WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate policy options

  1. Climate - Options for broadening climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts JCJH; Asselt H van; Bakker SJA; Bayangos V; Beers C van; Berk MM; Biermann F; Bouwer LM; Bree L van; Coninck HC de; Dorland K; Elzen ME den; Gupta J; Heemst J van; Jansen JC; Kok MTJ; Nabuurs GJ; Veraert J; Verhagen A; Kok MTJ; Coninck HC de; ECN; KMD

    2005-01-01

    In this study ways are explored to increase the policy coherence between the climate regime and a selected number of climate relevant policy areas, by adding a non-climate policy track to national and international climate strategies. The report assesses first the potential, synergies and trade-offs

  2. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  3. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is gai

  4. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Drylands. Climate variability, livelihood strategies and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Dietz, A.J. [Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies AGIDS, University of Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    The findings of the Impact of Climate Change on Drylands (ICCD) project were discussed during a workshop held on 26 and 27 April 2001. The aims of the workshop were to disseminate the findings of the ICCD project, create awareness of the possible effects of climate change and contribute to the dialogue on climate change research in West Africa. Both the workshop and the project were financed by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP), Centre Technique de Cooperation de Agricole et Rurale (CTA), Wageningen University (INREF), and Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies (AGIDS)

  6. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  7. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  8. Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices, and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island.

  9. Climate Change Scientific Assessment and Policy Analysis. Integrating agriculture, forestry and other land use in future climate regimes. Methodological issues and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trines, E. [Treeness Consult, Austerlitz (Netherlands); Hoehne, N.; Jung, M. [Ecofys, Koeln (Netherlands); Skutsch, M. [KuSiNi Foundation, Enschede (Netherlands); Petsonk, A.; Silva-Chavez, G. [Environmental Defense, Washington DC (United States); Smith, P. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Nabuurs, G.J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Verweij, P. [Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)

    2006-10-15

    The current agreement under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol takes a fragmented approach to emissions and removals from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU): not all activities, not all gases and not all lands are included. Also, net removals can be used to offset emissions from other sectors as the sector 'Land-Use Change and Forestry' (LUCF) is not an integral part of the 'quantified emission limitations or reduction commitments' or targets to which Parties included in Annex I to the UNFCCC have committed themselves. The emissions in the AFOLU sector are significant and are predominantly located in non-Annex I countries. Having a large amount of emissions means there is also a significant mitigation potential in those countries. On the other side of the equation, if nations want to keep the option open to achieve the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC within a reasonable timeframe, the cut in emissions required under a possible post 2012 climate change mitigation regime needs to be significantly deeper compared to what has been agreed for the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol. Adding up these two aspects means that AFOLU needs to be brought into the equation. This could only ever be acceptable to non-Annex I Parties if this would not hinder their development but would rather propel it. Therefore, it should not lead to commitments for non-Annex I countries but be a tempting opportunity to improve national circumstances and to access (economic) benefits that result from an engagement in such an agreement. This report presents five policy options that can be employed by non-Annex I Parties on a voluntary basis, at a moment of their choice, that will lead to a broader and deeper participation under a possible post 2012 climate regime without hindering but rather promoting their development, whilst at the same time enabling Annex I parties to take on commitments that lead to deeper cuts in emissions.

  10. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miola, A., E-mail: apollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Marra, M., E-mail: Marleenmarra@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ciuffo, B., E-mail: biagio.ciuffo@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: > Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. > How to combine ambitious CO{sub 2} reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. > Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. > Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  11. FAIR 1.0 (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments): An interactive model to explore options for differentiation of future commitments in international climate policy making. User documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen MGJ den; Berk MM; Both S; Faber A; Oostenrijk R; CIM

    2001-01-01

    This report contains the model documentation and user instructions of the FAIR model (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments). FAIR is an interactive - scanner-type - computer model to quantitatively explore a range of alternative climate policy options for inte

  12. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  13. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  14. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    CERN Document Server

    Rougier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.

  15. Policy modes for climate change: the role of tripartite partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper provides an initial overview of the role of tripartite partnerships for climate change in the broader framework of policy options available to address the issue. First, we will position partnerships in relation to other policy modes for climate change, including emissions trading

  16. Natural Climate Variability and Future Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-12-01

    Individual beliefs about climate change and willingness-to-pay for its mitigation are influenced by local weather and climate. Large ensemble climate modeling experiments have demonstrated the large role natural variability plays in local weather and climate on a multidecadal timescale. Here we illustrate how if support for global climate policies and subsequent implementation of those policies are determined by citizens' local experiences, natural variability could influence the timeline for implementation of emissions reduction policies by decades. The response of complex social systems to local and regional changes in weather and climate cannot be quantitatively predicted with confidence. Both the form and timing of the societal response can be affected by interactions between social systems and the physical climate system. Here, to illustrate one type of influence decadal natural variability can have on climate policy, we consider a simple example in which the only question is when, if ever, the different parties will support emissions reduction. To analyze the potential effect that unpredictable extreme events may have on the time to reach a global agreement on climate policy, we analyzed the output from a 40-member Community Climate System Model version 3 simulation ensemble to illustrate how local experiences might affect the timing of acceptance of strong climate policy measures. We assume that a nation's decision to take strong actions to abate emissions is contingent upon the local experiences of its citizens and then examine how the timelines for policy action may be influenced by variability in local weather. To illustrate, we assume that a social 'tipping point' is reached at the national level occurs when half of the population of a nation has experienced a sufficiently extreme event. If climate policies are driven by democratic consensus then variability in weather could result in significantly disparate times-to-action. For the top six CO2 emitters

  17. China's Energy Situation and Relative Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baoxing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Energy isa burning issue of the day in China. This paper analyses the crucial reasons of energy shortage and traditional consumption models in China. Drawing from the experiences of some developed countries, the paper suggests that China should recognize the energy crisis by learning from America's"smart growth project" with the aim of transforming the city planning model,improving the public transportation and launching a "green building" movement in the country. All the policy options in this paper focus on the construction area, just because urbanization is now running at a peak capacity in China. The objective of the paper is to identify the relative policy options and actions in the nearest future.

  18. China's Energy Situation and Relative Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu; Baoxing

    2005-01-01

      Energy isa burning issue of the day in China. This paper analyses the crucial reasons of energy shortage and traditional consumption models in China. Drawing from the experiences of some developed countries, the paper suggests that China should recognize the energy crisis by learning from America's"smart growth project" with the aim of transforming the city planning model,improving the public transportation and launching a "green building" movement in the country. All the policy options in this paper focus on the construction area, just because urbanization is now running at a peak capacity in China. The objective of the paper is to identify the relative policy options and actions in the nearest future.……

  19. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  20. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended.

  1. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  2. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    are closely related with rules about EU competition law, and policy initiatives regarding science and innovation. For these reasons, the policy options put forward are varied in scope and in method, and aim at tackling specific areas of concern. The policy options put forward by the Working Group...... quality aspects in regard to patentability standards and patent grant procedures; Dealing with emerging technologies; Increasing access to patented inventions; Facilitating defensive publications. The Working Group strongly urges careful consideration of these policy options, one by one and as a group...

  3. Methane : its role in climate change and options for control

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reductions between 2010 and 2100. In this thesis 28 major options to control or mitigate methane emissions from different sources were identified. The effectiveness and costs of these options were assessed. This resulted in a ...

  4. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Real options analysis for photovoltaic project under climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Sejong; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2016-08-01

    The decision on photovoltaic project depends on the level of climate environments. Changes in temperature and insolation affect photovoltaic output. It is important for investors to consider future climate conditions for determining investments on photovoltaic projects. We propose a real options-based framework to assess economic feasibility of photovoltaic project under climate change. The framework supports investors to evaluate climate change impact on photovoltaic projects under future climate uncertainty.

  7. Climate risks phenomenology and options to cope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Fraedrich, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst; Block, A. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Humankind, in this cultural and economic settings, is largely adapted to climatic conditions but also permanently threatened by their instabilities. The dangers for the probably affected elements of civilization include a broad range of temporal and spatial impact scales. Most of them can be accessed as climate risks caused by the extremes of the natural climate variability connected with the undisturbed climate or the impacts of the climate currently on the move. (authors)

  8. Emissions trading for climate policy - US and European perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernd Hansjuergens (ed.) [Martin Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The 1997 Kyoto Conference introduced emissions trading as a new policy instrument for climate protection. Bringing together scholars in the fields of economics, political science and law, this book provides a description, analysis and evaluation of different aspects of emissions trading as an instrument to control greenhouse gases. The authors analyse theoretical aspects of regulatory instruments for climate policy, provide an overview of US experience with market-based instruments, draw lessons from existing trading schemes for the control of greenhouse gases, and discuss options for emissions trading in climate policy. They also highlight the background of climate policy and instrument choice in the US and Europe and of the emerging new systems in Europe, particularly the new EU's directive for a CO{sub 2} emissions trading system. 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  10. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  11. Energy policies, liberalization and the framing of climate change policies in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Anilla

    and GEF. The study also demonstrates that key features of the energy policy frame functions as a shared cognitive reference for a select group of national policy actors (comprising both policy makers and policy experts), responsible for formulating climate change policy responses. The study highlights the influential role played by very small set of national policy experts who construct national climate change options on the basis of features of the energy policy frame.

  12. Carbon in soils as an option for climate policy. Carbon stock in Dutch soils and influence options; Koolstof in de bodem als optie voor klimaatbeleid. Voorraad koolstof in Nederlandse bodem en beinvloedingsmogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuikman, P.J.; De Groot, W.J.M.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Verhagen, J.; De Vries, F. [Alterra, Green World Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    Considerations are presented for the choice of options to calculate and monitor stocks of C in all soils and emissions of CO2 from agricultural soils in the Netherlands for the Kyoto 1990 baseline and following years. The objective of the study was to prepare data for a national submission according to the Common Reporting Format for C stocks on specific land uses, land use changes en C fluxes according to article 5.2 in the Kyoto Protocol. In this article we report on the whereabouts of the C stocks in order to be geographically explicit, discuss the uncertainties in the inventory and analyse future inventory options. Modeling approaches (e.g. CESAR) where other parameters, process-oriented (fluxes), uncertainty measure can be added are discussed. [Dutch] Milieukundigen rekenen er sinds het Kyoto-protocol op dat de bodem ook als opsIagplaats van koolstof kan dienen. Veeial gaat men er als vanzelfsprekend van uit dat de opsiag van koolstof in bodems van bossen blijvend is en er onbeperkte voorraden kunnen worden aangelegd. Dat is onterecht. In Nederland is onlangs een eerste berekening gemaakt van de voorraad koolstof.

