter relationships were also tested. The results show direction to the practioners for improving the significant influencing factors. The sample of 150 faculty members was drawn from five Institutes of Higher Education in Visakhapatnam. The human resources practices relating to Working Conditions, Job Design, Performance Management, Compensation, Relations, Communications, Training and Development, Objectivity and Rationality, Grievance Handling and Welfare were considered for estimating the organizational climate. The multi-regression and mean analysis find organizational climate as moderate. The gender diversity and female influence were there in the Educational Institutes. However, Compensation has a very low mean. The Performance Management, Objectivity & Rationality and Relations were found to be the major influencers.

  6. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary J. Bambrick; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective: To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its...

  7. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary J. Bambrick; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its i...

  8. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  9. Revisiting climate changes. Isotope studies open scientific windows to the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier this year, scientists warned that 'an increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system'. The conclusion came from the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Today, it is widely accepted that recent warning is largely a product of enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere derived from post-industrial combustion of fossil fuels and biomass energy sources. However, great uncertainty remains regarding the causal relationships between specific parameters and climate phenomena, and regarding the impacts of climate change on the earth's water cycle. The science of climate change is dynamic. The IAEA contributes to studies via coordination of climate research, participation and support for international scientific programmes, and dissemination of isotope technology and applications. The third quadrennial scientific gathering on the use of isotopes for studying environmental change was held at the IAEA in Vienna 23-27 April 2001. The Conference - attended by 150 experts from 38 countries and seven international organizations - served as an important forum for presentation of results, discussion of ideas and concepts, establishment of international collaboration, and identification of avenues for future research. Selected highlights of issues discussed include: Isotopes are being used as validation tools for predicting impacts of deforestation of the Amazon Basin and for examining the past isotope signals of El Nino events; Isotope signatures in ice cores from low-latitude environments are showing similar temperature signals to polar ice cores,suggesting widespread (global) changes in the past; Isotopes are being used in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment to trace the movement, mixing and residence time of oceanic circulation patterns. Changes in ocean circulation are one of the most important factors controlling the variability of the

  10. Engaging Students in Climate Change Science and Communication through a Multi-disciplinary Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.

    2014-12-01

    The implications of the climate change phenomenon are far-reaching, and will impact every person on Earth. These problems will be complex, and will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. To employ a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the impact climate change is having in the world in which we live, a team of 57 Western Kentucky University (WKU) faculty, staff, and students participated in a study abroad program to seven ports in the North Sea and North Atlantic, including three ports in Iceland, onboard the Semester at Sea ship, MV Explorer. This program combined interdisciplinary learning, service learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges. Together, the group learned how climate change affects the world from varied academic perspectives, and how more often than not these perspectives are closely interrelated. Courses taught during the experience related to climate change science and communication, economics, future trends, and K-12 education. Each student also participated in a The $100 Solution™ service-learning course. While in port, each class engaged in a discipline-specific activities related to the climate change topic, while at sea students participated in class lectures, engaged in shipboard lectures by international experts in their respective fields, and participated in conversations with lifelong learners onboard the ship. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the WKU students to over 100 persons from the University of Akureyri in Akureyri, Iceland, representatives of neighboring Icelandic communities, environmental agencies, and tourism bureaus about what they had learned about climate change during their travels. By forging this relationship, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they

  11. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. Special Issue 2: Measuring Students' Family Background in Large-Scale International Education Studies. IERI Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between students' family background and achievement is often seen as an important topic in regard to equality and equity of educational provision. The results of various education studies show that the family background of students correlates with students' academic achievement at school. This paper focuses on the measurement of…

  12. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  13. Planned Contributions of The Wcrp Climate and Cryosphere (clic) Project To Mountain Hydrological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. G.

