WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate room irradiance

  1. An artificial solar spectrum substantially alters plant development compared with usual climate room irradiance spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Douwstra, P.; Trouwborst, G.; Ieperen, van W.; Harbinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to the light spectrum under which plants are grown affect their developmental characteristics in a complicated manner. Lamps widely used to provide growth irradiance emit spectra which are very different from natural daylight spectra. Whereas specific responses of plants to a

  2. Simulation of Room Climate of Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prorokova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the details of modeling of heat exchange and mass transfer in a room in the formation of a microclimate. The mathematical model is implemented in the program ANSYS Fluent and is used to predict the climate parameters after the implementation of energy saving measures in the building. Verification of the mathematical model by comparing the experimental data with the results of the measurement of microclimate parameters of the experiment.

  3. Irradiation dose determination below room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Bernal, S. E-mail: ramos@nuclecu.unam.mx; Cruz, E.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Bustos, E

    2002-03-01

    The measurements presented were undertaken to provide quantitative information on the low temperature irradiation of thermoluminiscence phosphors. The crystals used were (a) LiF co-doped with Mg, Cu and P, and (b) CaSO{sub 4} doped with Dy. The absorbed dose values in the interval studied showed a linear behavior at low doses and low temperature. The aim of this work is to test if these crystals can be used to measure the dose absorbed by solids at low temperature.

  4. A Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O.; Lean, J. L.; Pilewskie, P.; Snow, M.; Lindholm, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new climate data record for total solar irradiance and solar spectral irradiance between 1610 and the present day with associated wavelength and time-dependent uncertainties and quarterly updates. The data record, which is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Data Record (CDR) program, provides a robust, sustainable, and scientifically defensible record of solar irradiance that is of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity for use in studies of climate variability and climate change on multiple time scales and for user groups spanning climate modeling, remote sensing, and natural resource and renewable energy industries. The data record, jointly developed by the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is constructed from solar irradiance models that determine the changes with respect to quiet sun conditions when facular brightening and sunspot darkening features are present on the solar disk where the magnitude of the changes in irradiance are determined from the linear regression of a proxy magnesium (Mg) II index and sunspot area indices against the approximately decade-long solar irradiance measurements of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE). To promote long-term data usage and sharing for a broad range of users, the source code, the dataset itself, and supporting documentation are archived at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). In the future, the dataset will also be available through the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center (LISIRD) for user-specified time periods and spectral ranges of interest.

  5. Cross-linking of polytetrafluoroethylene during room-temperature irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wetteland, Chris J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duncan, Wanda S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lakis, Rollin E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to {alpha}-radiation was investigated to detennine the physical and chemical effects, as well as to compare and contrast the damage mechanisms with other radiation types ({beta}, {gamma}, or thermal neutron). A number of techniques were used to investigate the chemical and physical changes in PTFE after exposure to {alpha}-radiation. These techniques include: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Similar to other radiation types at low doses, the primary damage mechanism for the exposure of PTFE to {alpha}-radiation appears to be chain scission. Increased doses result in a change-over of the damage mechanism to cross-linking. This result is not observed for any radiation type other than {alpha} when irradiation is performed at room temperature. Finally, at high doses, PTFE undergoes mass-loss (via smallfluorocarbon species evolution) and defluorination. The amount and type of damage versus sample depth was also investigated. Other types of radiation yield damage at depths on the order of mm to cm into PTFE due to low linear energy transfer (LET) and the correspondingly large penetration depths. By contrast, the {alpha}-radiation employed in this study was shown to only induce damage to a depth of approximately 26 {mu}m, except at very high doses.

  6. Occupant UV exposure measurements for upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milonova, Sonya; Rudnick, Stephen; McDevitt, James; Nardell, Edward

    2016-06-01

    The threshold limit value (TLV) guideline for ultraviolet (UV) radiation specifies that irradiance measurements to ensure occupant safety be taken over an angle of 80° at the sensor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 80° field of view (FOV) tube on lower room UV-C irradiation measurements. Measurements were made in an experimental chamber at a height of 1.73m with and without an FOV tube. The FOV tube reduced the lower room irradiance readings by 18-34%, a statistically significant reduction compared to the bare sensor. An 80° FOV tube should be used for lower room irradiance measurements to comply with the TLV guideline. The resulting lower readings would allow more UV-C radiation in the upper room without compromising occupant safety. More UV-C radiation in the upper room could increase efficacy of UVGI systems for reducing transmission of airborne infectious diseases. In addition, recommendations are made to standardize lower room irradiance measurement techniques.

  7. Semiconducting Properties of Swift Au Ion-Irradiated ZnO Thin Films at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sera; Park, Hyun-Woo; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2017-02-01

    The semiconducting properties of Au ion-irradiated ZnO thin films were investigated as a function of ion irradiation dose at room temperature. The Au ion irradiation was conducted with acceleration energy of 130 MeV in the ion dose range from 1 × 1011 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. The physical properties showed no change regardless of the Au ion irradiation dose; however, the electrical properties of Au ion-irradiated ZnO thin films changed, depending on the Au ion irradiation dose. The electronic structure drastically changed with the evolution of hybridized molecular orbital structure for the conduction band and band edge states below the conduction band. These remarkable changes in electronic structure correlate with changes in electrical properties, such as carrier concentration and mobility.

  8. Man and room climate. The importance of thermal comfort; Der Mensch und das Raumklima. Zur Bedeutung der thermischen Behaglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefte, Klaus [Uponor Academy, Ochtrup (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Room climate has become increasingly important during the past few decades as humans spend about 90 percent of their time inside rooms. Influencing factors are acoustics, lighting, air quality and thermal room climate. The contribution focuses on thermal room climate and room air quality which are the most important of these factors. (orig.)

  9. An assessment of the solar irradiance record for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopp Greg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total solar irradiance, the spatially and spectrally integrated radiant output from the Sun at a mean Sun-Earth distance of 1 astronomical unit, provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system. Variations in this energy, particularly over long time scales, contribute to changes in Earth’s climate and have been linked to historical glaciation and inter-glacial periods as well as having a small effect on more recent global warming. Accurate measurements of solar irradiances require measurements above the Earth’s atmosphere. The total solar irradiance spaceborne record began in 1978 and has been uninterrupted since, with over a dozen instruments contributing to the present solar climate data record. I assess the required and achieved accuracies of this record with a focus on its value for climate studies.

  10. Surface Morphology Dependent Copper Sulphide Ammonia Gas Sensor Working at Room Temperature: Effect of SHI Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramphal Sharma

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of copper sulphide (CuS nano-pillars on copper sulphide thin film surface by using swift heavy ion (SHI irradiation. Thin films of CuS are irradiated with 100 MeV gold ions at fluence varying from 1011 to 5 ´ 1012 ions/cm2. These nanostructures grown on the surface of copper sulphide has been used for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. The time dependent surface conductance measurements show the utility of copper sulphide for the detection of ammonia. It is observed that the response of the material is highly influenced by the irradiation fluence.

  11. Thermoluminescence of photostimulable materials after X irradiation below room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S.; Iwasa, H.; Kurobori, T.; Inabe, K

    2002-07-01

    Thermoluminescence glow peaks in the temperature range 100 to 400 K are investigated for BaFX (X=Cl, Br) crystals after X irradiation at 100 K. A prominent glow peak of BaFCl around 210 K is found to be composed of a few recombination roots, that is, the peak corresponds to the recombination of hole trapped centers such as an O{sup -} center and a dissociated Cl{sub 2}{sup -} center with the F (F{sup -}) center and the O{sup 2-}-F(Cl{sup -}) pair defect. Another small glow peak around 270 K is likely to occur from thermal dissociation of the O{sup 2-}-F(Cl{sup -}) pair defect. Main glow peak of BaFBr:O{sup 2-} at 170 K may be attributed to a recombination of an O{sup -} center with the F(Br{sup -}) center. (author)

  12. Surface Morphology Dependent Copper Sulphide Ammonia Gas Sensor Working at Room Temperature: Effect of SHI Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramphal Sharma; Sagade, Abhay A.; J. C. Vyas; P. K. Nema; Anil Ghule; Sung-Hwan Han

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of copper sulphide (CuS) nano-pillars on copper sulphide thin film surface by using swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Thin films of CuS are irradiated with 100 MeV gold ions at fluence varying from 1011 to 5 ´ 1012 ions/cm2. These nanostructures grown on the surface of copper sulphide has been used for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. The time dependent surface conductance measurements show the utility of copper sulphide for the detection of ammonia. ...

  13. Fracture properties of neutron-irradiated martensitic 9Cr-WVTa steels below room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, F.; Narui, M.; Kayano, H.

    1994-09-01

    Fracture properties of the reduced activation martensitic 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa steels were investigated by carrying out instrumented Charpy impact tests and tensile tests at temperatures below room temperature after irradiation in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor at 493 and 538 K. Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel was also examined for comparison. The irradiation-induced increase in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature was 53, 26 and 40 K for the {1}/{3} size Charpy specimens of 9Cr-1WVTa, 9Cr-3WVTa and 9Cr-1MoVNb steels, respectively, which resulted primarily from the irradiation-induced increase in yield stress. The cleavage fracture stress was 1820-1870 MPa for the three steels in unirradiated conditions, which was scarcely affected by irradiation. The deflections to the maximum load and to the brittle fracture initiation were decreased by irradiation. In the tensile test, quasi-cleavage fracture occurred at 77 K in both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The cleavage fracture stress was 1320-1380 MPa for the tensile specimens of the three steels, which was about 1.4 times smaller than that for the Charpy specimens.

  14. Optically stimulated luminescence in KCl:Cu x-irradiated at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P K; Chakrabarti, K

    1999-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been observed in single crystals of KCl:Cu x-irradiated at room temperature. It is shown that electrons are liberated from anion sites during the OSL process. The OSL predominantly involves emission due to radiative transition (d s) of monovalent copper ions present in the lattice. The OSL emission shows a strong temperature dependence indicating a thermally assisted process. Electron-hole recombination followed by energy transfer to the Cu activator is suggested as a possible OSL mechanism in KCl:Cu. Preliminary results of OSL in KBr:Cu are also presented.

  15. Software Design of SMD LEDs for Homogeneous Distribution of Irradiation in the Model of Dark Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Liner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes wireless optical data networks using visible spectra of optical radiation with a focus on interior areas with direct line of sight LOS (line-of-sight. This type of network represents progressively evolving area of information technologies. Development of lightning technologies based on white power LED was the impulse for wireless optical data networks based on visible spectra of optical radiation (VLC development. Its basic advantage is the flexibility of users. Users don’t have to stay on one place during the data sharing anymore. Wireless optical data networks represent an alternative solution for metallic and fiber networks [1], [2]. This paper deals with the software simulation of homogeneous distribution of optical irradiation in dark room model, carrying out in LightTools software. First, in previous simulations, the optical source composed from 9 SMD LED’s type LW G6SP-EAFA-JKQL-1 was designed. In various simulations, various numbers and distributions of LED’s were used. These were placed at the ceiling of the dark room. At last, the results of optical irradiation homogeneity are compared.

  16. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Li, Guo-Hua, E-mail: nanozjut@zjut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Research Center of Nanoscience and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chen, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: chxp@zjut.edu.cn [School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zheng, Jian-Hui [School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2013-08-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4–7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe. Highlights: • A novel approach to fabricate the fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile • The fasciculate grows from a particle to nanorod and to fasciculate, step by step. • A preferred orientation growth induced by sunlight irradiation in the fasciculate • The rutile fasciculate is low toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe.

  17. Radiation effects on microstructure and hardness of a titanium aluminide alloy irradiated by helium ions at room and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Tao, E-mail: tao@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia); Zhu, Hanliang [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environment Research, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia); Dayal, Pranesh; Davis, Joel; Carr, David; Harrison, Robert; Edwards, Lyndon [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    A 45XD TiAl alloy possessing a lamellar microstructure was irradiated using 5 MeV helium ions to a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 21} ion m{sup −2} (5000 appm) with a dose of about 1 dpa (displacements per atom). A uniform helium ion stopping damage region about 17 μm deep from the target surface was achieved by applying an energy degrading wheel. Radiation damage defects including helium-vacancy clusters and small helium bubbles were found in the microstructure of the samples irradiated at room temperature. With increasing irradiation temperature to 300 °C and 500 °C helium bubbles were clearly observed in both the α{sub 2} and γ phases of the irradiated microstructure. By means of nanoindentation significant irradiation hardening was measured. For the samples irradiated at room temperature the hardness increased from 5.6 GPa to 8.5 GPa and the irradiation-hardening effect reduced to approximately 8.0 GPa for the samples irradiated at 300 °C and 500 °C.

  18. Influence of constructive characteristics of a room on the parameters of regulators of automated climatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    Full Text Available Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. In view of the above, designing and operation of buildings should be aimed at the best (optimal solution of the following objective: to ensure the set-point values of indoor climate serviced by automated climate control systems, against the minimal energy consumption. In regard of its substantive structure, this paper describes the study on the relationship between the individual parameters of indoor thermal stability and the regulatory impact of automatic control systems (ACS. We analyzed the effect of structural room characteristics on the total energy consumption of the airflow processing unit in order to ensure energy saving. The final result is illustrated by numeric simulation with the use of a developed computer program and graphic examples. The proposed method is based on the assumption that the total thermal stability of the «room-ACVS-ACS» system is defined by heat absorption index of a room and the ACS control operation. This follows directly from the back-to-back connection of units corresponding to the room and ACVS in the scheme of automatic indoor climate control. Further study allowed authors to trace the influence of structural characteristics of a room on the total energy consumption needed for air intake treatment. This can be done by applying values of the main walling area. Basing on the developed algorithm, the authors made calculations using the computer program developed in Fortran. As a result a fragments of the program are presented - calculations of the parameters’ values included in the expressions and the total specific energy consumption for heating the air intake during the heating season, under varying room geometry, as well as the graphic illustration of the obtained relationships.

  19. Climate control based on temperature measurement in the animal-occupied zone of a pig room with ground channel ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Aerts, J.M.; Brecht, van A.; Vranken, E.; Leroy, T.; Berckmans, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that there can be a significant temperature difference between the position of the climate controller sensor (room temperature) and the animal-occupied zone (AOZ) in a pig room. This study explores the advantages of using AOZ temperature in climate control. The objectives were: (1) to ev

  20. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR, India), Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi{sup 0} NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2-8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4-9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 Degree-Sign C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  1. Room temperature preparation of Pt-decorated MWCNTs by using proton beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Joon; Lee, Yoon Ji; Song, Jae Hee

    2016-09-01

    We present a facile one-pot preparation route for the production of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-Pt nanoparticle composites in an aqueous solution at room temperature by using proton beam irradiation process without the addition of any reducing reagents. We utilized hexade-cyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized pristine and thiol-functionalized MWCNTs for the synthesis of MWCNT-Pt nanoparticle composites and compared the deposition trends of the platinum nanoparticles onto the surfaces of pristine MWCNTs and surface-modified MWCNTs, respectively. Thiolated MWCNTs were densely and uniformly decorated with Pt nanoparticles while pristine MWCNTs were not. The Pt nanostructures on the surfaces of MWCNTs were spherical, and the average diameter was in the range of ~2 nm. Also, two different metal precursors, H2PtCl6 and Na2PtCl6, were used to find any distinguishable decoration patterns on the surface-modified MWCNTs; however, the deposition patterns were observed to be not very different.

  2. Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation at room and elevated temperature response of pMOS dosimeters with thick gate oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Momčilo M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation response at room and elevated temperature have been studied for radiation sensitive pMOS transistors with gate oxide thickness of 100 and 400 nm, respectively. Their response was followed based on the changes in the threshold voltage shift which was estimated on the basis of transfer characteristics in saturation. The presence of radiation-induced fixed oxide traps and switching traps - which lead to a change in the threshold voltage - was estimated from the sub-threshold I-V curves, using the midgap technique. It was shown that fixed oxide traps have a dominant influence on the change in the threshold voltage shift during gamma-ray irradiation and annealing.

  3. Comparison of hospital room surface disinfection using a novel ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2016-09-01

    The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Each surface type was placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room and treated by 10-min ultraviolet-C (UVC) exposures using the TORCH with doses ranging from 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites. Organism reductions were compared with untreated surface coupons as controls. Overall, UVGI significantly reduced MRSA by an average of 4.6 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 77% inactivation, p < 0.0001) and VRE by an average of 3.9 log10 (GSD: 1.7 log10, 65% inactivation, p < 0.0001). MRSA on bedrail was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) less than on other surfaces, while VRE was reduced significantly less on chrome (p = 0.0004) and stainless steel (p = 0.0012) than porcelain tile. Organisms out of direct line of sight of the UVC generator were reduced significantly less (p < 0.0001) than those directly in line of sight. UVGI was found an effective method to inactivate nosocomial pathogens on surfaces evaluated within the hospital environment in direct line of sight of UVGI treatment with variation between organism and surface types.

  4. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single......-room and three combined-room measurements, it was found that the traditional measure of speech, such as the speech transmission index, was not correlated with the subjective classifications. Thus, a correlation analysis was conducted as an attempt to find the hidden factors behind the subjective perceptions...

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), NRLTSI Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains total solar irradiance (TSI) as a function of time created with the Naval Research Laboratory model for spectral and total...

  6. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), NRLSSI Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains solar spectral irradiance (SSI) as a function of time and wavelength created with the Naval Research Laboratory model for...

  7. Long-term measurements of solar spectral irradiance variability: toward the establishment of a climate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Erik; Harder, Jerald; Pilewskie, Peter; Fontenla, Juan; Woods, Thomas; Brown, Steven; Lykke, Keith

    Knowledge of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is crucial in interpreting the spectrally dependent radiative processes throughout Earth's climate system. Where this energy is deposited into the atmosphere and surface, how the climate responds to solar variability, and the mechanisms of climate response, are highly dependent on how the incident solar radiation is distributed with wavelength. In order to advance understanding of how natural and anthropogenic process affect Earth's climate system there is a strong scientific imperative to maintain accurate, long-term records of climate forcing and response. The contin-uation of SSI measurements provides a unique opportunity to characterize poorly understood wavelength dependent climate processes. Coupled chemistry-climate models require realistic assessments of the magnitudes and long-term trends in SSI for the interpretation and quantifi-cation of solar forcing in climate change scenarios. This places stringent requirements on the absolute calibration of the instrument (tied directly to international standards) and the ability to maintain that calibration on-orbit (long-term stability). The Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) is a solar spectral radiometer that continuously monitors the SSI from 200 nm -2400 nm, a wavelength region encompassing 96% of the total solar irradiance. The SIM instrument is included as part of the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) to continue the mea-surement of SSI, which began with the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), launched in 2003. SORCE SIM measurements have characterized SSI variability during the descending phase of Solar Cycle (SC) 23, but the determination of multi-solar cycle dependen-cies remains a key climatic uncertainty. Analysis of the measured spectral irradiance variability during the SORCE mission has resulted in a number of instrument design refinements central to maintaining, on-orbit, the long-term absolute

  8. Heat flows in a full scale room exposed to natural climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenten, P.

    1998-09-01

    It is, with the thermal models used in today`s building simulation programs, possible to calculate the major part of the heat transfer in a room with an ambient outer wall. However, there are some parameters these models calculate with less or unknown accuracy: heat flows in poorly insulated walls or windows, heat flows in a room exposed to strong solar radiation, temperatures on the inside of ambient outer walls and windows. The reason for these difficulties is mainly that there is a lack of experimental data for the detailed energy transfer in a window exposed to ambient climate and the convective energy transport in a room exposed to ambient climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed energy transfer at an ambient wall including window. The investigation included both theoretic analysis and measurements performed under conditions close to the real situation with ambient climate. The method used in this study was to estimate the heat flow through wall and window from measured solar radiation on the facade and temperatures. The temperatures were measured inside the wall, on the window panes, in the air, at inner surfaces etc. The longwave radiation was calculated from surface temperatures. The convective heat transfer was calculated as the difference between the heat flow through the building element and the longwave radiation. This indirect way of measuring the convective heat transfer was not as accurate as other more direct techniques but it was however a method which permitted measurement under realistic conditions 27 refs, 90 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Rapid Fabrication of CdS Nanocrystals with Well Mesoporous Structure Under Ultrasound Irradiation at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-lin; ZHOU Wan-qin; YU Jim-my; YANG Jian-gao; FAN Qi-zhe

    2012-01-01

    Sphere-like mesoporous CdS nanocrystals with high crystallinity and big surface area were successfully fabricated by ultrasound irradiation at room temperature.The as-synthesized CdS with and without ultrasound irradiation was investigated by the characterizations of X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) surface areas.The photocatalytic activity of the CdS was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible light(λ>420 nm) irradiation.A possible mechanism for the formation of the CdS nanocrystals with mesoporous structure under ultrasound irradiation was proposed.The results show that both the template role of the triblock copolymer of P123 and the effect of ultrasound-induced aggregation are mainly responsible for the formation of mesoporous structure.On the other hand,the energy generated from acoustic cavitation can effectively accelerate the crystallization process of the amorphous CdS.

  10. The new climate data record of total and spectral solar irradiance: Current progress and future steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, Odele; Lean, Judith; Rottman, Gary; Pilewskie, Peter; Snow, Martin; Lindholm, Doug

    2016-04-01

    We present a climate data record of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), with associated time and wavelength dependent uncertainties, from 1610 to the present. The data record was developed jointly by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado Boulder and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as part of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Climate Data Record (CDR) Program, where the data record, source code, and supporting documentation are archived. TSI and SSI are constructed from models that determine the changes from quiet Sun conditions arising from bright faculae and dark sunspots on the solar disk using linear regression of proxies of solar magnetic activity with observations from the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM), Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM), and SOlar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). We show that TSI can be separately modeled to within TIM's measurement accuracy from solar rotational to solar cycle time scales and we assume that SSI measurements are reliable on solar rotational time scales. We discuss the model formulation, uncertainty estimates, and operational implementation and present comparisons of the modeled TSI and SSI with the measurement record and with other solar irradiance models. We also discuss ongoing work to assess the sensitivity of the modeled irradiances to model assumptions, namely, the scaling of solar variability from rotational-to-cycle time scales and the representation of the sunspot darkening index.

  11. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  12. The Impact of Different Absolute Solar Irradiance Values on Current Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David H.; Lean, Judith L.; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of the preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value: a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and a lower value measured recently by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Each of the model simulations is adjusted to achieve global energy balance; without this adjustment the difference in irradiance produces a global temperature change of 0.48C, comparable to the cooling estimated for the Maunder Minimum. The results indicate that by altering cloud cover the model properly compensates for the different absolute solar irradiance values on a global level when simulating both preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates. On a regional level, the preindustrial climate simulations and the patterns of change with doubled CO2 concentrations are again remarkably similar, but there are some differences. Using a higher absolute solar irradiance value and the requisite cloud cover affects the model's depictions of high-latitude surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and stratospheric ozone, as well as tropical precipitation. In the climate change experiments it leads to an underestimation of North Atlantic warming, reduced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, and smaller total ozone growth at high northern latitudes. Although significant, these differences are typically modest compared with the magnitude of the regional changes expected for doubled greenhouse gas concentrations. Nevertheless, the model simulations demonstrate that achieving the highest possible fidelity when simulating regional climate change requires that climate models use as input the most accurate (lower) solar irradiance value.

  13. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  14. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J F; Blue, T E

    1996-11-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions "How much?" and "What kind?" of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room , patient "scatterer," and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel.

  15. SOLAR2000 irradiances for climate change research, aeronomy and space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Improvements to spectral and temporal solar irradiances are often based upon increasingly accurate and precise measurements as well as upon better understood physics. This paper reports on one example in an emerging trend for solar irradiance models that can be characterized as hybrid irradiance modeling. Empirical and physics-based modeling of irradiances are combined and take advantage of strengths within both methods to provide a variety of solar irradiance products to science and engineering users. The SOLAR2000 (S2K) version 1.24 model (v1.24) described in this paper has gone through 17 upgrades since it was originally released in 1999 as v0.10 and now incorporates three theoretical continua, 13 rocket spectra, and time series data from five satellites using 17 instruments. S2K currently produces six integrated irradiance proxies for science and engineering applications in addition to spectrally resolved irradiances in three common wavelength formats. Integrated irradiance proxies include the E10.7 integrated EUV energy flux, QEUV total thermospheric EUV heating rate, PEUV hemispheric EUV power, T∞ exospheric temperature, RSN derived sunspot number, and S integrated spectrum. Besides three spectral wavelength and six integrated irradiance formats there are three time frames of historical, nowcast, and forecast irradiance products produced by four model grades. The Research Grade (RG) model is developed for aeronomical and climate change research, the Professional Grade (PG) model is developed for space system engineering applications, the Operational Grade (OP) model is developed for institutional and agency real-time operational space weather applications, and the System Grade (SY) model is developed for commercial operational and production applications. This report describes these model characteristics as well as the current state of operational irradiances which are now in the second release of a first generation forecast methodology. Forecast Generation

  16. Multiple Climate States of Habitable Exoplanets: The Role of Obliquity and Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, C.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F.

    2017-08-01

    Stable, steady climate states on an Earth-size planet with no continents are determined as a function of the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis (obliquity) and stellar irradiance. Using a general circulation model of the atmosphere coupled to a slab ocean and a thermodynamic sea ice model, two states, the Aquaplanet and the Cryoplanet, are found for high and low stellar irradiance, respectively. In addition, four stable states with seasonally and perennially open water are discovered if comprehensively exploring a parameter space of obliquity from 0° to 90° and stellar irradiance from 70% to 135% of the present-day solar constant. Within 11% of today’s solar irradiance, we find a rich structure of stable states that extends the area of habitability considerably. For the same set of parameters, different stable states result if simulations are initialized from an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state. This demonstrates the possibility of multiple equilibria, hysteresis, and potentially rapid climate change in response to small changes in the orbital parameters. The dynamics of the atmosphere of an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state is investigated for similar values of obliquity and stellar irradiance. The atmospheric circulation substantially differs in the two states owing to the relative strength of the primary drivers of the meridional transport of heat and momentum. At 90° obliquity and present-day solar constant, the atmospheric dynamics of an Aquaplanet state and one with an equatorial ice cover is analyzed.

  17. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianxe [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Duk [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mooha [Division of Food and Animal Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  18. Reticence vs. Responsibility: Why Climate Scientists Sometimes Need to Think Like Emergency Room Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hansen (2007), Brysse et al (2012), and Oreskes (2013) have drawn attention to the too-frequent reticence of climate scientists---the unwillingness to err on the side of predicting extreme outcomes or recommend strong action to prevent those outcomes. In Hansen's words, this may hinder 'communication with the public about dangers of global warming' and thereby lessen the chance of effective responses to this urgent threat. Scientists may be reticent about the kinds of extreme outcomes that could occur (ice sheet collapse, oceanic anoxia, killer heat waves, etc.), the probabilities of such outcomes, or the options for preventing or mitigating such outcomes. I will review the reasons, some understandable and some regrettable, for such reticence. (The latter could include the 'seepage' into professional discourse of the often-poisonous atmosphere of climate science denialism; Lewandowsky 2013.) My major aim will be to argue that scientists need a clearly defined ethical framework that coheres with the scientific ethos, and I will suggest that the place to look for such an ethical framework is in the realm of professional ethics. I will review key features of the learned professions such as medicine and engineering, where practitioners (such as emergency room physicians) are necessarily attuned to the imperative of making life-or-death decisions and recommendations in real time, under conditions of uncertainty. I hardly mean to suggest that pure science does not have a professional ethos of its own, but research science as such is not a legally constituted profession (like medicine) and it is focussed on the disinterested search for reliable knowledge above all other goals. Medicine and engineering depend upon and contribute to scientific knowledge but they are aimed at practical ends as well---the welfare of patients or protection of the public as a whole. Also, it is in the nature of engineering and other learned professions that (like pure science) they often

  19. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation inactivation of airborne fungal spores and bacteria in upper-room air and HVAC in-duct configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujundzic, E.; Hernandez, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering; Miller, S.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This article presented an evaluation of the efficiency of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for inactivating airborne fungal spores and bacterial vegetative cells under 3 configurations, namely intrinsic, upper-room air, and in-duct. Several experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale chamber fitted with 4 corner ultraviolet lamps that irradiated the entire chamber; a full-scale room fitted with a UVGI system that irradiated the top 30 cm of the room; and, the supply air duct of a heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Fungal spores and vegetative cells of bacterium were aerosolized regularly such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without the UVGI lamps operating. The article provided information on the materials and methods used including the experimental facilities (pilot-scale chamber, full-scale room, and in-duct UVGI system and ductwork) as well as the methods used for the three experimental studies. It also discussed the bioaerosol generation and sampling and quantification. These included culturing and direct microscopy. UV fluence rate was described. Last, the the results, discussion and conclusions from the studies were presented. It was shown that increasing the air stream velocity through the supply air duct reduces the residence time of bioaerosol being exposed to in-duct UVGI. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolli, I; de Wit, T Dudok; Krivova, N A; Tourpali, K; Weber, M; Unruh, Y C; Gray, L; Langematz, U; Pilewskie, P; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W; Shapiro, A; Solanki, S K; Woods, T N

    2013-01-01

    The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temp...

  1. Accelerating total body irradiation with large field modulated arc therapy in standard treatment rooms without additional equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednik, Martin; Lohr, Frank; Ehmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a generic and ultra-efficient modulated arc technique for treatment with total body irradiation (TBI) without additional equipment in standard treatment rooms. A continuous gantry arc between 300 and 70 composed of 26 subarcs (5 per subarc) using a field size of 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} was used to perform the initial beam data measurements. The profile was measured parallel to the direction of gantry rotation at a constant depth of 9 cm (phantom thickness 18 cm). Beam data were measured for single 5 subarcs, dissecting the individual contribution of each subarc to a certain measurement point. The phantom was moved to 20 measurement positions along the profile. Then profile optimization was performed manually by varying the weighting factors of all segments until calculated doses at all points were within ± 1 %. Finally, the dose distribution of the modulated arc was verified in phantom thicknesses of 18 and 28 cm. The measured profile showed a relative mean dose of 99.7 % [standard deviation (SD) 0.7 %] over the length of 200 cm at a depth of 9 cm. The measured mean effective surface dose (at a depth of 2 cm) was 102.7 % (SD 2.1 %). The measurements in the 28 cm slab phantom revealed a mean dose of 95.9 % (SD 2.9 %) at a depth of 14 cm. The mean dose at a depth of 2 cm was 111.9 % (SD 4.1 %). Net beam-on-time for a 2 Gy fraction is approximately 8 min. This highly efficient modulated arc technique for TBI can replace conventional treatment techniques, providing a homogeneous dose distribution, dosimetric robustness, extremely fast delivery, and applicability in small treatment rooms, with no need for additional equipment. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieses Projekts war die Entwicklung einer generischen, hocheffizienten und modulierten Rotationsbestrahlungstechnik fuer Ganzkoerperbestrahlung (TBI, ''total body irradiation''), die ohne zusaetzliches Equipment in Standartbehandlungsraeumen angewendet werden kann. Ein

  2. High-energy electron beam irradiation of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong-Ha; Lee, Byung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung-Hee [Anyang University, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    In this research, we demonstrated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown on transparent corning glass substrates at room temperature (RT) by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The AZO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and doses of 1 x 10{sup 14} - 1 x 10{sup 16} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the dominant peak at 2.77 eV was a blue emission originating from donor-like defects, oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}), suggesting that the n-type conductivity was preserved in HEEBI-treated films. On the basis of PL, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we suggest that the density of V{sub o} donor defects is decreased due to in-diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the films after HEEBI treatment at low doses up to 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2} while the opposite phenomenon can occur with further increase in the dose. We also found from the XRD analysis that the worse crystallinity with a smaller grain size was observed in HEEBI-treated AZO films at a higher dose, corresponding to a higher oxygen fraction in the films. We believe that our results will contribute to developing high-quality AZO-based materials and devices for space applications.

  3. Dependence of leaf surface potential response of a plant (Ficus Elastica) to light irradiation on room temperature; Shokubutsu (gomunoki) hamen den`i no hikari shosha oto no shitsuon izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In order to clarify plant body potential information, study was made on a leaf surface potential response to light irradiation. The leaf surface potential change, total transpiration and transpiration rate of Ficus Elastica were measured using light irradiation period and room temperature as parameters. The leaf surface potential change shows a positive peak after the start of light irradiation, while a negative peak after its end. Arrival time to both peaks is constant regardless of the light irradiation period, while decrease with an increase in room temperature. Although the total transpiration increases with room temperature, this tendency disappears with an increase in light irradiation period. The transpiration rate shows its peak after the start of light irradiation. Arrival time to the peak is saturated with the light irradiation period of 60min, while decreases with an increase in room temperature. These results suggest that opening of stomata becomes active with an increase in room temperature, and the peak of the leaf surface potential after the start of light irradiation relates to the opening. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolli, I.; Matthes, K.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Krivova, N. A.; Tourpali, K.; Weber, M.; Unruh, Y. C.; Gray, L.; Langematz, U.; Pilewskie, P.; Rozanov, E.; Schmutz, W.; Shapiro, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Woods, T. N.