  13. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Pelkmans, L. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Prieler, S.; Fischer, G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Cueste Cabal, H. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    increase crop prices. Furthermore, land use change both through converting natural land to produce 1st generation biofuels, and by displacing existing agricultural activities to other areas, may drastically impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction of biofuels production and use. However, there are ways to reduce negative impacts. Even though shifting to second generation (2nd generation) biofuels appears to be one of the best solutions in terms of decreasing the pressure on agricultural commodity markets and improving GHG performances of biofuels, a mix of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels will be the likely future. In this respect, strategies to increase agricultural productivity, especially in developing countries where yields presently are low, stands out as one of the most important requirements. Food security and agricultural productivity improvements have been addressed as part of the millennium development goals (MDG's). But policy-driven biofuel production that impacts global agricultural markets should also become part of the policy framework that supports agricultural productivity increase in the world regions that are likely to be impacted most with increased biofuel demand. 2nd generation biofuels can decrease some of the pressure on agriculture commodities if they are produced from residues and crops cultivated on marginal lands. They are in addition expected to provide a substantial contribution to reducing GHG emissions. However, those technologies are still at demonstration stage and bringing them to the market requires policy measures that take into account their risk profiles and create a favourable and stable investment climate. A set of policy options, for instance combinations of high investment subsidies with soft loans, tax exemptions, and favourable crediting in relation to biofuel targets, can help overcome the initial investment barriers and enable larger volumes of 2nd generation biofuel penetration into the market. Lignocellulosic

  14. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  15. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  16. Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers serve as early indicators of climate change. Over the last 35 years, our research team has recovered ice-core records of climatic and environmental variations from the polar regions and from low-latitude high-elevation ice fields from 16 countries. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low…

  17. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  18. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  19. Methane : its role in climate change and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.

    2012-01-01

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reducti

  20. Climate policies under wealth inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Levin, Simon A

    2014-02-11

    Taming the planet's climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one's sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior.

  1. Climate Policy and Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the effects of the EU emissions trading scheme on the aluminium sector (i.e. competitiveness loss and carbon leakage). With its very high electricity intensity, primary aluminium stands out in the heavy industry picture: a sector whose emissions are not capped in the present EU ETS, European aluminium smelters still stand to lose profit margins and, possibly, market shares, as electricity prices increase following CO2 caps on generators' emissions - the famous pass-through of CO2 prices into electricity prices. The analysis includes a method of quantification of this issue, based on two indicators: profit margins and trade flows. As the EU is at the forefront of such policy, the paper provides policy messages to all countries on how trade exposed energy-intensive industries can be 'moved' by carbon constraint. This also is a contentious topic in Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and the US, where ambitious climate policies -- including cap-and-trade systems -- are currently debated.

  2. Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    countries, such as financing a low-emission power plant in China. 7. See Joseph E. Aldy, Peter R. Orszag, and Joseph E. Stiglitz , “Cli- mate Change: An...tives—see Joseph E. Aldy, Peter R. Orszag, and Joseph E. Stiglitz , “Climate Change: An Agenda for Global Collective Action” (paper prepared for the...written by Terry Dinan of CBO’s Microeconomic Studies Division under the guidance of Joseph Kile and David Moore. Robert Dennis, Douglas Hamilton

  3. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  4. Danish Telecommunications: Keeping the Policy Options Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Danish telecommunications policy has gone through a marked change in emphasis, Tele Danmark, formed only 6 years ago as the national operator in order to strengthen the Danish telecom industry, has come under pressure in the present liberalization. This article discusses Tele...... Danmark's situation and future possibilities and presents background information on the new Danish telecommunications legislation, the present Danish telecommunications market, and Tele Danmark's strategies. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  5. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  6. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  7. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  9. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  10. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  11. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  12. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  13. Climate policy uncertainty and investment risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    Our climate is changing. This is certain. Less certain, however, is the timing and magnitude of climate change, and the cost of transition to a low-carbon world. Therefore, many policies and programmes are still at a formative stage, and policy uncertainty is very high. This book identifies how climate change policy uncertainty may affect investment behaviour in the power sector. For power companies, where capital stock is intensive and long-lived, those risks rank among the biggest and can create an incentive to delay investment. Our analysis results show that the risk premiums of climate change uncertainty can add 40% of construction costs of the plant for power investors, and 10% of price surcharges for the electricity end-users. This publication tells what can be done in policy design to reduce these costs. Incorporating the results of quantitative analysis, this publication also shows the sensitivity of different power sector investment decisions to different risks. It compares the effects of climate policy uncertainty with energy market uncertainty, showing the relative importance of these sources of risk for different technologies in different market types. Drawing on extensive consultation with power companies and financial investors, it also assesses the implications for policy makers, allowing the key messages to be transferred into policy designs. This book is a useful tool for governments to improve climate policy mechanisms and create more certainty for power investors.

  14. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  15. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-07-15

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  16. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  17. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  18. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  19. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  20. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  1. Veterans’ Disability Compensation: Trends and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pain, or mental, like depression ; complications that arise from a given disability also may be deemed connected to service. VA reported that, at the...DISABILITY COMPENSATION: TRENDS AND POLICY OPTIONS AUGUST 2014 CBOdisabilities, collectively representing 16 percent of the total, were tinnitus , or ringing... tinnitus (40,000 new cases in 2012). VA currently imposes few time limits on submission or acceptance of veterans’ claims.38 However, for a few 37

  2. Fighting Forest Fires - An Assessment of Policy Options in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Fatah; Udiansyah

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled forest fires are one of the key causes of habitat destruction in Indonesia. The haze they produce causes significant pollution problems for people in the country and in surrounding nations. This study has highlighted the root causes of the fires and assessed a range of potential new policy options to improve the situation. The study finds that the weak enforcement of forest conservation rules and regulations is a key problem and that this is caused by wide range of resource and i...

  3. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  4. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  5. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity.

  6. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    professionals completed in 2006, as well as interviews conducted with industry representatives from 2007 to 2009. By analyzing industry views on policy uncertainty and future carbon legislation, we gain a better understanding of investor attitudes toward carbon risk. This understanding will help policy makers...

  7. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Policy Options for Effective REDD+ Implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Jensen, Moeko; Sikor, Thomas; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... degradation, due to high opportunity costs. REDD+ finance may be more effectively used to reward small-scale dispersed activities that enhance carbon stocks, such as those already happening under Indonesia's community nursery programme. The analysis indicates the necessity for forest tenure reform...

  9. Policy Options for Effective REDD+ Implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Jensen, Moeko; Sikor, Thomas; Kurniawan, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest...

  10. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... degradation, due to high opportunity costs. REDD+ finance may be more effectively used to reward small-scale dispersed activities that enhance carbon stocks, such as those already happening under Indonesia's community nursery programme. The analysis indicates the necessity for forest tenure reform...

  11. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Political motives in climate and energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Dalen, Hanne Marit; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-07-01

    Standard economic theory provides clear guidance on the design of cost-efficient policy in the presence of imperfect markets and externalities. However, observed policies reveal extensive discrepancies between principles and practise. Based on interviews with core politicians from the Norwegian parliament, we investigate causes for the lack of cost efficiency in climate and energy policy. We find that politicians agree with the notion of cost efficiency in principle, but rather than ascribing efficient instruments directed at specific policy goals, they include concerns for industrial and regional development, income distribution and employment in the environmental policy design. Lacking insight in the functioning of economic instruments and perceptions of a non-binding budget constraint also violate the requirements for efficient policy decisions. The findings point to the role of economists and social scientists to communicate the functioning of complex instruments. Improved compensation procedures could help reduce the politicians' incentives to undermine efficiency in order to avoid unwanted distributional effects.(Author)

  13. A Model of Climate Policy Using Board Game Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Castronova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of how a board game can be modified to generate a serious game. We argue that board games are an interesting medium for serious games, especially when the goal is to teach players about particularly complex systems. In that case, the transparency of a board game makes it possible for players to “see the whole boards” – to see all of the various moving parts at work. That transparency also makes it very easy to modify board games. To demonstrate these claims, we present a modification to the board game CO2 that accurately models different policy options with regard to global warming. We show how a few major changes to the original game’s point systems, as well as removal of certain extraneous features, can significantly improve the game, adding an instructional value. The game allows players to experiment with several policy options, including carbon taxes, carbon emissions permit sales, and clean energy research support, and lets players see how these policies interact. We discuss ways that teachers, advocates, journalists, and others can the Climate Policy mod to more easily explain the incredibly complex interactions of power markets, carbon dioxide emissions, and public policy.

  14. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  15. Options Procurement Policy for Option Contracts with Supply and Spot Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier’s reliability is a major issue in procurement management. In this paper, we establish a decision making model from the perspective of the firm who will procure from the multiple suppliers and the spot markets. The suppliers are unreliable and provide different types of option-type supply contracts which should be made before demand realization, while the spot market can only be used after demand realization and has both the price and liquidity risks. We establish the optimal portfolio policies for the firm with conditions to find the qualified suppliers. By defining a new function which contains the demand risk, the supplier’s risk, and the liquidity risk, we find that the optimal policy is to allocate different curves of this function to different suppliers. We also study some special cases to derive some managerial insights. At last, we numerically study how the various risks affect the choice of suppliers and the value of the option contract.

  16. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  17. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean

  18. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Löschel, A.; Reilly, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find the cost-effe

  19. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  20. Monetary Policy and Bond Option Pricing in an Analytical RBC Model

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlind, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how bond option prices are affected by different types of monetary policy. Analytical results from a general equilibrium model with sticky wages show that employment or output targeting typically give lower bond option prices than inflation targeting.

  1. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on the global energy balance and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. Already it reveals some significant errors in existing calculations, and it allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. By 2050, only stratospheric aerosol injections or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state, but some land carbon cycle geoengineering options are of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges". Strong mitigation, i.e. large reductions in CO2 emissions, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition probably has greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean upwelling or downwelling have trivial effects on any

  2. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  3. Surface technologies 2006 - Alternative energies and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Department of Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector. (author)

  4. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  5. Preparing the Way for New Policy Regarding Adaptation of US Electricity Infrastructure to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The following pages represent the status of policy regarding adaptation of the electric grid to climate change and proposed directions for new policy development. While strides are being made to understand the current climate and to predict hazards it may present to human systems, both the science and the policy remain at present in an analytical state. The policy proposed in this document involves first continued computational modeling of outcomes which will produce a portfolio of options to be considered in light of specific region-related risks. It is proposed that the modeling continue not only until reasonable policy at various levels of jurisdiction can be derived from its outcome but also on a continuing basis so that as improvements in the understanding of the state and trajectory of climate science along with advancements in technology arise, they can be incorporated into an appropriate and evolving policy.