    Formal discussions within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) since 1997 have addressed the question of the role of the cryosphere in the climate system. An outcome has been the approval in March 2000 of a Science and Co-ordination Plan for a new Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project by the WCRP Joint Scientific Com- mittee in March 2000. The concept of this plan (WCRP, 2001) and particular topics of concern for high-mountain hydrology are discussed here. The proposed definition of the cryosphere is that portion of the climate system consisting of the world's ice masses and snow deposits. of relevance for mountains are: ice caps and glaciers, sea- sonal snow cover, lake and river ice, and seasonally frozen ground and permafrost. Existing projects both within the framework of the WCRP, as well as of the IGBP are mainly regional and links into the global climate research effort are not sufficiently comprehensive. The WCRP GEWEX project has cryospheric components concerning the high latitude hydrological cycle, but mountain studies are currently only in Ti- bet. Other relevant programs include: the IGBP-BAHC Mountain Research Initiative, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS), and Permafrost and Climate in Europe (PACE), for example. Integration of existing cryospheric projects within a global research structure, together with new efforts addressing current gaps, is re- quired in order to: - enhance links between regional and global climatic components studies, - promote appropriate treatment of cryospheric processes in climate models, and - assemble and make accessible quality controlled, well documented, comprehen- sive and coherent global gridded data sets necessary for driving and validating climate models. The principal scientific questions relating to the cryosphere in mountain re- gions concern: - glacier melt contributions to global sea level change, - the energy and water cycle in regions with land ice, snow cover and frozen ground, - the

  14. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent resp

  15. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respi

  16. International Symposium on Isotopes in Hydrology, Marine Ecosystems, and Climate Change Studies. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human activities have had a far-reaching impact on the aquatic environments - both marine and freshwater systems. The protection of these systems against further deterioration and the promotion of sustainable use are vital. In order to deepen understanding about the main processes affecting the present situation, as well as possible developments in the future, further investigation is required. The oceans play a major role in climate change, for example, and ocean acidification by increased CO2 release is one major threat to the world's oceans. Isotope methods can play a critical role in identifying and quantifying key processes within aquatic environments. Addressing the problems of global water resources has become a matter of urgency. Water resources are subject to multiple pressures for various reasons, including increasing populations, climate change, rising food and energy costs, the global economic crisis and pollutant loading. Isotope hydrology provides the unique and critical tools required to address complex water problems and helps managers and policy makers understand the closely intertwined relationship between water resources and the various pressures affecting them, as well as the issue of sustainability. The symposium will be an important forum for the exchange of knowledge on the present state of marine and freshwater environments, use of isotopes in water resources investigations and management, and climate change studies. The meeting will involve leading scientists in the field of climate change and hydrology, as well as representatives from other United Nations bodies and international organizations that focus on climate change and other important environmental issues. TOPICS: The role of isotopes in understanding and modelling climate change, marine ecosystems and the water cycle; Carbon dioxide sequestration and related aspects of the carbon cycle, such as ocean acidification; Isotopes in groundwater flow modelling for large aquifers

  17. Critical Studies on Integrating Land-Use Induced Effects on Climate Regulation Services into Impact Assessment for Human Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihui Li; Xiangzheng Deng; Jikun Huang; Rongrong Zhang; Juan Huang

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that land use changes (LUC) and climate changes have exerted significant effects on ecosystem services which are essential and vital to human well-being. Among all the services provided by ecosystem, climate regulation services are relatively sensitive to LUC and climate changes. This study aims to comprehensively review studies on the complex effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services and further integrates the effects on climate regulation ...

  18. Images of climate change - a pilot study of young people's perceptions of ICT-based climate visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard; Wibeck, Victoria; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can be difficult for laypeople to make sense of, because of its complexity, the uncertainties involved and its distant impacts. Research has identified the potentials of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for visualizing and communicating climate change to lay audiences...... and thus addressing these communication challenges. However, little research has focused on how ICT-based visualization affects audiences’ understandings of climate change. Employing a semiotic framework and through a combination of focus group interviews and mindmap exercises, we investigated how...... Swedish students make sense of climate messages presented through an ICT-based visualisation medium; a dome theatre movie. The paper concludes that visualization in immersive environments works well to concretize aspects of climate change and provide a starting point for reflection, but we argue that the...

  19. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  20. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  1. How do radical climate movements negotiate their environmental and their social agendas? A study of debates within the Camp for Climate Action (UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlembach, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This is a case study of the Camp for Climate Action, which has held several high-profile protest events in the UK since its inception in 2006. It analyses the Camp as a contested space where different emphases on environmental and social priorities have to be negotiated by its activists. The article considers areas of contestation where concerns over climate change meet questions of social justice. These are structured around tangible issues of campaigning, such as opposition to new coal-fire...