    2013-04-01

    The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE (SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment) satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temperature and ozone distributions in the stratosphere, and indirectly, through dynamical feedbacks. We investigate these direct and indirect effects using several state-of-the art CCM simulations forced with measured and modelled SSI changes. A unique asset of this study is the use of a common comprehensive approach for an issue that is usually addressed separately by different communities. We show that the SORCE measurements are difficult to reconcile with earlier observations and with SSI models. Of the five SSI models discussed here, specifically NRLSSI (Naval Research Laboratory Solar Spectral Irradiance), SATIRE-S (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstructions for the Satellite era), COSI (COde for Solar Irradiance), SRPM (Solar Radiation Physical Modelling), and OAR (Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma), only one shows a behaviour of the UV and visible irradiance qualitatively resembling that of the recent SORCE

  5. The World Climate Project: Bringing the UN Climate Negotiations to Classrooms, Boardrooms, and Living Rooms Near You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, K.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Jones, A.; Johnston, E.; Sterman, J.

    2015-12-01

    As a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate provides an opportunity for participants to have an immersive experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the geophysical dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. In June 2015, we launched the World Climate Project with the intent of bringing this powerful tool to students, citizens, and decision-makers across government, NGO, and private sectors around the world. Within a period of six weeks from the launch date, 440 educators from 36 states and 56 countries have enrolled in the initiative, offering the potential to reach tens of thousands of participants around the world. While this project is clearly in its infancy, we see several characteristics that may be contributing to widespread interest in it. These factors include the ease-of-use, real-world relevance, and scientific rigor of the decision-support simulation, C-ROADS, that frames the World Climate Exercise. Other characteristics of World Climate include its potential to evoke an emotional response that is arousing and inspirational and its use of positive framing and a call to action. Similarly, the World Climate Project takes a collaborative approach, enabling educators to be innovators and valued contributors and regularly communicating with people who join the initiative through webinars, social media, and resources.

  6. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The Danish government will seek energy-efficiency improvements to meet their targeted aims. Single-room ventilation with heat recovery allows simple installation through the façade and may be broadly deployed in apartments. Danish building regulations require greater than 80% heat recovery in new constructions and will soon require 85%. The development of single-room ventilation units may aim for these requirements as a result. The exhaust temperatures in highly efficient heat exchangers may ...

  7. Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ermolli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During periods of high solar activity, the Earth receives ≈ 0.1% higher total solar irradiance (TSI than during low activity periods. Variations of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI however, can be larger, with relative changes of 1 to 20% observed in the ultraviolet (UV band, and in excess of 100% in the soft X-ray range. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW heating and therefore, temperature and ozone distributions in the stratosphere, and indirectly, through dynamical feedbacks. Lack of long and reliable time series of SSI measurements makes the accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. In particular, the most recent SSI measurements show a larger variability in the UV spectral range and anomalous changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR bands with respect to those from earlier observations and from models. A number of recent studies based on chemistry-climate model (CCM simulations discuss the effects and implications of these new SSI measurements on the Earth's atmosphere, which may depart from current expectations.

    This paper summarises our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. An interdisciplinary analysis of the topic is given. New comparisons and discussions are presented on the SSI measurements and models available to date, and on the response of the Earth's atmosphere and climate to SSI changes in CCM simulations. In particular, the solar induced differences in atmospheric radiative heating, temperature, ozone, mean zonal winds, and surface signals are investigated in recent simulations using atmospheric models forced with the current lower and upper boundaries of SSI solar cycle estimated variations from the NRLSSI model data and from SORCE/SIM measurements, respectively. Additionally, the reliability of available data is discussed and additional coordinated CCM experiments are proposed.

  8. Towards Building Reliable, High-Accuracy Solar Irradiance Database For Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, S.; Ghedira, H.

    2012-12-01

    Middle East's growing interest in renewable energy has led to increased activity in solar technology development with the recent commissioning of several utility-scale solar power projects and many other commercial installations across the Arabian Peninsula. The region, lying in a virtually rainless sunny belt with a typical daily average solar radiation exceeding 6 kWh/m2, is also one of the most promising candidates for solar energy deployment. However, it is not the availability of resource, but its characterization and reasonably accurate assessment that determines the application potential. Solar irradiance, magnitude and variability inclusive, is the key input in assessing the economic feasibility of a solar system. The accuracy of such data is of critical importance for realistic on-site performance estimates. This contribution aims to identify the key stages in developing a robust solar database for desert climate by focusing on the challenges that an arid environment presents to parameterization of solar irradiance attenuating factors. Adjustments are proposed based on the currently available resource assessment tools to produce high quality data for assessing bankability. Establishing and maintaining ground solar irradiance measurements is an expensive affair and fairly limited in time (recently operational) and space (fewer sites) in the Gulf region. Developers within solar technology industry, therefore, rely on solar radiation models and satellite-derived data for prompt resource assessment needs. It is imperative that such estimation tools are as accurate as possible. While purely empirical models have been widely researched and validated in the Arabian Peninsula's solar modeling history, they are known to be intrinsically site-specific. A primal step to modeling is an in-depth understanding of the region's climate, identifying the key players attenuating radiation and their appropriate characterization to determine solar irradiance. Physical approach

  9. Enhancement of Electrical Properties of TiO2- x Oxide Semiconductor by d-Orbital Ordering Using Swift Heavy Ni-Ion Irradiation at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S. H.; Jun, B. H.; Chung, K. B.

    2017-02-01

    The electrical properties of radiofrequency (RF)-sputtered TiO2- x films have been investigated as a function of Ni-ion irradiation dose at room temperature. The prepared TiO2- x films were irradiated with 130-MeV swift heavy Ni ions in the range from 5 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Increasing the Ni-ion irradiation dose dramatically enhanced the mobility in the TiO2- x films from 2.2 cm2/V s to 1.24 × 102 cm2/V s, while the carrier concentration did not vary. To explain this change in the electrical properties of the TiO2- x films, we investigated various physical properties, namely the physical structure, molecular orbital ordering in the conduction band, and shallow/deep trap states in the band-edge area below the conduction band. We suggest that the improvement in mobility originates from the ordering of the Ti 3 d orbital in the conduction band. In addition, increase of the Ni-ion irradiation dose changed two distinct band-edge states below the conduction band.

  10. There's an Elephant in the Room! How Talking Around Climate Can Be More Effective Than Talking About Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, M.; Rockwell, A.

    2014-12-01

    Conversations about climate change can easily devolve into polarization and political finger-pointing, where there should be a civilized discussion and enthusiastic brainstorming. How can we change the pugilistic back into the personable? We will examine some examples of reinstating dialogue in various settings, drawing on our experiences working with the public, students and educators in our visitor centers and public areas at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as well as using off-the-clock opportunities to communicate about our work in social and other informal settings. We will share lessons about what works and what doesn't when communicating about climate online and offline, and the differences in discussions that occur in virtual, digital settings and face-to-face.

  11. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    exchanger. Available literature suggests that uncoated rotary heat exchangers transfer this condensate to the supply air, so the drying capacity of the ventilation system may be severely limited. This could raise indoor relative humidities to unsafe levels, which could promote the growth of dust......-mites and mould. Controls may increase drying capacity by increasing ventilation airflow, but this may not be sufficient to limit moisture-related risks. This research investigated the added demand-control measure of reducing variable heat recovery to increase drying capacity when using an uncoated rotary heat...... in these rooms, and the overall average reduction in heat recovery was less than 3%. The combined measures only succeeded in living rooms and bedrooms, and the results confirmed that rotary heat exchangers should not be used in kitchens or bathrooms, where moisture risks may be unavoidable....

  12. Out-of-the-ecliptic reconstruction of solar irradiance sheds new light on the impact of orbital changes on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luis Eduardo; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Norton, Aimee; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Schmidt, Gavin; Cheung, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The variability in solar irradiance, the main external energy source of the Earth's system, must be critically studied in order to place the effects of human-driven climate change into perspective and allow plausible predictions of the evolution of climate. Accurate measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variability by instruments onboard space platforms during the last three solar cycles indicate changes of approximately 0.1% over the sunspot cycle. Variations of orbital inclination in relation to the Sun's equator could potentially impact incoming solar irradiance as a result of the anisotropy of the distribution of active regions. Due to a lack of quantitative estimates, this effect has never been assessed. Here, we show that although observers with different orbital inclinations experience various levels of irradiance, modulations in TSI are not sufficient to drive observed 100 kyr climate variations. Based on our model we find that, due to orbital inclination alone, the maximum change in the average TSI over timescales of kyrs is 0.003 W/m2, much smaller than the 1.5 W/m2 annually integrated change related to orbital eccentricity variations, or the 1-8 W/m2 variability due to solar magnetic activity. Here, we stress that out-of-ecliptic measurements are needed in order to constrain models for the long-term evolution of TSI and its impact on climate.

  13. Effect of Ar ion irradiation on the room temperature ferromagnetism of undoped and Cu-doped rutile TiO2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan-Nan; Li, Gong-Ping; Lin, Qiao-Lu; Liu, Huan; Bao, Liang-Man

    2016-11-01

    Remarkable room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed both in undoped and Cu-doped rutile TiO2 single crystals (SCs). To tune their magnetism, Ar ion irradiation was quantitatively performed on the two crystals in which the saturation magnetizations for the samples were enhanced distinctively. The post-irradiation led to a spongelike layer in the near surface of the Cu-doped TiO2. Meanwhile, a new CuO-like species present in the sample was found to be dissolved after the post-irradiation. Analyzing the magnetization data unambiguously reveals that the experimentally observed ferromagnetism is related to the intrinsic defects rather than the exotic Cu ions, while these ions are directly involved in boosting the absorption in the visible region. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11575074), the Open Project of State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, China (Grant No. KF1311), the Open Project of Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, China (Grant No. LZUMMM2012003), the Open Project of Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, China (Grant No. 201204), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. lzujbky-2015-240).

  14. A novel Ce(IO3)4 catalyst: Facile preparation and high activity in degradation of organic dyes without light irradiation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayin; Ma, Xinping; Zhao, Caixian; Lan, Fujun; Chen, Feng; Liu, Xuan; Tang, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    Developing efficient catalysts capable of degrading organic dye free of light irradiation is highly interesting from the energy-saving point of view. In this work, we prepared a new Ce(IO3)4 catalyst by a facile precipitation method. The obtained Ce(IO3)4 sample showed remarkably superior performance to the reported CeGeO4 analog in degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) or methylene blue (MB) dyes in the dark at room temperature. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra of dye solution during degradation, the XPS results of Ce(IO3)4 and the control experiments confirmed that the dye degradation is a catalytic process. The reusability of it was also investigated in the degradation experiments.

  15. Operation of Silicon, Diamond and liquid Helium Detectors in the range of Room Temperature to 1.9 K and after an Irradiation Dose of several Mega Gray

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Dehning, B; Eisel, T; Sapinski, M; Eremin, V

    2013-01-01

    At the triplet magnets, close to the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the current Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is sensitive to the debris from the collision points. For future beams, with higher energy and intensity the expected increase in luminosity implicate an increase of the debris from interaction products covering the quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams. The investigated option is to locate the detectors as close as possible to the superconducting coil, where the signal ratio of both is optimal. Therefore the detectors have to be located inside the cold mass of the superconducting magnets in superfluid helium at 1.9 Kelvin. Past measurements have shown that a liquid helium ionisation chamber, diamond and silicon detectors are promising candidates for cryogenic beam loss monitors. The carrier parameter, drift velocity, and the leakage current changes will be shown as a function of temperature. New high irradiation test beam measurements at room temperat...

  16. Temporal derivative of Total Solar Irradiance and anomalous Indian summer monsoon: An empirical evidence for a Sun–climate connection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agnihotri, R.; Dutta, K.; Soon, W.

    timescale. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. populated countries of of the global climate (Khandekar, 2010 to global warm- inconsistencies have acts as a key player in governing decadal to millennial scale climate variation (Verschuren et al., 2000....D., Murray, D.W., 2004. A solar (irradiance) trigger for millennial-scale abrupt changes in the southwest monsoon. Paleoceanography 19, PA3015. doi:10.1029/2004PA001031. Hiremath, K.M., Mandi, P.I., 2004. Influence of the solar activity on the Indian monsoon...

  17. Demonstrating the error budget for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory through solar irradiance measurements (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; McCorkel, Joel; Angal, Amit

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to provide high-accuracy data for evaluation of long-term climate change trends. Essential to the CLARREO project is demonstration of SI-traceable, reflected measurements that are a factor of 10 more accurate than current state-of-the-art sensors. The CLARREO approach relies on accurate, monochromatic absolute radiance calibration in the laboratory transferred to orbit via solar irradiance knowledge. The current work describes the results of field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) that is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. Recent measurements of absolute spectral solar irradiance using SOLARIS are presented. The ground-based SOLARIS data are corrected to top-of-atmosphere values using AERONET data collected within 5 km of the SOLARIS operation. The SOLARIS data are converted to absolute irradiance using laboratory calibrations based on the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance (GLAMR). Results are compared to accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  18. Changes in safety climate and teamwork in the operating room after implementation of a revised WHO checklist: a prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erestam, Sofia; Haglind, Eva; Bock, David; Andersson, Annette Erichsen; Angenete, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inter-professional teamwork in the operating room is important for patient safety. The World Health Organization (WHO) checklist was introduced to improve intraoperative teamwork. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety climate in a Swedish operating room setting before and after an intervention, using a revised version of the WHO checklist to improve teamwork. This study is a single center prospective interventional study. Participants were personnel working in operating room teams including surgeons, anesthesiologists, scrub nurses, nurse anaesthetists and nurse assistants. The study started with pre-interventional observations of the WHO checklist use followed by education on safety climate, the WHO checklist, and non-technical skills in the operating room. Thereafter a revised version of the WHO checklist was introduced. Post-interventional observations regarding the performance of the WHO checklist were carried out. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess safety climate at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline we discovered a need for improved teamwork and communication. The participants considered teamwork to be important for patient safety, but had different perceptions of good teamwork between professions. The intervention, a revised version of the WHO checklist, did not affect teamwork climate. Adherence to the revision of the checklist was insufficient, dominated by a lack of structure. There was no significant change in teamwork climate by use of the revised WHO checklist, which may be due to insufficient implementation, as a lack of adherence to the WHO checklist was detected. We found deficiencies in teamwork and communication. Further studies exploring how to improve safety climate are needed. NCT02329691.

  19. Electrochemical measurements of mass transfer in RTILs (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) medium under low frequency ultrasound irradiation; Mesures electrochimiques de transfert de matiere en milieu RTIL's (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) sous irradiation ultrasonore basse frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.; Hihn, J.Y.; Rebetez, M.; Doche, M.L. [Universite de Franche Comte - IUT Dept. Chimie, Institut UTINAM-UMR CNRS 6213, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Costa, C.; Bisel, I. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP), 30 - Marcoule (France); Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the influence of ultrasounds on the mass transfer at the electrode. The electro diffusional method which consists to measure the limit diffusion current on the polarization curve i=f(E) of a reversible couple in diluted solution in the electrolyte. The used couple changes with the electrolytic medium: potassium ferro/ferricyanide in water, ferrocene/ferricinium for acetonitrile and for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(tri-fluoro-methyl-sulfonyl)imide [BuMIm][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]). The limit diffusion currents are converted into mass transfer coefficients and then into a dimensional Sherwood numbers to allow an easier comparison of the results between the different research teams participating to this study. Recent tests, carried out in partner laboratories (LCMI-UFC, LPCP-CEA and LCA-CEA) have demonstrated the interest of the use of power ultrasounds in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) but revealed too a lot of experimental difficulties. Nevertheless, it appears that the ultrasounds are an aging mode particularly adapted to the RTILs because the mass transfer to the electrode is there 5 times more efficient than in presence of an electrode turning at 4500 tr.min{sup -1}, while limiting their re-hydration. (O.M.)

  20. The relationship of the emotional climate of work and threat to patient outcome in a high-volume thoracic surgery operating room team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurok, Michael; Evans, Linda A; Lipsitz, Stuart; Satwicz, Paul; Kelly, Andrea; Frankel, Allan

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that the emotional climate of surgical team's work may affect patient outcome. To analyse the relationship between the emotional climate of work and indices of threat to patient outcome. Interventional study. Operating rooms in a high-volume thoracic surgery centre from September 2007 to June 2008. Thoracic surgery operating room teams. Two 90 min team-skills training sessions focused on findings from a standardised safety-culture survey administered to all participants and highlighting positive and problematic aspects of team skills, communication and leadership. Relationship of functional or less functional emotional climates of work to indices of threat to patient outcome. A less functional emotional climate corresponded to more threat to outcome in the sterile surgical environment in the pre-intervention period (pwork in the sterile surgical environment appeared to be related to threat to patient outcome prior to, but not after, a team-training intervention. Further study of the relationship between the emotional climate of work and threat to patient outcome using reproducible methods is required.

  1. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  2. A Green Platform for Preparation of the Well-Defined Polyacrylonitrile: 60Co γ-ray Irradiation-Initiated RAFT Polymerization at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 60Co γ-ray irradiation-initiated reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization at room temperature with 2-cyanoprop-2-yl 1-dithionaphthalate (CPDN as the chain transfer agent was first applied to acrylonitrile (AN polymerization, providing a “green” platform for preparing polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers using an environment-friendly energy source. Various effects of dose rate, molar ratio of the monomer to the chain transfer agent, monomer concentration and reaction time on the AN polymerization behaviors were performed to improve the controllability of molecular the weight and molecular weight distribution of the obtained PAN. The feature of the controlled polymerization was proven by the first-order kinetics, linear increase of the molecular weight with the monomer conversion and a successful chain-extension experiment. The molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PAN were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. 1H NMR and Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF-MS confirmed the chain-end functionality of PAN, which also was supported by the successful chain-extension experiments of original PANs with acrylonitrile and styrene as the second monomers respectively.

  3. A New, Lower Value of Total Solar Irradiance: Evidence and Climate Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    10.1063/1.3074263. Finsterle, W., et al. (2008), Third comparison of the World Radiometric Reference and the SI radiometric scale, Metrologia , 45...performance, Metrologia , 43, S31–S35, doi:10.1088/0026-1394/43/2/S07. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007), Climate Change 2007: The

  4. The Solar Spectral Irradiance as a Function of the Mg II Index for Atmosphere and Climate Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Gerard; DeLand, Matthew; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Bolsee, David; Melo, Stella

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to reconstruct the solar spectrum irradiance in the Ly alpha-400 nm region, and its variability, based on the Mg II index and neutron monitor. Measurements of the solar spectral irradiance available in the literature have been made with different instruments at different times and different spectral ranges. However, climate studies require harmonized data sets. This new approach has the advantage of being independent of the absolute calibration and aging of the instruments. First, the Mg II index is derived using solar spectra from Ly alpha (121 nm) to 410 nm measured from 1978 to 2010 by several space missions. The variability of the spectra with respect to a chosen reference spectrum as a function of time and wavelength is scaled to the derived Mg II index. The set of coefficients expressing the spectral variability can be applied to the chosen reference spectrum to reconstruct the solar spectra within a given time frame or Mg II index values. The accuracy of this method is estimated using two approaches: by direct comparison with particular cases where solar spectra are available from independent measurements, and by calculating the standard deviation between the measured spectra and their reconstruction. From direct comparisons with measurements we obtain an accuracy of about 1 to 2 %, which degrades towards Ly alpha. In a further step, we extend our solar spectral irradiance reconstruction back to the Maunder Minimum introducing the relationship between the Mg II index and the neutron monitor data. Consistent measurements of the Mg II index are not available prior to 1978. However, we observe that over the last three solar cycles, the Mg II index shows strong correlation with the modulation potential determined from the neutron monitor data. Assuming that this correlation can be applied to the past, we reconstruct the Mg II index from the modulation potential back to the Maunder Minimum, and obtain the corresponding solar

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  6. Influence of gamma irradiation on the physical properties of hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids [BuMeIm]PF{sub 6} and [BuMeIm][(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Faucon, M.; Gastaldi, M.; Saucerotte, B.; Bisel, I.; Moisy, P

    2004-07-01

    It was shown that density, surface tension, and refraction index of room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) [BuMeIm]X, where BuMeIm{sup +} is 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium and X{sup -} is PF{sub 6}{sup -}, and (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup -}, are not changed being subjected to approximately 600 kGy of absorbed dose of gamma irradiation ({sup 137}Cs). At the same time gamma radiolysis causes significant increase in viscosities of RTILs. Studied RTILs exhibit darkening under the gamma irradiation. The light absorbance of ionic liquids increases linearly with irradiation dose. Water has no influence on the radiolytic darkening. Formation of colored products is related to radiolysis of BuMeIm{sup +} cation. The kinetics of radiolytic darkening of RTILs is influenced by the anions as follows: Cl{sup -}<(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup -}

  7. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  8. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  9. Thermoluminescence of pure LiF and Lif (TLD-100) irradiated at room temperature; Termoluminiscencia en LiF puro y LiF dosimetrico (TLD-100), irradiados a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagastibelza Chivite, F.

    1980-07-01

    The thermoluminescence of pure LiF and LiF (TLD-100) crystals irradiated at room temperature with x - or gamma-rays has been studied up to 460 degree centigree. For most of the glow peaks found the kinetics, preexponential factors and activation energies have been determined. These parameters have been obtained by means of the isothermal method. The study of the thermal annealing of the radiation induced F and Z centres has allow to show that there is a correlation among the glow peaks and the annealing stages of these centres. It is concluded that the F and Z - centres play the role of recombination centres for halogen interstitial atom thermally released from traps. Light emission occurs in this recombination. (Author) 120 refs.

  10. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  11. Sensitivity of simulated tropical climate variability and its global teleconnections to reconstructed volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, Myriam; Servonnat, Jérome; Fluteau, Frédérique; Gastineau, Guillaume; Alexandrine Sicre, Marie; Mignot, Juliette

    2010-05-01

    Tropical climate variability based on proxy reconstructions for the last millennium suggests important interannual to decadal changes probably modulated by external forcing such as volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations. For example these proxy reconstructions suggest a warming of the Pacific warm pool (Newton et al 2009), a low ENSO variance and a northward shift of the ITCZ during periods of increased Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and low volcanic activity such as during the so-called Warm Medieval Period (Haug et al, 2001; McGregor et al, 2009). The opposite situation is suggested for the Little Ice Age (LIA), a climatic period around the Maunder Minimum characterised by higher volcanic activity and small, yet sizable reduction of the TSI. Furthermore, first evidence suggest a significant role played by such tropical changes in driving teleconnected megaflood/megadroughts and threshold-like response in monsoons over South and North America while modulating significantly the climate of the North Atlantic region during the Warm Medieval Period and the Little Ice Age (Rein et al., 2004; Moy et al., 2002; Conroy et al. 2009; McGregor et al, 2009; Seager et al, 2008; Sicre et al, 2008…). In link with these issues, we will explore tropical Pacific climate variability and its tropical and extra tropical teleconnections in particular over the Americas and North Atlantic, in externally forced and unforced millennial-long simulations run with the IPSL model. This will allow us evaluating the sensitivity of tropical Pacific internal dynamics and global teleconnections to the applied reconstructed volcanic and solar forcings for this period and hopefully shade some light on the processes underlying proxy-based reconstructions for the last millennium climate variability.

  12. A simplified method for the calculation of the influence of the room mass on the indoor thermal climate in buildings under summer conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, P.; Knorr, K.T.; Nicolaas, H.J.; Velde, A. van der

    1984-01-01

    Simplified methods and design aids for the calculation of cooling loads and room air temperatures are described. The complicated influence of the room mass is approximated by introducing the 'thermal effective mass' of the room. This quantity accounts for the restricted penetration of the fluctuatin

  13. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  14. Middle Atmosphere Response to Different Descriptions of the 11-Year Solar Cycle in Spectral Irradiance in a Chemistry-Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Oman, L. D.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    The 11-year solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI) inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE) suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM). The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3-6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7) in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response 50 using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOS CCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm and destruction at longer wavelengths, coincidentally corresponding to the wavelength regimes of the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) and Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on SORCE, respectively. A higher wavelength-resolution analysis of the spectral response could allow for a better prediction of the

  15. SiC-based neutron detector in quasi-realistic working conditions: efficiency and stability at room and high temperature under fast neutron irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferone, Raffaello; Issa, Fatima; Ottaviani, Laurent; Biondo, Stephane; Vervisch, Vanessa [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Aix-Marseille University, Case 231,13397 Marseille Cedex 20, (France); Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel [KIT- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology Karlsruhe 76344, (Germany); Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium); Saenger, Richard [Schlumberger, Clamart, (France); Lyoussi, Abadallah [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, Service de Physique Experimentale, Laboratoire Dosimetrie Capteurs Instrumentation, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the European I SMART project, we have designed and made new SiC-based nuclear radiation detectors able to operate in harsh environments and to detect both fast and thermal neutrons. In this paper, we report experimental results of fast neutron irradiation campaign at high temperature (106 deg. C) in quasi-realistic working conditions. Our device does not suffer from high temperature, and spectra do show strong stability, preserving features. These experiments, as well as others in progress, show the I SMART SiC-based device skills to operate in harsh environments, whereas other materials would strongly suffer from degradation. Work is still demanded to test our device at higher temperatures and to enhance efficiency in order to make our device fully exploitable from an industrial point of view. (authors)

  16. Effect of the chosen solar irradiance dataset on simulations of a Future Grand Minimum: Results from a state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, T. C.; Langematz, U.

    2015-12-01

    The long-lasting minimum of Solar Cycle 23 as well as the overall weak maximum of Cycle 24 reveal the possibility for a return to Grand Solar Minimum conditions within the next decades. The past 1,000 years featured at least 5 excursions (lasting 60-100 years) of exceptionally low solar activity, induced by a weak magnetic field of the Sun. The last Grand Solar Minimum (the Maunder Minimum, 1645-1715) coincides with the Little Ice Age in Europe, a time of severe cold and hardship. The quantification of the implications of such a projected decrease in solar forcing is of ultimate importance, given the on-going public discussion of the role of carbon dioxide emissions for global warming, and the possible role a cooling due to decreasing solar activity could be ascribed to. However, existing model simulations that aim to answer these questions suffer from simplifications in the included parameterizations (e.g., no spectral radiation scheme), missing coupling with ocean models, or too low model tops. In addition, there is still no clear consensus about the actual strength of the Maunder Minimum, which is reflected in a range of spectral reconstruction datasets available. To estimate the range of climate response to different Maunder Minimum reconstructions, we compared 3 acknowledged solar datasets that show significant differences in both, total solar irradiance (TSI) and spectral irradiance (SSI) in a single model, first-time. For our purposes we choose to use the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model (EMAC) coupled to a mixed-layer ocean. EMAC incorporates interactive ozone chemistry, a high-resolution shortwave radiation scheme as well as a high model top (0.01 hPa). To get a clean climate signal, all simulations were conducted in time slice mode under 1960 conditions. The experiments show distinct differences in near surface temperatures and reveal the important role of stratospheric processes for the response of surface climate to solar irradiance variations.

  17. Facile room-temperature synthesis of carboxylated graphene oxide-copper sulfide nanocomposite with high photodegradation and disinfection activities under solar light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuyan; Liu, Jincheng; Zhu, Wenyu; Hu, Zhong-Ting; Lim, Teik-Thye; Yan, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    Carboxylic acid functionalized graphene oxide-copper (II) sulfide nanoparticle composite (GO-COOH-CuS) was prepared from carboxylated graphene oxide and copper precursor in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by a facile synthesis process at room temperature. The high-effective combination, the interaction between GO-COOH sheets and CuS nanoparticles, and the enhanced visible light absorption were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The as-synthesized GO-COOH-CuS nanocomposite exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation performance of phenol and rhodamine B, high antibacterial activity toward E. coli and B. subtilis, and good recovery and reusability. The influence of CuS content, the synergistic reaction between CuS and GO-COOH, and the charge-transfer mechanism were systematically investigated. The facile and low-energy synthesis process combined with the excellent degradation and antibacterial performance signify that the GO-COOH-CuS has a great potential for water treatment application.

  18. Influence of gamma irradiation on hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids [BuMeIm]PF6 and [BuMeIm](CF3SO2)2N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, L; Nikitenko, S I; Bisel, I; Berthon, C; Faucon, M; Saucerotte, B; Zorz, N; Moisy, Ph

    2006-06-07

    Stability of neat hydrophobic Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTIL) [BuMeIm]X, where [BuMeIm]+ is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium and X- is PF6-, and (CF3SO2)2N-, was studied under gamma radiolysis (137Cs) in an argon atmosphere and in air. It was found that the density, surface tension, and refraction index of RTILs are unchanged even by an absorbed dose of approximately 600 kGy. Studied RTILs exhibit considerable darkening when subjected to gamma irradiation. The light absorbance of ionic liquids increases linearly with the irradiation dose. Water has no influence on radiolytic darkening. A comparative study of [BuMeIm]X and [Bu4N][Tf2N] leads to the conclusion that the formation of colored products is related to gamma radiolysis of the [BuMeIm]+ cation. The radiolytic darkening kinetics of RTILs is influenced by the anions as follows: Cl- < (CF3SO2)2N- < PF6-. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR analysis reveal the presence of nonvolatile radiolysis products at concentrations below 1 mol% for an absorbed dose exceeding 1200 kGy. Initial step of BuMeIm+ cation radiolysis is the loss of the Bu* group, the H* atom from the 2 position on the imidazolium ring, and the H* atom from the butyl chain. Radiolysis of ionic liquid anions yields F* and CF3* from PF6- and [Tf2N]-, respectively. Recombinations of these primary products of radiolysis lead to various polymeric and acidic species.

  19. The effect of a rotary heat exchanger in room-based ventilation on indoor humidity in existing apartments in temperate climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The investigation constructed and simulated moisture balance equations for single-room ventilation with a non-hygroscopic rotary heat exchanger. Based on literature, the study assumed that all condensed moisture in the exhaust subsequently evaporated into the supply. Simulations evaluated...... the sensitivity to influential parameters, such as infiltration rate, heat recovery, and indoor temperature. With a typical moisture production schedule, the rotary heat exchanger recovered excessive moisture from kitchens and bathrooms,which provided a mold risk. The rotary heat exchanger was only suitable...... for single-room ventilation of dry rooms, such as living rooms and bedrooms. The sensitivity analysis concluded that varying heat recovery or indoor temperature could limit indoor relative humidity in dry rooms when a moderate risk was present. The rotary heat exchanger also elevated the minimum relative...

  20. Middle atmosphere response to different descriptions of the 11-yr solar cycle in spectral irradiance in a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Swartz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 11-yr solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOSCCM. The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3–6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7 in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units F10.7 – 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOSCCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. This is important in that it means that chemistry-transport models should simulate the solar cycle in ozone well, while general circulation models without coupled chemistry will underestimate the temperature response to the solar cycle significantly in the middle atmosphere. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm

  1. Middle atmosphere response to different descriptions of the 11-yr solar cycle in spectral irradiance in a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Swartz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 11-yr solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM. The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3–6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7 in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units F10.7 – 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOS CCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm and destruction at longer wavelengths, coincidentally corresponding to the wavelength regimes of the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE and Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM on SORCE, respectively. A higher wavelength-resolution analysis of the spectral

  2. Study of zinc oxide nanorods prepared in room temperature ionic liquid via ultrasonic irradiation%室温离子液体中超声辐照制备氧化锌纳米棒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 汪海燕; 杨跃涛; 刘晓峻; 张淑仪

    2011-01-01

    离子液体与超声技术结合在纳米材料的制备中具有广阔的前景,但目前以离子液体为溶剂超声制备纳米材料的报道还不多见,相关的反应机理研究也亟待开展.本文首次在室温离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸盐中超声制备了氧化锌纳米棒,该方法具有简便、快速和环境友好等特点.采用X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)对纳米氧化锌的结构和形貌进行表征.作为比较研究,采用传统的低蒸汽压有机溶剂二缩三乙二醇在同样的超声反应条件制备了纳米氧化锌材料.离子液体中超声合成样品为直径约20 nm,长度30-50 nm的纳米棒,而在二缩三乙二醇中超声制备的样品为直径6~8 nm的纳米颗粒.利用光声光谱(PAS)研究了纳米氧化锌样品的光学性能和量子尺寸效应.对离子液体中超声制备氧化锌纳米棒可能的反应机理进行了讨论并建立了的反应模型.结果表明在在超声辐照和离子液体溶剂的共同作用下氧化锌纳米棒得以生成.%Ionic liquids are promising green replacements for the traditional volatile organic solvents.The mechanism study of nanomaterials preparation in ionic liquids via ultrasonic irradiation has been rarely exploited.In this work, a simple, fast and green approach for the preparation of zinc oxide nanorods has been firstly achieved in room-temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with ultrasound.The as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy.For comparison, zinc oxide nanomaterials have been prepared under the same experimental condition in triethylene glycol, a conventional organic solvent with low vapor pressure.It is found that nanorods with diameters of about 20 nm and lengths from 30 nm to 50 nm are obtained in ionic liquid via ultrasonic irradiation, while nanoparticles are obtained in the conventional organic solution

  3. Can a reduction of solar irradiance counteract CO2-induced climate change? – Results from four Earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the response of four state-of-the-art Earth system models to climate engineering under scenario G1 of the GeoMIP and IMPLICC model intercomparison projects. In G1, the radiative forcing from an instantaneous quadrupling of the CO2 concentration, starting from the preindustrial level, is balanced by a reduction of the solar constant. Model responses to the two counteracting forcings in G1 are compared to the preindustrial climate in terms of global means and regional patterns and their robustness. While the global mean surface air temperature in G1 remains almost unchanged, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced in all models compared to the control simulation. Another robust response is the global reduction of precipitation with strong effects in particular over North and South America and northern Eurasia. It is shown that this reduction is only partly compensated by a reduction in evaporation so that large continental regions are drier in the engineered climate. In comparison to the climate response to a quadrupling of CO2 alone the temperature responses are small in experiment G1. Precipitation responses are, however, of comparable magnitude but in many regions of opposite sign.