  6. Climate change and biological invasions: evidence, expectations, and response options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2016-05-31

    A changing climate may directly or indirectly influence biological invasions by altering the likelihood of introduction or establishment, as well as modifying the geographic range, environmental impacts, economic costs or management of alien species. A comprehensive assessment of empirical and theoretical evidence identified how each of these processes is likely to be shaped by climate change for alien plants, animals and pathogens in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments of Great Britain. The strongest contemporary evidence for the potential role of climate change in the establishment of new alien species is for terrestrial arthropods, as a result of their ectothermic physiology, often high dispersal rate and their strong association with trade as well as commensal relationships with human environments. By contrast, there is little empirical support for higher temperatures increasing the rate of alien plant establishment due to the stronger effects of residence time and propagule pressure. The magnitude of any direct climate effect on the number of new alien species will be small relative to human-assisted introductions driven by socioeconomic factors. Casual alien species (sleepers) whose population persistence is limited by climate are expected to exhibit greater rates of establishment under climate change assuming that propagule pressure remains at least at current levels. Surveillance and management targeting sleeper pests and diseases may be the most cost-effective option to reduce future impacts under climate change. Most established alien species will increase their distribution range in Great Britain over the next century. However, such range increases are very likely be the result of natural expansion of populations that have yet to reach equilibrium with their environment, rather than a direct consequence of climate change. To assess the potential realised range of alien species will require a spatially explicit approach that not only

  7. Air Pollution Policy in Europe: Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Bollen; Corjan Brink

    2012-01-01

    This paper (CPB/PBL) uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU’s air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove...

  8. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  9. Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Forest Vegetation Management in the Northwestern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent vulnerability assessments, conducted in diverse regions in the northwestern United States, indicate that many commonalities exist with respect to projected vulnerabilities to climate change. Dry forests are projected to have significant changes in distribution and abundance of species, partially in response to higher temperature and lower soil moisture, but mostly in response to projected increases in extreme events and disturbances—drought, wildfire, and insect outbreaks. Wildfire and mountain pine beetles have caused extensive mortality across millions of hectares in this region during the past decade, and wildfire area burned is projected to increase 200%–300% by mid-21st century. Science–management partnerships associated with recent assessments have identified an extensive list of adaptation options, including both strategies (general planning and tactics (on-the-ground projects. Most of the options focus on increasing resilience to disturbances and on reducing current stressors to resource conditions. Adaptation options are generally similar across the biogeographically diverse region covered by assessments, suggesting that there may be a limit on the number of feasible responses to climate change. Federal agencies in the northwestern United States are now using these assessments and adaptation approaches to inform sustainable resource management and planning, mostly through fine tuning of existing practices and policies.

  10. Climate policy under sustainable discounted utilitarianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Simon [London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (United Kingdom); Asheim, Geir B. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Economics

    2011-08-15

    Empirical evaluation of policies to mitigate climate change has been largely confined to the application of discounted utilitarianism (DU). DU is controversial, both due to the conditions through which it is justified and due to its consequences for climate policies, where the discounting of future utility gains from present abatement efforts makes it harder for such measures to justify their present costs. In this paper, we propose sustainable discounted utilitarianism (SDU) as an alternative principle for evaluation of climate policy. Unlike undiscounted utilitarianism, which always assigns zero relative weight to present utility, SDU is an axiomatically based criterion, which departs from DU by assigning zero weight to present utility if and only if the present is better off than the future. Using the DICE integrated assessment model to run risk analysis, we show that it is possible for the future to be worse off than the present along a 'business as usual' development path. Consequently SDU and DU differ, and willingness to pay for emissions reductions is (sometimes significantly) higher under SDU than under DU. Under SDU, stringent schedules of emissions reductions increase social welfare, even for a relatively high utility discount rate. (orig.)

  11. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  12. DETERMINANTS OF CHOICE OF CROP VARIETY AS CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION OPTION IN ARID REGIONS OF ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Zivanomoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of climate change in developing countries remain poorly understood because few studies have successfully analyses the overall impact of climate on developing country economies. Agricultural growth is widely viewed as an effective and most important way to reduce poverty in developing countries which are hardly hit by the adverse effects of climate change (Datt and Ravallion, 1996. Despite this knowledge the main challenge is how to increase agricultural productivity to improve household welfare and increase food security in these changing and challenging climatic conditions. This study used the multinomial logit model to analyse the determinants of farmers' choice of crop variety in the face of climate change. The estimation of the multinomial logit was done by using the sorghum variety options as dependent variable and where farmers grow other crop different from sorghum as the reference state. Results show that the key determinants of choosing crop variety are; the price of existing crop variety, level of education of farmers, the size of the farms, government policies and incentives and credit availability.

  13. Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Bruin (Kelly); R.B. Dellink (Rob); A. Ruijs (Arjan); L. Bolwidt; M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); J. Graveland (Jaap); R.S. de Groot; P.J. Kuikman; S. Reinhard; R.P. Roetter (Reimund); V.C. Tassone (Valentina); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); E.C. van Ierland (Ekko)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries around the world impacts of climate change are assessed and adaptation options identified. We describe an approach for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands. The study introduces an inventory and

  14. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    Both the EU and China are among the largest CO2 emitters in the world; their climate actions and policies have profound impacts on global climate change and may influence the activities in other countries. Evidence of climate change has been observed across Europe and China. Despite the many differences between the two regions, the European Commission and Chinese government support climate change actions. The EU has three priority areas in climate change: 1) understanding, monitoring and predicting climate change and its impact; 2) providing tools to analyse the effectiveness, cost and benefits of different policy options for mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts; 3) improving, demonstrating and deploying existing climate friendly technologies and developing the technologies of the future. China is very vulnerable to climate change, because of its vast population, fast economic development, and fragile ecological environment. The priority policies in China are: 1) Carbon Trading Policy; 2) Financing Loan Policy (Special Funds for Renewable Energy Development); 3) Energy Efficiency Labelling Policy; 4) Subsidy Policy. In addition, China has formulated the "Energy Conservation Law", "Renewable Energy Law", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" and "Circular Economy Promotion Law". Under the present EU Framework Programme FP7 there is a large number of funded research activities linked to climate change research. Current climate change research projects concentrate on the carbon cycle, water quality and availability, climate change predictors, predicting future climate and understanding past climates. Climate change-related scientific and technological projects in China are mostly carried out through national scientific and technological research programs. Areas under investigation include projections and impact of global climate change, the future trends of living environment change in China, countermeasures and supporting technologies of global

  15. Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin,, Henk; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Bolwidt, L.; Buuren, van, R.; Graveland, J.; Groot, de, T.C.; Kuikman, P. J.; Reinhard, A.J.; R.P. Rötter; Tassone, V.C.; Verhagen, A.; Ierland, van, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries around the world impacts of climate change are assessed and adaptation options identified. We describe an approach for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands. The study introduces an inventory and ranking of adaptation options based on stakeholder analysis and expert judgement, and presents some estimates of incremental costs and benefits. The qualitative assessment focuses on ranking and pr...

  16. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    A debate has - most notably as a result of the introduction of fixed caps within the framework of emissions trading - been raised about the need for using additional instruments of climate and energy policy. A common line of argument is that the targets set within the emissions trading scheme are going to be met with a high degree of certainty, and flexibility among the regulated stakeholders will lead to market-based discovery processes. Additional instruments would only generate additional costs and would therefore have to be rejected. However, closer analysis of these fundamental arguments shows that they are constructed on a very high level of abstraction and sometimes rely on strongly simplifying or idealising assumptions. Their theoretical assumptions are, at least in part, very questionable and do not correspond to conditions in the real world for climate and energy policy. At the same time the debate about policy instruments cannot be held autonomously of the specific context of the problem at hand. In this sense the very extensive (complete) and above all effective decarbonisation of the economies of industrialised countries in a comparatively short time frame is the key basic condition for the analysis, assessment and design of the climate policy mix. Essentially, the question is what the best instruments are for purging the whole economic system almost entirely of CO{sub 2} emissions within a period of only forty years. The introduction of emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases in an increasing number of OECD countries undoubtedly constitutes an important landmark of climate policy. They: - provide a high degree of certainty in terms of meeting targets; - create, on the basis of a standardised price signal, a clearing mechanism for the broad spectrum of emission reduction options close to the market, at least in the short to medium term; and - represent, by means of linking, an interesting option in terms of the globalisation of climate policy

  18. Conservation policies and planning under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Niels; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies focus on securing the survival of species and habitats according to their current distribution. This basic premise may be inappropriate for halting biodiversity decline under the dynamic changes caused by climate change. This study explores a dynamic spatial...... conservation prioritization problem where climate change gradually changes the future habitat suitability of a site’ current species. This has implications for survival probability, as well as for species that potentially immigrate to the site. The problem is explored using a set of heuristics for both of two...... distributions as the basis of decision rules can be crucial for ensuring the effectiveness of conservation plans. Finally, it is discussed how more adaptive strategies, that allow for the redirection of resources from protected sites to privately-owned sites, may increase the effectiveness of the conservation...

  19. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large...... and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report...

  20. Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy : a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adoption policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Kuindersma, W.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the integration of climate policy in Dutch public policy at the national, regional, local and area level. The national analysis focuses on the horizontal integration of climate policy in national government programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies and specific policy ins

  1. Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Innes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A logical starting point for climate change adaptation in the forest sector is to proactively identify management practices and policies that have a higher likelihood of achieving management objectives across a wide range of potential climate futures. This should be followed by implementation of these options and monitoring their success in achieving management objectives within an adaptive management context. Here, we implement an approach to identify locally appropriate adaptation options by tapping into the experiential knowledge base of local forest practitioners while at the same time, building capacity within this community to implement the results. We engaged 30 forest practitioners who are involved with the implementation of a regional forest management plan in identifying climate change vulnerabilities and evaluating alternative adaptation options. A structured decision-making approach was used to frame the assessment. Practitioners identified 24 adaptation options that they considered important to implement in order to achieve the regional goals and objectives of sustainable forest management in light of climate change.

  2. A comparison of taxes and tradable permits in national climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart J.