  2. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation. A case study of the role of homeowners in the process of climate change adaptation in Copenhagen

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Baron; Lars Kjerulf Petersen

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete ‘Sustainable Urban Drainages System’ (SUDS) project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study, thereby investigating multiple understandings of urban climate change adaptation. Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main clim...

  3. Study on Naturally Ventilated Double-skin Facade in Hot and Humid Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Rosady

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to study the possibility of the application, to analyze the thermal performance, and to figuring the energy performance of naturally ventilated double-skin fa??ade in the hot and humid climate region with Indonesia???s climate as a case study. Ventilated double-skin fa??ade can be defined as a fa??ade construction, which comprises of the outer glass, the shading device, and the inner glass. The outer glass and the inner glass form a cavity air space as a channel for the air...

  4. Extreme climate events,migration for cultivation and policies:A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce (men older than 16 years of age), the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China), the extreme climate events in North China, and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661―1680, a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation. This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China. The upsurge of migration, which occurred in 1665―1680, was a response to the drought period during 1664―1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China. There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration, which corresponded to the three drought events. The peaks of migration, however, often lagged behind the drought events about 1―2 years. The encourag-ing-migration policy, which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China, did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty. It did, however, provide a policy background, which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters. As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664―1667, a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668. Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China, the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy. The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events. The extreme climate events in North China, migration to Northeast China for cultivation

  5. Extreme climate events, migration for cultivation and policies: A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG XiuQi; YE Yu; ZENG ZaoZao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce(men older than 16 years of age),the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China),the extreme climate events in North China,and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661-1680,a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation.This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China.The upsurge of migration,which occurred in 1665-1680,was a response to the drought period during 1664-1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China.There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration,which corresponded to the three drought events.The peaks of migration,however,often lagged behind the drought events about 1-2 years.The encouraging-migration policy,which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China,did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty.It did,however,provide a policy background,which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters.As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664-1667,a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668.Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China,the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy.The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events.The extreme climate events in North China,migration to Northeast China for cultivation,and the related management policies showed

  6. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Md Iqbal Kabir; Md Bayzidur Rahman; Wayne Smith; Mirza Afreen Fatima Lusha; Abul Hasnat Milton

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural vi...

  7. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change.Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural vil...

  8. Climate and climate change and infectious disease risk in Thailand: A spatial study of dengue hemorrhagic fever using GIS and remotely-sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzera, Kristopher

    The scientific community has widely accepted that climate plays a key role in the sustainability and transmission of many infectious diseases. Global climate change can potentially trigger the spread of disease into new regions and increase the intensity of disease in regions where it is endemic. This study explores the association between monthly conditions of climate change to changes in disease risk, emphasizing the potential spread of dengue fever due to climate change in Thailand. This study also develops techniques new to GIS and remote sensing that generate surfaces of daily minimum temperature toward identifying areas at greater transmission risk. Dengue fever expansion due to global warming is a serious concern for Thailand where warming temperatures may increase the size of the habitat of the disease-spreading vector, Aedes aegypti, particularly during cooler months when transmission is limited by environmental conditions. In this study, first, the association between past dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and climate in Thailand is determined. Second, evidence of recent climate change is related to changes in DHF rates. Third, daily minimum temperature is derived from remote sensing toward identifying the spatial and temporal limitations of potential transmission risk. The results indicate that minimum temperature has recently experienced a rapid increase, particularly in the winter months when transmission is low. This is associated with a recent rise in winter DHF cases. As increasing minimum temperatures in these regions are anticipated to continue, we can expect dengue transmission rates to also increase throughout the year.