  4. Accompanying monitoring. Pt. 2. Energy consumption and room climate in the passive house kindergarten; Begleitendes Monitoring. T. 2. Energieverbrauch und Raumklima im Passivhauskindergarten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, Achim; Berbig, Alex [HTW Dresden (DE). Lehrgebiet Technische Gebaeudeausruestung (TGA); Herrmann, Hendrik [Ingenieurbuero Dr. Scheffler und Partner, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The kindergarten ''Rainbow'' in Dresden-Klotzsche (Federal Republic of Germany) was designed, planned and implemented according to the passive house standard and commissioned in October 2009. An accompanying monitoring shows how successful the design and implementation were done. The second part of the contribution under consideration especially reports on the indoor climate.

  5. Squeezed between China and climate. Is there room for energy-intensive industries in Norway?; Klemt mellom Kina og klima. Plass til kraftintensiv industri i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippe, Jon; Jordfald, Baard; Loefsnaes, Ole; Roetnes, Rolf; Tennbakk, Berit

    2012-11-01

    In the years up to 2020, energy intensive industries has to decide what to do with its production in Norway. This is because there is a need for reinvestment and because of the most commercial power contracts expire. This report looks at the social importance of industry in Norway and discusses the recent changes in the global production of energy-intensive metal products. The analysis is based on what are the two most important and uncertain driving forces for the industry: the development of future power costs in Norway and global market changes, with particular emphasis on China's development. It is drawn up four different scenarios. In each of these the report analyzes the power market, the energy-intensive manufacturing sector for the Norwegian economy, international trends in demand and market structure, and international climate policy decisions - or the lack of the international climate policy decisions.(Author)

  6. Correlation between the thermoluminescence and the F centre thermal stability in KBr, KI, NaCl and NaF irradiated at room temperature; Correlacion entre la termoluminiscencia y la estabilidad termica de los centros F en KBr, KI, NaCl y NaF irradiados a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, D. F.

    1977-07-01

    Over the years several models have been proposed to explain the thermoluminescence in irradiated alkali halides. To verify these models, the thermoluminescence and the thermal stability of the F centres in KBr, K l, NaCl and NaF single crystals irradiated at room temperature with x or gamma rays have been studied. It has been concluded that both phenomena, the thermoluminescence and the F centre thermal stability are two different aspects of the same basic phenomenon, i.e. the recombination of mobile interstitials thermally released from traps with F centres (Ausin V. and Alvarez Rivas J.L. 1972). It has been found in some cases, that the H centres also play the role of recombination centres for interstitials. (Author) 42 refs.

  7. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  8. Regulation of food irradiation and detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    The main international standards for irradiated foods are those produced by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The international regulatory environment is now favourable towards irradiated foods. Most countries still regulate on a food-by-food, case-by-case basis. However in Asia there is movement towards a Harmonised Regulation for Irradiated Foods. The WHO believes that irradiated foods may be safely irradiated at any dose above 10 kGy. This may lead to the Codex maximum dose being raised or abandoned. If this occurs there are opportunities to produce shelf-stable foods in lightweight packaging that last for years at room temperature. Detection methods for irradiated foods are now available and may assist to reassure consumers that labelling regulations can be enforced. (author)

  9. SORCE: Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert; Rottman, Gary; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Understanding the Sun's influence on the Earth; How the Sun affect Earth's climate; By how much does the Sun's radiation very; Understanding Solar irradiance; History of Solar irradiance observations; The SORCE mission; How do the SORCE instruments measure solar radiation; Total irradiance monitor (TIM); Spectral irradiance monitor (SIM); Solar stellar irradiance comparison experiment (SOLSTICE); XUV photometer system (XPS).

  10. Long-term variability of UV irradiance over Northern Eurasia according to satellite measurements, ERA-INTERIM dataset and INM-RSHU chemical climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Pastukhova, Anna; Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Khlestova, Julia; Poliukhov, Alexei; Smyshlyaev, Sergei; Galin, Vener

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of long-term erythemal UV irradiance (ERY) changes over the territory of Northern Eurasia according to the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis dataset, INM-RSHU chemical climate model (CCM), and TOMS and OMI satellite data with the correction on absorbing aerosol based on the new Macv2 climatology updated from Kinne et al. (2013) over the 1979-2015 period. We show the existence of the pronounced positive ERY trend due to ozone in spring and summer over Europe and over the central areas of Siberia (up 3% over the decade). The changes in cloud cover provide even more significant ERY increase (up to 6-8% per decade). However, over Arctic region there is a pronounced negative ERY trend probably due to the effects of melting ice on global circulation processes. The combination of ozone and cloud effects provides the enhanced increase of the overall ERY trend: up to 6-9% in spring and summer over Eastern Europe, some regions of Siberia and the Far East. In addition, based on the method described in (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we estimated changes in UV resources over Northern Eurasia since 1979. We show that for the first skin type there is a significant geographical shift of UV categories: the increase in the UV optimum area in winter, where the vitamin D generation is possible without risk of getting sunburn, and its reducing in other months due to decrease in ozone and clouds. We also analyze the long-term UV changes simulated according to different scenarios using the INM-RSHU CCM. There is a general agreement between CCM and observational datasets, however, ERY trends due to cloudiness do not correspond sometimes in space and are smaller. We show that the positive ERY trend due to ozone is determined by the anthropogenic emissions of halogens. The variations in natural factors (solar activity and ocean surface temperature, stratospheric aerosol) only provide the increase in ERY dispersion. References: Kinne, S., O'Donnel D., Stier P., et al., J. Adv. Model

  11. Locker Room Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the trends in college and university sports and recreation center locker rooms as envisioned by a specialist. Features of the modern locker room and the different levels of locker room design are explained. Final comments discuss whether college and university facility managers are inclined to move to high-end locker rooms. (GR)

  12. The Patient Safety Attitudes among the Operating Room Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherdsak Iramaneerat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in cultivating the culture of safety in the operating room is the assessment of safety culture among operating room personnel. Objective: To assess the patient safety culture of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, and compare attitudes among different groups of personnel, and compare them with the international standards. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of safety attitudes among 396 operating room personnel, using a short form of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ. The SAQ employed 30 items to assess safety culture in six dimensions: teamwork climate, safety climate, stress recognition, perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction. The subscore of each dimension was calculated and converted to a scale score with a full score of 100, where higher scores indicated better safety attitudes. Results: The response rate was 66.4%. The overall safety culture score of the operating room personnel was 65.02, higher than an international average (61.80. Operating room personnel at Siriraj Hospital had safety attitudes in teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition lower than the international average, but had safety attitudes in the perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction higher than the international average. Conclusion: The safety culture attitudes of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Siriraj Hospital were comparable to international standards. The safety dimensions that Siriraj Hospital operating room should try to improve were teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition.

  13. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  14. Locker Room Design Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  15. Locker Room Design Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  16. SHMUTZ & PROTON-DIAMANT H + Irradiated/Written-Hyper/Super-conductivity(HC/SC) Precognizance/Early Experiments Connections: Wet-Graphite Room-Tc & Actualized MgB2 High-Tc: Connection to Mechanical Bulk-Moduli/Hardness: Diamond Hydrocarbon-Filaments, Disorder, Nano-Powders:C,Bi,TiB2,TiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderman, Irwin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Lewis, Thomas; Young, Frederic; Smith, Adolph; Dresschhoff-Zeller, Gieselle

    2013-03-01

    SHMUTZ: ``wet-graphite''Scheike-....[Adv.Mtls.(7/16/12)]hyper/super-SCHMUTZ-conductor(S!!!) = ``wet''(?)-``graphite''(?) = ``graphene''(?) = water(?) = hydrogen(?) =ultra-heavy proton-bands(???) = ...(???) claimed room/high-Tc/high-Jc superconductOR ``p''-``wave''/ BAND(!!!) superconductIVITY and actualized/ instantiated MgB2 high-Tc superconductors and their BCS- superconductivity: Tc Siegel[ICMAO(77);JMMM 7,190(78)] connection to SiegelJ.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(80)] disorder/amorphous-superconductivity in nano-powders mechanical bulk/shear(?)-moduli/hardness: proton-irradiated diamond, powders TiB2, TiC,{Siegel[Semis. & Insuls.5:39,47, 62 (79)])-...``VS''/concommitance with Siegel[Phys.Stat.Sol.(a)11,45(72)]-Dempsey [Phil.Mag. 8,86,285(63)]-Overhauser-(Little!!!)-Seitz-Smith-Zeller-Dreschoff-Antonoff-Young-...proton-``irradiated''/ implanted/ thermalized-in-(optimal: BOTH heat-capacity/heat-sink & insulator/maximal dielectric-constant) diamond: ``VS'' ``hambergite-borate-mineral transformable to Overhauser optimal-high-Tc-LiBD2 in Overhauser-(NW-periodic-table)-Land: CO2/CH4-ETERNAL-sequestration by-product: WATER!!!: physics lessons from

  17. Optical absorption and thermoluminescence in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature; Absorcion optica y termoluminiscencia en MgO, MgO:Ni y MgO:Li irradiados a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, L.

    1984-07-01

    Optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TL) studies in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature are presented. In pure Mg O the thermal annihilation of Fe3+ by recombination with thermally released electrons at {approx} 90 and 175 degree centigree and the V center annealing by hole release up to 100 degree centigree cause the observed glow peaks at these temperatures. The TL excitation spectrum shows two maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 288 nm (Fe3+). In Mg O:Ni X irradiation induces Fe{sup 2}+ {yields}- Fe{sup 3}+ and Ni{sup 2}+ {yields} Ni{sup 3}+ oxidations. Two TL emission bands centered at 110 degree centigree (red) and 80 o{sup C} (green) are assigned to electron release and their recombination at Fe{sup 3}+ and Ni{sup 3}+ respectively. In Mg O:Li two TL emission bands, one blue (430 nm) and the other red (730 nm) with excitation maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 200 nm (hole center) respectively are observed. No V-center formation was detected in both Ni and Li doped samples. (Author) 42 refs.

  18. Climate Forcing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of changes in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, atmospheric trace gases, and other properties thought to influence climate in the past. Parameter keywords...

  19. Irradiation of onions on a large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Koji; Hayashi, Toru; Uozumi, J.; Sugimoto, Toshio; Aoki, Shohei

    1984-03-01

    A large number of onions of var. Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were irradiated in September followed by storage at 0 deg C or 5 deg C. The onions were shifted from cold-storage facilities to room temperature in mid-March or in mid-April in the following year. Their sprouting, rooting, spoilage characteristics and sugar content were observed during storage at room temperature. Most of the unirradiated onions sprouted either outside or inside bulbs during storage at room temperature, and almost all of the irradiated ones showed small buds with browning inside the bulb in mid-April irrespective of the storage temperature. Rooting and/or expansion of bottom were observed in the unirradiated samples. Although the irradiated materials did not have root, they showed expansion of bottom to some extent. Both the irradiated and unirradiated onions spoiled slightly unless they sprouted, and sprouted onions were easily spoiled. There was no difference in the glucose content between the unirradiated and irradiated onions, but the irradiated ones yielded higher sucrose content when stored at room temperature. Irradiation treatment did not have an obvious effect on the quality of freeze-dried onion slices. (author).

  20. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  1. Mechanical response of proton beam irradiated nitinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Naveed [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Ghauri, I.M., E-mail: ijaz.phys@gmail.co [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Mubarik, F.E.; Amin, F. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of mechanical behavior of proton beam irradiated nitinol at room temperature. The specimens in austenitic phase were irradiated over periods of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at room temperature using 2 MeV proton beam obtained from Pelletron accelerator. The stress-strain curves of both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were obtained using a universal testing machine at room temperature. The results of the experiment show that an intermediate rhombohedral (R) phase has been introduced between austenite and martensite phase, which resulted in the suppression of direct transformation from austenite to martensite (A-M). Stresses required to start R-phase ({sigma}{sub RS}) and martensitic phase ({sigma}{sub MS}) were observed to decrease with increase in exposure time. The hardness tests of samples before and after irradiation were also carried out using Vickers hardness tester. The comparison reveals that the hardness is higher in irradiated specimens than that of the unirradiated one. The increase in hardness is quite sharp in specimens irradiated for 15 min, which then increases linearly as the exposure time is increased up to 60 min. The generation of R-phase, variations in the transformation stresses {sigma}{sub RS} and {sigma}{sub MS} and increase in hardness of irradiated nitinol may be attributed to lattice disorder and associated changes in crystal structure induced by proton beam irradiation.

  2. The studies of irradiation hardening of stainless steel reactor internals under proton and xenon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chaoliang; Zhang, Lu; Qian, Wangjie; Mei, Jinna; Liu, Xiang Bing [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzuhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    Specimens of stainless steel reactor internals were irradiated with 240 keV protons and 6 MeV Xe ions at room temperature. Nanoindentation constant stiffness measurement tests were carried out to study the hardness variations. An irradiation hardening effect was observed in proton- and Xe-irradiated specimens and more irradiation damage causes a larger hardness increment. The Nix-Gao model was used to extract the bulk-equivalent hardness of irradiation-damaged region and critical indentation depth. A different hardening level under H and Xe irradiation was obtained and the discrepancies of displacement damage rate and ion species may be the probable reasons. It was observed that the hardness of Xe-irradiated specimens saturate at about 2 displacement/atom (dpa), whereas in the case of proton irradiation, the saturation hardness may be more than 7 dpa. This discrepancy may be due to the different damage distributions.

  3. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  4. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early-generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C, but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  5. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  6. Vertical Distribution of Air Temperatures in Heated Dwelling Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Šikula, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and theoretic research on one of factors influencing the indoor climate in dwelling rooms heated by heating systems, the vertical distribution of temperatures. The paper summarizes results from simulation of the room heated by a gas space heater and a plate radiator. Among main factors causing unfavorable distribution of temperatures in a room belong insufficient elimination of cold dropping airflows and high temperature of heating air. The paper presents...

  7. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  8. Solar irradiance reduction to counteract radiative forcing from a quadrupling of CO2: climate responses simulated by four earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the response of four state-of-the-art Earth system models to climate engineering under scenario G1 of two model intercomparison projects: GeoMIP (Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project and IMPLICC (EU project "Implications and risks of engineering solar radiation to limit climate change". In G1, the radiative forcing from an instantaneous quadrupling of the CO2 concentration, starting from the preindustrial level, is balanced by a reduction of the solar constant. Model responses to the two counteracting forcings in G1 are compared to the preindustrial climate in terms of global means and regional patterns and their robustness. While the global mean surface air temperature in G1 remains almost unchanged compared to the control simulation, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced in all models. Another robust response is the global reduction of precipitation with strong effects in particular over North and South America and northern Eurasia. In comparison to the climate response to a quadrupling of CO2 alone, the temperature responses are small in experiment G1. Precipitation responses are, however, in many regions of comparable magnitude but globally of opposite sign.

  9. Thermal Expansion of Irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyam, HN; Subramanyam, SV

    1987-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of gamma-irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been measured in the temperature range 80-340 K by using a three-terminal capacitance technique. The samples are irradiated in air at room temperature with gamma rays from a $Co^{60}$ source at a dose rate of 0.26 Mrad/h. The change in crystallinity is measured by an x-ray technique. The expansion coefficient is found to increase with radiation dose below 140 K owing to the predominant effect of degradati...

  10. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  11. Unlocking the Locker Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Dean

    1996-01-01

    Discusses locker-room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms. (GR)

  12. Operating room manager game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Erwin W.; Nieberg, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The operating room (OR) department of a hospital forms the heart of the organization, where the single largest cost is incurred. This document presents and reports on the “Operating Room Manager Game,” developed to give insight into managing a large hospital's OR department at various levels of cont

  13. Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Fosgerau, Anders; Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk

    1999-01-01

    The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented.......The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented....

  14. Our Urban Living Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...

  15. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  16. The Virtual Dressing Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Gao, Yi; Petersson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a usability and user experience test of a virtual dressing room. First, we motivate and introduce our recent developed prototype of a virtual dressing room. Next, we present the research and test design grounded in related usability and user experi...... experience studies. We give a description of the experimental setup and the execution of the designed usability and user experience test. To this end, we report interesting results and discuss the results with respect to user-centered design and development of a virtual dressing room....

  17. Transformer room fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  18. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  19. RILIS laser room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  20. RILIS laser room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  1. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  2. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Phillip E.; Fraser, Wesley T.; Barry H. Lomax; Sephton, Mark A.; Timothy M Shanahan; Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recentl...

  3. Carpenter in White Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  4. Measurement, evaluation and control of the microclimate in rooms for weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The Animal Occupied Zone (AOZ), or the microclimate, in a room for weaned piglets is roughly the zone between 0 and 50 cm above the floor of the pen. It is distinguished from the macroclimate, which is the average climate of a pig room. The ability to create and maintain an optimal climate in the AO

  5. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  6. Spectroscopic and thermal studies of 8 MeV electron beam irradiated HPMC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India)], E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Demappa, T. [Department of Studies in Polymer Science, University of Mysore, Sir M.V.P.G. Center, Mandya 571 402 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Parameswara, P.; Somashekar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2009-07-01

    Radiation-induced changes in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films under electron irradiation were investigated and correlated with dose. Polymer samples were irradiated in air at room temperature by an electron beam accelerator in the range of 0-100 kGy. Various properties of the irradiated films were studied using a Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron irradiation was found to induce changes in the physical, chemical and thermal properties, depending on the irradiation dose.

  7. Stochastic annealing simulation of copper under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Singh, B.N. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1998-03-01

    This report is a summary of a presentation made at ICFRM-8 on computer simulations of defect accumulation during irradiation of copper to low doses at room temperature. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data on defect cluster densities in copper irradiated in RTNS-II.

  8. Effects of irradiation at low temperature on V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Irradiation at low temperatures (100 to 275{degrees}C) to 0.5 dpa causes significant embrittlement and changes in the subsequent room temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti. The yield strength and microhardness at room temperature increase with increasing irradiation temperature. The tensile flow properties at room temperature show large increases in strength and a complete loss of work hardening capacity with no uniform ductility. Embrittlement, as measured by an increase in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, increases with increasing irradiation temperature, at least up to 275{degrees}C. This embrittlement is not due to pickup of O or other interstitial solutes during the irradiation.

  9. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  10. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  11. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  12. Locker-Room Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jason; Noyes, Brad

    1999-01-01

    Explains how proper athletic facility locker-room design can save time and money. Design factors that address who will be using the facility are discussed as are user requirements, such as preparation areas, total storage area per user, grooming area, and security areas. Final comments address maintenance and operations issues. (GR)

  13. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  14. Room for caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    ) Experiencing inner peace and an escape from negative thoughts, (ii) Experiencing a positive mood and hope and (iii) Experiencing good memories. Conclusion Our findings highlight aesthetic sensory impressions in the form of nature sights and natural light in the patient room as a powerful source of well...

  15. Making room for volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  16. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  17. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  18. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed and ...

  19. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  20. Methanol adsorption on /γ-irradiated SiO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Éva; Hancz, András; Erdöhelyi, András

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of methanol on γ-irradiated and un-irradiated SiO 2 surfaces pretreated at 473 K was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and pulse methods. Methanol adsorbed only in molecular form on the un-irradiated sample. Treating the pre-irradiated silica surface with methanol at room temperature formaldehyde and hydrogen were formed. The methanol adsorbed on the irradiated silica transformed to formyl groups during a longer time at room temperature and desorbed as formaldehyde simultaneously with CH 3OH ( Tmax=395 K) on the TPD.

  1. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  2. Room for improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvang, Pia; Dalby, Mette Strømgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of a project war room as an innovation practice in companies. We argue that the consistent use of a project war room, in which customer and user research serves as a background for design work, improve the quality of product innovation. We describe our experiences...... from a project with four Danish medium-sized manufacturing companies aiming to become more competitive in the European export market. In the project, one challenge was how to convey results from customer interviews and user studies from the researcher team (which in all instances included a company...... manager) to the development team in each company. We chose to collaboratively build a ‘war room’ in each of the companies to make sense of research materials and establish design principles for products that would better align with customer needs....

  3. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...

  4. Virtual Fitting Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Rodríguez, Carlos Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade a considerable number of efforts have been devoted into developing Virtual Fitting Rooms (VFR) due to the great popularity of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in the fashion design industry. The existence of new technologies such as Kinect, powerful web cameras and smartphones permit us to examine new ways to try on clothes without doing it physically in a store center. This research is primarily dedicated to review some important aspects about...

  5. [Virtual room of gastroenterology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Osvaldo Mateo; Fittipaldi, Mónica Elsa; Henderson, Eduardo; Krabshuis, Justus Hendrik

    2010-12-01

    The amount of published information and its continuing growth can no longer be managed by an individual searcher. One of today's great challenges for the academic researcher and clinician is to find a relevant scientific article using bibliographic search strategies. We aimed to design and build a Virtual Room of Gastroenterology (VRG) generating real-time automated search strategies and producing bibliographic and full text search results. These results update and complement with the latest evidence the Clinical Guideline Program of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. The HTML driven interface provides a series of pre-formulated MeSH based search strategies for each Aula. For each topic between 10 and 20 specific terms, qualifiers and subheadings are identified. The functionality of the VRG is based on the PubMed's characteristic that allows a search strategy to be captured as a web address. The VRG is available in Spanish and English, and the access is free. There are 28 rooms currently available. All together these rooms provide an advanced bibliographic access using more than 900 pre-programmed MeSH driven strategies. In a further very recent development some of the topics of VRG now allow cascade based searches. These searches look at resource sensitive options and possible ethnic difference per topic. The VRG allows significant reductions in time required to design and carry out complex bibliographic searches in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. The system updates automatically in real-time thus ensuring the currency of the results.

  6. The Next Spaceflight Solar Irradiance Sensor: TSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik

    2016-05-01

    The Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) will continue measurements of the solar irradiance with improved accuracies and stabilities over extant spaceflight instruments. The two TSIS solar-observing instruments include the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) for measuring total- and spectral- solar-irradiance, respectively. The former provides the net energy powering the Earth’s climate system while the latter helps attribute where that energy is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. Both spaceflight instruments are assembled and being prepared for integration on the International Space Station. With operations commencing in late 2017, the TSIS is intended to overlap with NASA’s ongoing SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission, which launched in 2003 and contains the first versions of both the TIM and SIM instruments, as well as with the TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE), which began total solar irradiance measurements in 2013. We summarize the TSIS’s instrument improvements and intended solar-irradiance measurements.

  7. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  8. a Study of Stress Relaxation Rate in Un-Irradiated and Neutron-Irradiated Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, I. M.; Afzal, Naveed; Zyrek, N. A.

    Stress relaxation rate in un-irradiated and neutron-irradiated 303 stainless steel was investigated at room temperature. The specimens were exposed to 100 mC, Ra-Be neutron source of continuous energy 2-12 MeV for a period ranging from 4 to 16 days. The tensile deformation of the specimens was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine at 300 K. During the deformation, straining was frequently interrupted by arresting the cross head to observe stress relaxation at fixed load. Stress relaxation rate, s, was found to be stress dependent i.e. it increased with increasing stress levels σ0 both in un-irradiated and irradiated specimens, however the rate was lower in irradiated specimens than those of un-irradiated ones. A further decrease in s was observed with increase in exposure time. The experiential decrease in the relaxation rate in irradiated specimens is ascribed to strong interaction of glide dislocations with radiation induced defects. The activation energy for the movement of dislocations was found to be higher in irradiated specimens as compared with the un-irradiated ones.

  9. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  10. Solar magnetic fields and terrestrial climate

    CERN Document Server

    Georgieva, Katya; Kirov, Boian

    2014-01-01

    Solar irradiance is considered one of the main natural factors affecting terrestrial climate, and its variations are included in most numerical models estimating the effects of natural versus anthropogenic factors for climate change. Solar wind causing geomagnetic disturbances is another solar activity agent whose role in climate change is not yet fully estimated but is a subject of intense research. For the purposes of climate modeling, it is essential to evaluate both the past and the future variations of solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity which are ultimately due to the variations of solar magnetic fields. Direct measurements of solar magnetic fields are available for a limited period, but can be reconstructed from geomagnetic activity records. Here we present a reconstruction of total solar irradiance based on geomagnetic data, and a forecast of the future irradiance and geomagnetic activity relevant for the expected climate change.

  11. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... coefficients that are used in order to describe surface scattering (roughness of material) as well as scattering of reflected sound caused by limited surface size (diffraction). A method which combines scattering caused by diffraction due to surface dimensions, angle of incidence and incident path length...

  12. The Sun and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Many geologic records of climatic and environmental change based on various proxy variables exhibit distinct cyclicities that have been attributed to extraterrestrial forcing. The best known of these are the changes in Earth’s orbital geometry called Milankovitch Cycles, with periodicities of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, many cycles seem to have subMilankovitch periodicities, commonly on decadal and centennial scales, similar to those of known solar cycles. A direct connection between solar irradiance (solar constant) and weather and climate has been suggested for more than 100 years but generally rejected by most scientists, who assume that the effect of solar variations would be small. However, recent satellite radiometer measurements and modeling studies indicate that small changes in total solar irradiance could produce global temperature changes of the magnitude suggested for climatic events such as the Little Ice Age (A.D. 1550–1700).

  13. How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, L.E.A.; Norton, A; T. Dudok de Wit; Kretzschmar, M; Schmidt, G. A.; Cheung, M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; [1] The variability in solar irradiance, the main external energy source of the Earth's system, must be critically studied in order to place the effects of human-driven climate change into perspective and allow plausible predictions of the evolution of climate. Accurate measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variability by instruments onboard space platforms during the last three solar cycles indicate changes of approximately 0.1% over the sunspot cycle. Physics-...

  14. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell

  15. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell

  16. Room to Groove?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    . As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about...... the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.......The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors...

  17. Exposure to aerosol and gaseous pollutants in a room ventilated with mixing air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the aerosol and gas dispersal in a mechanically ventilated room and the personal exposure to these contaminants. The study was performed in a full-scale climate chamber. The room was air conditioned via mixing total volume ventilation system. The room occupancy...... of the thermal manikin were measured. The results showed higher exposure to the contaminants measured at the breathing zone than at the ambient air. The behaviour of the tracer gas and the aerosols was similar....

  18. Alternative Room Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing population results in an increasing demand for much more residential and commercial buildings, which leads to vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation of those buildings. Natural air ventilation system is not sufficient for conventional building structures. Hence fans and air-conditioners are must to meet the requirement of proper ventilation as well as space conditioning. Globally building sector consumes largest energy in heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be minimized by the application of solar chimney and modification in building structure for heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. Passive solar cooling is a subject of interest to provide cooling by using the sun, a powerful energy source. This is done for ensuring human comfort in hot climates. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers defines Comfort as ‘that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.’ The present paper describes the development of a solar passive cooling system, which can provide thermal cooling throughout the summer season in hot and humid climates. The constructed passive system works on natural convection mode of air. Such system reduces the inside temperature of up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. Temperature can further be reduced by the judicious use of night ventilation.

  19. Teamwork in the operating room: frontline perspectives among hospitals and operating room personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Makary, Martin A; Tersigni, Anthony R; Pryor, David; Hendrich, Ann; Thomas, Eric J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Knight, Andrew P; Wu, Yun; Pronovost, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is proposing that hospitals measure culture beginning in 2007. However, a reliable and widely used measurement tool for the operating room (OR) setting does not currently exist. OR personnel in 60 US hospitals were surveyed using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. The teamwork climate domain of the survey uses six items about difficulty speaking up, conflict resolution, physician-nurse collaboration, feeling supported by others, asking questions, and heeding nurse input. To justify grouping individual-level responses to a single score at each hospital OR level, the authors used a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis, intraclass correlations, within-group interrater reliability, and Cronbach's alpha. To detect differences at the hospital OR level and by caregiver type, the authors used multivariate analysis of variance (items) and analysis of variance (scale). The response rate was 77.1%. There was robust evidence for grouping individual-level respondents to the hospital OR level using the diverse set of statistical tests, e.g., Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, root mean squared error of approximation = 0.05, and acceptable intraclasss correlations, within-group interrater reliability values, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.79. Teamwork climate differed significantly by hospital (F59, 1,911 = 4.06, P teamwork climate is possible using this psychometrically sound teamwork climate scale. This tool and initial benchmarks allow others to compare their teamwork climate to national means, in an effort to focus more on what excellent surgical teams do well.

  20. More room for ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To meet the needs of the new ISOLDE experiments, a new extension has been added to the facility's Building 170. The new extension to Building 170. Moving around the ISOLDE hall was almost like an obstacle course until now. The facility's Building 170 simply didn't have an inch to spare and the ISOLDE team's need to set up new experiments, whose installation could have created difficulties from the safety point of view, only exacerbated the problem. "We had ambitious plans to develop new experiments but no room for them", says Mats Lindroos, ISOLDE's technical coordinator. The only solution was to extend the existing building". This was how a new building saw the light of day. Measuring 24 metres long, 20 metres wide and 12 metres high, it is an extension to the existing Building 170 and should be ready for use this year. The new structure makes use of the existing infrastructure, with part of the end wall of Building 170 being kept as a support for steel platforms. The top of this wall had to be cut away ...

  1. Madness in Sartre's "The Room"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, E.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Room," part of his short story collection, The Wall (1938), Jean-Paul Sartre investigates madness as an alternative way of bourgeois life and thus takes a stand in the contemporary debate on the existential status of mental illness. "The Room" is a case-study of a "limit situation," as well

  2. Madness in Sartre's "The Room"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, E.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Room," part of his short story collection, The Wall (1938), Jean-Paul Sartre investigates madness as an alternative way of bourgeois life and thus takes a stand in the contemporary debate on the existential status of mental illness. "The Room" is a case-study of a "limit situation," as well

  3. Effect of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Kumar, R., E-mail: rarunpsgtech@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Basic Sciences - Physics Division, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Dhanasekaran, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag{sup 9+} ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences at room temperature and with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  4. Another Look at Climate Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Zaliapin, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    We revisit a recent claim that the Earth's climate system is characterized by sensitive dependence to parameters; in particular, that the system exhibits an asymmetric, large-amplitude response to normally distributed feedback forcing. Such a response would imply irreducible uncertainty in climate change predictions and thus have notable implications for climate science and climate-related policy making. We show that equilibrium climate sensitivity in all generality does not support such an intrinsic indeterminacy; the latter appears only in essentially linear systems. The main flaw in the analysis that led to this claim is inappropriate linearization of an intrinsically nonlinear model; there is no room for physical interpretations or policy conclusions based on this mathematical error. Sensitive dependence nonetheless does exist in the climate system, as well as in climate models -- albeit in a very different sense from the one claimed in the linear work under scrutiny -- and we illustrate it using a classi...

  5. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  6. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  7. Study on food preservation by irradiation of agricultural and marine products from Cheju island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Choung, C.C.; Cho, H.O. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1984-01-01

    Salted dry yellow sea bream were vaccum packed in a plastic bags and irradiated at differents levels (0,0.5,1.0,1.5, and 2.0 Mrad) using sup(60)Co source. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature 5degC. Physical and chemical properties were examined during storage. The total bacterial count was depressed according to level of irradiation applied. It was noted that cold storage after irradiation was more effective than room temperature. TMA contents slowly increased with higher dosage rates up to 1.5 Mrad but there was a gradual decrease of TMA at the 2.0 Mrad level. It was observed that there was a rapid decrease of TMAO 20 days after irradiation irrespective of storage temperature. The reduction of total nitrogen content was highest in the control but to a lesser degree when irradiation was applied. VBN content increased in all treatments 30 days after irradiation but it was also noted that there was a tendency toward depression of VBN by irradiation. The shelf life of salted dry sea bream was extended by 20 days with irradiation plus room temperature, and by 40 days with irradiation plus cold storage. To extend shelf life of salted dry sea bream, the most effective dosage rate was 1.0 Mrad based on tenderness, bacterial count and rancidity.