    1999-11-01

    This article discusses domestic climate policy design in a country that has made a binding commitment to the Kyoto Protocol but at the same time want to limit the number of industry shutdowns that follows from the policy. It is furthermore considered how public budget constraints might affect climate policies. The similarities between an optionally designed taxation regime and a domestic tradable permit regime that is integrated into the international permit market are brought into focus. The similarities presuppose a greenhouse gas tax that fluctuates in accordance with the international permit price. It is argued that climate policy can generate double dividends but that the allocation of free permits reduces these dividends. It is concluded that some organisations promotion of systems tradable permits with distribution of permits free of charge as an alternative to carbon taxes must be understood from their effect on income distribution. 17 refs

  3. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  4. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an emission inventory and emission scenarios for climate influencing compounds at Svalbard, as a basis to develop strategies for emission reduction measures and policies. Emissions for the years 2000-2007 have been estimated for the Svalbard Zone. This area, covering about 173 000 km{sub 2}, ranges from 10 E to 35 E longitude and 74 N to 81 N latitude (Figure 1). In addition, air and ship transport between Tromsoe at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard has been included. Pollutants considered in our inventory are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} as NO{sub 2}), and for the first time also estimates of black carbon (BC, soot) and organic carbon (OC) have been included. Our results show that emissions of all pollutants have increased over the time span 2000-2007 (Figure 2), and are expected to increase also in the future if additional measures are not implemented (Figure 12). The emissions from Svalbard are minuscule compared to emission released from the Norwegian mainland and waters (1% in the case of CO{sub 2}). Even so, local releases of climate influencing compounds in the vulnerable Arctic may turn out to make a difference both with respect to adverse environmental effects and to climate change. Emissions have been estimated for all activities of any significance taking place at and around Svalbard. Combustion sources as well as fugitive emissions of methane are included. The main sectors are coal mining, energy production and transportation. Pollution from 28 sub sectors related to these activities has been estimated. The scope of this work differs from that covered by national inventories since emission estimates are based on the fuel consumed and include emissions from international shipping and aviation. Fuel consumption data were collected from local authorities, institutions and industry. Emission factors have been selected from relevant

  5. Climate Policy after Doha: Turning Obstacles into Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Radermacher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international climate policy is in big trouble. The governments of the world cannot agree on a reasonable, enforceable cap on global CO2 emissions – not today and not in the future. Concerning a strict enough cap, this issue is politically not handleable today, because this would directly interfere with the options of countries to generate future economic growth. Problems in this respect are politically unfeasible.The present text, therefore, argues for a new approach, for thinking out of the box, for overcoming the traps the negotiations are stuck in at the moment. The idea is to have governments agreeing only on a relaxed instead of a strict cap. This is politically much easier to achieve. In the text, we show that a relaxed cap is sufficient to solve the climate issue, if the private sector can be motivated to do the rest, given that there is an enforceable relaxed cap in place. The private sector can use at least two wild cards to contribute to this aim, and it can do this within the framework of climate neutrality for companies, organizations, and individuals to take legal CO2 certificates out of order on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to plant trees (all over the world for the purpose of biological sequestration and to do this in huge volumes.

  6. Renewable energy technologies and climate change policies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata, R.P. [Winrock International, New Delhi (India); Sinha, C.S. [Tata Energy and Resources Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    2001-07-01

    suggests that in the absence of stringent climate change policies, India is likely to go along the conventional fossil fuel path. The same can be true of many other developing countries. The policies in specific countries, especially developing nations with no binding carbon mitigation commitments, will be crucial for generating initial technology push, before the market will be ready to provide the demand pull in the long run. This paper provides a review of the renewable energy experience in India in terms of positive lessons and identified barriers, It looks at various policy options for India and develops, using macro-modelling tools, scenarios of the likely penetration of RETs under different climate change mitigation policy regimes. (author)

  7. Renewable energy technologies and climate change policies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Ramana P [Winrock International, New Delhi (India); Chandra Shekhar Sinha [Tata Energy and Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    for India suggests that in the absence of stringent climate change policies, India is likely to go along the conventional fossil fuel path. The same can be true of many other developing countries. The policies in specific countries, especially developing nations with no binding carbon mitigation commitments, will be crucial for generating initial technology 'push', before the market will be ready to provide the demand 'pull' in the long run. This paper provides a review of the renewable energy experience in India in terms of positive lessons and identified barriers. It looks at various policy options for India and develops, using macro-modelling tools, scenarios of the likely penetration of RETs under different climate change mitigation policy regimes. (author)

  8. Implementing European climate adaptation policy. How local policymakers react to European policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    EU policy and projects have an increasing influence on policymaking for climate adaptation. This is especially evident in the development of new climate adaptation policies in transnational city networks. Until now, climate adaptation literature has paid little attention to the influence that these

  9. Implementing European climate adaptation policy : How local policymakers react to european policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    EU policy and projects have an increasing influence on policymaking for climate adaptation. This is especially evident in the development of new climate adaptation policies in transnational city networks. Until now, climate adaptation literature has paid little attention to the influence that these

  10. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  11. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri, 27 rue de la Procession, 75740 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Andrews-Speed, Philip [Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen [China Institute of International Studies (China)

    2011-06-15

    's energy sector. Not surprisingly, institutions and practices continue to reflect millennia of Chinese history, which in some measure focused on nurturing the authority of an emperor. Students of China, who have long recognized its 'command and control' economy, are now aware of the limits of those concepts and the consequences of a bureaucratic hierarchy living in a sometimes conflicted condominium with the Communist Party, even as the economy surges on. The second study seeks to answer the questions: What are the economic and strategic drivers of Chinese energy policy? How does China plan to manage its increasing reliance on foreign sources of oil, gas and now coal? How will these drivers shape the guiding principles of Chinese national companies and their relations with international operators and foreign sources of energy resources? How does China define and shape its international diplomacy and practices in order to succeed in its quest to secure access to upstream oil, gas, coal and uranium - just to mention the fuels? The third study explores the Chinese approach to climate change. The Chinese have long been victims of their own internal deserts and know only too well the challenges that the power of nature imposes on their society. The recent spectacular growth of the Chinese economy has left China with a plethora of weeping environmental wounds. While these are increasingly urgent short-term challenges, Chinese leaders are only too aware that, in the longer term, under any probable climate change scenario, China is a loser

  12. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of

  13. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  14. Renewable energy policy evaluation using real option model - The case of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-C., E-mail: n4895102@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Shih, L.-H., E-mail: lhshih@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    This study presents a policy benefit evaluation model that integrates cost efficiency curve information on renewable power generation technologies into real options analysis (ROA) methods. The proposed model evaluates quantitatively the policy value provided by developing renewable energy (RE) in the face of uncertain fossil fuel prices and RE policy-related factors. The economic intuition underlying the policy-making process is elucidated, while empirical analysis illustrates the option value embedded in the current development policy in Taiwan for wind power. In addition to revealing the benefits that RE development provides when considering real options, analytical results indicate that ROA is a highly effective means of quantifying how policy planning uncertainty including managerial flexibility influences RE development. In addition to assessing the policy value of current RE development policy, this study also compares policy values in terms of internalized external costs and varying feed-in tariff (FIT). Simulation results demonstrate that the RE development policy with internalized CO{sub 2} emission costs is appropriate policy planning from sustainability point of view. Furthermore, relationship between varying FIT and policy values can be shown quantitatively and appropriate FIT level could be determined accordingly.

  15. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    shift in investment strategy than the lure of better profits. However strong the evidence of an imminent peaking of offshore and perhaps total non-OPEC oil supply, the reality is that governments will not readily recognise a 'bad news' scenario that will inevitably tarnish their own political image. It follows that a global and permanent threat to their economies and energy security from a shortfall in oil supply outside the Persian Gulf and central Asia will only become a policy assumption if viable and attractive energy policy options are available. If there is single focus to any energy supply threat, then it is the market for transportation fuels, the strongest growing segment of the energy market and the only segment of the energy market where there are no significant alternatives already on offer. The second half of this paper suggests that there are industrial or financial obstacles to the large-scale introduction of fuels other than current specification gasoline and diesel. Almost all the current initiatives to explore and encourage alternative fuels address a long-term future in which fuel cells or hydrogen or 'California-clean' liquids replace the current fuels at the pump. Further, most research concentrates on the environmental aspects of the alternatives rather than their large-scale industrial availability. Yet the hard reality is that any solution to the global oil supply dilemma must be large scale (at least 10% of the total market for transportation fuels) and soon, which means within a decade. The technical facts are that fuels such as ethanol and methanol can be produced in very large volumes and delivered to the consumer without any significant change to the huge infrastructure constituted by the global internal combustion engine manufacturing industry and by the existing fuel distribution networks. This large, immediate and obvious opportunity has not been grasped so far for the excellent reason that the status quo is profitable

  16. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  17. Climate Stability and Policy: A Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    During most of the Phanerozoic eon, which began about a half-billion years ago, there were few glacial intervals until the late Pliocene 2.75 million years ago. Beginning at that time, the Earth's climate entered a period of instability with the onset of cyclical ice ages. At first these had a 41,000 year cycle, and about 1 million years ago the period lengthened to 100,000 years, which has continued to the present. Over this period of instability the climate has been extraordinarily sensitive to small forcings, whether due to Milankovitch cycles, solar variations, aerosols, or albedo variations driven by cosmic rays. The current interglacial has lasted for some ten thousand years-about the duration of past interglacials-and serious policy considerations arise as it nears its likely end. It is extremely unlikely that the current rise in carbon dioxide concentration-some 30% since 1750, and projected further increase over the next few decades-will significantly postpone the next glaciation.

  18. Climate Change Adaptation Options for the Congo Basin Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garderen, van L.; Ludwig, F.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, the importance and seriousness of climate change and it’s impacts have become more and more understood. The climate is already changing and therefor adaptation to these changes need to be made. Central Africa needs to adapt to climate change just as much as the rest of the w

  19. Mobility Management and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Markus

    2007-07-01

    Globally, the transport system faces a paradigmatic shift where, in addition to increased local traffic problems, climate change and depletion of fossil oil reserves will foster a successive transition to renewable fuels and a need for more resource-efficient mobility management and communication alternatives. Foresighted countries, cities or companies taking the lead in adapting to these tougher conditions might well not only solve those problems, but also turn the problems into business advantages. This thesis is based on six studies that attempt to develop future strategies based on rigorous principled emission and energy efficiency targets and to modulate the impact of travel policies, technical components and behaviours in economically advantageous ways. The modelling frameworks developed throughout the thesis build on a target-orientated approach called backcasting, where the following general components are applied: (1) target description at a conceptual level i.e. the potential for sustainable energy systems, emissions, costs, behavioural patterns, preferences, etc.; (2) mapping of the current situation in relation to target description; and (3) modelling of alternative sets of policies, technologies, behaviours and economic prerequisites to arrive at target achievement. Sustainable travel strategies are analysed from two main viewpoints. The first four studies focus on company travel planning, where behavioural modelling proved to be an important tool for deriving targetorientated travel policies consistent with employee preferences. The latter two studies focus on strategies and preconditions to meet future emission targets and energy efficiency requirements at a macroscopic regional level by 2030. Backcasting's role as a generic methodology for effective strategic planning is discussed

  20. Interactions of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even where CO2 emissions are duly priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals other noteworthy interaction effects of climate policy and renewable policy instruments on the wholesale electricity prices in deregulated markets, which open new areas for future research.