  9. Study of radiation background at the north crossing point of the BEPC Ⅱ in collision mode%Study of radiation background at the north crossing point of the BEPC Ⅱ in collision mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫晓虎; 秦庆; 屈化民; 王贻芳; 徐金强; 张天保; 张建勇; 张清江; Achasov Mikhail; 蔡啸; 傅成栋; Harris Fred; 刘倩; Muchnoi Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the radiation background at the north crossing point (NCP) in the tunnel of BEPCII is crucial for the performance safety of the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, and in turn of great significance for long-term stable running of the ener

  10. Managing Investment Climate Reforms: Viet Nam Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mallon, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to learn about Viet Nam's experience with reforms aimed at facilitating private entry into business. The focus of the analysis is the Enterprise Law reform and related reforms to promote domestic private sector development. The study aims to understand how the reform process itself was managed, what have been the results, and what lessons have been learned.

  11. Combined study of evaporation from liquid surface by background oriented schlieren, infrared thermal imaging and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaksina Yu.Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature fields in evaporating liquids are measured by simultaneous use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS technique for the side view and IR thermal imaging for the surface distribution. Good agreement between the two methods is obtained with typical measurement error less than 0.1 K. Two configurations of surface layer are observed: thermocapillary convection state with moving liquid surface and small thermal cells, associated with Marangoni convection, and “cool skin” with negligible velocity at the surface, larger cells and dramatic increase of velocity within 0.1 mm layer beneath the surface. These configurations are shown to be formed in various liquids (water with various degrees of purification, ethanol, butanol, decane, kerosene, glycerine depending rather on initial conditions and ambient parameters than on the liquid. Water, which has been considered as the liquid without observable Marangoni convection, actually can exhibit both kinds of behavior during the same experimental run. Evaporation is also studied by means of numerical simulations. Separate problemsin air and liquid are considered, with thermal imaging data of surface temperature making the separation possible. It is shown that evaporation rate can be predicted by numerical simulation of the air side with appropriate boundary conditions. Comparison is made with known empirical correlations for Sherwood-Rayleigh relationship. Numerical simulations of water-side problem reveal the issue of velocity boundary conditions at the free surface, determining the structure of surface layer. Flow field similar to observed in the experiments is obtained with special boundary conditions of third kind, presenting a combination of no-slip and surface tension boundary conditions.

  12. An integrated modeling study of ocean circulation, the ocean carbon cycle, marine ecosystems, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long

    The unifying theme of this study is to conduct an extensive exploration of various interactions between ocean circulation, the carbon cycle, marine ecosystems, and climate change using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, ISAM-2.5D (Integrated Science Assessment Model). First, through the simulation of radiocarbon (in terms of Delta14C) it is demonstrated that the inclusion of isopycnal diffusion and a parameterization of eddy-induced circulation in the ISAM-2.5D model yields the most realistic representation of ocean mixing and circulation. Secondly, I demonstrate the value of the simulation of multiple tracers, combined with a variety of observational data, in constraining the ISAM-2.5D model that has been constrained by the simulation of Delta14C. Through the simulation of ocean biogeochemical cycles and CFC-11 and the use of the updated observational data of bomb radiocarbon, I improve the Delta14C-constrained ISAM-2.5D model's performance in simulating ocean circulation and air-sea gas exchange, as well as its credibility in predicting oceanic carbon uptake. Third, I use the ISAM-2.5D model to assess the efficiency of direct carbon injection into the deep ocean with the influence of climate change. It is shown that the consideration of climate change enhances the retention time of injected carbon into the Atlantic Ocean as a result of weakened North Atlantic overturning circulation in a warming climate. However, the climatic effect is insignificant on the efficiency of carbon injection into the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Finally, I quantify that increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations would be mainly responsible for future ocean acidification, including lowering in ocean pH and sea water saturation state with respect to carbonate minerals. The consideration of climate change produces a second-order modification to projected ocean acidification. Therefore, in addition to its radiative effects on climate change, increased atmospheric CO2