  8. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  9. In-situ TEM ion irradiation investigations on U3Si2 at LWR temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinbin; Harp, Jason; Mo, Kun; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-02-01

    The radiation-induced amorphization of U3Si2 was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy using 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation. Both arc-melted and sintered U3Si2 specimens were irradiated at room temperature to confirm the similarity in their responses to radiation. The sintered specimens were then irradiated at 350 °C and 550 °C up to 7.2 × 1015 ions/cm2 to examine their amorphization behavior under light water reactor (LWR) conditions. U3Si2 remains crystalline under irradiation at LWR temperatures. Oxidation of the material was observed at high irradiation doses.

  10. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  11. In the LEAR control room

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  12. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  13. Thermal conductivity degradation of graphites irradiated at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to study the thermal conductivity degradation of new, high thermal conductivity graphites and to compare these results to more standard graphites irradiated at low temperatures. Several graphites and graphite composites (C/C`s) have been irradiated near 150{degree}C and at fluences up to a displacement level of 0.24 dpa. The materials ranged in unirradiated room temperature thermal conductivity of these materials varied from 114 W/m-K for H-451 isotropic graphite, to 670 W/m-K for unidirectional FMI-1D C/C composite. At the irradiation temperature a saturation reduction in thermal conductivity was seen to occur at displacement levels of approximately 0.1 dpa. All materials were seen to degrade to approximately 10 to 14 % of their original thermal conductivity after irradiation. The effect of post irradiation annealing on the thermal conductivity was also studied.

  14. Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on ozone generation in a dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Drews, J.; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was generated in an N2/O2 gas mixture at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation to investigate ozone production. Powerful ultrasonic irradiation with the sound pressure level of approximately 150 dB into the DBD can...... enhance ozone production especially when the DBD was driven at a frequency of 15 kHz....

  15. 32 CFR 518.9 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reading room. 518.9 Section 518.9 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM FOIA Reading Rooms § 518.9 Reading room. (a) Reading room... the records described, DA may elect to place other records in their reading room, and also make...

  16. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

  17. What's New in Locker Rooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses athletic facility design and renovation issues that exist because of increasing numbers of female athletes. Outlines renovation issues such as locker room facilities, space for sports equipment, and additional athletic fields. (GR)

  18. Radiation stability of some room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeeswara Rao, Ch.; Venkatesan, K.A. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil nadu (India); Tata, B.V.R. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil nadu (India); Nagarajan, K., E-mail: knag@igcar.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil nadu (India); Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil nadu (India)

    2011-05-15

    Radiation stability of some room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) that find useful electrochemical applications in nuclear fuel cycle has been evaluated. The ionic liquids such as protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HbetNTf{sub 2}), aliquat 336 (tri-n-octlymethylammonium chloride), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (hmimCl), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyNTf{sub 2}) and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (MPPiNTf{sub 2}) have been irradiated to various absorbed dose levels, up to 700 kGy. The effect of gamma radiation on these ionic liquids has been evaluated by determining the variations in the physical properties such as color, density, viscosity, refractive index and electrochemical window. The changes in density, viscosity and refractive index of these ionic liquids upon irradiation were insignificant; however, the color and electrochemical window varied significantly with increase of absorbed dose. -- Research highlights: {yields} Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). {yields} Gamma irradiation. {yields} Determination of physical and electrochemical properties. {yields} Minimal change in physical properties. {yields} Large variation in electrochemical window.

  19. Electron irradiation effects on power MOS transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisina, F.; Tavolo, N. (S.G.S. Thomson Microelectronics, Catania (Italy)); Gombia, E.; Mosca, R. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Ist. MASPEC); Chirco, P.; Fuochi, P.G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. di Fotochimica e Radiazioni d' Alta Energia)

    1990-01-01

    Electron irradiation has been used to enhance the switching speed of the internal diode in high-voltage power MOS structures (BV{sub DSS} > 500 V). By using 12 MeV electron irradiation at room temperature it has been found that the reverse recovery time and the reverse recovery charge of power MOS internal diode can be reduced in a well controlled manner up to 70% and 90% of their initial value respectively increasing the radiation dose from 0 to 15 Mrads. Anyway an undesirable decrease of about 3V has been observed in the gate threshold voltage. This effect has been ascribed to the damage produced in the gate oxide of the device due to the electron irradiation. By annealing the device at temperature >315{sup 0}C it has been possible to restore the threshold voltage without heavily enhancing the carrier lifetime. DLTS measurements have been performed on electron-irradiated devices to identify the recombination centres introduced in the forbidden gap of the silicon. A comparison has been made with gold-diffused devices. The results obtained confirm that electron irradiation is feasible for power MOS transistors. (author).

  20. Thereby the data stream is guaranteed. What you should look at the server room cooling; Damit der Datenfluss gewaehrleistet ist. Worauf man bei der Kuehlung von Serverraeumen achten sollte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigalat, Jens [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Without information technology and communication technology the daily operations do not work in a company. Server rooms and computer rooms are thermally high loaded rooms in a company. Therefore the data security includes air conditioning because the trouble-free operation of EDP devices requires an optimal climate control of the rooms.

  1. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip E; Fraser, Wesley T; Lomax, Barry H; Sephton, Mark A; Shanahan, Timothy M; Miller, Charlotte S; Gosling, William D

    2016-12-15

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recently developed proxy for ultraviolet irradiance based on spore and pollen chemistry can be used over long (10(5) years) timescales. Firstly we demonstrate that spatial variations in spore and pollen chemistry correlate with known latitudinal solar irradiance gradients. Using this relationship we provide a reconstruction of past changes in solar irradiance based on the pollen record from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana. As anticipated, variations in the chemistry of grass pollen from the Lake Bosumtwi record show a link to multiple orbital precessional cycles (19-21 thousand years). By providing a unique, local proxy for broad spectrum solar irradiance, the chemical analysis of spores and pollen offers unprecedented opportunities to decouple solar variability, climate and vegetation change through geologic time and a new proxy with which to probe the Earth system.

  2. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip E.; Fraser, Wesley T.; Lomax, Barry H.; Sephton, Mark A.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2016-12-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recently developed proxy for ultraviolet irradiance based on spore and pollen chemistry can be used over long (105 years) timescales. Firstly we demonstrate that spatial variations in spore and pollen chemistry correlate with known latitudinal solar irradiance gradients. Using this relationship we provide a reconstruction of past changes in solar irradiance based on the pollen record from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana. As anticipated, variations in the chemistry of grass pollen from the Lake Bosumtwi record show a link to multiple orbital precessional cycles (19–21 thousand years). By providing a unique, local proxy for broad spectrum solar irradiance, the chemical analysis of spores and pollen offers unprecedented opportunities to decouple solar variability, climate and vegetation change through geologic time and a new proxy with which to probe the Earth system.

  3. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsayin, Fulya; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-06-01

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  4. THE EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON THE POLYETHERKETONE WITH CARDO GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; XU Jun; YAN Meilan; BUO Shuqin; CHEN Tianlu

    1991-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the polyetherketone with cardo group(PEK-C) were studied. It was found that PEK-C can be crosslinked by irradiation under vacuum, while degradation reaction occurred in PEK-C at room temperature in the presence of air. Moreover, it was also found that Tg value of the crosslinked PEK-C at high temperature is higher than that at room temperature in the case of the same gel content, whose value is about 8 ℃ higher than that of unirradiated PEK-C. The gelation dose of PEK-C at 300 ℃ under vacuum is 1.S× 104Gy, which is about hundred times smaller than that at room temperature.

  5. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  6. Room-temperature synthesis of soluble, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from organogel precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néabo, Jules Roméo; Vigier-Carrière, Cécile; Rondeau-Gagné, Simon; Morin, Jean-François

    2012-10-18

    Carbon nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature by irradiating an organogel made from a 1,8-diaryloctatetrayne derivative in chloroform. During the topochemical polymerization, the morphology of the gel changes from fibers to soluble, yellow fluorescent nanoparticles in high yield. Analyses suggest that the resulting nanoparticles are made of amorphous graphitic carbon.

  7. Detection, simulation, assessing environmental influences. Climate/shock/irradiation/vibrations/electromagnetism/air contamination/biological influences. Papers. Umwelteinfluesse erfassen, simulieren, bewerten. Klima/Schock/Strahlung/Vibrationen/Elektromagnetismus/Luftverunreinigung/Biologische Einfluesse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations using environmental simulation are designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Issues of artificial ageing and timelapsing play an important role. The 29 contributions to the 21st Annual Conference deal in particular with the topics: strategies in environmental simulation, irradiation and exposure testing of polymers, atmospheric influences and air ingredients, and mechanical environmental influences. (orig./DG)

  8. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  9. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

  10. Preparation of Carbon Nanosheets at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrettl, Stephen; Schulte, Bjoern; Stefaniu, Cristina; Oliveira, Joana; Brezesinski, Gerald; Frauenrath, Holger

    2016-03-08

    Amphiphilic molecules equipped with a reactive, carbon-rich "oligoyne" segment consisting of conjugated carbon-carbon triple bonds self-assemble into defined aggregates in aqueous media and at the air-water interface. In the aggregated state, the oligoynes can then be carbonized under mild conditions while preserving the morphology and the embedded chemical functionalization. This novel approach provides direct access to functionalized carbon nanomaterials. In this article, we present a synthetic approach that allows us to prepare hexayne carboxylate amphiphiles as carbon-rich siblings of typical fatty acid esters through a series of repeated bromination and Negishi-type cross-coupling reactions. The obtained compounds are designed to self-assemble into monolayers at the air-water interface, and we show how this can be achieved in a Langmuir trough. Thus, compression of the molecules at the air-water interface triggers the film formation and leads to a densely packed layer of the molecules. The complete carbonization of the films at the air-water interface is then accomplished by cross-linking of the hexayne layer at room temperature, using UV irradiation as a mild external stimulus. The changes in the layer during this process can be monitored with the help of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and Brewster angle microscopy. Moreover, a transfer of the carbonized films onto solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique has enabled us to prove that they were carbon nanosheets with lateral dimensions on the order of centimeters.

  11. EnerGuide room air conditioner directory 2004 : energy ratings for room air conditioners[Includes Energy Star qualified room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This guide lists all room air conditioners sold in Canada and offers advice on how to buy an energy efficient model as labelled under the EnerGuide rating system. The EnerGuide label is regulated under Canada's Energy Efficiency Regulations and is designed to help consumers estimate the annual electricity cost of running an appliance. The EnerGuide compares the energy consumption or energy efficiency of major household appliances and room air conditioners. The EnerGuide label displays a bar scale with an arrow that positions the model compared to the most energy-efficient and least energy efficient models in the same class. The EnerGuide concept uses standardized methods, in which all models of appliances sold in Canada are tested to determine their yearly energy use. The EnerGuide program was developed to protect the environment by reducing the demand for energy in Canada and to help consumers spend less money on energy. This simple guide allows consumers to determine the exact size of room air conditioner they need to meet their cooling needs. It was noted that the operating cost of a room air conditioner will vary depending on the climate, the energy efficiency rating of the air conditioner, temperature setting of the unit, fan operation and the local cost of electricity. The guide includes tables which reveal the energy consumption in kWh by province during the cooling season. tabs.

  12. 39 CFR 3004.12 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 3004.12 Section 3004.12 Postal... Reading room. (a) The Commission maintains a public reading room at its offices (901 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20268-0001) and an electronic reading room at http://www.prc.gov. The...

  13. 32 CFR 296.6 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 296.6 Section 296.6 National... Reading room. (a) The NRO shall provide a reading room equipped with hard copy and electronic records as required in the “Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996”. The NRO Reading Room is...

  14. Influence of the irradiation temperature on the surface structure and physical/chemical properties of Ar ion-irradiated bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menéndez, E., E-mail: Enric.MenendezDalmau@fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hynowska, A.; Fornell, J.; Suriñach, S. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Montserrat, J. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Campus Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baró, M.D. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); García-Lecina, E. [Surfaces Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, E-20009 Donostia (Spain); Pellicer, E., E-mail: Eva.Pellicer@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, J., E-mail: Jordi.Sort@uab.cat [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Ion irradiation is performed on bulk metallic glasses at 300 K and close to T{sub g}. • Nanocrystallization is observed after high-temperature irradiation. • The mechanical properties are enhanced after the irradiation procedures. • Corrosion resistance is improved after irradiation close to T{sub g}. - Abstract: Surface treatments using multiple Ar ion irradiation processes with a maximum energy and fluence of 200 keV and 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been performed on two different metallic glasses: Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 28}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 7} and Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 38}Pd{sub 12}. Analogous irradiation procedures have been carried out at room temperature (RT) and at T = 620 K (≈0.9 T{sub g}, where T{sub g} denotes the glass transition). The structure, mechanical behavior, wettability and corrosion resistance of the irradiated alloys have been compared with the properties of the as-cast and annealed (T = 620 K) non-irradiated specimens. While ion irradiation at RT does not significantly alter the amorphous structure of the alloys, ion irradiation close to T{sub g} promotes decomposition/nanocrystallization. Consequently, the hardness (H) and reduced Young’s modulus (E{sub r}) decrease after irradiation at RT but they both increase after irradiation at 620 K. While annealing close to T{sub g} increases the hydrophobicity of the samples, irradiation induces virtually no changes in the contact angle when comparing with the as-cast state. Concerning the corrosion resistance, although not much effect is found after irradiation at RT, an improvement is observed after irradiation at 620 K, particularly for the Ti-based alloy. These results are of practical interest in order to engineer appropriate surface treatments based on ion irradiation, aimed at specific functional applications of bulk metallic glasses.

  15. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  16. Solar spectral irradiance variability in cycle 24: observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the excellent stability of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, we characterize both short-term (solar rotation and long-term (solar cycle changes of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI between 265 and 500 nm during the ongoing cycle 24. We supplement the OMI data with concurrent observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 and Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE instruments and find fair-to-excellent, depending on wavelength, agreement among the observations, and predictions of the Naval Research Laboratory Solar Spectral Irradiance (NRLSSI2 and Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction for the Satellite era (SATIRE-S models.

  17. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A. [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)], E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.tr; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Bozkurt, Hueseyin [University of Gaziantep, Department of Food Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by {sup 60}Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 degC. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), T{sub m}(E{sub a})-T{sub stop} and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  18. Locker Rooms: The Durable Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Roy; Coons, John

    1997-01-01

    Offers advice on heavy-use locker-room design that provides easier maintenance and vandal resistance. Design features and materials used for flooring, ceilings, and walls are addressed as are built-in systems and equipment, toilet and shower fixtures and partitions, lockers, and mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

  19. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  20. Room-Maid in Hotel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for room-maids in hotels. Its main objective is to produce fully trained maids, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introducing to Housekeeping, Basic Tasks Performed by the Majority of Housekeeping…

  1. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  2. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... to be the only possible approach to obtain the volume flow in: thermal plumes in ventilated rooms....

  3. Room 101: The Social SAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allhouse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This column looks at the SAC at the University of Bradford (UoB, which is commonly known as Room 101. The column looks at how Room 101 has reacted to the problem of reduced usage as a result of the cancellation of foreign language courses at the UoB, social media making online communication between learners easier, and the availability of online resources which have reduced the perceived importance of SAC resources (such as books and CDs. Room 101 has adopted a materials-light, people-focussed approach which has led to increased usage. Other solutions were tried and are detailed in this instalment, with examples from the literature. Room 101’s approach has centred on facilitated social learning opportunities and a friendly, student-led atmosphere, with many students working in the Centre. This instalment is the first of three; the following instalments will look at research conducted into student and staff thoughts on the current state of SACs in UK Higher Education.

  4. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...... using the boundary element method where absorption is incorporated. An example is given where the geometry of a room is defined by four design modes. The room geometry is optimised to get a uniform sound pressure....

  5. Study of silicon strain gauges under electron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakh-Kaguj N. S.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of semiconductor strain gauges based on boron doped р-type silicon whiskers under high energy electron irradiation were studied. Strain gauges were irradiated at room temperature by electrons with energies 4,2—14 MeV and different doses 5·1016—1·1018 el/cm2. The main parameters of irradiated strain gauges: resistance, its temperature dependence and resistance change vs strain at –196…+100°C and –269…+20°C temperature ranges were measured. There are determined the values of electron irradiation energy and dose at which the radiation stability of strain gauges could be ensured.

  6. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  7. The radiation defect accumulation in scintillative crystals of caesium halides under intense electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Galiy, P V

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of defect accumulation and radiolysis at CsI crystals under mean energies of electron irradiation at wide dose rates and ranges of doses have been investigated by such methods: thermostimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). The limit dose rates and absorbed doses of electron irradiation that lead to defects accumulation at room temperature in crystals volume and also surface stoichiometry violation have been evaluated. The doses of electron irradiation that lead to CsI radiolysis, with caesium coagulation in metallic phase have been determined. Some quasi periodic connection of such process with irradiation dose was observed.

  8. Influence of electron irradiation on the structural and thermal properties of silk fibroin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, S.; Sangappa,; Sanjeev, Ganesh, E-mail: ganeshanjeev@rediffmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574 199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Radiation-induced changes in Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) films under electron irradiation were investigated and correlated with dose. SF films were irradiated in air at room temperature using 8 MeV electron beam in the range 0-150 kGy. Various properties of the irradiated SF films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Electron irradiation was found to induce changes in the physical and thermal properties, depending on the radiation dose.

  9. Effect of 1.25 MeV gamma irradiation in alpha-phased PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarya, Suveda; Siddhartha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Department of Applied Science, Ideal Institute of Technology, Govindpuram, Ghaziabad 201003, UP (India); Saha, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Wahab, M.A., E-mail: mawahab.physics@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The radiation induced changes taking place in alpha-phased poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films exposed to gamma rays were investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by a 1.25 MeV Co{sup 60} source with the doses in the range of 0-300 kGy. Optical and chemical properties of the irradiated as well as un-irradiated PVDF films were studied using UV-visible and FTIR techniques. Gamma irradiation was found to induce changes vary depending on the radiation dose.

  10. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group.

  11. Space Brightness Evaluation for a Daylit Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maruyama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems for lighting design is how to reduce an electric energy. One way to solve this problem is use of daylight, but little is known how to perceive a brightness of a room illuminated by daylight come in through a window and artificial light. Although the horizontal illuminance increases because of daylight, we would not perceive the room as bright as brightness estimated by the illuminance. The purpose of this study is to measure the space brightness for daylit room and to propose a evaluation method. The experiment was conducted with a couple of miniature office rooms, standard room and test room. Test room has several types of windows and standard room has no window. Subject was asked to evaluate the brightness of the test room relative to the standard room with method of magnitude estimation. It was found that brightness of daylit room did not increase simply with horizontal illuminance. Subject perceived a daylit room darker than a room illuminated only by the artificial light even if horizontal illuminance of these room was same. The effect of daylight on space brightness would vary with the window size and intensity of daylight or artificial light.

  12. Room-temperature effects of UV radiation in KBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Salas, R.; Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada - IFUNAM, Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732 Ensenada, BC, 22800 (Mexico); Aceves, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Thermoluminescence and optical absorption measurements have been carried out in KBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals irradiated with monochromatic UV light (200-300 nm) and x-rays at room temperature. For UV- and x-irradiated crystals strong similarities between the thermoluminescence glow curves have been found, suggesting that the low-energy UV radiation produces the same defects as produced by x-irradiation in this material. The thermoluminescence glow curves are composed of six glow peaks located at 337, 383, 403, 435, 475 and 509 K. Thermal annealing experiments in previously irradiated crystals show clearly a correlation between the glow peak located at 383 K and the F-centre thermal bleaching process. Also, the excitation spectrum for each thermoluminescence glow peak has been investigated, showing that the low-energy radiation induces the formation of F centres. (author)

  13. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3–148 dpa at 378–504 C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa pm occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa pm was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3–148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 *C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile–brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  14. 2H-SiC Dendritic Nanocrystals In Situ Formation from Amorphous Silicon Carbide under Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Under electron beam irradiation, the in-situ formation of 2H-SiC dentritic nanocrystals from amorphous silicon carbide at room temperature was observed. The homogenous transition mainly occurs at the thin edge and on the surface of specimen where the energy obtained from electron beam irradiation is high enough to cause the amorphous crystallizing into 2H-SiC.

  15. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  16. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  17. Modelling room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, B L; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Klein, Michael L

    2008-08-07

    Room temperature ionic liquids (IL) composed of organic cations and inorganic anions are already being utilized for wide-ranging applications in chemistry. Complementary to experiments, computational modelling has provided reliable details into the nature of their interactions. The intra- and intermolecular structures, dynamic and transport behaviour and morphologies of these novel liquids have also been explored using simulations. The current status of molecular modelling studies is presented along with the prognosis for future work in this area.

  18. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  19. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  20. Control of the Environment in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2016-09-23

    There is a direct relationship between the quality of the environment of a workplace and the productivity and efficiency of the work accomplished. Components such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, drafts, lighting, and noise each contribute to the quality of the overall environment and the sense of well-being of those who work there.The modern operating room is a unique workplace with specific, and frequently conflicting, environmental requirements for each of the inhabitants. Even minor disturbances in the internal environment of the operating room can have serious ramifications on the comfort, effectiveness, and safety of each of the inhabitants. A cool, well-ventilated, and dry climate is optimal for many members of the surgical team. Any significant deviation from these objectives raises the risk of decreased efficiency and productivity and adverse surgical outcomes. A warmer, more humid, and quieter environment is necessary for the patient. If these requirements are not met, the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality is increased. An important task for the surgical team is to find the correct balance between these 2 opposed requirements. Several of the components of the operating room environment, especially room temperature and airflow patterns, are easily manipulated by the members of the surgical team. In the following discussion, we will examine these elements to better understand the clinical ramifications of adjustments and accommodations that are frequently made to meet the requirements of both the surgical staff and the patient.

  1. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 μm) surfa

  2. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 μm)

  3. Structural and luminescent properties of electron-irradiated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, N. A.; Aruev, P. N.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Zabrodskiy, V. V.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Shtel`makh, K. F.; Vdovin, V. I.; Xiang, Luelue; Yang, Deren

    2014-02-01

    Structural defects induced by electron irradiation of p-Cz-Si wafers were identified. The influence of the annealing conditions in a chlorine-containing atmosphere on the structural and luminescent properties of the samples was examined. Light-emitting diodes based on electron-irradiated and high-temperature-annealed wafers were fabricated by a vapour-phase epitaxy technique and their luminescence properties were studied. A high-intensity dislocation-related D1 line was observed at 1.6 μm in the room-temperature electroluminescence spectrum.

  4. Helium effects on irradiation dmage in V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, N.; Alexander, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary investigations were performed on V-4Cr-4Ti samples to observe the effects of He on the irradiation induced microstructural changes by subjecting 3 mm electropolished V-4Cr-4Ti TEM disks, with and without prior He implantation, to 200 keV He irradiation at room temperature and monitoring, in-situ, the microstructural evolution as a function of total dose with an intermediate voltage electron microscope directly connected to an ion implanter. A high density of black dot defects were formed at very low doses in both He pre-implanted and unimplanted samples.

  5. Structural and luminescent properties of electron-irradiated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia and Fok Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Aruev, P. N.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Zabrodskiy, V. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shtel' makh, K. F. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia and St. Petersburg State Technical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vdovin, V. I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Xiang, Luelue; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China)

    2014-02-21

    Structural defects induced by electron irradiation of p-Cz-Si wafers were identified. The influence of the annealing conditions in a chlorine-containing atmosphere on the structural and luminescent properties of the samples was examined. Light-emitting diodes based on electron-irradiated and high-temperature-annealed wafers were fabricated by a vapour-phase epitaxy technique and their luminescence properties were studied. A high-intensity dislocation-related D1 line was observed at 1.6 μm in the room-temperature electroluminescence spectrum.

  6. Ozone production in a dielectric barrier discharge with ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production has been investigated using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in pure O2 at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation. It was driven at a frequency of either 15 kHz or 40 kHz. The ozone production was highly dependent on the O2 flow rate...... and the discharge power. Furthermore, powerful ultrasonic irradiation at a fundamental frequency of 30 kHz with the sound pressure level of 150 dB into the discharge can improve the ozone production efficiency, particularly when operated at the frequency of 15 kHz at the flow rate of 15 L/min....

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance of some {gamma}-irradiated drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeseoglu, R.; Koeseoglu, E.; Koeksal, F. E-mail: koksalf@ttnet.net.tr

    2003-01-01

    Some drugs, used mainly in treatment of some neurological diseases and hypertension were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation, and the samples were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observed spectra were interpreted in terms of some type of alkyl and amine radical fragments. The spectra were computer simulated and the g values of the radicals and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with nearby protons were determined. The species were found to be stable at room temperature for more than a year. The samples were found to display no EPR signal without irradiation.

  8. ESR STUDY OF FREE RADICALS IN IRRADIATED POLYAMIDE- 1010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Maotang; ZHANG Lihua; LIU Yayan; CHEN Donglin

    1993-01-01

    Polyamide-1010 samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by Cobalt-60γ-rays. The free radicals formed in irradiation were studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR)techniques. The ESR spectra consisted of a quartet and a superimposed singlet whichwere attributed to radical - CO - NH - CH - CH2 and - CH2 - C = O, respectively. The effects of temperature and crystallinity on the radicals were discussed and the mechanism for the production and decay of the radicals was also proposed.

  9. Improved x-ray spectroscopy with room temperature CZT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Shannon G; Shikhaliev, Polad M; Matthews, Kenneth L

    2011-09-07

    Compact, room temperature x-ray spectroscopy detectors are of interest in many areas including diagnostic x-ray imaging, radiation protection and dosimetry. Room temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors are promising candidates for these applications. One of the major problems for CZT detectors is low-energy tailing of the energy spectrum due to hole trapping. Spectral post-correction methods to correct the tailing effect do not work well for a number of reasons; thus it is advisable to eliminate the hole trapping effect in CZT using physical methods rather than correcting an already deteriorated energy spectrum. One method is using a CZT detector with an electrode configuration which modifies the electric field in the CZT volume to decrease low-energy tailing. Another method is to irradiate the CZT surface at a tilted angle, which modifies depth of interaction to decrease low-energy tailing. Neither method alone, however, eliminates the tailing effect. In this work, we have investigated the combination of modified electric field and tilted angle irradiation in a single detector to further decrease spectral tailing. A planar CZT detector with 10 × 10 × 3 mm³ size and CZT detector with 5 × 5 × 5 mm³ size and cap-shaped electrode were used in this study. The cap-shaped electrode (referred to as CAPture technology) modifies the electric field distribution in the CZT volume and decreases the spectral tailing effect. The detectors were investigated at 90° (normal) and 30° (tilted angle) irradiation modes. Two isotope sources with 59.6 and 122 keV photon energies were used for gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. X-ray spectroscopy was performed using collimated beams at 60, 80 and 120 kVp tube voltages, in both normal and tilted angle irradiation. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected for K x-ray escape fractions that were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The x-ray spectra measured with tilted angle CAPture detector at 60, 80 and 120

  10. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  11. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  12. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  13. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  14. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  15. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  16. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  18. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-07-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory characteristics of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M

    2007-07-01

    Seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a (60)Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial populations on seeds, total and inorganic soluble solids in water extract and sensory properties of the latter were evaluated after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the aerobic plate counts of aniseed. Immediately after irradiation, the total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated seeds were greater than those of unirradiated ones. The total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds increased after 6 and 12 months of storage. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in inorganic soluble solids between the water extract of irradiated and unirradiated aniseeds. Sensory evaluation indicated that gamma irradiation improved sensory characteristics of aniseed water extract tested immediately after irradiation; however, after 12 months of storage, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in color, taste or flavor between extract of irradiated and unirradiated seeds.

  20. 32 CFR 701.6 - Reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading rooms. 701.6 Section 701.6 National... Reading rooms. The FOIA requires that (a)(2) records created on or after 1 November 1996, be made available electronically (starting 1 November 1997) as well as in hard copy, in the FOIA reading room...

  1. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  2. Structural damage in InGaN induced by MeV heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Fadanelli, R. C.; Hu, P.; Zhao, J. T.; Wang, T. S.; Zhang, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    In0.18Ga0.82N films were irradiated with 4 MeV 84Kr and 8.9 MeV 209Bi ions to various fluences at room temperature. The irradiated films were analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The RBS/C measurements show that under the irradiation conditions, the relative lattice disorder in the films, obtained from the normalized backscattering yield, exhibits a rapid increase in the range from ∼2% to 68%. There is also an increasing lattice expansion of the films with increasing ion fluence, as determined by the HRXRD measurements. At a comparable level of lattice disorder, the Kr irradiation leads to a more pronounced lattice expansion than the Bi irradiation. This may be attributed to a larger portion of the single interstitials in the films produced by the lighter Kr ion irradiation.

  3. The effect of oxygen on void stability in ion-irradiated steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, Larry E.; Dodd, R. Arthur; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    1990-07-01

    The effect of oxygen on void stability in an Fe-17Ni-13Cr austenitic ternary alloy has been investigated using 15 MeV nickel-ion irradiation at elevated temperatures and preimplantation of 6 MeV oxygen at room temperature. The nickel irradiation was performed over a temperature range of 550 °C to 650 °C. Utilizing transverse specimen preparation techniques, the irradiated steel was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As little as 10 appm preimplanted oxygen caused a significant increase in the void number density when the steel was irradiated at 550 °C. A near-surface void-denuded zone occurs in the irradiated steel, while a region depleted of visible voids also occurs in the steel injected with 300 appm oxygen or greater and irradiated at 550 °C.

  4. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  5. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of proton irradiated Zircaloy 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Apu; Kumar, Ajay; Mukherjee, S.; Sharma, S. K.; Dutta, D.; Pujari, P. K.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2016-10-01

    Samples of Zircaloy 2 have been irradiated with 4 MeV protons to two different doses. Microstructures of the unirradiated and irradiated samples have been characterized by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (XRDLPA), Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and Coincident Doppler Broadening (CDB) Spectroscopy. Tensile tests and micro hardness measurements have been carried out at room temperature to assess the changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy 2 due to proton irradiation. The correlation of dislocation density, grain size and yield stress of the irradiated samples indicated that an increase in dislocation density due to irradiation is responsible for the change in mechanical behavior of irradiated Zircaloy.

  6. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: gas@cdtn.br, e-mail: pls@cdtn.br, e-mail: fcp@cdtn.br, e-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  7. Study of dose-response and radical decay curves of gamma irradiated norfloxacin using EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütçü, Kerem; Osmanoǧlu, Yunus Emre

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and γ-irradiated at doses of 1, 5, 10, 12 and 15 kGy norfloxacin (NOF) were investigated. Before irradiation no EPR signal were observed. After irradiation a weak singlet signal at g = 2.0039 were obtained at room temperature. In order to describe the variation of EPR signal intensity with absorbed radiation dose, several mathematical equations were tried. Increasing irradiation dose up to 15 kGy has increased the signal intensity of the central signal however, no significant changes were observed in g spectroscopic splitting factor. The stability of signal intensity of irradiated NOF was studied over a storage period of 200 days. According to analyses conducted, EPR spectroscopy can be used to distinguish irradiated and unirradiated samples from each other.

  8. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Kariyappa

    2008-03-01

    The Sun is the primary source of energy that governs both the terrestrial climate and near-earth space environment. Variations in UV irradiances seen at earth are the sum of global (solar dynamo) to regional (active region, plage, network, bright points and background) solar magnetic activities that can be identified through spatially resolved photospheric, chromospheric and coronal features. In this research, the images of CaII K-line (NSO/Sac Peak) have been analysed to segregate the various chromospheric features.We derived the different indices and estimated their contribution from the time series data to total CaII K emission flux and UV irradiance variability. A part of the important results from this research is discussed in this paper.

  9. Towards a long-term record of solar total and spectral irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Krivova, N A; Unruh, Y C; 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.11.013

    2009-01-01

    The variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) has been measured since 1978 and that of the spectral irradiance for an even shorter amount of time. Semi-empirical models are now available that reproduce over 80% of the measured irradiance variations. An extension of these models into the more distant past is needed in order to serve as input to climate simulations. Here we review our most recent efforts to model solar total and spectral irradiance on time scales from days to centuries and even longer. Solar spectral irradiance has been reconstructed since 1947. Reconstruction of solar total irradiance goes back to 1610 and suggests a value of about 1-1.5 Wm$^{-2}$ for the increase in the cycle-averaged TSI since the end of the Maunder minimum, which is significantly lower than previously assumed but agrees with other modern models. First steps have also been made towards reconstructions of solar total and spectral irradiance on time scales of millennia.