  1. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  2. Modelling Options for Policy Impact Analysis on African Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghaiki Asaah NDAMBI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the priorities for agricultural research in Eastern and CentralAfrica concluded that milk is the most important commodity for research anddevelopment in the region, based on its potential contribution to the agriculturalGDP. It has been presumed that, the right policies, marketing systems and technicalsupport must be sought for dairy development in Africa. In order to determine theright development pattern, appropriate analytical tools must be applied. The TIPICAL(Technology Impact Policy Impact model was used to analyse the impact ofdifferent policies on two typical dairy farming systems in Uganda, which accountfor more than 70% of milk produced in the country. Seven influential policy areaswere also identified: provision of veterinary services, consumption promotion,marketing promotion, input provision, credit access improvement, milk qualityimprovement and genetic improvement. In general, the policy impacts are very littleon farms with local cows but can be magnified up to threefold, if the farms havegraded cows. Policies which improve farmers’ accessibility to markets have thegreatest impacts. The results obtained from this model were compared to thoseusing the EXTRAPOLATE model. This comparison shows that both models couldcomplement each other in analysing policy impacts on African dairy farms.However, differences in results from the models indicate that more focus should bemade on farmers’ willingness to adopt new technology.

  3. Mitigation and Solar Radiation Management in Climate Change Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Manousi, Vasiliki; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    We couple a spatially homogeneous energy balance climate model with an economic growth model which incorporates two potential policies against climate change: mitigation, which is the traditional policy, and geoengineering. We analyze the optimal policy mix of geoengineering and mitigation in both a cooperative and a noncooperative framework, in which we study open loop and feedback solutions. Our results suggests that greenhouse gas accumulation is relatively higher when geoengineering polic...

  4. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    in these countries, and in practice a mix of policies reflecting specific priorities and contexts have been pursued. In this way, climate-change mitigation has been aligned with other policy objectives and integrated into broader policy packages, though in many cases specific attention has not been given...... to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals....

  5. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this articl

  6. Agricultural GHG emissions in the EU: an exploratory economic assessment of mitigation policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Dominguez, I.; Fellmann, T.; Witzke, H.P.; Jansson, T.; Oudendag, D.; Gocht, A.; Verhoog, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a quantitative assessment of possible implications of the implementation of specific policy options to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU. The mitigation policy scenarios proposed and analysed within this report are all exploratory, i.e. it is intende

  7. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  8. Payout phase in DC pension funds – policy option - Theoretical considerations and Albanian available options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the third pillar of pensions in Albania and what are the different alternatives related to the payout. Referring to the actual development of this market in Albania, experience of the actors involved, I find it indispensable and necessary to provide some theoretical background and considerations, and then build up a simple model of projection of a pension scheme cost and a model for payout alternatives for the Albanian pension funds. A great deal of importance is shown towards posing the assumptions. Also, the paper gives an explanation about the differences among different payout options and suggests the best option for the existing pension funds in Albania. The best option represents my conclusion and recommendation for the actual third pillar of pensions and the others that might join latter. To sum up, the first conclusion of the paper is that the annuity option is the best alternative for the payout phase of the pensions. It has the advantage of providing the highest protection against the risk of longevity. The second conclusion is that based on other countries experiences, the annuity market have to be developed hand in hand with the pension system development. Therefore Albania should rely on and follow this experience.

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective r...

  11. Land use, climate and biogeochemical cycles. Feedbacks and options for emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutjes, R.W.A.; Dolman, A.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Ter Maat, H.W.; Kabat, P.; Moors, E.; Huygen, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Haarsma, R.; Ronda, R.; Schaeffer, M.; Opsteegh, J.D. [RoyalNetherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands); Leemans, R.; Strengers, B.; De Vries, B.; Bouwman, L.; Busch, G.; Eickhout, E.; Kreileman, E. [National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhagen, A.; Vleeshouwers, L.; Corre, W.J.; Jongschaap, R.E.E. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kruseman, G.; Van Ierland, E.; Holtslag, A.A.M. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Willemsen, F.; Dorland, C.; Van Tol, R.S.J. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The approach of this study has been to try to understand the coupling between the main driving forces of land use change and the emission of greenhouse gasses in the context of coupled land surface climate models. Studies related to investigating the main driving forces of land use change in Europe and assessing the budgets of the main greenhouse gasses in Europe were combined with sensitivity studies of land use change and climate at regional and global scale. We tried to link these to an integrated assessment model and selected economic analysis. In a two-year project, this appeared difficult. However, some important steps have been set to generate a framework that addressed these questions. The most salient conclusions for each of the sub studies are: The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU is the single most important element in shaping land use in Europe; The new estimate of the stocks and fluxes of carbon in Europe is lower that usually quoted by individual countries submission to UNFCCC; Reduction of methane emissions by agriculture is in the short term a good option in West Europe to reduce GHG emissions; Coupled climate land surface model runs at regional scale suggest that effects of planting large areas with forest may have effects on precipitation, but also increase warming; Coupled climate land surface model runs at global scale suggest that effects of planting large areas with forest may have opposite effects on precipitation in tropical and extra tropical areas, and increase warming in northern areas; Measures to increase biofuel production would lead to modest increases in Western Europe, but to huge increases in areas where the current land uses are low-value uses; Regional assessments have to be embedded in global scenarios to illustrate the effects of increasing globalisation of trade flows; Changes in regional land cover appear to have marginal effects on the global carbon cycle. At regional scale they may be important. The overall study

  12. United States Policy Options in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    of the world. 31 The typical economic structure of one of these countries con- sists of a large agricultural sector comprising most of the labour ...lation policy and there are no programs designed to aid family planning. These programs must be undertaken soon or the prob- lems of overpopulation

  13. The economic policy options and their connection with inflation and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kopeć

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic system after 1990 had many fluctuations. This article applies to two essential phenomena in a free market economy: inflation and unemployment. This article applies to changes in the process of inflation and fluctuations in the unemployment rate under different economic policy options. Economic policies can affect the development of the inflation and unemployment. It includes interest rates and budget deficits. Methodology of model is based on a pendulum. Economic policy has been designated as a synthetic indicator of the resultant two policies - monetary and fiscal policies. With the help of the pendulum model has been established that the character had run monetary and fiscal policy, and how developed as economic policy. By the dominance of one of the policy options is understood that during cycles level inflation or the deficit fluctuated strongly to economic stabilization. One of the stages of the study was to analyze the monetary policy and assess whether there is a link between the evolution of interest rates and the evolution of the inflation rate. In a similar way, fiscal policy was analyzed. This article attempts to determine whether the conduct of economic policy was correct, and has had an impact on the economic situation.

  14. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Constanze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Climate Change: Options and Obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Skodvin, T.

    1996-06-01

    The main topics of this report are: (1) key elements in the development of a formula for a comprehensive approach to climate change, (2) relations between gases due to atmospheric chemistry interactions and common emission sources, (3) climate effects of existing international agreements on atmospheric emissions, and (4) methods for comparing gases. Building on the text of the climate convention itself, the authors develop an operational definition of a comprehensive approach and list 13 gases which should be included. There are not many adequate methods of comparing gases with different properties. At present the best choice is the Global Warming Potentials method (GWP), although it leaves the environmentally and politically important issue of the time horizon unresolved. An appendix comments on difficulties of including NOx emitted from surface sources in a comprehensive approach under the FCCC (UN`s Framework Convention on Climate Change). 73 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  17. Accounting Policy Options under IFRS: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan BAHADIR; Buke TOLGA

    2013-01-01

    Although one of the main purposes of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is to improve comparability of financial statements by eliminating different accounting treatments applied by companies, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) still permit choices in accounting treatment of similar transactions and events. This paper examines the accounting choices made by Turkish listed companies in cases where IFRSs permit a choice between alternative accounting policies. The ...

  18. Mitigation and health: Climate policy not so costly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Climate change mitigation can benefit human health by reducing air pollution. Research now shows that the economic value of health improvements can substantially outweigh mitigation costs, and that more flexible policies could have higher benefits.

  19. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  20. Reconciling justice and attribution research to advance climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo; Stone, Dáithí; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement is an important step for international climate policy, but the compensation for negative effects of climate change based on clear assignment of responsibilities remains highly debated. From both a policy and a science perspective, it is unclear how responsibilities should be defined and on what evidence base. We explore different normative principles of justice relevant to climate change impacts, and ask how different forms of causal evidence of impacts drawn from detection and attribution research could inform policy approaches in accordance with justice considerations. We reveal a procedural injustice based on the imbalance of observations and knowledge of impacts between developed and developing countries. This type of injustice needs to be considered in policy negotiations and decisions, and efforts strengthened to reduce it.

  1. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  2. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  3. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments.

  4. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Farm Bill Policy Options Using the CEEPES-FAPRI Modeling System, An

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Lakshminarayan; Bruce A. Babcock

    1995-01-01

    This report estimates the economic and environmental trade-offs of the 1995 Farm Bill policy options evaluated by FAPRI. Assessments are provided for the 1995 FAPRI baseline, 25 percent Normal Flex, and the Revenue Assurance program. The authors describe the modeling systems and the CEEPES-FAPRI linkage, delineate the policy options and their likely economic and environmental impacts, and discuss predicted economic and environmental impacts of these policy options.

  5. Forests and climate change adaptation policies in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bele, M.Y.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Nkem, J.N.; Locatelli, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, adaptation has become a key focus of the scientific and policy-making communities and is a major area of discussion in the multilateral climate change process. As climate change is projected to hit the poorest the hardest, it is especially important for developing countries to pay particul

  6. Mitigation and Adaptation within a Climate Policy Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effective policy response to climate change will include, among other things, investments in lowering greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation), as well as short-term temporary (flow) and long-lived capital-intensive (stock) adaptation to climate change. A critical near-term ques...

  7. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Groot, R.S.; Kuikman, P.J.; Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Daan, N.; Huynen, M.; Kramer, K.; Szoenyi, J.; Veraart, J.A.; Verhagen, A.; Van Vliet, A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E. [Alterra, Wageningen, and International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is becoming warmer and that regional climates are changing. This report summarizes the results of an integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands carried out between July 2000 and July 2001 within the framework of the Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). The project's main aims were: - to provide an overview of scientific insights, expert judgements and stakeholders' perceptions of current and future impacts (positive and negative) of climate change for several economic sectors, human health, and natural systems in the Netherlands, considering various cross-sectoral interactions, - to develop a set of adaptation options for these sectors through a participatory process with the main stakeholders, - to perform an integrated assessment of cross-sectoral interactions of climate change impacts and adaptation options. Climate change impacts and adaptation options have been investigated for several important economic sectors (including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, energy, transport, insurance and recreation and tourism), human health and natural systems (including soils, water and biodiversity issues).The results of this study are based on literature survey, a dialogue with experts and stakeholders. We are convinced that the report represents the most essential and relevant aspects of the impacts and adaptation options for climate change in the Netherlands, given the scenario setting of this study, the state of the art of current scientific knowledge, and today's expert and stakeholders' perceptions of the issues at stake. 215 refs.