  13. Field validation study of the MDA instant working level meter in a high gamma background mine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and reproducible radon daughter measurements are essential to protect workers in the mining industry and assure compliance with federal regulations. The precision and accuracy of the MDA Model 811 Instant Working Level Meter (IWLM) has been questioned when it is used in a high gamma environment of an underground uranium mine due to the increased statistical uncertainty associated with the background radiations. Comparative side by side sampling at a single underground mine station exhibiting a 3.0 mR/h gamma background was conducted utilizing the IWLM, the Kusnetz and the Tsivoglou methods. A total of fifty sets of samples were taken, with half using an unshielded IWLM and the other half using a lead shield to reduce the effect of the high gamma background radiation. IWLM, Kusnetz and baseline Tsivoglou measurements were then analyzed. A significantly large error was associated with the IWLM in both the shielded and unshielded data groups. 22 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. Reconstructing high-resolution climate using CT scanning of unsectioned stalagmites: A case study identifying the mid-Holocene onset of the Mediterranean climate in southern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Izabela W.; Baldini, James U. L.; Baldini, Lisa M.; McDermott, Frank; Marsden, Stuart; Standish, Christopher D.; Richards, David A.; Andreo, Bartolomé; Slater, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The forcing mechanisms responsible for the mid-Holocene onset of the Mediterranean-type climate in south-western Europe are currently unclear, but understanding these is critical for accurate climate projections under future greenhouse gas warming. Additionally, regional studies that present conflicting patterns for the onset and advancement of Mediterranean climatic conditions complicate definitively ascribing causality. Here, we use a new high resolution stalagmite density record obtained non-destructively using Computed Tomography (CT scanning) to reconstruct southern Iberian climate between 9.3 and 2.9 ka BP. We suggest that stalagmite density can be used as a water-excess proxy, with lower densities associated with more variable drip rates, possibly reflecting increased seasonality consistent with expectations from previous studies of speleothem textures and crystal fabrics. Our results reveal an early Holocene humid interval and mid-Holocene year-round aridity that preceded the onset of Mediterranean climate at 5.3 ka BP in southern Iberia. Using this new dataset combined with previously published results, we link the gradual advancement of the Mediterranean climate to the southward migration of the North Atlantic Subtropical High induced by an orbitally driven decrease in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Future anthropogenic warming could result in a reversal of this trend, a northward migration of the North Atlantic Subtropical High, and a return to year-round aridity in south-western Europe.

  15. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  16. Climate change in the Iberian Upwelling System: a numerical study using GCM downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Nolasco, Rita; Rocha, Alfredo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Dubert, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    The present work aims at evaluating the impacts of a climate change scenario on the hydrography and dynamics of the Iberian Upwelling System. Using regional ocean model configurations, the study domain is forced with three different sets of surface fields: a climatological dataset to provide the control run; a dataset obtained from averaging several global climate models (GCM) that integrate the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) models used in climate scenarios, for the same period as the climatological dataset; and this same dataset but for a future period, retrieved from the IPCC A2 climate scenario. After ascertaining that the ocean run forced with the GCM dataset for the present compared reasonably well with the climatologically forced run, the results for the future run (relative to the respective present run) show a general temperature increase (from +0.5 to +3 °C) and salinity decrease (from -0.1 to -0.3), particularly in the upper 100-200 m, although these differences depend strongly on season and distance to the coast. There is also strengthening of the SST cross-shore gradient associated to upwelling, which causes narrowing and shallowing of the upwelling jet. This effect is contrary to the meridional wind stress intensification that is also observed, which would tend to strengthen the upwelling jet.

  17. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives. PMID:26921566

  18. Study on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Agricultural Climate Resources during Summer Drought in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YU; Xiaoping; GU; Hua; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantitatively assess the objective impact of light,heat and water agricultural climate resources on food crops during summer drought,this paper uses the assessment methods for light and temperature potential productivity,and light,temperature and water potential productivity of food crops,performs the comparative analysis of the difference between the food production potential and the average climate state during summer drought,and objectively analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of agricultural climate resources in Guizhou Province during summer drought. Studies show that under summer drought in Guizhou Province,the light and temperature potential productivity of rice and corn is generally about 10% higher than in normal climate years,and the strengths of light and heat resources are obvious; the light,temperature and water potential productivity of rice and corn is generally 30% to 40% lower than in normal climate years,and the weaknesses of water resources hamper the crop growth. Rational development and efficient use of water resources and good light and heat conditions for crops during drought,are more conducive to agricultural production.