  10. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  11. Thermogravimetry of irradiated human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci D.B.; Dias, Djalma B.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: antonio_carlos_martinho@msn.com; lmachado@ipen.br; dbdias@ipen.br; mathor@ipen.br; Herson, Marisa R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Banco de Tecidos do Instituto Central]. E-mail: marisah@vifm.org; Meumann, Nilton F.; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Verificacao de Obitos]. E-mail: svoc@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Costal cartilage has been sterilized with gamma radiation using {sup 60}Co sources at two different doses, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, for storage in tissue banks. Samples of costal cartilage were deep-freezing as method of preservation. Thermogravimetry (Shimadzu TGA-50) was used to verify the water release of costal cartilage before and after irradiation. The TG tests were carried out at heating rate of 10 deg C/min from room temperature to 600 deg C under a flow rate of 50 mL/min of compressed air. Samples of costal cartilage were divided in 2 parts. One part of them was kept as reference material; the other part was irradiated. This procedure assures better homogeneity of the sample and reproducibility of the experimental results. The obtained data have shown that the TG curves have the same pattern, independently of the sample. Non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Further experimental work is being carried out on human cartilage preserved in glycerol in high concentration (> 98%) to compare with those deep freezing. (author)

  12. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  13. Defects in 700 keV oxygen ion irradiated ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S. [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sarkar, A. [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Basic Science and Humanities, Calcutta Institute of Engineering and Management, 24/1A Chandi Ghosh Road, Kolkata 700040 (India); Chakrabarti, Mahuya [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sanyal, D. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Rakshit, T.; Ray, S.K. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Jana, D., E-mail: djphy@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •ZnO samples (both poly and single crystal) have been irradiated with 700 keV O ions. •Non-monotonic variation of room temperature sheet resistance has been observed. •NBE PL emission is largely reduced due to O ion irradiation. •Absorption spectrum of irradiated ZnO crystal show a sub-band gap absorption. •Oxygen irradiation generated new absorption band in ZnO is at 3.05 eV. -- Abstract: It is well known that energetic oxygen ions induce heavy crystalline disorder in ZnO, however, systematic study on this regard is very much limited. Here, we present photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption and sheet resistance measurements on poly and single crystalline ZnO samples irradiated with 700 keV O ions. Results have been compared with the effects of 1.2 MeV Ar irradiation on similar ZnO target. Colour change of the samples with increasing O irradiation fluence has also been noted. Non-monotonic variation of room temperature sheet resistance with the increase of fluence has been observed for polycrystalline ZnO. Such an outcome has been understood as point defects transforming to bigger size clusters. Near band edge (NBE) PL emission is largely reduced due to O ion irradiation. However, at 10 K NBE emission can be observed for irradiated polycrystalline samples. Irradiated ZnO single crystal does not show any band to band transition even at 10 K. It is evident that dynamic recovery of defects is more effective in polycrystalline samples. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum of the irradiated ZnO crystal show pronounced sub-band gap absorption. Oxygen irradiation generated new absorption band in ZnO is at 3.05 eV. In the light of earlier reports, this particular band can be ascribed to absorption by neutral oxygen vacancy defects.

  14. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  15. Healthcare quality in Emergency Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sarafis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study wants to clarify the issue of quality in health but also to determine the qualitative and quantitative quality indicators in Emergency department that their measurement is a discipline to countries developed in the area of health in order to promote quality in emergency care. Measurement of specific indicators through the evaluation of data and results, quality in Emergency Room is verified.Method: Review of relative bibliography was made in electronic bases of Blackwell-Synergy (1990-2008, and Medline (1990-2008 using as key words Emergency Room, safety, quality, responsiveness, satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, appropriateness, accessibility, competence. Complementary bibliography was found through other electronic search engines and by reviewing references of already found articles.Results: determinants for quality in the provision of health services were found to be the credibility that consists of the stability of care, the consistency and the duration of performance, the personnel responsiveness and the vigilance to serve the health user, its efficiency, the accessibility of health services, the politeness, understanding and communication of health professionals in relation to their professionalism, the security and the working environment.

  16. The Cloud Project Climate Research with Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the in- dustrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthro- pogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. How- ever, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming—and yet the mechanism is not under- stood. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales are too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind, may be directly affect- ing the climate, providing an effective indirect solar forcing mechanism. Indeed recent satellite observations—although disputed—suggest that cosmic rays may affect clouds un- der certain conditions. However, given the many sources of variability in the atmosphere and the lack of control of the cosmic ray flux, demonstrating overall ca...

  17. Library rooms or Library halls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with two or three naves, like churches, reflecting thus the spiritual value of the books contained there. Next to that inspiring function, library rooms had also the task of representing the entire logical and conceptual universe of human knowledge in a figurative way, including for this purpose also the and Kunst- und Wunderkammern, namely the collections of natural, artficial objects, and works of art. The importance of library rooms and their function was understood already in the early decades of the seventeenth century, as underlined in the treatise, Musei sive Bibliothecae tam privatae quam publicae Extructio, Instructio, Cura, Usus, written by the Jesuit Claude Clément and published in 1635. Almost the entire volume is dedicated to the decoration and ornamentation of the Saloni, and the function of the library is identified exclusively with the preservation and decoration of the collection, neglecting more specifically bibliographic aspects or those connected to library science. The architectural structure of the Saloni was destined to change in relation to two factors, namely the form of books, and the sources of light. As a consequence, from the end of the sixteenth century – or perhaps even before if one considers the fragments of the Library of Urbino belonging to Federico da Montefeltro – shelves and cabinets have been placed no longer in the center of the room, but were set against the walls. This new disposition of the furniture, surmounted by

  18. Thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness in an office room with radiant floor cooling and displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The influence of displacement ventilation and a cooled floor on indoor climate in the cooling season were experimentally studied in a room representing an office with a shaded window, occupied by two simulated employees. The aim was to investigate whether the combination of these two systems can...

  19. Annealing of the defects observed by Raman spectroscopy in UO{sub 2} irradiated by 25 MeV He{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, L., E-mail: lionel.desgranges@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Guimbretière, G.; Simon, P.; Duval, F.; Canizares, A.; Omnee, R. [CNRS/UPR3079 CEMHTI, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 et Université d’Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R. [CEA, DEN, DTCD, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the effect of irradiation in UO{sub 2} is a major issue for nuclear industry and for the design of irradiation resistant materials. We have previously evidenced irradiation induced defects in UO{sub 2} that can be characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present the Raman characterization of these defects as a function of temperature. UO{sub 2} samples were irradiated with 25 MeV He{sup 2+} ions at room temperature and then heated at different temperature without irradiation. Some samples were also irradiated at high temperature. Heat treatment after irradiation evidenced one annealing temperature on Raman spectra. This annealing temperature is shifted to higher values when the samples are simultaneously heat treated and irradiated. It is compared to the annealing temperatures that are reported in literature on irradiated UO{sub 2}. This indicates that Raman observed defects would be point defects on uranium sublattice. This attribution is consistent with the one we previously proposed.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of azo acrylates grafted onto polyethylene terephthalate by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucio, Emilio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: ebucio@nucelares.unam.mx; Skewes, Phill [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, Guillermina [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were grafted with acryloyl chloride by gamma irradiation, and the grafted films were reacted with Disperse Red 1 or 4-phenylazophenol. The films where characterized by atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR-ATR, light polarized microscopy, elemental analysis and UV spectroscopy. The surface of the films was homogeneous, and the dye underwent trans to cis photoreaction, whereby the red films became colorless by the irradiation of UV light at room temperature.

  1. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiation modified zinc oxide-porous silicon nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Yogesh [CIICAp, UAEM, Av. Univ. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuer., Mor., C.P. 62209 (Mexico); CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Compl. Indus. Chih., Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Herrera, Manuel [CNyN-UNAM, Ensenada Apdo. Postal 14, CP. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelarator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Olive-Mendez, S.F. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Compl. Indus. Chih., Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, Shiv [Inter University Accelarator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [CIICAp, UAEM, Av. Univ. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuer., Mor., C.P. 62209 (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    We report the room temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiated (130 MeV Nickel ion) porous silicon zinc oxide nanocomposites. The evolution of a broad and flat emission band from 1.5 to 3.5 eV is demonstrated. Annealing effect of irradiation is found to result in a relative increase in the band edge emission. Emission wavelength can be tuned in the complete visible range by changing the substrate characteristics.

  2. [Transformation of free radicals of gamma-irradiated enzymes during long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryl'tsev, V V; Virnik, R B; Dovbiĭ, E V; Filatov, V N

    1988-01-01

    The ESR method was used to study free radical processes occurring in gamma-irradiated enzymes upon their long-term storage (up to 4 years) both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Simultaneously, studied was the biological activity of gamma-irradiated enzymes subjected to a long-term storage. The immobilization of enzymes on dialdehyde cellulose or polycaproamine was shown to preserve their biological activity during the postirradiation storage.

  3. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-12-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.

  4. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  5. Irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-07-12

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.).

  6. Photochemical removal of organic contaminants from silicon surface at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominski, V. Yu.; Naoumenko, O. I.; Nevolin, V. N.; Alekhin, A. P.; Markeev, A. M.; Vyukov, L. A.

    1996-04-01

    Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we have investigated the possibility of photochemical organic contaminant removal from a silicon surface at room temperature in oxygen and fluorine containing atmospheres (O2, NF3/H2, O2/NF3/H2). In contrast to UV irradiation in O2 and NF3/H2 reagents, the possibility of complete organic contaminant removal has been observed in O2/NF3/H2 gas mixture.

  7. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL; Conductiviad ionica de KCL irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-07-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  8. Towards a long-term record of solar total and spectral irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Unruh, Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) has been measured since 1978 and that of the spectral irradiance for an even shorter amount of time. Semi-empirical models are now available that reproduce over 80% of the measured irradiance variations. An extension of these models into the more distant past is needed in order to serve as input to climate simulations. Here we review our most recent efforts to model solar total and spectral irradiance on time scales from days to centuries and even...

  9. Au ion irradiation of various silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaâbane, Nihed, E-mail: nihed.chaabane@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN/UEPTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Flem, Marion Le [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tanguy, Morgane [CEA, INSTN/UEPTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Urvoy, Stéphane [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sandt, Christophe; Dumas, Paul [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Serruys, Yves [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMP, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-08-15

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites are promising candidates as fuel cladding for several concepts of Generation IV reactors and as structural materials for fusion reactors. The composites used in this study were composed of a SiC matrix obtained by chemical vapor infiltration associated with various fiber types (Tyranno Type-S, Tyranno SA Grade-3 and Hi-Nicalon Type-S) and with a PyC layer as the interphase. 12 MeV Au ions were used for irradiation up to 0.05 and 1 displacement per atom (dpa) fluences at room temperature and 800 °C. Analysis of both microstructure and composition of composites were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature and low fluence, Raman spectroscopy results showed that irradiation induces a disordered/distorted state into fibers and matrix. With increasing fluence, a total amorphization of these constituents occurs. The increase in the irradiation temperature leads to a damage recovery and partial recrystallization of samples. Image analysis performed from SEM micrographs highlights no significant change in fiber diameter and shape. However, SEM analysis suggests a longitudinal shrinkage of Tyranno Type-S fibers for the composite irradiated at 1 dpa at room temperature and 800 °C. These results are in complete agreement with conclusions from neutron irradiations suggesting an appropriate relevance of irradiations with 12 MeV Au.

  10. Operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Rasiah; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2013-06-01

    Development of surgical care in the 21st century is increasingly dependent on demonstrating safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Over the past 2 decades, the potential role of simulation in surgery has been explored with encouraging results; this can now be linked to direct improvement in the quality of care provision. Computer-assisted surgical platforms, such as robotic surgery, offer us the versatility to embrace a host of technical and technological developments. Rapid development in nanomedicine will expand the limits of operative performance through improved navigation and surgical precision. Integration of the multiple functions of the future operating room will be essential in optimising resource management. The key to bringing about the necessary paradigm shift in the design and delivery of modern surgical care is to appreciate that we now function in an information age, where the integrity of processes is driven by apt data management.

  11. Room acoustics for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, R; Duquesnoy, A J

    1980-12-01

    This article deals with the combined effects of noise and reverberation on the speech-reception threshold for sentences. It is based on a series of current investigations on: (1) the modulation-transfer function as a measure of speech intelligibility in rooms, (2) the applicability of this concept to hearing-impaired persons, and (3) hearing loss for speech in quiet and in noise as a function of age. It is shown that, generally, in auditoria, classrooms, etc. the reverberation time T, acceptable for normal-hearing listeners, has to be reduced to (0.75)DT in order to be acceptable for elderly subjects with a hearing loss of D dB for speech in noise; for listening conditions as in lounges, restaurants, etc. the corresponding value is (0.82)DT.

  12. Electron beam and gamma ray irradiated polymer electrolyte films: Dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymer electrolyte films were irradiated with electron beam (EB and Gamma ray (GR at 50 and 150 kGy. The induced chemical changes in films due to irradiations have been confirmed from the Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR spectra. The X-ray Diffractometry (XRD results show that crystallinity decreases by ∼20% in EB and ∼10% in GR irradiated films respectively compared to non-irradiated film. The micro structural arrangement was investigated by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and the images reveal that there is a substantial improvement in the surface morphology in irradiated films. The real (ε′ and imaginary (ε″ dielectric constant and AC conductivity are found to increase with increase in irradiation dose. Improved dielectric properties and conductivity (1.74 x 10−4 & 1.15 x 10−4 S/cm, respectively, for EB and GR irradiated films at room temperature after irradiation and it confirm that EB and GR irradiation can be simple and effective route to obtaining highly conductive polymer electrolytes. From this study it is confirm that EB is more effectiveness than GR irradiation.

  13. Photoneutron production in the primary barriers of medical accelerator rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, P H

    1992-04-01

    Several radiation surveys, at medical linear accelerator facilities where lead or steel had been used with concrete to fabricate the primary barriers, revealed the existence of a sizable neutron field outside the shielding. This neutron field is produced by photoneutrons generated in the metal portion of the shield when the primary x-ray beam is aimed at the barrier. A method was developed to calculate the neutron dose-equivalent rate expected outside a primary shield when it is irradiated by a high-energy x-ray beam. It was found that the minimum photoneutron dose was produced when the metal part of the shield was positioned inside the treatment room in front of the concrete and also by using steel in place of lead. A thickness of less than or equal to 17 cm of metal on the inner surface of the shield produced only a slight increase in the neutron dose equivalent outside the barrier.

  14. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  15. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate......This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...

  16. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  17. Room acoustics modeling using a point-cloud representation of the room geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    Room acoustics modeling is usually based on the room geometry that is parametrically described prior to a sound transmission calculation. This is a highly room-specific task and rather time consuming if a complex geometry is to be described. Here, a run time generic method for an arbitrary room...... geometry acquisition is presented. The method exploits a depth sensor of the Kinect device that provides a point based information of a scanned room interior. After post-processing of the Kinect output data, a 3D point-cloud model of the room is obtained. Sound transmission between two selected points...... within the room is simulated using a 3D point-cloud model to define a room geometry and a discrete ray-tracing method to calculate sound propagation paths within the enclosure. Based on a 3D point-cloud room model a voxel grid is created and each voxel has been assigned certain properties...

  18. Noise control considerations for patient rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenny, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The patient room envelope is a path between outside noise sources and the patient receiver. Within the patient room there are several sources including televisions, clinical monitor alarms, medical pumps, etc. Noise control in patient rooms relies on a combination of the sound transmission loss of the patient room envelope and the level of background sound at the patient's head. Guidelines published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), American Institute of Architects (AIA), and the U.S. Department of Defense for background noise and sound transmission loss in patient rooms will be discussed. Appropriate levels, spectra, and temporal characteristics of background sound at the patient head location may be helpful in raising the threshold of annoying sounds. Various means of personal hearing protection for patients will be discussed. Sound-pressure levels in patient rooms reported in previous literature will also be discussed.

  19. From Baltic rooms to conference rooms: my jouney with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    From time spent in murky, mosquito-filled mangrove swamps searching for fiddler crabs, to being transported off ships in webbed "man-baskets" on inky-black winter mornings to sample sea ice, to teaching rooms full of students the benefits of information organization, the wonders of science have long shaped my career path. Regardless of surroundings, the driving factor has always been a desire to learn new skills, then try to figure out how to use them to make work easier or more efficient for myself and hopefully others. Somewhere along the way, I've switched from doing it primarily for my "own" research projects, to a focus on helping others with theirs. Like many in this field, my route to a career in data science has influenced how I do my work. Along the way I've carried skills with me but also learned a few things that have made my journey both practical and fun. In this presentation, I'll discuss a few key factors that contribute to my current efforts as a data curation specialist in a research library, including communication (translation of "library" concepts to "science" concepts and vice versa), flexibility (ability to accomodate ideas, pace and values of those I'm working with), and prioritization (learning to balance what's valuable to researchers with principles important to libraries, curators, repositories, archives and other groups with which I interact).

  20. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  1. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  2. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  3. Effect of annealing on proton irradiated AlGaN/GaN based micro-Hall sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmane, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tashiro, T. [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ko, P. J.; Okada, H.; Sandhu, A. [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi Universit (Japan); Sato, S.; Ohshima, T. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The effect of annealing at 673 K on irradiated micro-Hall sensors irradiated with protons at 380keV and fluences of 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} is reported. Cathodoluminescence measurements were carried out at room temperature before and after annealing and showed improvement in the band edge band emission of the GaN layer. After annealing a sensor irradiated by 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2} the device became operational with improvements in its magnetic sensitivity. All irradiated sensors showed improvement in their electrical characteristics after annealing.

  4. How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. E. A.; Norton, A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2012-08-01

    The variability in solar irradiance, the main external energy source of the Earth's system, must be critically studied in order to place the effects of human-driven climate change into perspective and allow plausible predictions of the evolution of climate. Accurate measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variability by instruments onboard space platforms during the last three solar cycles indicate changes of approximately 0.1% over the sunspot cycle. Physics-based models also suggest variations of the same magnitude on centennial to millennia time-scales. Additionally, long-term changes in Earth's orbit modulate the solar irradiance reaching the top of the atmosphere. Variations of orbital inclination in relation to the Sun's equator could potentially impact incoming solar irradiance as a result of the anisotropy of the distribution of active regions. Due to a lack of quantitative estimates, this effect has never been assessed. Here, we show that although observers with different orbital inclinations experience various levels of irradiance, modulations in TSI are not sufficient to drive observed 100 kyr climate variations. Based on our model we find that, due to orbital inclination alone, the maximum change in the average TSI over timescales of kyrs is ˜0.003 Wm-2, much smaller than the ˜1.5 Wm-2 annually integrated change related to orbital eccentricity variations, or the 1-8 Wm-2 variability due to solar magnetic activity. Here, we stress that out-of-ecliptic measurements are needed in order to constrain models for the long-term evolution of TSI and its impact on climate.

  5. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  6. Thermal expansion of ceramics around room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 忍; 安達, 信泰; 太田, 敏孝; 宮崎, 英敏; ハシモト, シノブ; アダチ, ノブヤス; オオタ, トシタカ; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Adachi, Nobuyasu; Ota, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    Thermal expansion of some ceramics, polymers and metals was measured by dilatometer around room temperature (from -140℃to +200℃), and compared with thermal expansion in the high temperature region. The CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion)of almost ceramics changed drastically between room temperature and high temperature region. On the other hand, the CTE ofmetals did not change between room temperature and high temperature region. The difference on thermal expansion betweenceramics and met...

  7. Effect of irradiation spectrum on the microstructural evolution in ceramic insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine and examine the effect of variations in the ionizing and displacive radiation environments on the microstructure of oxide ceramic insulators. Cross section transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate the microstructure of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (alumina) following irradiation with ions of varying mass and energy at room temperature and 650{degree}C. These results clearly indicate that light ion and electron irradiations produce microstructures which are not representative of the microstructure that would form in these ceramics during fission or fusion neutron irradiation.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on DC electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaroop, K.; Somashekarappa, H. M., E-mail: carrtmu@gmail.com [Centre for Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation Technology (CARRT), USIC, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Karnataka (India); Naveen, C. S.; Jayanna, H. S. [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    The temperature dependent dc electrical conductivity of gamma irradiated Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms Zn-O stretching vibrations. UV-Visible spectroscopy studies show that the energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles increases with respect to gamma irradiation dose, which can be related to room temperature dc electrical conductivity. The result shows significant variation in the high temperature dc electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles due to gamma irradiation.

  9. Crosslinking of metallocenic α-olefin propylene copolymers by vacuum gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, A. J.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Quijada, R.; Vallés, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Metallocenic polypropylene and copolymers with 3.7, and 9.2 mol% of hexene and 3.0 mol% of octadecene comonomer content were synthesized without the presence of additives and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation under vacuum at room temperature. Size Exclusion Cromatography and gel extraction data showed that scission reactions predominate over crosslinking in the homopolymer and that there is a dose from where crosslinking started to increase considerably, in the irradiated copolymers. Rheology also showed evidence of chain-enlargements on the copolymers by means of an increase in the viscoelastic properties of the irradiated material.

  10. Operating room management and operating room productivity: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Maresi; Berry-Stölzle, Thomas; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    We examine operating room productivity on the example of hospitals in Germany with independent anesthesiology departments. Linked to anesthesiology group literature, we use the ln(Total Surgical Time/Total Anesthesiologists Salary) as a proxy for operating room productivity. We test the association between operating room productivity and different structural, organizational and management characteristics based on survey data from 87 hospitals. Our empirical analysis links improved operating room productivity to greater operating room capacity, appropriate scheduling behavior and management methods to realign interests. From this analysis, the enforcing jurisdiction and avoiding advance over-scheduling appear to be the implementable tools for improving operating room productivity.

  11. Synergetic effect of freeze-drying and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Olivier; Boquet, Jérome; Nonclercq, Olivier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Van Tomme, John; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Freeze-drying and irradiation are common process used by tissue banks to preserve and sterilize bone allografts. Freeze dried irradiated bone is known to be more brittle. Whether bone brittleness is due to irradiation alone, temperature during irradiation or to a synergetic effect of the freeze-drying-irradiation process was not yet assessed. Using a left-right femoral head symmetry model, 822 compression tests were performed to assess the influence of sequences of a 25 kGy irradiation with and without freeze-drying compared to the unprocessed counterpart. Irradiation of frozen bone did not cause any significant reduction in ultimate strength, stiffness and work to failure. The addition of the freeze-drying process before or after irradiation resulted in a mean drop of 35 and 31% in ultimate strength, 14 and 37% in stiffness and 46 and 37% in work to failure. Unlike irradiation at room temperature, irradiation under dry ice of solvent-detergent treated bone seemed to have no detrimental effect on mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Freeze-drying bone without irradiation had no influence on mechanical parameters, but the addition of irradiation to the freeze-drying step or the reverse sequence showed a detrimental effect and supports the idea of a negative synergetic effect of both procedures. These findings may have important implications for bone banking.

  12. [Management for the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudi, O; Schüpfer, G

    2015-03-01

    Business companies, which in the current times also includes hospitals, must create customer benefits and as a prerequisite for this must sustainably generate profits. Management in the world of business means the formation and directing of a company or parts of a company on a permanent basis, whereby management in this context is not exercising power but function. This concept of management is exemplary developed in this article for the important services sector of the operating room (OR) and individual functions, such as resource control, capacity planning and materials administration are presented in detail. Some OR-specific management challenges are worked out. From this it becomes clear that the economic logic of the most efficient implementation possible is not a contradiction of medical ethics, enabling the most effective treatment possible for patients while safeguarding the highest possible levels of safety and quality. The article aims to build a bridge for medical specialists to the language and world of commerce, emphasizing the profession-based competence and hopefully to arouse interest to go into more detail.

  13. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

  14. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  15. Climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth pathwa

  16. Climate Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250 higher education leaders from campuses across the U.S. met last week in Boston for the 2014 Presidential Summit on Climate Leadership. The summit was organized by Second Nature, the supporting organization for the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Almost 700 colleges and universities have…

  17. In situ formation of bismuth nanoparticles through electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Elizondo-Villarreal, N.; Ferrer, D.; Torres-Castro, A.; Gao, X.; Zhou, J. P.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    2007-08-01

    In this work, bismuth nanoparticles were synthesized when a precursor, sodium bismuthate, was exposed to an electron beam at room temperature in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The irradiation effects were investigated in situ using selected-area electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After the electron irradiation, bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 6 nm were observed. The average particle size increased with the irradiation time. The electron-induced reduction is attributed to the desorption of oxygen ions. This method offers a one-step route to synthesize bismuth nanoparticles using electron irradiation, and the particle size can be controlled by the irradiation time.

  18. In situ formation of bismuth nanoparticles through electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S; Elizondo-Villarreal, N; Ferrer, D; Torres-Castro, A; Gao, X; Zhou, J P; Jose-Yacaman, M [Chemical Engineering Department and Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-08-22

    In this work, bismuth nanoparticles were synthesized when a precursor, sodium bismuthate, was exposed to an electron beam at room temperature in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The irradiation effects were investigated in situ using selected-area electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After the electron irradiation, bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 6 nm were observed. The average particle size increased with the irradiation time. The electron-induced reduction is attributed to the desorption of oxygen ions. This method offers a one-step route to synthesize bismuth nanoparticles using electron irradiation, and the particle size can be controlled by the irradiation time.

  19. Modulation of electrical mobility in Au ion irradiated titanium oxide with crystal field splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Choi, Dukhyun; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2016-11-01

    Electrical modulation of radio frequency (RF) sputtered TiO2- x films were investigated as a function of Au swift heavy ion irradiation dose at room temperature. The prepared TiO2- x films were irradiated with 130 MeV Au swift heavy ion in the range from 1 × 1011 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. As the Au ion irradiation dose increased up to 1 × 1012 ions/cm2, the electrical mobility of TiO2- x films were dramatically increased 3.07 × 102 cm2 V-1 s-1 without the change of carrier concentration. These changes in electrical properties of Au irradiated TiO2- x film, are related to the modification of electronic structure such as crystal field splitting of Ti 3d orbital hybridization and sub-band edge states below the conduction band as a function of Au swift heavy ion irradiation dose.

  20. Dosimetric characteristics of ultraviolet and x-ray-irradiated KBr:Eu{sup 2+} thermoluminescence crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendrez, R.; Perez-Salas, R. [Programa de Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion, Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800 (Mexico); Aceves, R.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico)

    1996-08-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of KBr:Eu{sup 2+} (150 ppm) previously exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light (200{endash}300 nm) and x-ray radiation at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curve of UV-irradiated samples is composed of six peaks located at 337, 384, 402, 435, 475, and 510 K. The TL glow curves of x-irradiated samples show mainly a TL peak around 384 K. The TL intensities of UV-irradiated (402 and 510 K glow peaks) and x-irradiated specimens present a linear dependence as a function of radiation dose as well as fading stability 300 s after irradiation. These results further enhance the possibilities of using europium-doped materials in nonionizing (actinic region) and ionizing radiation detection and dosimetry applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Structural evolution of zirconium carbide under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, D.; Dollé, M.; Simeone, D.; Baldinozzi, G.; Thomé, L.

    2008-02-01

    Zirconium carbide is one of the candidate materials to be used for some fuel components of the high temperature nuclear reactors planned in the frame of the Gen-IV project. Few data exist regarding its behaviour under irradiation. We have irradiated ZrC samples at room temperature with slow heavy ions (4 MeV Au, fluence from 10 11 to 5 × 10 15 cm -2) in order to simulate neutron irradiations. Grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis have been performed in order to study the microstructural evolution of the material versus ion fluence. A high sensitivity to oxidation is observed with the formation of zirconia precipitates during the ion irradiations. Three damage stages are observed. At low fluence (high micro-strains appear together with small faulted dislocation loops. At the highest fluence (>10 14 cm -2), the micro-strains saturate and the loops coalesce to form a dense dislocation network. No other structural modification is observed. The material shows a moderate cell parameter increase, corresponding to a 0.6 vol.% swelling, which saturates around 10 14 ions/cm 2, i.e., a few Zr dpa. As a result, in spite of a strong covalent bonding component, ZrC seems to have a behaviour under irradiation close to cubic metals.

  2. Defect structure in proton-irradiated copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Schilling, W.; Dworschak, F.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-12-01

    This single crystals of copper or nickel with a thickness of about 10 ..mu..m are irradiated with 3 MeV protons at room temperature and the structures of resultant defects are investigated based on measurements of the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity, length, lattice constants, x-ray diffraction line profile and electron microscopic observations. The measurements show that the electrical resistivity increases with irradiation dose, while leveling off at high dose due to overlapping of irradiation cascades. The lattice constants decreases, indicating that many vacancies still remain while most of the interstitial stoms are eliminated, absorbed or consumed for dislocation loop formation. The x-ray line profile undergoes broadening, which is the result of dislocation loops, dislocation networks and SFT's introduced by the proton irradiation. Various defects have different effects though they cannot be identified separately from the profile alone. A satellite peak appears at a low angle, which seems to arise from periodic defect structures that are found in electron microscopic observations. In both copper and nickel, such periodic defect structures are seen over a wide range from high to low dose. Defect-free and defect-rich domains (defect walls), 0.5 to several ..mu..m in size, are alingned parallel to the /001/ plane at intervals of 60 nm. The defect walls, which consist of dislocations, dislocation loops and SFT's, is 20 - 40 nm thick. (Nogami, K.).

  3. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  4. Positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy study on Fe-ion irradiated NHS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Huiping [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zhiguang, E-mail: zhgwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Xing; Cui, Minghuan; Li, Bingsheng; Sun, Jianrong; Yao, Cunfeng; Wei, Kongfang; Shen, Tielong; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Ji [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Song, Peng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • NHS steel was irradiated by 3.25 MeV Fe ions to different fluences at room temperature and 723 K. • The evolution of vacancy type defects is studied through positron annihilation spectroscopy. • The concentration gradient of SIA can induce the decrease of S value with increasing fluence at high temperature. - Abstract: In order to study the evolution of irradiation-induced vacancy-type defects at different irradiation fluences and temperatures, a new type of ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel named NHS (Novel High Silicon) was irradiated by 3.25 MeV Fe-ion at room temperature and 723 K to fluences of 4.3 × 10{sup 15} and 1.7 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. After irradiation, vacancy-type defects were investigated with variable-energy positron beam Doppler broadening spectra. Energetic Fe-ions produced a large number of vacancy-type defects in the NHS steel, but one single main type of vacancy-type defect was observed in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. The concentration of vacancy-type defects decreased with increasing temperature. With the increase of irradiation fluence, the concentration of vacancy-type defects increased in the sample irradiated at RT, whereas for the sample irradiated at 723 K, it decreased. The enhanced recombination between vacancies and excess interstitial Fe atoms from deeper layers, and high diffusion rate of self-interstitial atoms further improved by diffusion via grain boundary and dislocations at high temperature, are thought to be the main reasons for the reversed trend of vacancy-type defects between the samples irradiated at RT and 723 K.

  5. Positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy study on Fe-ion irradiated NHS steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiping; Wang, Zhiguang; Gao, Xing; Cui, Minghuan; Li, Bingsheng; Sun, Jianrong; Yao, Cunfeng; Wei, Kongfang; Shen, Tielong; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Ji; Song, Peng; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong

    2015-02-01

    In order to study the evolution of irradiation-induced vacancy-type defects at different irradiation fluences and temperatures, a new type of ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel named NHS (Novel High Silicon) was irradiated by 3.25 MeV Fe-ion at room temperature and 723 K to fluences of 4.3 × 1015 and 1.7 × 1016 ions/cm2. After irradiation, vacancy-type defects were investigated with variable-energy positron beam Doppler broadening spectra. Energetic Fe-ions produced a large number of vacancy-type defects in the NHS steel, but one single main type of vacancy-type defect was observed in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. The concentration of vacancy-type defects decreased with increasing temperature. With the increase of irradiation fluence, the concentration of vacancy-type defects increased in the sample irradiated at RT, whereas for the sample irradiated at 723 K, it decreased. The enhanced recombination between vacancies and excess interstitial Fe atoms from deeper layers, and high diffusion rate of self-interstitial atoms further improved by diffusion via grain boundary and dislocations at high temperature, are thought to be the main reasons for the reversed trend of vacancy-type defects between the samples irradiated at RT and 723 K.

  6. Surface Disorder of GaN Irradiated by Highly Charged Arq+-Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Qing; ZHANG Chong-Hong; YANG Yi-Tao; YAO Cun-Feng; LI Bing-Sheng; SUN You-Mei; SONG Shu-Jian

    2009-01-01

    The surface damage to gallium nitride films irradiated by Arq+ (6 < q < 16) ions at room temperature is studied by the atomic force microscopy.It is found that when charge state exceeds a threshold value,significant swelling was turned into obvious erosion in the irradiated region.The surface change of the irradiated region strongly depends on the charge state and ion fluence.On the other hand,surface change is less dependent on the kinetic energy nearly in the present experimental range (120keV≤Ek≤220 keV).For q≤14,surface of the irradiated region is covered with an amorphous layer,rough and bulgy.A step-up appears between the irradiated and un-irradiated region. Moreover,the step height and the surface roughness are functions of the ion dose and charge state,and increase with the increase of dose and charge state.Especially at and near boundary,a sharp bump like ridges in irradiated areas is observed,and there appear characteristic grooves in un-irradiated areas.For q=16,surface of the irradiated region was etched and erased.