  8. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K.; Kuikman, P.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E. [Alterra, Wageningen, and International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Daan, N. [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research RIVO, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Van Ierland, E.C.; Szoenyi, J. [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); De Groot, R.S.; Van Vliet, A. [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Huynen, M. [International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    In recent decades it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is warming and that regional climates are changing. The changes include alterations in rainfall pattern and intensities, sea level, and the frequencies of extreme weather events. Climate changes will not just have global effects, they will also occur regionally. The consequences will be felt and dealt with in our own region. In addition to studies at the European level, a study entitled 'An integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands' was carried out.

  9. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    species may become extinct , while others are likely to flourish. The local effects of climate change may contribute more to decision-making than national...in some climate model projections is the possibility of dieback of the Amazon rainforest , resulting in a self-reinforcing cycle of greater drying and...ecologists expect high rates of extinctions and loss of biological diversity if climate change projections are accurate. CRS-37 94 Tol, R.S.J., “New

  10. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  11. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  12. Science integration into US climate and ocean policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petes, Laura E.; Howard, Jennifer F.; Helmuth, Brian S.; Fly, Elizabeth K.

    2014-08-01

    The pace of environmental change lends urgency to the need for integration of climate considerations into ocean policy and management. A recent rapid expansion of ocean and climate policies provides a timely window of opportunity for the scientific community to inform and support these efforts. Lessons can be learned from successful initiatives, where scientists are working hand-in-hand with decision makers and managers to enhance ocean resilience. Looking ahead, the most pressing decision-needs associated with oceans and climate change should serve to prioritize and drive scientific efforts.

  13. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  14. Optimal climate change: economics and climate science policy histories (from heuristic to normative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randalls, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Historical accounts of climate change science and policy have reflected rather infrequently upon the debates, discussions, and policy advice proffered by economists in the 1980s. While there are many forms of economic analysis, this article focuses upon cost-benefit analysis, especially as adopted in the work of William Nordhaus. The article addresses the way in which climate change economics subtly altered debates about climate policy from the late 1970s through the 1990s. These debates are often technical and complex, but the argument in this article is that the development of a philosophy of climate change as an issue for cost-benefit analysis has had consequences for how climate policy is made today.

  15. Energy policy design and China’s local climate governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ting, Guan; Delman, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This study probes into climate policy design at city level in China, with Hangzhou’s energy efficiency and renewable energy policies between 2005 and 2014 as a case. The study applies a political action arena approach to accentuate the importance of different normative preferences behind climate...... energy efficiency is a more mature and comprehensive political action arena than renewable energy. The study also finds that there has been a significant shift away from preferences towards command-and-control to more marketbased instruments, while cooperative governance instruments are still...... change policies in relation to Hangzhou’s emerging urban climate governance regime. Three main categories of policy instruments are identified: i.e. command-and-control, market-based, and collaborative governance instruments, and their development over time is examined. It is concluded that in Hangzhou...

  16. European climate change policy beyond 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    There is an increasing scientific consensus that human activities do trigger climate changes. Actual forecasts predict temperature increases that are likely to be beyond the adaptation potential of ecosystems. These considerations play a major role in shaping public opinion and the media landscape, culminating in the view that Europe needs to play a leading role in combating climate change.

  17. Common metrics. Comparing the warming effect of climate forcers in climate policy; Common metrics. Laempenemiseen vaikuttavien paeaestoejen yhteismitallistaminen ilmastopolitiikassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, T. J.; Ekholm, T.; Savolainen, I.

    2012-11-15

    Climate policy needs a relatively simple method to compare the warming effect of different greenhouse gases (GHGs). Otherwise it would be necessary to negotiate a different reduction target for each gas. At the moment, Global Warming Potential (GWP) concept is used to compare different GHGs. Numerical values of GWP factors have been updated alongside with scientific understanding and majority seems content to the GWP. From 2005 onwards there have been many proposals of optional metrics. The most well known is Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) concept which measures the change of temperature as does global climate policies. The decision between metrics is a multicriteria decision which should include at least the coherence with climate policy and cost efficiency. The GWP concept may be a little more difficult to understand than the GTP but it is more cost efficient. Alongside with new metrics, scientists and politicians have started to discuss of new emission which have an effect on warming. These Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) have either warming or cooling effect. Their effect can be presented with GWP and GTP but the uncertainties in the emission factors are large. In total, SLCFs reduce overall emissions of EU approximately 1% in year 2000. NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} (cooling) and black carbon (warming) emissions were the biggest factors. EU is planning to reduce the SLCF emissions to achieve health and environmental benefits, but at the same time this reduces the effect of EU's climate policies by approximately 10%. Uncertainties in the estimates are large. (orig.)

  18. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance.

  19. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in terms of increased geothermal electricity development. Insights are provided into future policies that may drive the market to optimize development of available geothermal electricity resources.

  20. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  1. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  2. Indonesian National Policy on Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From its arousal, the issue of climate change or global warming has become a distinct global trend setter in multidisciplinary discussion, including in the law perspective. Within legal discourse, the issue of climate change developed rapidly into several aspect, not only about adaptation nor mitigation, especially since the plurality of moral conviction relevant to the climate change facts. As a global matter, each country has the responsibility to adapt and mitigate with its own character and policy. This normative research aims to explore and describe in brief the Indonesian national policy in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Gradually, the contribution of Indonesia is getting firm and solid to the climate change regime, especially after the Bali Action Plan 2007.

  3. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  4. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  5. Climate change and river ecosystems: protection and adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Margaret A; Lettenmaier, Dennis P; Poff, N Leroy; Postel, Sandra L; Richter, Brian; Warner, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Rivers provide a special suite of goods and services valued highly by the public that are inextricably linked to their flow dynamics and the interaction of flow with the landscape. Yet most rivers are within watersheds that are stressed to some extent by human activities including development, dams, or extractive uses. Climate change will add to and magnify risks that are already present through its potential to alter rainfall, temperature, runoff patterns, and to disrupt biological communities and sever ecological linkages. We provide an overview of the predicted impacts based on published studies to date, discuss both reactive and proactive management responses, and outline six categories of management actions that will contribute substantially to the protection of valuable river assets. To be effective, management must be place-based focusing on local watershed scales that are most relevant to management scales. The first priority should be enhancing environmental monitoring of changes and river responses coupled with the development of local scenario-building exercises that take land use and water use into account. Protection of a greater number of rivers and riparian corridors is essential, as is conjunctive groundwater/surface water management. This will require collaborations among multiple partners in the respective river basins and wise land use planning to minimize additional development in watersheds with valued rivers. Ensuring environmental flows by purchasing or leasing water rights and/or altering reservoir release patterns will be needed for many rivers. Implementing restoration projects proactively can be used to protect existing resources so that expensive reactive restoration to repair damage associated with a changing climate is minimized. Special attention should be given to diversifying and replicating habitats of special importance and to monitoring populations at high risk or of special value so that management interventions can occur if the

  6. Optimization on bicriterion policies for M/G/1 system with second optional service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jau-chuan KE; Yunn-kuang CHU

    2008-01-01

    We compare the optimal operating cost of the two bicriterion policies, p,T and p,N, for an M/G/1 queueing system with second optional service, in which the length of the vacation period is randomly controlled either by the number of arrivals during the idle period or by a timer. After all the customers are served in the queue exhaustively, the server immediately takes a vacation and may operate p, T policy or p,N policy. For the two bicriterion policies, the total average cost function per unit time is developed to search the optimal stationary operating policies at a minimum cost. Based upon the optimal cost the explicit forms for joint optimum threshold values of (p,T) and (p,N) are obtained.

  7. Management Options for Organic Winter Wheat Production under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Bloch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective adaptive strategy for reducing climate change risks and increasing agro-system resiliency is broadening cropping system diversity, heightening the flexibility of cultivation and tillage methods. Climate change impacts on standard cultivation practices such as mineralisation and nitrate leaching due to mild and rainy winters, as well as frequent drought or water saturation, not only limiting fieldwork days, but also restricting ploughing. This calls for alternative methods to counteract these propensities. From 2010 to 2013, a farming system experiment was conducted on a distinctly heterogeneous organic farm in Brandenburg, Germany. With the intention of devising a more varied and flexible winter wheat cultivation method, standard organic farming practices (winter wheat cultivation after two years of alfalfa-clover-grass and ploughing in mid-October were compared to four alternative test methods, which were then evaluated for their robustness and suitability as adaptive strategies. Two of the alternative methods, early sowing and catch crop, entailed moving up the date for alfalfa-clover-grass tilling to July. Instead of a plough, a ring-cutter was used to shallowly (8 cm cut through and mix the topsoil. In the early sowing test method, winter wheat was sown at the end of August, after repeated ring-cutter processing. With the catch crop method, winter wheat seeding followed a summer catch crop and October tillage. The two oat methods (oat/plough; oat/ring-cutter entailed sowing winter wheat in September, following oat cultivation. Overall, the cultivation methods demonstrated the following robustness gradation: standard practice = catch crop ≥ early sowing > oat/plough > oat/ring-cutter. When compared to standard procedures, the catch crop and early sowing test methods showed no remarkable difference in grain yields. Measured against early sowing, the catch crop test method was significantly more robust when it came to winterkill

  8. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  9. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to Chi

  10. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to climate change in many regions of the world. Decision marking of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. Priority...

  11. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  12. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  13. The role of economic policy in climate change adaption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Kai A. [Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance, Munich (Germany); Thum, Marcel [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Business and Economics

    2012-10-15

    This paper assesses the role of the public sector in adaptation to climate change. We first offer a definition and categorisation of climate change adaptation. We then consider the primary economic principles that can guide the assignment of adaptation tasks to either the private or the public sector, as well as those guiding assignment within the public sector itself. We find that the role of the state in adaptation policy is limited. We identify information policy, the provision of a suitable regulatory framework in some markets, the formation of human capital and policies that foster economic growth and technological and medical knowledge as the main areas in which the public sector has a role in climate change adaptation.