  19. Combining Climate Scenarios and Risk Management Approach—A Finnish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Molarius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on nature and the environment have been widely discussed and studied. Traditionally, a company’s continuity management is based on risk analysis. There are also attempts to implement scenario-based methods in the risk management procedures of companies. For industrial decision makers, it is vital to acknowledge the impacts of climate change with regards to their adaptation strategies. However, a scenario-based approach is not always the most effective way to analyze these risks. This paper investigates the integration of scenario and risk-based methods for a company’s adaptation planning. It considers the uncertainties of the climate change scenarios and the recognized risks as well as suitable adaptation strategies. The paper presents the results of climate risk analysis prepared for two Finnish hydropower plants. The introduced method was first piloted in 2008 and then again in 2015. The update of the analysis pointed out that at the company level, the climate risks and other risks originating from governmental or political decisions form an intertwined wholeness where the origin of the risk is difficult to outline. It seems that, from the business point of view, the main adaptation strategies suggested by the integrated risk and scenarios approach are those that support buying “safety margins” in new investments and reducing decision time horizons. Both of these adaptation strategies provide an advantage in the circumstances where also political decisions and societal changes have a great effect on decision making.

  20. Climate change in the Iberian Upwelling System: a numerical study using GCM downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Nolasco, Rita; Rocha, Alfredo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Dubert, Jesus

    2015-10-01

    The present work aims at evaluating the impacts of a climate change scenario on the hydrography and dynamics of the Iberian Upwelling System. Using regional ocean model configurations, the study domain is forced with three different sets of surface fields: a climatological dataset to provide the control run; a dataset obtained from averaging several global climate models (GCM) that integrate the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) models used in climate scenarios, for the same period as the climatological dataset; and this same dataset but for a future period, retrieved from the IPCC A2 climate scenario. After ascertaining that the ocean run forced with the GCM dataset for the present compared reasonably well with the climatologically forced run, the results for the future run (relative to the respective present run) show a general temperature increase (from +0.5 to +3 °C) and salinity decrease (from -0.1 to -0.3), particularly in the upper 100-200 m, although these differences depend strongly on season and distance to the coast. There is also strengthening of the SST cross-shore gradient associated to upwelling, which causes narrowing and shallowing of the upwelling jet. This effect is contrary to the meridional wind stress intensification that is also observed, which would tend to strengthen the upwelling jet.

  1. A study on environmental aridity over northern and southern to Qinling Mountains under climate warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data up to 1999 from hydroclimatological departments, this paper analyzes the climatic divide implications of the Qinling Mountains in regional response to the process of climate warming, due to which the grades of dryness/wetness (GDW) in 100 years show that the northern region has entered a drought period, while the southern is a humid period. In a course of ten years, the D-value of annual average air temperature over southern Shaanxi (the Hanjiang Valley) and the Central Shaanxi Plain (the Guanzhong Plain) has narrowed, i.e., the former with a slight change and the latter with rapid increase in temperature. Both regions were arid with the decrease in precipitation D-value, namely the plain became warmer while the south was drier. The Qinling Mountains play a pronounced role in the climatic divide. The runoff coefficient (RC) of the Weihe River decreases synchronously with that of the Hanjiang due to climate warming. The RC of Weihe dropped from 0.2 in the 1950s to less than 0.1 in the 1990s. The Weihe Valley (the Guanzhong Plain) is practically an arid area due to shortage of water. The successive 0.5, 1.0℃ temperature anomaly over China marks, perhaps, the important transition period in which the environment becomes more vulnerable than before.The study shows the obvious trend of environmental aridity, which is of help to the understanding of regional response to global climate change.

  2. Using GENIE to study a tipping point in the climate system

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Myerscough, Richard J.; Marsh, Robert; Livina, Valerie N.; Price, Andrew R.; Cox, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling framework to study the archetypal example of a tipping point in the climate system; a threshold for the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). eScience has been invaluable in this work and we explain how we have made it work for us. Two stable states of the THC have been found to coexist, under the same boundary conditions, in a hierarchy of models. The climate forcing required to collapse the THC and the revers...