  7. Impact property of low-activation vanadium alloy after laser welding and heavy neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Takuya, E-mail: nagasaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Watanabe, Hideo [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan); Miyazawa, Takeshi [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamazaki, Masanori [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Weld specimens of the reference low activation vanadium alloy, NIFS-HEAT-2, were irradiated up to a neutron fluence of 1.5 × 10{sup 25} n m{sup −2} (E > 0.1 MeV) (1.2 dpa) at 670 K and 1.3 × 10{sup 26} n m{sup −2} (5.3 dpa) at 720 K in the JOYO reactor in Japan. The base metal exhibited superior irradiation resistance with the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) much lower than room temperature (RT) for both irradiation conditions. The weld metal kept the DBTT below RT after the 1.2 dpa irradiation; however, it showed enhanced irradiation embrittlement with much higher DBTT than RT after the 5.3 dpa irradiation. The high DBTT for the weld metal was effectively recovered by a post-irradiation annealing at 873 K for 1 h. Mechanisms of the irradiation embrittlement and its recovery are discussed, based on characterization of the radiation defects and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  8. Electrical Characterization of High Energy Electron Irradiated Ni/4 H-SiC Schottky Barrier Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradzah, A. T.; Omotoso, E.; Legodi, M. J.; Auret, F. D.; Meyer, W. E.; Diale, M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of high energy electron irradiation on Ni/4 H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes was evaluated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements at room temperature. Electron irradiation was achieved by using a radioactive strontium source with peak emission energy of 2.3 MeV. Irradiation was performed in fluence steps of 4.9 × 1013 cm-2 until a total fluence of 5.4 × 1014 cm-2 was reached. The Schottky barrier height determined from I- V measurements was not significantly changed by irradiation while that obtained from C- V measurements increased with irradiation. The ideality factor was obtained before irradiation as 1.05 and this value did not significantly change as a result of irradiation. The series resistance increased from 47 Ω before irradiation to 74 Ω after a total electron fluence of 5.4 × 1014 cm-2. The net donor concentration decreased with increasing irradiation fluence from 4.6 × 1014 cm-3 to 3.0 × 1014 cm-3 from which the carrier removal rate was calculated to be 0.37 cm-1.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta, E-mail: stoica.anicuta@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zaharescu, Traian [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper reports the obtaining of composite materials between PVA and BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite films were {gamma}-irradiated at doses up to 50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films have a good resistance, being suitable as food packaging materials. - Abstract: Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different {gamma} radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with {sup 137}Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during {gamma} irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for {gamma} irradiated products.

  10. 32 CFR 701.35 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 701.35 Section 701.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.35 Reading room. Location where...

  11. The Ethics of the Collegiate Locker Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    Locker rooms are a fixture in the athletic culture of colleges and universities. Given the important roles those spaces play in the learning, growth, and development of student-athletes, collegiate leaders should consider how to influence locker room environments in positive ways.

  12. Assigning treatment rooms at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efficiency at the Emergency Department (ED) reduces overcrowding. At the ED in typical Dutch Hospitals treatment rooms are mostly shared by two residents of different specialties: a Surgeon and an Internist. Each resident uses multiple rooms in parallel; while one patient awaits test resu

  13. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution - Addendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...

  14. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  15. Room Airflows with Low Reynolds Number Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Davidson, Lars

    The behaviour of room airflows under fully turbulent conditions is well known both in terms of experiments and, numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For room airflows where turbulence is not fully developed though, i.e. flows at low Reynolds numbers, the existing knowledge...

  16. The Mini Dark Room from Holywell High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The mini dark room from Holywell High School costs nothing to make and has a construction time of 10 min. In spite of progress, or perhaps because of it, light experiments often have to be performed without blackout. Put this idea into practice and each pupil can have a dark room--and best of all, it's free. In this article, the author describes…

  17. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...

  18. Virtual Meeting Rooms: From Observation to Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchter, R.; Reidsma, Dennis; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nishida, T.; Rienks, R.J.; Rosenberg, D.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Nijholt, Antinus; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Much working time is spent in meetings and, as a consequence, meetings have become the subject of multidisciplinary research. Virtual Meeting Rooms (VMRs) are 3D virtual replicas of meeting rooms, where various modalities such as speech, gaze, distance, gestures and facial expressions can be

  19. VRML Programs for Room Ventilation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker

    Cheap 3D models for visualization of room ventilation applications are now available. VRML (Virtu~l Reality Modelling Language) is found to be a good format to describe buildings, rooms and furniture. A 3D model in VRML can be placed on a World Wide Web (www) page and others can see the model...

  20. I am Sitting in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Stina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores Alvin Lucier's sonic piece "I am Sitting in a Room" from 1979 from a listener's perspective. The article explores this through a phenomenological perspective.......The article explores Alvin Lucier's sonic piece "I am Sitting in a Room" from 1979 from a listener's perspective. The article explores this through a phenomenological perspective....

  1. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D. N.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal exposure...

  2. New heuristics for planning operating rooms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina-Pariente, J.M.; Hans, E.W.; Framinan, J.M.; Gomez-Cia, T.

    2015-01-01

    We tackle the operating room planning problem of the Plastic Surgery and Major Burns Specialty of the University Hospital “Virgen del Rocio” in Seville (Spain). The decision problem is to assign an intervention date and an operating room to a set of surgeries on the waiting list, minimizing access t

  3. Assigning treatment rooms at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, van de Maartje; Boucherie, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efficiency at the Emergency Department (ED) reduces overcrowding. At the ED in typical Dutch Hospitals treatment rooms are mostly shared by two residents of different specialties: a Surgeon and an Internist. Each resident uses multiple rooms in parallel; while one patient awaits test resu

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  5. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  6. Room acoustics modeling using a point-cloud representation of the room geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    within the room is simulated using a 3D point-cloud model to define a room geometry and a discrete ray-tracing method to calculate sound propagation paths within the enclosure. Based on a 3D point-cloud room model a voxel grid is created and each voxel has been assigned certain properties...

  7. Resistivity changes in superconducting-cavity-grade Nb following high-energy proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Hanson, A.; Greene, G.A. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Niobium superconducting rf cavities are proposed for use in the proton LINAC accelerators for spallation-neutron applications. Because of accidental beam loss and continual halo losses along the accelerator path, concern for the degradation of the superconducting properties of the cavities with accumulating damage arises. Residual-resistivity-ratio (RRR) specimens of Nb, with a range of initial RRR`s were irradiated at room temperature with protons at energies from 200 to 2000 MeV. Four-probe resistance measurements were made at room temperature and at 4.2 K both prior to and after irradiation. Nonlinear increases in resistivity simulate expected behavior in cavity material after extended irradiation, followed by periodic anneals to room temperature: For RRR = 316 material, irradiations to (2 - 3) x 10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} produce degradations up to the 10% level, a change that is deemed operationally acceptable. Without. periodic warming to room temperature, the accumulated damage energy would be up to a factor of ten greater, resulting in unacceptable degradations. Likewise, should higher-RRR material be used, for the same damage energy imparted, relatively larger percentage changes in the RRR will result.

  8. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  9. Perceptual effects in auralization of virtual rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Mendel; Larsson, Pontus; Vastfjall, Daniel; Torres, Rendell R.

    2002-05-01

    By using various types of binaural simulation (or ``auralization'') of physical environments, it is now possible to study basic perceptual issues relevant to room acoustics, as well to simulate the acoustic conditions found in concert halls and other auditoria. Binaural simulation of physical spaces in general is also important to virtual reality systems. This presentation will begin with an overview of the issues encountered in the auralization of room and other environments. We will then discuss the influence of various approximations in room modeling, in particular, edge- and surface scattering, on the perceived room response. Finally, we will discuss cross-modal effects, such as the influence of visual cues on the perception of auditory cues, and the influence of cross-modal effects on the judgement of ``perceived presence'' and the rating of room acoustic quality.

  10. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  11. Dissolution of ordered precipitates under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, E.; Bourdeau, F.; Abromeit, C.; Wanderka, N.; Wollenberger, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The stability of the ordered {gamma}{prime} precipitates under 300-keV Ni{sup +} irradiation was investigated between room temperature and 623 K. The two competing mechanisms of destabilization by cascade producing irradiation, i.e. disordering and dissolution of the {gamma}{prime} precipitates in Nimonic PE16 alloy, has been studied separately by electron microscopy and field-ion microscopy with atom probe. At high temperatures, the precipitates are stable. At intermediate temperatures, the precipitates dissolve by ballistic mixing into the matrix, but the interface is restored by the radiation-enhanced atomic jumps. The order in the precipitates remains stable. At low temperatures, the precipitates are dissolved by atomic mixing. The dissolution proceeds in a diffusional manner with a diffusion coefficient normalized by the displacement rate D/K = 0.75 nm{sup 2}dpa{sup {minus}1}. The precipitates become disordered by a fluence of 0.1 dpa, whereas precipitate dissolution needs much higher fluences.

  12. Effects of tensile stress on Cu clustering in irradiated Fe–Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K., E-mail: fujiik@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama 919-1205 (Japan); Fukuya, K. [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama 919-1205 (Japan); Kasada, R.; Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohkubo, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Effects of tensile stress on Cu clustering were explained using atom probe tomography (APT) results of Fe–0.6 wt.%Cu alloy specimens irradiated with 6.4 MeV Fe ions while applying a tensile stress of 60 MPa at room temperature (less than 50 °C) and 290 °C. The hardening under the tensile-stressed irradiation was smaller than that under the stress-free irradiation at both room temperature and 290 °C. APT results showed that well-defined Cu clusters were formed in all specimens even under the room temperature irradiation. The Cu clusters under the tensile-stressed condition were smaller and had higher densities than those under the stress-free condition. The lower Cu content in clusters and more diffuse Cu clustering were obtained for the specimens irradiated under the tensile-stressed condition. The hardening efficiency of Cu clusters was correlated with the Cu content in clusters and the coherency of interface between a cluster and the matrix. Application of tensile stress would control hardening by changing the nature of Cu clusters.

  13. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  14. A new reconstruction of total solar irradiance since 1832

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Gallego, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Trigo, R.M. [Centro de Geofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Engenharias, Lisboa (Portugal); Sanchez-Bajo, F [Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Cancillo, M.L.; Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Variations of solar irradiance (total and spectral) are quantities purported to have an influence on climate. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the total solar irradiance from 1832 to the present. The contributions of active regions and the quiet sun are modelled separately using the method developed by Solanki and Fligge (1999). The areas of sunspots observed since 1832 are used to compute the contribution of active regions to the irradiance changes. [Spanish] Diferentes autores han propuesto que las variaciones de la irradiancia solar total y espectral son magnitudes que pueden influir en el clima. El objetivo de este articulo es reconstruir la irradiancia solar total desde 1832 hasta el presente. Las contribuciones de las regiones activas y del 'sol quieto' se modelan separadamente usando el metodo de Solanki y Fligge (1999). El area de las manchas solares desde 1832 es utilizada para calcular la contribucion de las regiones activas a los cambios en la irradiancia.

  15. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  16. {beta}-ray irradiation effects in RbBr: Eu crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco B, J.M.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, 83190 hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Defects induced by {beta}-ray irradiation in RbBr: Eu{sup 2+} crystals doped with a high concentration of Eu{sup 2+} ions are studied by means of optical absorption (OA), thermoluminescence (TL), and optically stimulated TL (OSTL). The fading, dose, and optical bleaching effects on the TL glow curves of room temperature irradiated samples has been analyzed. OA indicates that irradiation of samples at room temperature induce the formation of F but not F{sub z} centers. The TL glow curves show peaks at 267, 303, and 403 K. The 267 K glow peak disappear in less than 1 s under blue light or infrared radiation photo bleaching. A high sensitivity to the ionizing radiation has been observed. These results confirm that this material is an efficient phosphor. (Author)

  17. Positron annihilation study of Fe-ion irradiated reactor pressure vessel model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Li, Z. C.; Schut, H.; Sekimura, N.

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of reactor pressure vessel steels under irradiation, which results from the hardening and embrittlement caused by a high number density of nanometer scale damage, is of increasingly crucial concern for safe nuclear power plant operation and possible reactor lifetime prolongation. In this paper, the radiation damage in model alloys with increasing chemical complexity (Fe, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cu-Si, Fe-Cu-Ni and Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn) has been studied by Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening spectroscopy after 1.5 MeV Fe-ion implantation at room temperature or high temperature (290 oC). It is found that the room temperature irradiation generally leads to the formation of vacancy-type defects in the Fe matrix. The high temperature irradiation exhibits an additional annealing effect for the radiation damage. Besides the Cu-rich clusters observed by the positron probe, the results show formation of vacancy-Mn complexes for implantation at low temperatures.

  18. Tuning the conductivity of vanadium dioxide films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, Paul; Hofsaess, Hans; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor [II. Physikalisches Institut, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Krauser, Johann [Hochschule Harz, University of Applied Sciences, Friedrichstrasse 57-59, 38855 Wernigerode (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ramanathan, Shriram [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a persistent conductivity increase in vanadium dioxide thin films by irradiation with swift heavy ions at room temperature. VO{sub 2} undergoes a temperature driven metal-insulator-transition (MIT) at 67 C. After the ion irradiation the conductivity of the films we observe a strong increase in conductivity below the transition temperature proportional to the ion fluence. This change in conductivity is persistent and remains after several cycles of heating. Low temperature measurements down to 15 K show no further MIT below room temperature. Although the conductivity increase after irradiation at such low fluences is due to single ion track effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements do not show surface hillocks, which are characteristic for ion tracks in other materials. AFM measurements with conducting tip give no evidence for conducting ion tracks but indicate the existence of conducting regions around poorly conducting ion tracks, possible due to stress generation.

  19. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  20. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events, such as hurricanes and wildfires. These can cause death, injuries, stress, and mental health problems. Researchers are studying the best ways to lessen climate change and reduce its impact on our health. NIH: ...

  1. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  2. Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well as partial 16S rDNA sequences, were analyzed. Results showed that all the five isolates belong to Gram positive bacteria, of which three were Staphylococcus, one Microbacterium and one Bacillus species. Sensitivity tests for these bacteria isolates to 3 disinfectants showed that isolate F03 was obtuse, and had low susceptivity to UV irradiation, while isolates F02, F01 and F04 were not sensitive to phenol treatment. Isolates F04, F01 and F05 were resistant to chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Bacteria widely distributed in clean rooms are mainly a group of Gram positive strains, showing high resistance to selected disinfectants. Significance and impact of the study: Clean rooms are essential in aseptic pharmaceutical and food production. Screening bacteria isolates and identifying them is part of good manufacturing practices, and will aid in finding a more effective disinfection method.

  3. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model in room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...... acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  4. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model for room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...... acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  5. Principles of operating room organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W D

    1997-01-01

    The importance of the changing health care climate has triggered important changes in the management of high-cost components of acute care facilities. By integrating and better managing various elements of the surgical process, health care institutions are able to rationally trim costs while maintaining high-quality services. The leadership that physicians can provide is crucial to the success of this undertaking (1). The importance of the use of primary data related to patient throughput and related resources should be strongly emphasized, for only when such data are converted to INFORMATION of functional value can participating healthcare personnel be reasonably expected to anticipate and respond to varying clinical demands with ever-limited resources. Despite the claims of specific commercial vendors, no single product will likely be sufficient to significantly change the perioperative process to the degree or for the duration demanded by healthcare reform. The most effective approach to achieving safety, cost-effectiveness, and predictable process in the realm of Surgical Services will occur by appropriate application of the "best of breed" contributions of: (a) medical/patient safety practice/oversight; (b) information technology; (c) contemporary management; and (d) innovative and functional cost-accounting methodology. S "modified activity-based cost accounting method" can serve as the basis for acquiring true direct-cost information related to the perioperative process. The proposed overall management strategy emphasizes process and feedback, rather than specific product, and although imposing initial demands and change on the traditional hospital setting, can advance the strongest competitive position in perioperative services. This comprehensive approach comprises a functional basis for important bench-marking activities among multiple surgical services. An active, comparative process of this type is of paramount importance in emphasizing patient care and

  6. Temporal scaling analysis of irradiance estimated from daily satellite data and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel, Jose M.; Navarro, Ana A.; Valenzuela, Rita X.; Ramírez, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    The temporal variability of global irradiance estimated from daily satellite data and numerical models has been compared for different spans of time. According to the time scale considered, a different behaviour can be expected for each climate. Indeed, for all climates and at small scale, the persistence decreases as this scale increases, but the mediterranean climate, and its continental variety, shows higher persistence than oceanic climate. The probabilities of maintaining the values of irradiance after a certain period of time have been used as a first approximation to analyse the quality of each source, according to the climate. In addition, probability distributions corresponding to variations of clearness indices measured at several stations located in different climate zones have been compared with those obtained from satellite and modelling estimations. For this work, daily radiation data from the reanalysis carried out by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and from the Satellite Application Facilities on climate monitoring have been used for mainland Spain. According to the results, the temporal series estimation of irradiance is more accurate when using satellite data, independent of the climate considered. In fact, the coefficients of determination corresponding to the locations studied are always above 0.92 in the case of satellite data, while this coefficient decreases to 0.69 for some cases of the numerical model. This conclusion is more evident in oceanic climates, where the most important errors can be observed. Indeed, in this case, the RRMSE derived from the CM-SAF estimations is 20.93%, while in the numerical model, it is 48.33%. Analysis of the probabilities corresponding to variations in the clearness indices also shows a better behaviour of the satellite-derived estimates for oceanic climate. For the standard mediterranean climate, the satellite also provides better results, though the numerical model improves

  7. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...... activity in the room -like peoples movements -in previous studies has been shown to influence the effectiveness of the ventilation. In this study we have compared results from previous tests, where a cylindrical person simulator was used, to results obtained when using a person simulator of more human...

  8. Engine room cooling system using jet pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.W.; Lee, S.H. [Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Construction machinery includes an engine enclosure separated from a cooling system enclosure by a wall to reduce noise and advance cooling system performance. For this structure, however, the axial fan cannot be of benefit to the engine room, and so the temperature rise in the engine room makes several bad conditions. This paper proposes that hot air in engine room is evacuated by secondary pipe using jet pump. This paper demonstrates the structure and the effect of jet pump and useful guideline on design of area, length, and shape of secondary pipe to maximize the effect of jet pump. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D.N.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2001-01-01

    that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal exposure....... Full scale experiments along with a breathing thermal manikin (BTM) have been used. The results show that the location of the sources is of great importance, just as well as temperature differences. Furthermore, the concentration in the breathing zone showed large differences throughout the room....

  10. Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Soon

    Full Text Available We compare the equilibrium climate responses of a quasi-dynamical energy balance model to radiative forcing by equivalent changes in CO2, solar total irradiance (Stot and solar UV (SUV. The response is largest in the SUV case, in which the imposed UV radiative forcing is preferentially absorbed in the layer above 250 mb, in contrast to the weak response from global-columnar radiative loading by increases in CO2 or Stot. The hypersensitive response of the climate system to solar UV forcing is caused by strongly coupled feedback involving vertical static stability, tropical thick cirrus ice clouds and stratospheric ozone. This mechanism offers a plausible explanation of the apparent hypersensitivity of climate to solar forcing, as suggested by analyses of recent climatic records. The model hypersensitivity strongly depends on climate parameters, especially cloud radiative properties, but is effective for arguably realistic values of these parameters. The proposed solar forcing mechanism should be further confirmed using other models (e.g., general circulation models that may better capture radiative and dynamical couplings of the troposphere and stratosphere.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · general or miscellaneous · Solar physics · astrophysics · and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  11. Moisture Buffer Performance of a Fully Furnished Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennberg, Kaisa; Hedegaard, Lone Grønbæk; Rode, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    The moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate the relative humidity of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. Since moisture plays a significant role in the development of many processes that affect the quality...... of the indoor air, such as growth of house dust mites, emissions from materials and mould growth it is anticipated that the moisture buffer effect can help to ensure healthier indoor environments. The building materials as well as furniture and other furnishing materials exposed to the indoor air...... will contribute to the moisture buffer capacity of the room. There is few studies made on the impact of furnishing materials in comparison with traditional building materials this paper will present such a study conducted in a full scale climate test cell. A series of experiments have been carried out...

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Multi-Room Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world which accounts for nearly 40% of the total global energy consumption. In the countries where cold climate conditions predominate, space heating is the key contributor to the increased energy consumption. Today there is a growing trend to use Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS to control the energy consumption of buildings in an efficient manner. BEMS require a good heating model of the building to be integrated for better control purposes. This article refers to the development of different types of physics based buillding heating models, regarding single-zone, multi-floor and multi-room buildings. They address the propriety of each model in building heating control concerning the prediction accuracy and the prediction time. These models are verified for a residential building having three floors. According to the results, the multi-floor model is recognized to have the best qualifications obliged as a model for control.

  13. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  14. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  15. Electrical properties of irradiated PVA film by using ion/electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Osman, M.; Hashhash, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ion/electron beam bombardment has shown great potential for improving the surface properties of polymers. Low-energy charged (ion/electron) beam irradiation of polymers is a good technique to modify properties such as electrical conductivity, structural behavior, and their mechanical properties. This paper reports on the effect of nitrogen and electron beam irradiation on the electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. PVA films of 4 mm were exposed to a charged (ion/electron) beam for different treatment times (15, 30, and 60 minutes); the beam was produced from a dual beam source using nitrogen gas with the other ion/electron source parameters optimized. The dielectric loss tangent tan δ , electrical conductivity σ , and dielectric constant ɛ ^' } in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 kHz were measured at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant and loss tangent as a function of frequency was also studied at room temperature. The dielectric constant was found to be strongly dependent on frequency for both ion and electron beam irradiation doses. The real (ɛ ^' }) and imaginary (ɛ ^' ' }) parts of the dielectric constant decreased with frequency for all irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The AC conductivity showed an increase with frequency for all samples under the influence of both ion and electron irradiation for different times. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral changes were also studied. The formation of clusters and defects (which serve as non-radiative centers on the polymer surface) is confirmed by the decrease in the PL intensity.

  16. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  17. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  18. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  19. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  20. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  1. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Characterization and Performance

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  2. Recovery room nurses' knowledge regarding postoperative airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    patients. Aim: To determine the knowledge of recovery room nurses regarding postoperative airway emergencies in adult patients in private hospitals ..... sia nursing care, as well as current research findings and new technologies in this field.

  3. HISTORIC ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  4. Room Temperature Ion-Beam-Induced Recrystallization and Large Scale Nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Biswarup; Ghosh, Tanmay

    2015-02-01

    We have studied ion-induced effects in the near-surface region of two eutectic systems. Gold and Silver nanodots on Silicon (100) substrate were prepared by thermal evaporation under high vacuum condition at room temperature (RT) and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Au2+ ions at flux ~1.25 x 10(11) ions cm-2 s-1 also at RT. These samples were characterized using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and associated techniques. We have observed that gold act as catalysis in the recrystallization process of ion-beam-induced amorphous Si at room temperature and also large mass transport up to a distance of about 60 nm into the substrate. Mass transport is much beyond the size (~ 6-20 nm) of these Au nanodots. Ag nanoparticles with diameter 15-45 nm are half-way embedded into the Si substrate and does not stimulate in recrystallization. In case of Au nanoparticles upon ion irradiation, mixed phase formed only when the local composition and transient temperature during irradiation is sufficient to cause mixing in accordance with the Au-Si stable phase diagram. Spectroscopic imaging in the scanning TEM using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy provides one of the few ways to measure the real-space nanoscale mixing.

  5. Shielding of a room for installation of a calibration service for neutron monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C. de; Estrada, Julio J.S.; Santos, Raphael F.G. dos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junior, Wilson F.R.S.; Gomes, Renato G.; Alves, Carlos F.E. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: jsestrada@bol.com.br, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.br, E-mail: faelfisica@gmail.com, E-mail: jsestrada@bol.com.br, E-mail: wilsonrebello@gmail.com, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR) from Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG/UERJ) is enhancing its metrological laboratory, implementing a set up for neutron monitor calibration. Considering the available space on site, it was decided to carry out the necessary adjustments to attend the regulatory rules for radiation protection. The Monte Carlo approach has been adopted using the MCNPX computer code, several measurements of the ambient dose equivalent were simulated to check if the areas surrounding the calibration room could still be classified as radiation free. In order to decrease the irradiation field, it was also simulated a shielding where a 185 GBq neutron source of {sup 241}Am-Be was inserted into. The dimensions of the simulated irradiator are large enough to guarantee that the individuals occupationally exposed do not have dose above the limit established by Brazilian authority, outside of the beam irradiation. The total ambient dose equivalent calculated using MCNPX shows that 3.8 cm of 5% borated polyethylene or 5.5 cm of concrete gives the necessary shielding to guarantee as radiation free all areas surrounding the calibration room. (author)

  6. Application of CFD simulation to predicting upper-room UVGI effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkeson, Carl A; Noakes, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study outlines the potential for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation to be used to predict upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) effectiveness to aid system design and the development of future guidance. A numerical study of two wall-mounted UVGI lamps in a mechanically ventilated test chamber is used to assess the influence of modeling parameters on prediction of dose distribution and microorganism inactivation. Irradiance fields for both UVGI fixtures are obtained via radiometry and implemented in the model. A series of sensitivity studies consider the importance of UVGI field accuracy and computational grid and turbulence model selection. Results show that 2D irradiance fields are sufficient for calculating dose and in-activation, whereas a 1D field is inadequate for modeling purposes. Further parametric studies consider the effects of ventilation parameters, UVGI lamp configuration and microorganism susceptibility. These demonstrate the feasibility of modeling the interaction of the airflow and UV field in a room to quantify the dose distribution. Microorganism in-activation can also be accomplished by employing passive scalars and species transport models, however, further validation data are necessary before this can be used to make reliable quantitative predictions.

  7. Irradiated stars with convective envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lucy, L B

    2016-01-01

    The structure of low-mass stars irradiated by a close companion is considered. Irradiation modifies the surface boundary conditions and thereby also the adiabatic constants of their outer convection zones. This then changes the models' radii and luminosities. For short-period M dwarf binaries with components of similar mass, the radius inflation due to their mutual irradiation is found to be < 0.4%. This is an order of magnitude too small to explain the anomalous radii found for such binaries. Although stronger irradiation of an M dwarf results in a monotonically increasing radius, a saturation effect limits the inflation to < 5%.

  8. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  9. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  10. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated and irradiated strontium hexaferrite crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balwinder Kaur; Monita Bhat; F Licci; Ravi Kumar; K K Bamzai; P N Kotru

    2012-04-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the irradiated crystals suggest the possibility of creation of low angle grain boundaries and other point/clusters of defects causing amorphization in the irradiated crystals. The perfection of the irradiated and unirradiated (0001) cleaved surfaces of the crystals is studied using the bulk method of X-ray topography. The topographs supplement the findings suggestive of modifications in the crystalline quality of SrFe12O19 on irradiation with SHI of Li3+. Etching of the (0001) cleaved surfaces in H3PO4 at 120°C suggests that the dissolution characteristics of the surfaces get affected on irradiation with SHI of Li3+, besides supporting the findings of HRXRD and X-ray topography regarding modifications in the perfection of SrFe12O19 on irradiation.

  11. Gamma irradiation effects on cyanate ester/epoxy insulation materials for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingwen [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhixiong, E-mail: zxwu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Chuanjun [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Laifeng, E-mail: laifengli@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Irradiation resistance of glass fiber reinforced cyanate ester/epoxy composite was investigated. • The cyanate ester/epoxy resin system has a low viscosity and long pot life. • The T{sub g} of the matrix resin decreased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. • The ILSS of GFRP composite increased slightly when exposed to 10 MGy of gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Cyanate ester/epoxy resin was used as a cryogenic-grade polymer matrix and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite was manufactured. The processing properties of matrix resin in terms of the isothermal viscosity at 45 °C were investigated. The specimens were exposed with gamma irradiation of 1 MGy, 5 MGy and 10 MGy, respectively. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermal properties and structure of cyanate ester/epoxy matrix was investigated. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composites before and after irradiation were investigated at room temperature, 77 K and 4.2 K. Results showed that cyanate ester/epoxy system had a low viscosity and a long pot life at 45 °C. The glass transition temperature of the matrix resin decreased with the increasing irradiation dose. Moreover, the ILSS of GFRP composite slightly increases after irradiation and toughening mechanism was also discussed.

  12. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang, E-mail: byunts@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3-148 dpa at 378-504 Degree-Sign C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 Degree-Sign C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa {radical}m occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 Degree-Sign C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa {radical}m was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 Degree-Sign C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3-148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 Degree-Sign C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  13. Room- and low-temperature transmission of diffusion-doped Fe2+ : ZnSe polycrystal at 2940 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ichev, N. N.; Bufetova, G. A.; Gulyamova, E. S.; Pashinin, P. P.; Sidorin, A. V.; Polyanskii, V. I.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Savin, D. V.

    2017-02-01

    Transmission of a polycrystalline Fe2+ : ZnSe sample during irradiation by a pulsed Er3+ : YAG laser with a wavelength of 2940 nm is measured at low and room temperatures. It is found that the sample in a strong field (energy density 1.3 J cm-2, laser pulse duration 320 ns, peak intensity 4.1 MW cm-2) is bleached almost completely at both low and room temperatures. The temperature dependence of transmission is measured in the range of 105 - 273 K in weak and strong fields.

  14. Temporal Variations in Solar Irradiance Since 1947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebabal, A.; Damtie, B.; Nigussie, M.; Yizengaw, E.

    2017-08-01

    The study of variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and spectral irradiance is important for understanding how the Sun affects the Earth's climate. A data-driven approach is used in this article to analyze and model the temporal variation of the TSI and Mg ii index back to 1947. In both cases, observed data in the time interval of the satellite era, 1978 - 2013, were used for neural network (NN) model-design and testing. For this particular purpose, the evolution of the solar magnetic field is assumed to be the main driver for the day-to-day irradiance variability. First, we design a model for the Mg ii index data from F10.7 cm solar radio-flux using the NN approach in the time span of 1978 through 2013. Results of Mg ii index model were tested using various numbers of hidden nodes. The predicted values of the hidden layer with five nodes correspond well to the composite Mg ii values. The model reproduces 94% of the variability in the composite Mg ii index, including the secular decline between the 1996 and 2008 solar cycle minima. Finally, the extrapolation of the Mg ii index was performed using the developed model from F10.7 cm back to 1947. Similarly, the NN model was designed for TSI variability study over the time span of the satellite era using data from the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD) as a target, and solar activity indices as model inputs. This model was able to reproduce the daily irradiance variations with a correlation coefficient of 0.937 from sunspot and facular measurements in the time span of 1978 - 2013. Finally, the temporal variation of the TSI was analyzed using the designed NN model back to 1947 from the Photometric Sunspot Index (PSI) and the extrapolated Mg ii index. The extrapolated TSI result indicates that the amplitudes of Solar Cycles 19 and 21 are closely comparable to each other, and Solar Cycle 20 appears to be of lower irradiance during its maximum.

  15. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  16. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  17. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  18. Rethinking theatre in modern operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robin; Manias, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    Metaphor is a means through which a widely accepted meaning of a word is used in a different context to add understanding that would otherwise be difficult to conceive. Through etymological and metaphorical associations, we contend that aspects of "theatre" are still relevant in the modern operating rooms and that the use of dramaturgical metaphors can add another layer of understanding about the social reality in this setting. We begin by exploring the historical roots and derivation of the word theatre as it applied to anatomical dissection and surgery. Briefly, we touch on the work of Erving Goffman and examine how his work has been used by others to explore aspects of operating room nursing. Then, drawing on data from a postmodern ethnographic study that has been used to examine communication in operating room nursing, four dramaturgical metaphors are used to illustrate the argument. They are drama, the script and learning the lines, the show must go on, and changing between back stage and front stage. To conclude, the small amount of previously published literature on this topic is compared and contrasted, and the relevance of using dramaturgical metaphors to understand modern operating rooms is discussed. Being able to distinguish between the inherent drama in operating room work and the dramatic realisation of individuals who work within, can help operating room nurses to think differently about, and perhaps re-evaluate their social situation and how they function within it.

  19. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  20. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface of strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be {approximately}0.56 eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature-dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV silicon ions at 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of {approximately}340 {+-} 10K.