  14. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  15. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  16. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  17. Biomass Energy, Carbon Removal and Permanent Sequestration. A 'Real Option' for Managing Climate Risk. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obersteiner, M.; Riahi, K.; Nilsson, S.; Schrattenholzer, L. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Azar, C. [Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Moreira, J. [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moellersten, K.; Yan, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Read, P. [Economics Department, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Yamagata, Y. [Climate Change Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies NIES, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-20

    of low shares of fossil fuel consumption, to net removal of carbon from the atmosphere (negative emissions) before the end of this century. The long-run technological potential of such a permanent sink technology is large enough to neutralize historical fossil fuel emissions and cover a significant part of global energy and raw material demand. The economic potential might turn out to be smaller, if the signposts of climate change do not require that negative emissions, as a real option, need to be exercised. The main policy conclusion is that investments in both expanding the absorptive capacity for carbon (expanding carbon stocks) and research and development (R and D) investments for developing negative emission technologies as a viable technology cluster should not only be (socially) priced against all other mitigation technologies by simple Net Present Value calculation (working only with the average expected loss), but according to a real option valuation given the full uncertainty spectrum of expected (economic) losses due to human induced climate change. The questions of how much and when sinks have to be committed as real options for robust climate management depend on the properties of the climate signal and the nations' degree of risk aversion; both are yet to be fully quantified.

  18. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO): Science at Your Fingertips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, L. N.; Treasure, E.; Moore Myers, J.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is an ever-increasing volume of useful scientific knowledge about climate change effects and management options for natural ecosystems. Agencies such as the USDA Forest Service have been charged with the need to evaluate this body of knowledge and if necessary adapt to the impacts of climate change in their forest planning and management. However, the combined volume of existing information and rate of development of new information, lack of climate change specialists, and limited technology transfer mechanisms make efficient access and use difficult. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) addresses this difficulty through its publically accessible web-based tool that puts current and concise climate change science at the fingertips of forest planners and managers. A collaborative product of the USDA Forest Service Research Stations and the National Forest System, TACCIMO integrates peer-reviewed research with management and planning options through search and reporting tools that connect land managers with information they can trust. TACCIMO highlights elements from the wealth of climate change science with attention to what natural resource planners and managers need through a searchable repository of over 4,000 effects of climate change and close to 1,000 adaptive management options, all excerpted from a growing body of peer-reviewed scientific literature. A geospatial mapping application provides downscaled climate data for the nation and other spatially explicit models relevant to evaluating climate change impacts on forests. Report generators assist users in capturing outputs specific to a given location and resource area in a consistent and organized manner. For USDA Forest Service users, science findings can be readily linked with management conditions and capabilities from national forest management plans. The development of TACCIMO was guided by interactions with natural resource professionals, resulting

  19. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-06

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.

  20. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination—the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  1. Climate change and health in Israel: adaptation policies for extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Manfred S; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Capeluto, Guedi; Epstein, Yoram; Paz, Shlomit

    2013-01-01

    Climatic changes have increased the world-wide frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves, cold spells, floods, storms and droughts. These extreme events potentially affect the health status of millions of people, increasing disease and death. Since mitigation of climate change is a long and complex process, emphasis has recently been placed on the measures required for adaptation. Although the principles underlying these measures are universal, preparedness plans and policies need to be tailored to local conditions. In this paper, we conducted a review of the literature on the possible health consequences of extreme weather events in Israel, where the conditions are characteristic of the Mediterranean region. Strong evidence indicates that the frequency and duration of several types of extreme weather events are increasing in the Mediterranean Basin, including Israel. We examined the public health policy implications for adaptation to climate change in the region, and proposed public health adaptation policy options. Preparedness for the public health impact of increased extreme weather events is still relatively limited and clear public health policies are urgently needed. These include improved early warning and monitoring systems, preparedness of the health system, educational programs and the living environment. Regional collaboration should be a priority.

  2. EU CLIMATE POLICY FROM KYOTO TO DURBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The risks posed by climate change are real and its impacts are already taking place. The biggest challenge about climate change is that there is no one single answer, no one single solution. This characteristic, together with the long history of political frictions and disputes worsened by environmental stresses suggests that global climatic changes have the potential to exacerbate existing international tensions. On December 31, 2012, the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will expire. Unless states agree to a second commitment period, requiring a further round of emissions cuts, the Protocol will no longer impose any quantitative limits on states' greenhouse gas emissions. Although, as a legal matter, the Protocol will continue in force, it will be a largely empty shell, doing little if anything to curb global warming. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol negotiations, which focused exclusively on developed country emissions, the ongoing negotiations on a post-2012 climate change regime have also addressed developing country mitigation actions, without which a solution to the climate change problem is impossible. This has made the current negotiations as much between developed and developing countries as between the U.S. and the European Union. Key issues include: Legal Form; Regulatory approach; and Differentiation. By the Durban conference in December 2011 the EU needs to decide whether - and how - it will sign-up to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. This article focuses on the European Union needs to decide whether – and – how it will sign- up a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. Because asking, whether others will act is the wrong question. The real question is whether signing- up to some form of second Kyoto commitment period will support Europe’s fundamental interests.

  3. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an emission inventory and emission scenarios for climate influencing compounds at Svalbard, as a basis to develop strategies for emission reduction measures and policies. Emissions for the years 2000-2007 have been estimated for the Svalbard Zone. This area, covering about 173 000 km{sub 2}, ranges from 10 E to 35 E longitude and 74 N to 81 N latitude (Figure 1). In addition, air and ship transport between Tromsoe at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard has been included. Pollutants considered in our inventory are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} as NO{sub 2}), and for the first time also estimates of black carbon (BC, soot) and organic carbon (OC) have been included. Our results show that emissions of all pollutants have increased over the time span 2000-2007 (Figure 2), and are expected to increase also in the future if additional measures are not implemented (Figure 12). The emissions from Svalbard are minuscule compared to emission released from the Norwegian mainland and waters (1% in the case of CO{sub 2}). Even so, local releases of climate influencing compounds in the vulnerable Arctic may turn out to make a difference both with respect to adverse environmental effects and to climate change. Emissions have been estimated for all activities of any significance taking place at and around Svalbard. Combustion sources as well as fugitive emissions of methane are included. The main sectors are coal mining, energy production and transportation. Pollution from 28 sub sectors related to these activities has been estimated. The scope of this work differs from that covered by national inventories since emission estimates are based on the fuel consumed and include emissions from international shipping and aviation. Fuel consumption data were collected from local authorities, institutions and industry. Emission factors have been selected from relevant

  4. Status of Norwegian climate policy 2011; Statusrapport for norsk klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Norwegians are generally little impressed what Norway as a society has achieved in the climate policy. This is consistent with the actual situation as it is mapped in this year's edition of the Status of Norwegian climate policy. The results obtained in a survey by TNS Gallup which was commissioned by BI Centre for Climate Strategy in connection with the disclosure of the agency's annual status report for the Norwegian climate policy. 1000 Norwegians have been asked about how good or bad they perceive the overall results in various areas of climate policy. Even for climate-friendly heating, which is the area where most perceive that there has been progress, only 39% of the population consider the results as very good or good. In addition to heating, energy efficiency in buildings, Norway's international efforts, research on climate technology and information to the public areas where most Norwegians still think the results are good, and which are the least dissatisfied.Year Status Report on Norwegian climate policy is a joint project between the organization Holder de ord (Do they keep promises) and BI Centre for Climate Strategy. The report shows that people have a fairly accurate picture of climate policy. In most areas, there is little substantial progress since the Low Emission submitted its recommendations in 2006. It is symptomatic that climate policy was recently delayed again - now to 2012. While it is a positive development in the areas that are at the top of people's list. Since 2006, for example, there has been a substantial expansion of district heating in Norway, and building standards have become much stricter when it comes to energy use. Motor vehicle taxes are changed and greenhouse emissions from new cars is 25% lower than in 2006. Norway also play a constructive role, both in relation to the negotiations at the UN on a new climate deal, but also for example in relation to a global sectoral agreement for shipping that was signed

  5. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-07

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  6. The science-policy interface : water and climate change, and the energy-water nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Details of a bilateral meeting held by Canadian and American researchers to explore fresh water research related to climatic change were presented. Attendants at the meeting discussed policy research needs for improving research links between Canada and the United States. Options for improving data acquisition processes and improving modelling and integration techniques were reviewed. Watershed management strategies were outlined, and various policy options for increasing water efficiency and improving flow requirements were discussed. The meeting resulted in both Canadian and American researchers agreeing to establish adaptive management processes while assessing the implication of climatic change on planned actions. Researchers also agreed to adopt a 'soft path' methodology which focused on scenario-planning through the use of backcasting to define sustainable future states for the management of water sources and uses and working backwards to identify necessary policies and programs. It was concluded that distributed governance decision-making will result in a shift from water to watershed management. Place-based management approaches will help to engage stakeholders and increase cooperation among stakeholder groups and governments.

  7. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Olivier [GERAD and Department of Management Sciences, HEC Montreal, Montreal (Qc) (Canada); Edwards, Neil R. [Earth and Environmental Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Knutti, Reto [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stocker, Thomas F. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. (author)

  8. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  9. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  10. The Growth of China and India: Implications and Policy Reform Options for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ianchovichina, Elena; Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the trade-related impacts of rapid growth of China and India on the Malaysian economy and evaluates policy options to better position Malaysia to take advantage of these changes. Higher growth in China and India is likely to raise Malaysia's national income and to expand Malaysia's natural resource and agricultural exports, while putting downward pressure on exports from some manufacturing and service sectors. Increases in the quality and variety of exports from China and ...

  11. Energy and climate policy in Europe; Energie- und Klimapolitik in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This is a publication of the Baden-Wuerttemberg state center of political education (Landeszentrale fuer Politische Bildung Baden-Wuerttemberg) on energy policy and climate policy in Europe. It discusses the following aspects: Assured supply of energy and climate policy - incompatible goals? Climate policy and energy policy in a global system; Legitimation of the EU by successful energy policy and climate policy; Emission trading: Selling of indulgences or successful instrument? Energy policy in Europe after 1945; From a beacon of hope to a phase-out model? The future of nuclear power; The future of renewable energy sources in Europe. (orig./RHM)

  12. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  13. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economy systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. In order to provide insights into why results differ between models, this article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wid

  14. An overview of domestic aspects in US climate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Reis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how domestic aspects influence the United States national and international climate policy. To accomplish the task, the authors analyzes the discussions when Bill Clinton was ruling the country, a time during which global discussions were forwarded. The paper recalls the debate in the Bush administration and the growing polarization since Barack Obama took office.

  15. Climate change policy of Germany, UK and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Wurff

    2009-01-01

    International climate change politics provides a clear example of how cultural differences, conflicts of interest and scientific assessments interact to shape environmental policy-making. This section will explore these interrelationships by analysing the role of the United States, the United Kingdo

  16. Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    The process by which issues, decisions, or events acquire different meanings from different perspectives has been studied as framing. In policy debates about climate change adaptation, framing the adaptation issue is a challenge with potentially farreaching implications for the shape and success of

  17. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV.