  3. Good COP, Bad COP – Et studie af Green Climate Funds muligheder

    OpenAIRE

    Boysen, Peter; Garsdal, Danny; Jacobsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of this project is centered on the Green Climate Fund, the purpose of which is to promote a change-over from fossil fuels to sustainable energy and to preclude the consequences of climate change. Thus this rapport examines, why it has become a necessity to establish a fund of this type. Furthermore this paper studies, which consequences the outcomes of the meetings at the Conference of the Parties have in terms of the fund’s ways of collecting finances, including the fund’s abili...

  4. Electricity supply options, sustainable development and climate change priorities. Case studies for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the project Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies, which has been managed by UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The report argues that starting from development objectives is critical to mitigation efforts in developing countries. Instead of defining local benefits as ancillary to mitigation, reductions of GHG emissions should be seen as the co-benefits of policies that drive local sustainable development. A development-focused approach seems more likely to be implemented than the imposition of GHG targets by the international community - especially as South Africa has adopted development targets such as the Millennium Development Goals and promoted the Johannesburg Plan of Action. The case studies presented take as their starting point development objectives, rather than climate change targets. The form of climate action which it investigates is sustainable development policies and measures. (BA)

  5. A study of the sensitivity of ENSO to the mean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toniazzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of the simulated ENSO on the mean simulated climate in the HadCM3 GCM and attempt to understand its relation with results from intermediate-complexity models (ICMs. Our aim is to bridge an existing gap between results from complex GCMs and from more readily understandable ICMs, and thereby to improve our process-based prediction skills of the potential sensitivity of observed ENSO properties (amplitude, frequency and pattern to climate change. Although there is a suggestion that surface ENSO processes are dominating the response in HadCM3, our work also shows that the complex changes in simulated climate can have contrasting effects on the ENSO and the net result may not be robust.

  6. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    Climate change imposes some special risks on Least Developed Countries, and the chapter presents a methodological framework, which can be used to assess the impacts of key assumptions related to damage costs, risks and equity implications on current and future generations. The methodological...... framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...... damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...

  7. Applicability of the Organisational Climate Description Questionnaire - Rutgers Elementary: a South African case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Organisational Climate Description Questionnaire - Rutgers Elementary (OCDQ - RE was used to determine the current organizational climate of primary schools in North-West Province, South Africa. This questionnaire evaluates the actions of principals and educators; the current organizational climate in primary schools can be determined from the results. A quantitative research approach, with 904 teachers from 68 schools, was used to determine the applicability of the measuring instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that certain items measuring directive behaviour in the OCDQ-RE grouped with supportive behaviour of the principal. Hence, in this study, these items were regarded as supportive towards the educators and their work by the respondents. According to Cronbach's alpha coefficient the questionnaire can be regarded as reliable. Recommendations are made to render the questionnaire even more applicable for the South African context.

  8. Using adaptation tipping points to prepare for climate change and sea level rise: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, J.C.J.; Haasnoot, M.; Mulder, J.P.M.; Hoogvliet, M.; Jeuken, A.; Krogt, R. van de; Oostrom, N. van; Schelfhout, H.; Velzen, H. van; Waveren, H. van; Wit, M.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of climate change and sea level rise usually take climate scenarios as their starting point. To support long-termwater management planning in the Netherlands, we carried out a study that started at the opposite end of the effect chain. In the study we refer to three aspects of

  9. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  10. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  11. High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

  12. Deliberation as Communication Instruction: A Study of a Climate Change Deliberation in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Sara A. Mehltretter

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that deliberation is an innovative method for teaching communication skills, particularly group communication, in the undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum. A case study using a deliberation activity on global climate change in an introductory biology course demonstrates how deliberative…