  1. Ion irradiation effect of alumina and its luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; My, N.T.

    1997-03-01

    The luminescence spectra of single crystalline alpha-alumina and ruby which has 0.02% of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a impurity, induced by 200 keV He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} irradiation were measured at room temperature as a function of irradiation dose. The analysis of the measured spectra showed the existence of three main luminescence features in the wavelength region of 250 to 350 nm, namely anionic color centers, F-center at 411 nm and F{sup +}-center at 330 nm and a band observed around 315 nm. As alpha-alumina was irradiated with He{sup +}, F-center and F{sup +}-center luminescence grew and decayed, but the behaviors of those were different from each other. It seems that a concentration quenching occurred on the F-center luminescence in the dose range above 1x10{sup 14} He/cm{sup 2}. Furthermore, F-center luminescence was strongly suppressed in ruby, compared with that in alumina. On the other hand, the luminescence band around 315 nm appeared only in the early stage of irradiation and did not show its growth part. The dose dependent behavior was similar to that of Cr{sup 3+} emission at 695 nm (R-line) in ruby in both cases of He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} irradiation. Based on the experimental results mentioned above, the processes of defect formation and excitation in alumina in the early stage of ion irradiation will be discussed. (author)

  2. Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Candace; Wedge, Ronnice; Wu, Dong; Stello, Harry; Robinson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is to acquire measurements to determine the direct and indirect effects of solar radiation on climate. TSIS total solar irradiance measurements will extend a 37-year long uninterrupted measurement record of incoming solar radiation, the dominant energy source driving the Earths climate and the most precise indicator of changes in the Suns energy output. TSIS solar spectral irradiance measurements will determine the regions of the Earths multi-layered atmosphere that are affected by solar variability, from which the solar forcing mechanisms causing changes in climate can be quantified. TSIS includes two instruments: the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM), integrated into a single payload. The TSIS TIM and SIM instruments are upgraded versions of the two instruments that are flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission launched in January 2003. TSIS was originally planned for the nadir-pointing National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) spacecraft. The TSIS instrument passed a Critical Design Review (CDR) for NPOESS in December 2009. In 2010, TSIS was re-planned for the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Polar Free Flyer (PFF). The TSIS TIM, SIM, and associated electronics were built, tested, and successfully completed pre-ship review as of December 2013.In early 2014, NOAA and NASA agreed to fly TSIS on the International Space Station (ISS). In the FY16 Presidents Budget, NASA assumes responsibility for the TSIS mission on ISS. The TSIS project includes requirements, interface, design, build and test of the TSIS payload, including an updated pointing system, for accommodation on the ISS. It takes advantage of the prior development of the TSIS sensors and electronics. The International Space Station (ISS) program contributions include launch services and robotic installation of the TSIS payload

  3. Using acoustic information to perceive room size: effects of blindness, room reverberation time, and stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Pardhan, Shahina; Cirstea, Silvia; Moore, Brian C J

    2013-01-01

    Blind participants greatly rely on sound for spatial information regarding the surrounding environment. It is not yet established whether lack of vision to calibrate audition in far space affects blind participants' internal spatial representation of acoustic room size. Furthermore, blind participants may rely more on farthest distance estimates to sound sources compared with sighted participants when perceiving room size. Here we show that judgments of apparent room size and sound distance are correlated, more so for blind than for sighted participants. Sighted participants judged a reverberant virtual room to be larger for speech than for music or noise stimuli, whereas blind participants did not. The results suggest that blindness affects the use of room reverberation for distance and room-size judgments.

  4. Accelerated oxygen precipitation in fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Qiao-Yun; Li Yang-Xian; Chen Gui-Feng; Yang Shuai; Liu Li-Li; Niu Ping-Juan; Chen Dong-Feng; Li Hong-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Annealing effect of the oxygen precipitation and the induced defects have been investigated on the fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) by infrared absorption spectrum and the optical microscopy. It is found that the fast neutron irradiation greatly accelerates the oxygen precipitation that leads to a sharp decrease of the interstitial oxygen with the annealing time. At room temperature (RT), the 1107cm-1 infrared absorption band of interstitial oxygen becomes weak and broadens to low energy side. At low temperature, the infrared absorption peaks appear at 1078cm-1, 1096cm-1, and 1182cm-1, related to different shapes of the oxygen precipitates. The bulk microdefects,including stacking faults, dislocations and dislocation loops, were observed by the optical microscopy. New or large stacking faults grow up when the silicon self-interstitial atoms are created and aggregate with oxygen precipitation.

  5. Cryogenic temperature performance of heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Casagrande, L; Granata, V; Palmieri, V G

    1999-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of silicon detectors, previously irradiated with high neutron fluences, has been measured at 4.2, 77 and 195 K. The CCE recovery measured after 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 is 100% at a bias voltage of 50 V. For 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 n/cm sup 2 the most probable signal collected for minimum ionising particles is 13 000 electrons, corresponding to 50% CCE, at a bias voltage of 250 V. Negligible difference has been observed between 77 and 4.2 K operation, while no recovery was measurable at 195 K. The timing of the signal was measured to be better than 5 ns. The samples were irradiated and stored at room temperature and cooled only when operated. Reproducible results were obtained after several weeks and several thermal cycles. (author)

  6. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  7. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the CLAM steel with nanocrystalline grains under Xe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaolin; Guo, Qiang; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an early look at irradiation effects on China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel with nanocrystalline grains (NC-CLAM steels) under 500 keV Xe-ion bombardment at room temperature to doses up to 5.3 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructure in the topmost region of the steel is composed of nanocrystalline grains with an average diameter of 13 nm. As the samples were implanted at low dose, the nanocrystalline grains had martensite lath structure, and many dislocations and high density bubbles were introduced into the NC-CLAM steels. As the irradiation dose up to 5.3 dpa, a tangled dislocation network exists in the lath region, and the size of the bubbles increases. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystal quality decreases after irradiation, although the nanocrystals obviously coarsen. Grain growth under irradiation may be ascribed to the direct impact of the thermal spike on grain boundaries in the NC-CLAM steels. In irradiated samples, a compressive stress exists in the surface layer because of grain growth and irradiation-introduced defects, while the irradiation introduced grain-size coarsening and defects gradients from the surface to matrix result in a tensile stress in the irradiated NC-CLAM steels. Nanoindentation was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties during irradiation, and the results show that the hardness of the NC-CLAM steels increases with increasing irradiation dose, which was ascribed to the competition between the grain boundaries and the irradiation-introduced defects.

  8. Effects of high dose gamma irradiation on ITO thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mustapha, N., E-mail: nazirmustapha@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physics, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P.O. Box 90950, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-29

    Transparent thin-film Indium Tin Oxides (ITO) were prepared on 0.7 mm thick glass substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process with average thickness of 150 nm. The samples were then exposed to high gamma γ radiation doses by {sup 60}Co radioisotope. The films have been irradiated by performing exposure cycles up to 250 kGy total doses at room temperature. The surface structures before and after irradiation were analysed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed on all samples before and after irradiation to investigate any change in the grain sizes, and also in the roughness of the ITO surface. We investigated the influence of γ irradiation on the spectra of transmittance T, in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrum using spectrophotometer measurements. Energy band gap E{sub g} was then calculated from the optical spectra for all ITO films. It was found that the optical band gap values decreased as the radiation dose was increased. To compare the effect of the irradiation on refractive index n and extinction coefficient k properties, additional measurements were done on the ITO samples before and after gamma irradiation using an ellipsometer. The optical constants n and k increased by increasing the irradiation doses. Electrical properties such as resistivity and sheet resistance were measured using the four-point probe method. The good optical, electrical and morphological properties maintained by the ITO films even after being exposed to high gamma irradiation doses, made them very favourable to be used as anodes for solar cells and as protective coatings in space windows. - Highlights: • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. • Effects of Gamma irradiation were investigated. • Changes of optical transmission and electrical properties of ITO films were studied. • Intensity of the diffraction peaks and the film's structure changed with increasing irradiation doses.

  9. Virgin's Knight tackles climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-11-01

    "There is no greater or more immediate challenge than that posed by climate change," said Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin group, via video-link at the 59th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) held in Glasgow in the UK at the end of September. That grand statement may seem like a lot of hot air for the entrepreneur best known for his attempt to circumnavigate the globe by balloon. But Branson went on to reveal that Virgin Galactic, which aims to fly passengers 100 km into space for 200 000 per trip, will also provide room on its craft for a series of scientific experiments to study the Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Evolution of graphene nanoribbons under low-voltage electron irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Wenpeng

    2012-01-01

    Though the all-semiconducting nature of ultrathin graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has been demonstrated in field-effect transistors operated at room temperature with ∼105 on-off current ratios, the borderline for the potential of GNRs is still untouched. There remains a great challenge in fabricating even thinner GNRs with precise width, known edge configurations and specified crystallographic orientations. Unparalleled to other methods, low-voltage electron irradiation leads to a continuous reduction in width to a sub-nanometer range until the occurrence of structural instability. The underlying mechanisms have been investigated by the molecular dynamics method herein, combined with in situ aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations. The structural evolution reveals that the zigzag edges are dynamically more stable than the chiral ones. Preferential bond breaking induces atomic rings and dangling bonds as the initial defects. The defects grow, combine and reconstruct to complex edge structures. Dynamic recovery is enhanced by thermal activation, especially in cooperation with electron irradiation. Roughness develops under irradiation and reaches a plateau less than 1 nm for all edge configurations after longtime exposure. These features render low-voltage electron irradiation an attractive technique in the fabrication of ultrathin GNRs for exploring the ultimate electronic properties. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Debonding of epoxy from glass in irradiated laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1982-10-18

    Glass-fabric-filled epoxies irradiated at 4.7 K and examined at room temperature by 20x stereomicroscopy showed an internal flaw structure which increasingly filled the sample as the ..gamma..-dose was increased. These flaws were determined to be areas where the plastic had debonded from the glass fibers. The extent of this process correlated well with the dose-dependent loss of mechanical strength. Evidence is reported for a similar mechanism in polyimides although visible flaws have not yet been produced. Possible mechanisms for debonding are suggested. New experiments are also suggested to clarify further the failure mechanism.

  12. Debonding of epoxy from glass in irradiated laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1982-10-18

    Glass-fabric-filled epoxies irradiated at 4.7 K and examined at room temperature by 20x stereomicroscopy showed an internal flaw structure which increasingly filled the sample as the ..gamma..-dose was increased. These flaws were determined to be areas where the plastic had debonded from the glass fibers. The extent of this process correlated well with the dose-dependent loss of mechanical strength. Evidence is reported for a similar mechanism in polyimides although visible flaws have not yet been produced. Possible mechanisms for debonding are suggested. New experiments are also suggested to clarify further the failure mechanism.

  13. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  14. γ-ray irradiation effect on siloxane foam containning phenyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 60Co γ radiation effect on spherical open-porous polymethylphenylvinyl siloxane foam was studied in different atmospheres at room temperature. The physical and chemical behaviors of unirradiated and irradiated materials were studied by SEM, FTIR, TG (thermal gravity analysis), GC/MS(gas chromatography and mass spec troscopy), etc. The present results indicate that the yields of gas products increase linearly with the dose increasing. Furthermore, some changes in material's microscopic form, composition, structure and mechanical property were observed, but the maxi mum thermal decomposition temperature of the sample alters little and the dose gives no effect on it.

  15. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy Segura; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: espinace@ipen.br

    2007-10-15

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol mixtures containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX), X ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for methanol electro-oxidation at room temperature compared to commercial Pt Ru/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  16. Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long; Duan, Lei; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a potential means to counteract anthropogenic climate change, yet it is unknown how such climate intervention might affect the Earth's climate on the millennial time scale. Here we use the HadCM3L model to conduct a 1000 year sunshade geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. During the 1000 year period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that nonlinearities in the climate system would cause substantial drift in the climate system if solar geoengineering was to be deployed on the timescale of a millennium.

  17. Modifications in structural, cation distribution and magnetic properties of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated Li-ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, Maheshkumar L. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E., E-mail: shirsathsagar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Dhage, Vinod N.; Jadhav, K.M. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gamma irradiation induced defects in lithium ferrite. {yields} Modifications in structural and magnetic properties. {yields} Fe{sup 3+} changes to Fe{sup 2+} after gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite precursor were prepared by conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique and then irradiated with three different doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The crystal structure and phase orientation of the irradiated and unirradiated samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite was done by using X-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. The lattice parameter of the studied samples increased due to the formation of Fe{sup 2+} ions under the ionizing effect of gamma radiation. The strain in the materials due to the irradiation was calculated from XRD data. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies indicate that the irradiation causes amorphization, especially at the grain boundaries. The cation distribution was calculated from XRD data analysis. By using cation distribution structural parameters such as theoretical lattice constant, ionic radii of available sites and the oxygen parameter 'u' have been calculated. The estimated cation distribution and other structural parameters shows strong influence of gamma rays on polycrystalline Li-ferrite. The magnetic properties of irradiated and unirradiated lithium ferrite were performed by using pulse field hysteresis loop technique at room temperature. Electrical properties such as diffusion coefficient and dielectric properties were carried out with the influence of gamma irradiation. Activation energy of diffusion process decreased after irradiation. The increase of diffusion coefficient with increasing dose rate of gamma irradiation was reinforced by the increase of Fe{sup 2+} ions and the displacement of metal ions from its original sites under the effect of gamma irradiation.

  18. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  19. World trend of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1984-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years several policies and programmes have been developed in the field of food irradiation at the national level and by international organizations concerned, which aim at the general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of the wholesomeness, the technological and economic feasibility, and the regulatory aspects of this process. This paper reviews international aspects of the standardization of food irradiation, national regulatory aspects of food irradiation, general remarks on the acceptance of Codex General Standards for irradiated foods, and specific remarks on the Codex General Standard for irradiated foods. An overall average dose for all foods, which was formulated in 1980 by a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee, is 10 kGy. This 10 kGy is not a level above which irradiated foods become unsafe, rather, it is a level at or below which safety has been established. Irradiation dose is divided into low-dose (up to about 1 kGy) and medium-dose (about 1-10 kGy). Future outlook and needs are discussed.

  20. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-07-04

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods.

  1. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation; Modificacion de cobre policristalino por irradiacion con protones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Hipodromo Condesa, 06100 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G. [UNAM Centro de Instrumentos, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Barragan V, A. [UNAM Instituto de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  2. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature.

  3. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2008-12-01

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature.

  4. Neutron irradiation effects on the ductile-brittle transition of ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steels such as the conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb (Fe-9Cr-1Mo-0.25V-0.06Nb-0.1C) and 12Cr-1MoVW (Fe-12Cr-1Mo-0.25V-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.2C) steels have been considered potential structural materials for future fusion power plants. The major obstacle to their use is embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. Observations on this irradiation embrittlement is reviewed. Below 425-450{degrees}C, neutron irradiation hardens the steels. Hardening reduces ductility, but the major effect is an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by a Charpy impact test. After irradiation, DBTT values can increase to well above room temperature, thus increasing the chances of brittle rather than ductile fracture.

  5. Defect Kinetics and Magnetic Studies of Ion-Irradiated FePt Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetala, Naidu V.

    2009-03-01

    We have used 300 keV Al+-irradiation and 1 MeV proton-irradiation to obtain vacancy-migration enhanced phase transformation of FePt nanoparticles at lower temperatures (˜200° C). SRIM-2006 computer code was used to estimate the irradiation parameters and the defect concentrations. Low temperature annealing showed promising results, but further annealing at higher temperatures gave detrimental effects due to lattice strain produced by larger defect clusters. These effects are more prominent in proton-irradiation and the effects of vacancy clusters seem to remain stronger even at higher temperatures. The magnetization results indicate dissociation of vacancy clusters above 600° C. The magnetization studies of 700° C and 800° C annealed particles aged for one year at room temperature showed defect strain release over time.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Harish, K. V.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore – 574199 (India); Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Government First Grade College, Hiriadka, Udupi – 576113 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The present work looks into the structural and mechanical properties modification in ZnO nanoparticle incorporated Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films, induced by gamma irradiation. The irradiation process was performed in gamma chamber at room temperature by use of Cobalt-60 source (Average energy of 1.25MeV) at different doses: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy respectively. The changes in structural parameters and mechanical properties in pure and gamma irradiated HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films have been studied using X-ray scattering (XRD) data and universal testing machine (UTM). It is found that gamma irradiation decreases the structural parameters and improves the mechanical properties of nanocomposite films.

  7. Physical and thermal properties of 8 MeV electron beam irradiated HPMC polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India)], E-mail: sangappa@mangaloreuniversity.ac.in; Demappa, T.; Mahadevaiah [Department of Polymer Science, Sir M V, P G Center, University of Mysore, Mandya 575 007 (India); Ganesha, S. [Microtron Center, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Divakara, S. [Department of Physics, East Point College of Engineering and Technology, Bangalore 560049 (India); Pattabi, Manjunath [Department of Material Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Somashekar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Microstructural modification in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films induced by electron irradiation is studied. Irradiation was performed in air at room temperature using a 8 MeV electron accelerator at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. Irradiation can be used to crosslink or degrade the desired component or to fix the polymer morphology. Changes in microstructural parameters, crystallinity and thermal properties in virgin and irradiated HPMC films have been studied using wide angle X-ray scattering data and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat of fusion and the degree of crystallinity are found to be highest for unirradiated HPMC and the crystallite size is larger in virgin HPMC films.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated Co/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Agarwal; Ankur Jain; Shivani Agarwal; D Kabiraj; I P Jain

    2006-04-01

    Synthesis of swift heavy ion induced metal silicide is a new advancement in materials science research. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au ions at the Co/Si interface for investigation of ion beam mixing at various doses: 8 × 1012, 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 cm-2. Formation of different phases of cobalt silicide is identified by the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique, which shows enhancement of intermixing and silicide formation as a result of irradiation. – characteristics at Co/Si interface were undertaken to understand the irradiation effect on conduction mechanism at the interface.

  9. Irradiation effects in polycarbonate induced by 2.1 GeV Kr ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui-Xian; JIN Yun-Fan; ZHU Zhi-Yong; SUN You-Mei; WANG Zhi-Guang

    2003-01-01

    Polycarbonate foil stacks were irradiated with 2.1 GeV Kr ions under vacuum at room temperature.The modifications in chemical structure induced by the irradiation were studied by means of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV/VIS) spectroscopies. FTIR measurements reveal that material degradationsthrough bond breaking are the main effects. Alkyne end groups are produced by the irradiation. UV/VIS measure-ments indicate a shifting of the absorption edge from ultraviolet towards visible, and a strong increase of absorbancein the ultraviolet and visible regions. The changes in absorbance induced by the irradiation at wavelengths of 380 nm,450 nm and 500 nm scale well with Sne (Se is electronic energy loss) where the value of n increases from 1.69 to 2.02with increasing of the wavelength. The results are briefly discussed.

  10. Headache in an emergency room in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bigal

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: When experiencing a headache attack, Brazilian patients usually look for a primary care service, where they are seen by general clinicians. In the town of Ribeirão Preto, these clinicians routinely refer patients to the Emergency Room of the University Hospital. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of primary care by analyzing retrospectively the medical records of patients with a complaint of headache seen in this emergency room during the year of 1996. DESIGN: retrospective study. SETTIING: Emergency Room of the Universital Hospital, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, reference unit. PARTICIPANTS:1254 patients. The patients who sought the Emergency Room (ER of the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, during the year of 1996 with a complaint of headache were studied retrospectively. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Etiology, age, diagnosis, secondary cause, laboratory tests. RESULTS: Of the 1254 patients seen (61% women, 1190 (94.9% were discharged after the administration of parenteral analgesics before they had spent 12 hours in the room. Only 64 (5.1% patients remained for more than 12 hours. Of the patients who spent less than 12 hours in the room, 71.5% had migraine or tension type headache and did not require subsidiary exams for diagnosis. Of the patients who spent more than 12 hours in the room, 70.3% had secondary headaches. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the primary care for headache is unsatisfactory in the Ribeirão Preto region. Many patients with primary headache are referred to tertiary care services, indicating the need for the dissemination of the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society to general practitioners.

  11. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  12. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  13. Transition-metal-free visible-light photoredox catalysis at room-temperature for decarboxylative fluorination of aliphatic carboxylic acids by organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Meng, Chunna; Yuan, Xiaoqian; Jia, Xiaotong; Qian, Xuhong; Ye, Jinxing

    2015-07-28

    We report herein an efficient, general and green method for decarboxylative fluorination of aliphatic carboxylic acids. By using a transition-metal-free, organocatalytic photoredox system, the reaction of various aliphatic carboxylic acids with the Selectfluor reagent afforded the corresponding alkyl fluorides in satisfactory yields under visible light irradiation at room temperature.

  14. Irradiation of fresh fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  16. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  17. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  18. Are natural climate forcings able to counteract the projected anthropogenic global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, C.; van Ypersele, J.P.; Berger, A.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional global climate model is used to assess the climatic changes associated with the new IPCC SRES emissions scenarios and to determine which kind of changes in total solar irradiance and volcanic perturbations could mask the projected anthropogenic global warming associated to the SRES scenarios. Our results suggest that only extremely unlikely changes in total solar irradiance and/or volcanic eruptions would be able to overcome the simulated anthropogenic global warming over th...

  19. Fabrication of iridium oxide nanoparticles supported on activated carbon powder by flashlight irradiation for oxygen evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Sung-Hyeon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinseong; Yi, Mi Hye [Eco Technology Center of the Hyundai Motor Company, 17-5 Mabuk-ro, Giheung-gu, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima1774@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Iridium supported on activated carbon was oxidized by flashlight irradiation at room temperature in ambient condition. - Highlights: • Ir was oxidized by flashlight irradiation at room temperature in ambient condition. • The Pt–IrO{sub 2}/C has a higher net current density than those of Pt–Ir/C and Pt/C. • During the flashlight process, an activated carbon was not damaged. • Flashlight irradiation purified an activated carbon by removing contaminants. - Abstract: In this study, iridium oxide (IrO{sub 2}) nanoparticles supported on activated carbon were fabricated for oxygen evolutions using a flashlight irradiation process at room temperature under ambient conditions within a few milliseconds. The fabricated IrO{sub 2} nanoparticles were decorated on the activated carbon surface and enlarged to 3.51 nm as average diameter from an initial value of 1.54 nm. The fabricated IrO{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated Fe/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chhagan Lal; R K Jain; I P Jain

    2007-04-01

    The present work deals with the mixing of iron and silicon by swift heavy ions in high-energy range. The thin film was deposited on a -Si (111) substrate at 10-6 torr and at room temperature. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au+9 ions at the Fe/Si interface to investigate ion beam mixing at various doses: 5 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. Formation of different phases of iron silicide has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, which shows enhancement of intermixing and silicide formation as a result of irradiation. – measurements for both pristine and irradiated samples have been carried out at room temperature, series resistance and barrier heights for both as deposited and irradiated samples were extracted. The barrier height was found to vary from 0.73–0.54 eV. The series resistance varied from 102.04–38.61 k.

  1. Irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Il-Hyun; Motta, Arthur T.; Ulmer, Christopher J.; Kirk, Marquis A.; Ryan, Edward A.; Baldo, Peter M.

    2015-12-01

    An in situ ion-irradiation study, simultaneously examined using transmission electron microscopy, was performed to investigate irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds. Thin foil samples of two crystalline structures: D022-structured Al3Ti and L12-structured (Al,Cr)3Ti were irradiated using 1.0 MeV Kr ions at a temperature range from 40 K to 573 K to doses up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2. The results showed that both the compounds underwent an order-disorder transformation under irradiation, where both Al3Ti and (Al,Cr)3Ti ordered structures were fully transformed to the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) structure except at the highest irradiation temperature of 573 K. A slightly higher irradiation dose was required for order-disorder transformation in case of Al3Ti as compared to (Al,Cr)3Ti at a given temperature. However, their amorphization resistances were different: while the disordered FCC (Al,Cr)3Ti amorphized at the irradiation dose of 6.25 × 1014 ions/cm2 (0.92 dpa) at 40 K and 100 K, the Al3Ti compound with the same disordered FCC structure maintained crystallinity up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2 (5.62 dpa) at 40 K. The critical temperature for amorphization of (Al,Cr)3Ti under Kr ion irradiation is likely between 100 K and room temperature and the critical temperature for disordering between room temperature and 573 K.

  2. Role of Magnetocardiography in Emergency Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. E.; Lim, H. K.; Park, Y. K. [Biomagnetism Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Y. G.; Chung, N. [Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    In emergency rooms, patients with acute chest pain should be diagnosed as quickly as possible with higher diagnostic accuracy for an appropriate therapy to the patients with acute coronary syndrome or for avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions. At present, electrocardiography(ECG) and biochemical markers are generally used to detect myocardial infarction and coronary angiography is used as a gold standard to reveal the degree of narrowing of coronary artery. Magnetocardiography(MCG) has been proposed as a novel and non-invasive diagnostic tool fur the detection of cardiac electrical abnormality associated with myocardial ischemia. In this study, we examined whether the MCG can be used fur the detection of coronary artery disease(CAD) in patients, who were admitted to the emergency room with acute chest pain. MCG was recorded from 36 patients admitted to the emergency room with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The MCG recordings were obtained using a 64-channel SQUID MCG system in a magnetically shielded room. In result, presence of CAD could be found with a sensitivity of 88.2 % in patients with acute chest pain without 57 elevation in ECG, demonstrating a possible use in the emergency room to screen CAD patients.

  3. Reflecting on a room of one reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppertsberg, Alexa I; Bloj, Marina

    2007-10-30

    We present a numerical analysis of rendered pairs of rooms, in which the spectral power distribution of the illuminant in one room matched the surface reflectance function in the other room, and vice versa. We ask whether distinction between the rooms is possible and on what cues this discrimination is based. Using accurately rendered three-dimensional (3D) scenes, we found that room pairs can be distinguished based on indirect illumination, as suggested by A. L. Gilchrist and A. Jacobsen (1984). In a simulated color constancy scenario, we show that indirect illumination plays a pivotal role as areas of indirect illumination undergo a smaller appearance change than areas of direct illumination. Our study confirms that indirect illumination can play a critical role in surface color recovery and shows how computer rendering programs, which model the light-object interaction according to the laws of physics, are valuable tools that can be used to analyze and explore what image information is available to the visual system from 3D scenes.

  4. ALICE’s new meeting room

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    There’s no reason to be late for a meeting in Wonderland (Point 2) anymore as ALICE gets a brand new conference room and a ‘clean up’. The new ALICE conference room.You won’t find Building 3294 on the CERN map yet, but it is already being used. If you follow the white rabbit just inside the entrance at point 2, you will find a new conference room and office space for 12 people. "Previously at Point 2 we’ve had very little office space at all. Our old conference room was inside the main building, SX2, but it was cramped and extremely noisy," explained Frank Cliff from ALICE. "As soon as they turned on the overhead cranes you could barely hear yourself think!" The plans for the new building were drawn up by the Civil Engineering Group, and construction started in August last year. The building was completed and already in use before Christmas. The 109 square metre conference room can fit up to 60 people and is fully equipped...

  5. Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

    2005-09-21

    In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

  6. Optically induced strong intermodal coupling in mechanical resonators at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, R.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Hey, R.; Friedland, K. J. [Paul-Drude-Institut fur Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Strong parametric mode coupling in mechanical resonators is demonstrated at room temperature by using the photothermal effect in thin membrane structures. Thanks to the large stress modulation by laser irradiation, the coupling rate of the mechanical modes, defined as half of the mode splitting, reaches 2.94 kHz, which is an order of magnitude larger than electrically induced mode coupling. This large coupling rate exceeds the damping rates of the mechanical resonators and results in the strong coupling regime, which is a signature of coherent mode interaction. Room-temperature coherent mode coupling will enable us to manipulate mechanical motion at practical operation temperatures and provides a wide variety of applications of integrated mechanical systems.

  7. Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials with a dual circularly polarized light reflection band fixed at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agez, Gonzague; Mitov, Michel

    2011-05-26

    An unpolarized normal-incidence light beam reflected by a cholesteric liquid crystal is left- or right-circularly polarized, in the cholesteric temperature range. In this article, we present a novel approach for fabricating a cholesteric liquid crystalline material that exhibits reflection bands with both senses of polarization at room temperature. A cholesteric liquid crystal that presents a twist inversion at a critical temperature T(c) is blended with a small quantity of photopolymerizable monomers. Upon ultraviolet irradiation above T(c), the liquid crystal becomes a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal. Below T(c), the material reflects a dual circularly polarized band in the infrared. By quenching the experimental cell at a temperature below the blend's melting point, the optical properties of the material in an undercooled state are conserved for months at room temperature, which is critical to potential applications such as heat-repelling windows and polarization-independent photonic devices.

  8. Interface reactions between Pd thin films and SiC by thermal annealing and SHI irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njoroge, E.G., E-mail: eric.njoroge@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Theron, C.C. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Skuratov, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Wamwangi, D. [School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hlatshwayo, T.T. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Comrie, C.M. [MRD, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Malherbe, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2016-03-15

    The solid-state reactions between Pd thin films and 6H-SiC substrates induced by thermal annealing, room temperature swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation and high temperature SHI irradiation have been investigated by in situ and real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). At room temperature, no silicides were detected to have formed in the Pd/SiC samples. Two reaction growth zones were observed in the samples annealed in situ and analysed by real time RBS. The initial reaction growth region led to formation of Pd{sub 3}Si or (Pd{sub 2}Si + Pd{sub 4}Si) as the initial phase(s) to form at a temperature of about 450 °C. Thereafter, the reaction zone did not change until a temperature of 640 °C was attained where Pd{sub 2}Si was observed to form in the reaction zone. Kinetic analysis of the initial reaction indicates very fast reaction rates of about 1.55 × 10{sup 15} at cm{sup −2}/s and the Pd silicide formed grew linear with time. SHI irradiation of the Pd/SiC samples was performed by 167 MeV Xe{sup 26+} ions at room temperature at high fluences of 1.07 × 10{sup 14} and 4 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and at 400 °C at lower fluences of 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The Pd/SiC interface was analysed by RBS and no SHI induced diffusion was observed for room temperature irradiations. The sample irradiated at 400 °C, SHI induced diffusion was observed to occur accompanied with the formation of Pd{sub 4}Si, Pd{sub 9}Si{sub 2} and Pd{sub 5}Si phases which were identified by GIXRD analysis.

  9. Room-temperature decarboxylative alkynylation of carboxylic acids using photoredox catalysis and EBX reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vaillant, Franck; Courant, Thibaut; Waser, Jerome

    2015-09-14

    Alkynes are used as building blocks in synthetic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, and materials science. Therefore, efficient methods for their synthesis are the subject of intensive research. Herein, we report the direct synthesis of alkynes from readily available carboxylic acids at room temperature under visible-light irradiation. The combination of an iridium photocatalyst with ethynylbenziodoxolone (EBX) reagents allowed the decarboxylative alkynylation of carboxylic acids in good yields under mild conditions. The method could be applied to silyl-, aryl-, and alkyl- substituted alkynes. It was particularly successful in the case of α-amino and α-oxo acids derived from biomass.

  10. Climate variations and the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the size of glaciers, in the altitude of the alpine tree-limit, and variation in the width of tree-rings during the Holocene clearly indicate that the average Scandinavian summer temperature has fluctuated. During warm periods it has been about 2 deg C warmer than at present; during cold periods it has been almost as cold as it was during the coldest decades of the previous centuries. Superimposed on these long-term variations, which have lasted from 100 to 200 years, are short fluctuations in temperature. The Scandinavian chronology, which is based on glacier and alpine tree-limit fluctuations as well as on dendrochronology, is well correlated with the changes in climate, which studies of ice cores from central Greenland have revealed. It is therefore believed that the Scandinavian climate chronology depicts conditions typical of a large area. The Scandinavian record is compared with data concerning solar irradiation variations estimated as {sup 14}C anomalies obtained from tree-rings. A correlation between major changes in climate and variations in solar irradiation points to a solar forcing of the climate. This means that there is no evidence of a human influence on climate so far Special issue. Research for mountain area development: Europe. 64 refs, 3 figs

  11. Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured inWagrain, Austria in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Pearson, Andy J; O'Hagan, John B;

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation spectral irradiance was measured at different altitudes on horizontal and tilted planes in different azimuth directions on cloudless days in Austria, in March 2010, within the Impact of Climatic and Environmental factors on Personal Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure project...

  12. Gas explosion in a room with a window and passage to an adjacent room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polandov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some publications describe an effect, produced during a physical model experiment, when an adjacent gas-free room influences the gas explosion pressure in a room with a window. The explosion pressure in this case significantly exceeds (2.5 times the explosion pressure in a room without an adjacent room. This result has been confirmed by our studies. Based on other available information about the influence of the ignition point location on the explosion pressure in one room, it was suggested that this could be true for an explosion in two rooms. In our studies we used a test unit with two connected chambers, each having a volume of 1.125 m3. It turned out that this influence of the adjacent volume was not so unambiguous as it was described in those publications. It was found out that the maximum effect of explosion pressure amplification by the adjacent room is achieved, when the igniter is located in the chamber filled with a gas-air mixture in the area between the center of the chamber and the window (maximum amplification by more than 3 times. This effect is lower directly by the window (1.8 times and is practically absent in case of ignition within the area near the passage connecting the chamber with the adjacent room. This suggests that the effect discovered earlier is a special case of the general dependence of the gas explosion pressure in two chambers on the igniter location.

  13. An informationally structured room for robotic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tokuo; Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Chae, Hyunuk; Pyo, Yoonseok; Kusaka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Tsutomu; Morooka, Ken'ichi; Kurazume, Ryo

    2015-04-22

    The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  14. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...... in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation...

  15. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  16. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  17. Climate and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.

  18. Multi-bed patient room architectural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Sklavou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leveraging the physical environment’s merits is crucial in healthcare settings towards fostering sustainable healing conditions. In the future, the need to retrofit hospitals already appears more probable than to build new facilities. In Greece, holistic healthcare architecture has significant potential and room to develop. Aim: The architectural research of multi-bed patient room environment. Method: A sample of multi-bed patient rooms of a Greek hospital was studied per architectural documentation and user evaluation survey. Beyond recording the existing situation and user experience, user group differences and the influence of window proximity were studied. The survey sample was based on convenience and comprised 160 patients and 136 visitors. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 20, using chi-square exact tests of independence. The chosen level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: Architectural documentation showed that the building morphology had a positive impact in patient rooms, with regard to sunlight penetration and view. Further solar daylight control was deemed necessary, to facilitate overall environmental comfort conditions. High spatial density and considerable disadvantages of the middle patient bed, compared to the one bedside the window and the one further in the back of the room, were also ascertained. User groups did not evaluate their surroundings significantly different, with the exception of ease of access to the view. Window proximity influenced both patients and visitors in evaluating ease of access to the view and visual discomfort. Patients were further affected on window size evaluation and visitors on view related aspects. Conclusions: Synergy between building form and function contributes in creating holistic sustainable healing environments. User evaluation can deviate from objective documentation. Patients and visitors experienced the patient room in a similar manner. The middle bed was

  19. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  20. Stability of Y-Ti-O nanoparticles in ODS alloys during heat treatment and high temperature swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sohatsky, A.S.; Kornieieva, K. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J.H.; Neethling, J.H. [CHRTEM, NMMU, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Nikitina, A.A.; Ageev, V.S. [JSC VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.D. [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2016-12-15

    Aim of this report is to compare the morphology of swift (167 and 220 MeV) Xe ion induced latent tracks in Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles during post-irradiation heat treatment and after irradiation at different temperatures in pre-thinned TEM foils and TEM targets prepared from hundreds microns thick irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. No difference in track parameters was found in room temperature irradiated nanoparticles in pre-thinned and conventional samples. Microstructural data gathered from pre-thinned foils irradiated in the temperature range 350-650 C or annealed at similar temperatures demonstrate that amorphous latent tracks interact with the surrounding matrix, changing the track and nanoparticle morphology, while such effect is not observed in conventional ODS material treated at the same conditions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Towards a Noninvasive Intracranial Tumor Irradiation Using 3D Optical Imaging and Multimodal Data Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, R.; Daul, Ch.; Wolf, D.; Aletti, P.

    2007-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy (CRT) results in high-precision tumor volume irradiation. In fractioned radiotherapy (FRT), lesions are irradiated in several sessions so that healthy neighbouring tissues are better preserved than when treatment is carried out in one fraction. In the case of intracranial tumors, classical methods of patient positioning in the irradiation machine coordinate system are invasive and only allow for CRT in one irradiation session. This contribution presents a noninvasive positioning method representing a first step towards the combination of CRT and FRT. The 3D data used for the positioning is point clouds spread over the patient's head (CT-data usually acquired during treatment) and points distributed over the patient's face which are acquired with a structured light sensor fixed in the therapy room. The geometrical transformation linking the coordinate systems of the diagnosis device (CT-modality) and the 3D sensor of the therapy room (visible light modality) is obtained by registering the surfaces represented by the two 3D point sets. The geometrical relationship between the coordinate systems of the 3D sensor and the irradiation machine is given by a calibration of the sensor position in the therapy room. The global transformation, computed with the two previous transformations, is sufficient to predict the tumor position in the irradiation machine coordinate system with only the corresponding position in the CT-coordinate system. Results obtained for a phantom show that the mean positioning error of tumors on the treatment machine isocentre is 0.4 mm. Tests performed with human data proved that the registration algorithm is accurate (0.1 mm mean distance between homologous points) and robust even for facial expression changes. PMID:18364992

  2. Mechanical-property changes of polymeric and composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Morena, J. [Ace Inc., Stuart, FL (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The mechanical properties of polymeric and composite materials are known to be sensitive to ionizing radiation. Most of the existing data, however, is the result of near-room-temperature irradiations, most commonly with {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation. For use of these materials in applications such as for magnetic fusion magnets, where operation will be at cryogenic temperatures in sometimes severe radiation fields, knowledge of the materials` radiation response to low-temperature irradiations is required. This paper reports the results of mechanical-property-change measurements made at 4.2K on a number of potential magnet materials following 200-MeV-proton irradiation at temperatures below 20K. Standard three-point bend tests were performed at 4.2K for short-beam shear determinations in the laminate materials and for shear strength in the remainder of the specimens. Specimens were warmed to room temperature for one week prior to the mechanical testing in order to emulate the expected the expected mechanical state of the material assuming room-temperature cycling in the expected magnet applications. Data are presented in the form of yield stresses before and after irradiations with percentages of change. There were five specimens per test dose for each material. Data are presented for exposures ranging from nominally 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} rad. Results of the mechanical tests range from complete delamination and distortion of the specimens at 10{sup 9} rad to an increase in the yield stress of 63% after 10{sup 9} rad. The latter specimen did, however, evidence significant embrittlement. The phenomenon of irradiation-induced strengthening due to enhanced cross linking in undercured polymers was observed in some cases.

  3. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  4. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  5. Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Hendrich, WILLIAM R [ORNL; Packan, Nicolas H [ORNL

    2007-03-01

    A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  8. High-fluence hyperthermal ion irradiation of gallium nitride surfaces at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finzel, A.; Gerlach, J.W., E-mail: juergen.gerlach@iom-leipzig.de; Lorbeer, J.; Frost, F.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Irradiation of gallium nitride films with hyperthermal nitrogen ions. • Surface roughening at elevated sample temperatures was observed. • No thermal decomposition of gallium nitride films during irradiation. • Asymmetric surface diffusion processes cause local roughening. - Abstract: Wurtzitic GaN films deposited on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates by ion-beam assisted molecular-beam epitaxy were irradiated with hyperthermal nitrogen ions with different fluences at different substrate temperatures. In situ observations with reflection high energy electron diffraction showed that during the irradiation process the surface structure of the GaN films changed from two dimensional to three dimensional at elevated temperatures, but not at room temperature. Atomic force microscopy revealed an enhancement of nanometric holes and canyons upon the ion irradiation at higher temperatures. The roughness of the irradiated and heated GaN films was clearly increased by the ion irradiation in accordance with x-ray reflectivity measurements. A sole thermal decomposition of the films at the chosen temperatures could be excluded. The results are discussed taking into account temperature dependent sputtering and surface uphill adatom diffusion as a function of temperature.

  9. Effect of γ-irradiation in the keeping quality of Nigerian onion cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaji, A. S.; Ogbadu, G. H.; Van Amstel, H.

    Onion of variety Ds × Ws'78 and Ds'79 harvested 14 days prior to the experiment were treated with 5, 8 and 15 krad doses of γ-irradiation from a 60Co γ-irradiator. Bulbs were stored in a well ventilated room at ambient temperature (20-25°C) and RH 20-82% in vegetable mesh bags on wooden shelves for 7 months. Onions were weekly investigated for sprouting and rotting. Chemical analyses were carried out monthly for dry matter, flavour, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein. In comparison, a local method of storage was carried out. Irradiation dose of 5-15 krad completely inhibited sprouting throughout the whole storage period. Irradiated bulbs however, showed a higher tendency to rot. In comparison with the control, irradiation did not have any significant effect on dry matter, flavour component and ascorbic acid but the protein content was significantly lower in the irradiated bulbs. The compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional or organoleptic significance. Almost 100% loss was recorded for local storage trial.

  10. Elaboration and behavior under extreme irradiation conditions of nano- and micro-structured TiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavarini, S. [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, IPNL, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Technologique des Microstructures (CTmu), 5 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Millard-Pinard, N. [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, IPNL, F-69622 Lyon (France); Garnier, V. [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gherrab, M. [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, IPNL, F-69622 Lyon (France); INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Baillet, J.; Dernoncourt, L.; Peaucelle, C. [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, IPNL, F-69622 Lyon (France); Jaurand, X. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Technologique des Microstructures (CTmu), 5 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Douillard, T. [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-08-01

    Titanium carbide samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering. Three different microstructures were prepared with average grain sizes of about 0.3, 1.3 and 25.0 μm. Each microstructure was irradiated with either 500 keV {sup 40}Ar{sup +} ions or 800 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup ++} ions. The irradiation fluence varied from 6 × 10{sup 16} to 3.2 × 10{sup 17} at.cm{sup −2}. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature (RT) or at 1000 °C. Post-irradiation annealing was performed on some samples to follow the surface modification. In fact, clusters and nanocracks were observed at depth in the nanometric grains (<100 nm) whereas more extended cracks were found in larger grains (>1 μm). Microcracks can induce localized surface blistering after irradiation at RT and for the highest fluencies. The size, shape and density of the blisters were proposed to depend on the crystallographic orientation of each grain. The microstructure with sub-micrometric grains exhibited increased surface roughness after irradiation, with grain removal and grain boundary abrasion but no blistering. Surface blistering is not observed after irradiation at 1000 °C but the complete delamination of extended areas containing large grains occurs. In this article, we highlight the role played by gastight grain boundaries and porosity to explain the distinct behavior of microstructures.

  11. ESR detection of free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits and dried foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos G, E. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, V.; Garcia, F. [IQUNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to measure the stability of free radicals produced by the irradiation treatment in mangoes and in four spices: black pepper, oregano, 'guajillo' chili and 'morron' chili. The ESR spectra for mangoes were scanned in three different parts from the seeds and were recorded in fresh and dried tissues. The ESR spectra in fresh tissue of no irradiated mangoes, were a sextet line signal produced by Mn{sup 2+} ion and a singlet centered at g = 2.00 produced by the endogenous radical. New resonances were observed in the irradiated samples at 1.5 mT and 3 mT respects to the center line for right and left side. These new resonance signals were-observed for eight days in mangoes treated at 1.00 kGy, and for three days at 0.15 kGy. The resonance due to the irradiation was observed in Iyophilized mangoes only one day after the treatment, in the vacuum dried samples, no new resonances were observed. The triplet signal, as well as the central single line appeared after irradiation in black pepper, morron chili and guajillo chili. These signals were also observed in the irradiated spices at any radiation dose higher than 1.0 kGy. The signals decrease promptly, in ten days after the 'irradiation. It was not possible to observe the triplet signal in oregano, even when the samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation treatment. The only signal observed in irradiated spice was the endogenous radical. This signal increased as the radiation dose increased and decreased during storage time at room temperature. Results showed that free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits or dried foods have a quick recombination. It was observed that in the spices the signal remains for several weeks meanwhile only eight days in mangoes. (Author)

  12. A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, S.; Johnson, B. C.; Ivády, V.; Stavrias, N.; Umeda, T.; Gali, A.; Ohshima, T.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past few years, single-photon generation has been realized in numerous systems: single molecules, quantum dots, diamond colour centres and others. The generation and detection of single photons play a central role in the experimental foundation of quantum mechanics and measurement theory. An efficient and high-quality single-photon source is needed to implement quantum key distribution, quantum repeaters and photonic quantum information processing. Here we report the identification and formation of ultrabright, room-temperature, photostable single-photon sources in a device-friendly material, silicon carbide (SiC). The source is composed of an intrinsic defect, known as the carbon antisite-vacancy pair, created by carefully optimized electron irradiation and annealing of ultrapure SiC. An extreme brightness (2×106 counts s-1) resulting from polarization rules and a high quantum efficiency is obtained in the bulk without resorting to the use of a cavity or plasmonic structure. This may benefit future integrated quantum photonic devices.

  13. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    CERN Document Server

    Rougier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.

  14. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  15. Irradiation embrittlement of neutron-irradiated ferritic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Ohta, S.; Morozumi, S.

    1985-08-01

    In this study three kinds of Fe-Cr ferritic steels were examined by the instrumented Charpy test and tensile test before and after JMTR irradiation ( 2.2×10 23 f.n./m 2). In the unirradiated samples, 100%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel showed the highest adsorbed energy and the highest toughness at low temperatures, follewed by the 9Cr-2Mo steel, and the 20%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel showed the third highest toughness. In the irradiated samples, however, thoughness was low as a whole, especially in 20%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel. It was clarified that 100%-martensite 5Cr-2Mo steel had the lowest Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) and the highest fracture toughness, and that its DBTT and fracture toughness changed a little upon irradiation, showing excellent irradiation characteristics. The general equations were considered for correlation among strength, ductillity, DBTT and fracture toughness ( J value)

  16. Deuterium retention in W and W-Re alloy irradiated with high energy Fe and W ions: Effects of irradiation temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hatano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutron irradiation to W induces defects acting as traps against hydrogen isotopes and transmutation elements such as Re and Os. To investigate synergetic effects on radiation-induced defects and Re, deuterium (D retention in W and W–5% Re samples were examined after irradiation with 6.4MeV Fe ions at 523–1273K followed by exposure to D2 gas at 673K. The value of D retention in W–5% Re was lower than that in W by orders of magnitude after the irradiation at high temperatures (≥1073K, while no significant effects of Re addition was observed after irradiation at 523K. Irradiation with 20MeV W ions at room temperature followed by exposure to D plasma at 443–743K also resulted in small difference in D retention between W and W–5% Re samples. The results of positron lifetime measurements showed that the reduced D retention by Re observed after high temperature irradiation was due to suppression of formation of vacancy-type defects (monovacancies and vacancy clusters by Re.

  17. Climatic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    According to Cleo Paskal climatic changes are environmental changes. They are global, but their impact is local, and manifests them selves in the landscape, in our cities, in open urban spaces, and in everyday life. The landscape and open public spaces will in many cases be the sites where...... be addressed in order to develop and support social sustainability and identification. This paper explore and discuss how the handling of climatic changes in landscape and open urban spaces might hold a potential for them to become common goods....... spaces. From Henri LeFebvre’s thinking we learn that the production of space is a feed back loop, where the space is constructed when we attach meaning to it, and when the space offers meaning to us. Spatial identity is thus not the same as identifying with space. Without indentifying with space, space...

  18. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  19. 13 CFR 102.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading rooms. 102.2... Disclosure of Information § 102.2 Public reading rooms. (a) SBA maintains a public reading room in the... described in paragraph (a) of this section are available in the SBA Online Reading Room at...

  20. 22 CFR 303.5 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public reading room. 303.5 Section 303.5 Foreign... Public reading room. (a) The Peace Corps will maintain a public reading room at its headquarters at 1111... records will be made available in the public reading room: (1) All final public opinions,...

  1. 19 CFR 103.1 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading rooms. 103.1 Section 103.1 Customs... reading rooms. Each office listed below will maintain a public reading room or public reading area where... Angeles Street, Los Angeles, California 90012. The reading rooms are open to the public during...

  2. 18 CFR 1301.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading rooms... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.2 Public reading rooms. TVA maintains a public electronic reading room through its Web site at http://www.tva.gov. This electronic reading room contains the records that...

  3. 45 CFR 612.2 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public reading room. 612.2 Section 612.2 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.2 Public reading room. (a) The Foundation maintains a public reading room... reading room records. (b) Information about FOIA and Privacy at NSF and copies of frequently...

  4. The radiation dose dilemma in the hybrid operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, QMB

    2016-01-01

    The of the hybrid Operation room (an operation room combined with advanced radiological X-ray equipment) is gaining popularity, as it is now the preferred room to perform (complex) endovascular aortic procedures. The fixed C-arms equipped in these rooms make it possible to gain very high image

  5. The radiation dose dilemma in the hybrid operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, QMB

    2016-01-01

    The of the hybrid Operation room (an operation room combined with advanced radiological X-ray equipment) is gaining popularity, as it is now the preferred room to perform (complex) endovascular aortic procedures. The fixed C-arms equipped in these rooms make it possible to gain very high image quali

  6. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting. The co...

  7. The satellite total solar irradiance database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    A precise knowledge of the total solar irradiance (TSI) over time is essential to understanding the physics of solar luminosity variation and its impact on the Earth in the form of climate change. A National Research Council study found that sustained trends as small as 0.25% per century were the most likely forcing for ‘little ice age’ climate minima during the 12th - 19th centuries. Recent phenomenological analyses of TSI observations and proxies indicate that TSI variation is an important climate change forcing on many timescales including the industrial era. The profound sociological and economic implications of understanding the relative climate change contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcings makes it essential that the satellite TSI database be precisely sustained into the foreseeable future. There are currently three satellite TSI monitoring experiments in operation: SOHO/VIRGO, ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 and SORCE/TIM, in order of deployment (1996, 2000 and 2003, resp.). Results reported on their ‘native scales show the same basic variations in TSI over time, yet some smaller variations detected by ACRIM3 are less well defined or absent in the results of VIRGO and TIM. There is also a scale difference issue: TIM results are 0.35% lower than those of ACRIM3 and VIRGO, outside the ± 0.1% uncertainty bounds predicted for ACRIM3 and VIRGO, and well outside TIM’s ± 0.01% uncertainty design goal. TIM’s failure to achieve 0.01% uncertainty in flight demonstrates that the TSI monitoring paradigm shift of relying on measurement accuracy rather than a redundant/overlap strategy to provide long term traceability cannot be realized with current ‘ambient temperature’ technology. The only viable monitoring approach for the foreseeable future continues to be the redundant/overlap strategy that has provided the 31 year satellite TSI database to date with useful traceability. Intercomparisons of flight experiments at their levels of mutual precision can

  8. Positron annihilation study of the hardening behavior in Al-Cu based alloy by electron and heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Fuminobu; Kobayashi, Ippei; Iwase, Akihiro [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saito, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Norito; Oshima, Takeshi, E-mail: horif@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.j [JAEA Tokai, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-04-01

    Al-Cu based alloy, which is generally called duralumin (JIS2017), was irradiated with 10 MeV Iodine ions, 200 MeV Xenon ions and 3 MeV electrons at room temperature respectively. The micro Vicker's hardness and positron annihilation coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements have been performed before and after irradiation. Only in the case of ion irradiation, the Vicker's hardness increases with increasing ion dose. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the profile CDB spectrum for before and after irradiation. On the other hand, we found that the micro hardness of this alloy, which was Xe ion irradiated and subsequently annealed at 423 K, is greater than that of age hardened alloy without irradiation. CDB ratio curve of the age hardened Duralumin is clearly different in the electron momentum range around 0.015-0.025 mc from that of the ion irradiated alloy. The results of three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) also show that a lot of small clusters were found after ion irradiation but large precipitations have found in annealed Duralumin. These results reveal that a number of small clusters formed in this alloy after ion irradiation, and they should strongly affects the micro hardness.

  9. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luitel, Homnath [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sarkar, A. [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chakrabarti, Mahuya [Department of Physics, Acharya Prafulla Chandra College, New Barrackpore, Kolkata 700131 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad College, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sanyal, D., E-mail: dirtha@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO{sub 2} polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO{sub 2} sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (V{sub Ti}, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO{sub 2} samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO{sub 2} magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  10. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani [Department of studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore (India); Department of Physics, APS College, Bengaluru (India); Department of Physics, DCE, Govt. First Grade College, Mangalore (India); Department of studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore (India); Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru (India)

    2012-06-05

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  11. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani

    2012-06-01

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O7+ ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O7+ ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  12. Effectiveness of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the microbiological population of three types of paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, S.L.; Gimenez, J.L.; Sanchez, F.M.; Romojaro, F.

    The effectiveness of ethylene oxide and the gamma irradiation sterilizing treatments on the microbiological population was studied in three types of Spanish paprika, stored in a cold chamber (4/sup 0/C) and at room temperature (16-38.8/sup 0/C) over an experimental period of 285 days. The controlled microorganisms were: mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, sulfite reducing anaerobes, yeasts, molds, and Salmonella. The presence of aflatoxins was also studied. The results showed that both sterilizing treatments reduced the microbiological population to below the permissible levels recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food. Nevertheless, it was interesting that the gamma irradiation treatment was more effective.

  13. Determination of dosimetric and kinetic features of gamma irradiated solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate using ESR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate were studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiated samples were found to present two specific ESR lines with shoulder at low and high magnetic field sides. Structural and kinetic features of the radicalic species responsible for experimental ESR spectrum were explored through the variations of the signal intensities with applied microwave power, variable temperature, high-temperature annealing and room temperature storage time studies. Dosimetric potential of the sample was also determined using spectrum area and measured signal intensity measurements. It was concluded that three radicals with different spectroscopic and kinetic features were produced upon gamma irradiation.

  14. Influence of UV irradiation on the blue and red light photoinduced processes in azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.; Villacampa, B.

    2004-01-01

    light that yields the films into the isotropic state at room temperature (RT) was compared with the quenching from temperatures above the isotropic transition temperature Ti. UV–visible spectra of the thermally quenched films show the presence of aggregates when measured at RT. We have found that UV......Birefringence induced in a series of liquid crystalline side-chain azobenzene polyesters with different substituent groups was investigated under irradiation with 488 and 633 nm linearly polarized lights. Two different initial conditions have been used: the effect of a previous irradiation with UV...

  15. Structural and thermal properties of γ – irradiated Bombyx mori silk fibroin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Shivananda, C. S.; Harish, K. V.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574199 (India); Sarojini, B. K. [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574199 (India); Somashekar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore - 570006 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The gamma radiation-induced change in structural and thermal properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films were investigated and have been correlated with the applied radiation doses. Irradiation of samples were carried out in dry air at room temperature using Co-60 source, and radiation doses are in the range of 0 - 300 kGy. Structural and thermal properties of the irradiated silk films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and compared with unirradiated sample. Interesting results are discussed in this report.

  16. -Irradiation effect on the acoustical properties of zinc lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G.; Singh, K.; Manupriya; Klare, H. S.; Rajendran, V.; Gayathri Devi, A. V.; Narang, S. B.

    2005-11-01

    The effect of -irradiation on the acoustical properties of xZnO.2xPbO.(1-3x)B2O3 glasses has been studied. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements have been made before and after -irradiation at room temperature in the frequency range 2.25-10 MHz. From the measured density and ultrasonic velocity data, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and other parameters have been obtained. Changes in the acoustical properties are explained in terms of radiation-induced structural defects and the influence of PbO/ZnO in the glass network structure.

  17. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  18. FTIR study of silicon carbide amorphization by heavy ion irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Pluchery, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    We have measured at room temperature (RT) the Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) absorption spectra of ion-irradiated thin epitaxial films of cubic silicon carbide (3C–SiC) with 1.1 µm thickness on a 500 µm thick (1 0 0) silicon wafer substrate. Irradiations were carried out at RT with 2.3 MeV 28Si+ ions and 3.0 MeV 84Kr+ ions for various fluences in order to induce amorphization of the SiC film. Ion projected ranges were adjusted to be slightly larger than the film thickness so that the whole SiC layers were homogeneously damaged. FTIR spectra of virgin and irradiated samples were recorded for various incidence angles from normal incidence to Brewster’s angle. We show that the amorphization process in ion-irradiated 3C–SiC films can be monitored non-destructively by FTIR absorption spectroscopy without any major interference of the substrate. The compared evolutions of TO and LO peaks upon ion irradiation yield valuable information on the damage process. Complementary test experiments were also performed on virgin silicon nitride (Si3N4) self-standing films for similar conditions. Asymmetrical shapes were found for TO peaks of SiC, whereas Gaussian profiles are found for LO peaks. Skewed Gaussian profiles, with a standard deviation depending on wave number, were used to fit asymmetrical peaks for both materials. A new methodology for following the amorphization process is proposed on the basis of the evolution of fitted IR absorption peak parameters with ion fluence. Results are discussed with respect to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling and Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  19. Electron Spin Resonance of Single Crystals of Cystine Dihydrochloride Irradiated with Monochromatic UV Radiation at Various Wavelenghts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, E.; Nielsen, S. O.

    1972-01-01

    Single crystals of cystine dihydrochloride were irradiated at room temperature with monochromatic uv radiation. The optical bandwidth was about 20 Å for each wavelength used. Essentially two ESR centers were observed, the relative yield being approximately 1. One center is identified as the RS...

  20. The operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Min, Duk Ki; Lee, Young Kil [and others] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The operation of post-irradiation examination facility was performed as follow. HVAC and pool water treatment system were continuously operated, and radiation monitoring in PIE facility has been carried out to maintain the facility safely. Inspection of the fuel assembly (F02) transported from Kori Unit 1 was performed in pool, and fuel rods extracted from the fuel assembly (J44) of Kori Unit 2 NPP were examined in hot cell. A part of deteriorated pipe line of drinking water was exchanged for stainless steel pipe to prevent leaking accidents. Halon gas system was also installed in the exhausting blower room for fire fighting. And IAEA inspection camera for safeguard of nuclear materials was fixed at the wall in pool area. Radiation monitoring system were improved to display the area radioactive value at CRT monitor in health physics control room. And automatic check system for battery and emergency diesel generator was developed to measure the voltage and current of them. The performance test of oxide thickness measuring device installed in hot cell for irradiated fuel rod and improvement of the device were performed, and good measuring results using standard sample were obtained. The safeguard inspection of nuclear materials and operation inspection of the facility were carried out through the annual operation inspection, quarterly IAEA inspection and quality assurance auditing. 26 tabs., 43 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new.

  1. Oxide dispersion strengthened steel irradiation with helium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchon, M.A. [Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, OHLA/131, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: manuel.pouchon@psi.ch; Chen, J. [Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, OHLA/131, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Doebeli, M. [Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, OHLA/131, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hoffelner, W. [Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, OHLA/131, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-06-30

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are investigated as possible structural material for the future generation of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors. ODS-steels are considered to replace other high temperature materials for tubing or structural parts. The oxide particles serve for interfacial pinning of moving dislocations. Therefore, the creep resistance is improved. In case of the usage of these materials in reactors, the behavior under irradiation must be further clarified. In this paper the effects induced by {sup 4}He{sup 2+} implantation into a ferritic ODS steel are investigated. The fluence ranges from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and the energy from 1 to 2 MeV. The induced swelling is investigated for implantations at room temperature and 470 K. It is derived from the irradiation induced surface displacement, which is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). With a displacement damage of 0.6 dpa, a volume increase of 0.65% is observed at room temperature and 0.33% at 470 K. A cross-sectional cut is performed by focused ion beam and investigated by transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The defect density observed on the TEM micrographs agrees well with the computational simulation (TRIM) of the damage profile.

  2. Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shigeki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. One of the temperature profiles was that the specimens experienced neutron irradiation in both reactors, under which the irradiation temperature transiently increased to 290 °C from room temperature with increasing reactor power during reactor startup periods. Another was that the specimens were pre-heated to about 150 °C prior to the irradiation to suppress the transient temperature increase. Tensile tests at 290 °C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Difference of the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. Although influence of neutron irradiation involving transient temperature increase to 290 °C from room temperature on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness is buried in the trend curves of existing data, the influence was also found certainly in increment of in yield strength, existence of modest yield drop, and loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, seemed to have important implications regarding the interpretation of not irradiation hardening, but deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

  3. Impact of furnishing on room airflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lone Hedegaard, Mortensen; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    temperatures in the winter season may lead to condensation or high relative humidity on the internal side of the building envelope. Therefore it was important to investigate the influence of furniture on the airflow patterns in rooms and on the local airflow behind the furniture. The current paper presents...

  4. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  5. Room acoustic properties of concert halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1996-01-01

    A large database of values of various room acoustic parameters has provided the basis for statistical analyses of how and how much the acoustic properties of concert halls are influenced by their size, shape, and absorption area (as deduced from measured reverberation time). The data have been...

  6. [Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in the delivery room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, W D; Morgenstern, D; Friedrich, I

    1983-01-01

    In case of tachycardia the whole clinical picture should be taken into consideration. After exclusion of other kinds of shock also in the delivery room it should be thought of the rare cardiogenic shock caused by paroxismal supraventricular tachycardia. Stimulation of nervus vagus and/or drugs have good success.

  7. Initial Pediatric Assessment in the Emergency Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cázares-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    In this phase, examining room and laboratory studies are not decisive components. General, or specific, treatment focuses on restoring bodily and physiological homeostasis, in other words to prevent evolution to respiratory failure, shock, or cardiopulmonary insufficiency. It is not the time to make a specific diagnosis.

  8. Video Conferencing for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Fosgerau, A.; Hansen, Peter Søren K.;

    2002-01-01

    A PC-based video conferencing system for a virtual seminar room is presented. The platform is enhanced with DSPs for audio and video coding and processing. A microphone array is used to facilitate audio based speaker tracking, which is used for adaptive beam-forming and automatic camera...

  9. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  10. The Art of Graffiti and Room 161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forseth, Sonia

    1972-01-01

    Covering the walls of the art room with white paper and sealing off all the open edges with masking tape, students proceeded to do their thing'' by using tempera, oil crayons and India ink to create an environment that was completely their own. (Author/CB)

  11. Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....

  12. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, X; Fina, I; Frontera, C; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P; He, Q; Paull, R J; Clarkson, J D; Kudrnovský, J; Turek, I; Kuneš, J; Yi, D; Chu, J-H; Nelson, C T; You, L; Arenholz, E; Salahuddin, S; Fontcuberta, J; Jungwirth, T; Ramesh, R

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  13. Emergency room coverage: an evolving crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Historically, a newly graduated plastic surgeon in the United States could build a practice from his or her emergency room coverage. The historical cliche was for the surgeon to be affable, able, and available, and from that basis one's practice would grow. Emergency room exposure was an avenue for starting a practice, developing recognition, and, after that, building a referral pattern. Recently, the cross-shifting influence of management care, rising malpractice insurance costs, and risk ratio are changing this cliche to a crisis. An evaluation of a 2 1/2-year exposure to emergency room coverage has revealed a completely different profile. A total of 300 patient visits resulting in 69 surgical operations were evaluated for insurance and remuneration history. The findings indicated a significant remuneration dilemma for emergency room coverage. Interestingly, a remuneration problem exists in a market different from what one would expect. In this study, a sample from a suburban hospital, rather than an inner-city university hospital, is the greater problem.

  14. Irradiation of food - the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, V. (International Food Research Association, Leatherhead (UK))

    1985-06-01

    The author outlines the history of the process for the interest of the baking industry, and discusses the difficulties concerning public relations in this field, before the introduction of irradiation to the British food industry.

  15. Sanitary safety of irradiated foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A.

    Consideration on the acceptability of the irradiation of food, especially from the toxicological point of view, is presented. The conditions of the potencial permission of the preservation of food by radiation in CSSR are briefly given.

  16. Climate - Options for broadening climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts JCJH; Asselt H van; Bakker SJA; Bayangos V; Beers C van; Berk MM; Biermann F; Bouwer LM; Bree L van; Coninck HC de; Dorland K; Elzen ME den; Gupta J; Heemst J van; Jansen JC; Kok MTJ; Nabuurs GJ; Veraert J; Verhagen A; Kok MTJ; Coninck HC de; ECN; KMD

    2005-01-01

    In this study ways are explored to increase the policy coherence between the climate regime and a selected number of climate relevant policy areas, by adding a non-climate policy track to national and international climate strategies. The report assesses first the potential, synergies and trade-offs

  17. Progress in food irradiation: Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegeman, H.

    1982-11-01

    The Dutch contribution gives an accurate description of the gamma radio preservation facility where a great variety of types of fruit, vegetables, meat and spices were treated with radiosensitivity of bacteria and fungi as well as spores being tested. Wholesomeness studies were limited to feeding tests on pigs and mutagenity tests on Salmonella typhimurium. 12 products were given as authorized for irradiation stating irradiation effect, radiation dose and shelf-life duration.

  18. Controllability of room air temperature. Huonelaempoetilan saeaetoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, P.; Katajisto, K.; Karjalainen, S.; Lassila, K. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). LVI-tekniikan Laboratorio)

    1991-01-15

    At first, the control loop of room air temperature was studied as a unit process to find out the characteristic controllability factors of the process as well as possible. Step-response tests were made to the process. Furthermore, the choice of the control law, the adjustment of the controller parameters and the applicability of the controller parameters were analyzed. The results are based mainly on the simulation studies of the office building using the TRNSYS, HVACSIM{sup +} and PIPNET simulation programs. When making a step-change, e.g. to inlet air temperature, it takes a long time before the room air temperature achieves its final steady state. In addition, the gain of the process is slow. The time constant of the process is 30 min - 100 min. The steady state in terms of controllability is achieved in approximately four hours. The control difficulty of the process is significant below 0,1 independently of a heating or air conditioning system of the room space. The centralized and the distributed control of the room air temperature was studied as well. When the loads in different spaces differed greatly from one another, temperature conditions could not be controlled using centralized control. In that case the distributed temperature control based on room or zone space should be used. The integrated control of the air conditioning and heating systems proved to be quite difficult on the basis of the simulation studies especially when external loads vary a lot. The measurements made in a building in prevailing conditions did not support the integrated control of the air conditioning and heating systems. However, the heating system was under-dimensioned compared to the air conditioning system.

  19. Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to weeks, changing photospheric magnetic activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle shows variations of comparable magnitude with irradiances peaking near solar maximum. Secular variations are more difficult to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Historical reconstructions of the Sun's irradiance based on indicators of solar-surface magnetic activity, such as sunspots, faculae, and cosmogenic isotope records, suggest solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitudes of these variations have high uncertainties due to the indirect historical records on which they rely. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities. In this manuscript I summarize the Sun's variability magnitudes over different temporal regimes and discuss the irradiance record's relevance for solar and climate studies as well as for detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  20. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)