  13. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  14. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  15. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  16. High Performance Work System, HRD Climate and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational performance and to examine the role of human resource development (HRD) Climate in mediating the relationship between HPWS and the organizational performance in the context of the power sector of India. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  17. Study on the Sensitivity and Vulnerability of Wheat to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fang; YANG Xiu; LIN Er-da; JU Hui; XIONG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on B2 climate change scenario produced by PRECIS (providing regional climates for impacts studies), which was developed by the UK Hadley Center, and the wheat yield data outputted by CERES-wheat model, the sensitivity and vulnerability of wheat production to the future climate change in China were studied through analyzing the yield variation using the GIS (geographical information system) techniques. Results showed that, by the 2070s, there will be three negative sensitive areas of rain-fed wheat, i.e., northeastern China, the region of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and part of the Loess Plateau. Irrigated wheat is generally sensitive to the future climate change for most areas of China, with a lower sensitive degree and a distribution of sensitive areas similar to the rain-fed wheat. For the irrigated wheat, northeast and northwest of China are strongly negative sensitive, while the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the coastal areas of southern China and the southwest of China, are moderately negative sensitive to the climate change. With the appropriate adaptation to the climate change, the rain-fed wheat in most regions of China will not be vulnerable and even has a yield increase, while the irrigated wheat will still have a larger vulnerable area (occupying about 2/3 of its total area in China), with the highly vulnerable regions distributed in northeastern China and northwestern China, and the medium and light vulnerable areas distributed along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,Yunnan and Guizhou provinces.

  18. Impact of Soil Data Parameterization on Recharge for Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan; Holländer, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Recharge is a major factor in water budget analysis and therefore in the evaluation of available water resources under changing climate. Recharge estimation depends strongly on the soil type. This study utilizes a soil data which is provided by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, here after referred to as government data. Aim is to evaluate the reliability of the soil data for climate change modelling using HYDRUS-1D and a statistical downscaling model (SDSM), and to demonstrate the significance of our previously developed recharge estimation method (Assefa and Woodbury 2013) for climate change studies. While the future climate time series is constructed by using predictor variables derived from the HadCM3 A2 experiment, the required soil hydraulic parameters are estimated from single/dual porosity soil hydraulic models and parameter estimation technique based on transient soil moisture data. The latter are recorded using a state-of- the art sensors equipped in a HOBOTM weather station, which is installed at our experimental site in the valley bottom of the Deep Creek watershed in North Okanagan, British Columbia, Canada. The reliability of the government soil data for climate change modelling is assessed by simulating soil moisture and groundwater recharge. The results suggest promising performance of the soil data for vadose zone hydrologic modelling, with correlation coefficient and RMSE estimated at 0.84 and 0.036 cm3cm-3, respectively. The modelling results show that the government soil data can be taken as a reliable resource for vadose zone hydrologic modelling in a changing climate. Assefa KA, Woodbury AD (2013) Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling. Water Resources Research 49 (8):4593-4606. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20332

  19. Impacts and environmental catastrophes: A study of the effects of impact events on the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the perturbation of the climate system due to large impact events. Impacts are among the most important mechanisms for the evolution, distribution, and destruction of life in the universe. However, the possible climatic effects of an impact were not seriously considered until 1980, when Louis and Walter Alvarez suggested that the profound end-Cretaceous extinction might have been caused by the impact of an asteroid or comet about 10 km in diameter. Since then, the climatic change associated with the end-Cretaceous impact has become one of the most interesting and still unresolved questions in linking the well-known Chicxulub impact event and the end- Cretaceous mass extinction. While the end-Cretaceous impact offers the best-documented case of an impact affecting the Earth's climate and biota, even smaller (and more frequent in time) impacts could introduce significant perturbations of the climate comparable, if not larger, to the largest known volcanic perturbations. We propose to study the mechanical and thermal state of the atmosphere following an impact event. This will be done by using both one-dimensional and three-dimensional climate models. When necessary, modifications of the state-of-the-art general circulation models will b e carried out. We want to use the end-Cretaceous impact event as a case study. This allows us to take advantage of the extensive modeling of this impact event that has already been carried out through a previous Exobiology grant. Furthermore, a large experimental dataset, that can be used to constrain and test our models, is associated with the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (one of the largest of the Phanerozoic) and impact event.

  20. Brief Communication: An update of the article "Modelling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Burghoff, Olaf; Hoffmann, Peter; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.

    2016-07-01

    In our first study on possible flood damages under climate change in Germany, we reported that a considerable increase in flood-related losses can be expected in a future warmer climate. However, the general significance of the study was limited by the fact that outcome of only one global climate model (GCM) was used as a large-scale climate driver, while many studies report that GCMs are often the largest source of uncertainty in impact modelling. Here we show that a much broader set of global and regional climate model combinations as climate drivers show trends which are in line with the original results and even give a stronger increase of damages.