  18. Fair division theory and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C. [Technical University Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Law and Economics

    2008-09-30

    This paper analyzes the fair division of common property resources when monetary compensations are feasible. A prominent example is the fair division of the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity for greenhouse gases. I propose a solution that is Pareto efficient and satisfies the axiomatic fair division criteria of individual rationality, stand-alone upper bound, and a version of envy-freeness. The latter criterion is adapted to problems where monetary compensations can be used to facilitate the fair division of the common resource. Applied to climate change, the solution implies that developing countries should participate in emission reduction efforts, but should be fully compensated for their incremental abatement costs.

  19. Possible role of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry in future climate regimes. An inventory of some options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trines, E.P. [Treeness Consult, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2004-11-15

    proposed climate regimes and not with overall regimes (although it cannot be avoided to discuss some overall regimes in some detail before diving deeper into the LULUCF aspects). Hence, options consisting of agreements between nations that are e.g. limited to policies and measures, international carbon tax agreements, price-capped targets, etc. are not discussed here, even though they may have merits. The report builds to some extend on interviews that were taken at COP9 with representatives of countries that have been key in the negotiation process to date, and several international experts. But it also expands on some other options that are around in this early stage of thinking on the subject, including those discussed in the EU Expert Group on LULUCF and the EU Expert Group on Future Action.

  20. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  1. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  2. Unilateral or Reciprocal Climate Policy? Experimental Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bernauer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional political economy account of global climate change governance directs our attention to fundamental collective action problems associated with global public goods provision, resulting from positive or negative externalities as well as freeriding. The governance architecture of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol uses the traditional approaches of international diplomacy for addressing such challenges: legally binding commitments based on principles of reciprocity and (fair cost/burden sharing via formalized carbon-budgeting. Yet, the 2015 Paris Agreement has essentially abandoned this approach, as it now operates on the basis of internationally coordinated and monitored unilateralism. On the presumption that public opinion matters for government policy, we examine how citizens view this shift in climate policy from reciprocity to unilateralism, after many years of exposure to strong reciprocity rhetoric by governments and stakeholders. To that end, we fielded a survey experiment in China, the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG emitter. The results show that there is, perhaps surprisingly, strong and robust public support for unilateral, non-reciprocal climate policy. To the extent China is interested in pushing ahead with ambitious and thus costly GHG reduction policies, our results suggest that China can leverage segments of public support in order to overcome domestic obstacles to GHG mitigation policies.

  3. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan O S Gillespie

    Full Text Available Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality.We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education. To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts' predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect.Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900-6,100 CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300-700 deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200-5,000 CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (-100-600 deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400-500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality.Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity.

  4. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  5. Public health impacts of city policies to reduce climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive E; Hiscock, Rosemary; Asikainen, Arja;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate change is a global threat to health and wellbeing. Here we provide findings of an international research project investigating the health and wellbeing impacts of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban environments. Methods:  Five European and two Chinese city...... authorities and partner academic organisations formed the project consortium. The methodology involved modelling the impact of adopted urban climate-change mitigation transport, buildings and energy policy scenarios, usually for the year 2020 and comparing them with business as usual (BAU) scenarios (where...... policies had not been adopted). Carbon dioxide emissions, health impacting exposures (air pollution, noise and physical activity), health (cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer and leukaemia) and wellbeing (including noise related wellbeing, overall wellbeing, economic wellbeing and inequalities) were...

  6. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives.

  7. China's climate-change policy 1988-2011: From zero to hero?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the evolution of China's domestic climate-change policy over the period 1988-2011, using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to explore the policy change. Policy development has been gradual, with the most notable change occurring in 2007, when the National Climate Change Programme elevated climate change to a national policy issue. Within the climate-change policy subsystem there emerged an advocacy coalition - the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition - urging that climate change should be taken into consideration in relevant policies. The ACF points to socioeconomic development and the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition's policy-oriented learning as explanations for the development of climate-change policy in China.(auth)

  8. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  9. Don't shoot the messenger: re-framing climate policy to respond to evolving science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E.; Otto, A.; Rayner, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of progress in mitigation policy, as atmospheric CO2 concentrations climb apparently inexorably past 400ppm, is often blamed on a failure to 'communicate the climate change message' effectively. A small but increasing number of commentators is arguing that the problem is not communication, but the way in which climate policy choices are framed. In particular, the overt politicization of climate science, with so-called 'belief in climate change' being invoked as automatically implying support for a global carbon price or cap-and-trade regime, or even as an argument for voting for specific parties, makes it increasingly difficult to discuss policy options in the light of evolving science. At the heart of the problem is the interpretation of the 'precautionary principle', which is widely invoked in climate policy as a response to scientific uncertainty: policies, it is argued, should be designed to be robust to the range of possible future climates, or to deliver the ';best' possible probability-weighted outcome. The problem with this approach is that it very often makes policy contingent on worst-case scenarios - such as the risk of high climate sensitivity or rapid non-linear climate change - which are often the most uncertain aspects of climate science and hence subject to frequent revision. To be relevant to policies that are based on mitigating worst-case risks, the scientific community is also required to focus on establishing what these risks are, leaving it open, unjustly but understandably, to the accusation of alarmism. Focusing on worst-case scenarios can also give the impression that the mitigation problem is unachievable, and the only option is short-term adaptation followed by geo-engineering. One way of reducing the politicization of climate science is to make policy explicitly contingent on the climate response, such that a high (or low) rate of anthropogenic warming over the coming decades is automatically met with an aggressive (or moderate

  10. Analysis of China's Overheated Economy and Macroeconomic Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KeshaGuo

    2004-01-01

    Based on macroeconomic analysis since 2003, this article holds mat a trena towaras overheating has surfaced in China's economy. China's rapid economic expansion has affected the quality of its growth, with rising material and energy consumption and imbalanced economic structure as the main manifestations. Regarding macroeconomic policy options in 2004, decision-makers should shift the policy focus from control of deflation to prevention of inflation; the pace of economic growth should be properly set; a balance between consumption and investment should be strengthened by controlling excessive expansion of investment, and industrial restructuring should be conducted in a coordinated manner on the basis of properly controlling the overly rapid indastrial growth; policies should be continued to boost exports and sustainable growth of foreign investment; and more efforts should be made to accelerate the change in the mode of economic growth.

  11. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to anthropogenic climate change in many regions of the world. The choice of adaptation strategies can and should be based on a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. However, the analysis is complicated by irreducible uncertainties about present and future hydrologic conditions as well as the present and future vulnerability of the area in question. Further, model...

  12. Synthesis of Climate Change Policy in Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of U.S. Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the United States has struggled to develop a comprehensive policy for climate change and concomitant greenhouse gas emissions that addresses the current scientific thinking on the topic. The absence of any clear legislative or executive approach dominated national discussions and the court system was used to litigate a variety of issues associated with global warming. This paper synthesizes actions taken in the three branches of government prior to and immediately following the Obama election. In the Judicial branch, several branches of law have been used to force government and private parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the historic greenhouse gas lawsuit, Massachusetts et al. v. the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, and under the direction of the Obama administration, the U.S. EPA has taken significant action to regulate greenhouse gases. In the legislative branch, a comprehensive energy and climate bill passed the House of Representatives and comparable and alternate energy and climate bills were debated in the Senate indicating hope for legislation in the 111th Congress. However, these bills proved to be unsuccessful, therefore leaving the U.S. EPA and the courts the only options for national climate policy in the near future.

  13. Sea Change: US Climate Policy Prospects under the Obama Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Mikael (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Carson, Marcus (Dept. of Sociology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)). e-mail: mikael.roman@sei.se

    2009-03-15

    This report has been produced for the Swedish Government's Sustainability Commission in preparation for the Swedish EU Presidency during the second half of 2009, and consequent Swedish leadership of the EU delegation in the COP-15 negotiations in Copenhagen. The central task of the report is to provide an overview of the key factors that will condition the near-term development of United States climate policy, with a view to the eventual likelihood of the US signing and ratifying a new global agreement in the upcoming negotiations on climate change. While we take note of the importance of factors external to US politics, such as potential developments in bilateral discussions with China and other major greenhouse gas emitters, our analysis focuses primarily on factors that influence US domestic policy dynamics. To accomplish that task, the subsequent pages address three main questions. First, what are the stated goals and contours of the Obama Administration's policies regarding climate change? Second, what are the opportunities and obstacles connected with realizing this agenda - from negotiating and deciding, then effectively implementing it - and via which pathways of action are we likely to see important initiatives being moved? Finally, what are the implications for the negotiations in Copenhagen and beyond? We conclude by identifying a number of important considerations that should be taken into account in preparations for the Swedish EU Presidency and the climate negotiations in Copenhagen

  14. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  15. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  16. How much can disaster and climate science contribute to loss and damage mechanisms in international climate policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Allen, Simon; Eicken, Hajo; Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2015-04-01

    As the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently has shown, there is increasing evidence of observed impacts of climate change on natural and human systems. Some of these impacts are negative and result in damage and loss of lives and assets. In international climate policy negotiations under the UNFCCC the discussions on loss and damage have gained significant traction during the past negotiation rounds. At COP 19 the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) was created as an institutional arrangement to address this issue. Thereby, loss and damage (L&D) are typically defined as the residual damage and loss that occur beyond mitigation and adaptation efforts. This implies that effective mitigation and adaptation policy can substantially reduce L&D. While there is wide agreement that knowledge and understanding needs to be strengthened on how L&D due to climate change affects countries, in particular highly vulnerable countries and populations, there is still substantial disagreement on several aspects. In fact, after COP20 in Lima a number of options are on the table, including whether L&D should be located under the adaptation framework or form a separate institutional arrangement, or whether a compensation regime should be established to support developing countries. Similarly, the scientific framework for a clear L&D concept, its application in real-world cases, and implications for international climate policy, in particular with respect to questions of responsibility, liability, compensation and financing, is still evolving. Earlier proposals, for instance, have included a threshold concept, with payments released upon crossing of certain thresholds of climate (related) parameters, similar to insurance procedures. The threshold would be defined as a departure of the parameter from baseline conditions, for instance a rainfall event that is more intense than a certain baseline based threshold. Further

  17. Coping with Uncertainty in the Context of Climate Policy of Paeijaet-Haeme; Tulevaisuuden epaevarmuuden huomioiminen Paeijaet-Haemeen ilmastopolitiikassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to create macro-level guidelines for Paeijaet-Haeme Climate Program. The goal is to define climate policies that are both systemically desirable and culturally feasible in the context of Paeijaet-Haeme. Systemically desirable means that the overall effect of a policy is desirable. For example, a policy that mitigates climate change by eco-efficiency improvements can diminish the adaptive capacity of the region to climate change. Such a policy might not be justified on the whole. Culturally feasible means that a certain policy is considered meaningful among relevant actors. For example, if an otherwise desirable policy contradicts the values of the organization who is supposed to act on it, the desired change is unlikely to occur. The fundamentals of this study are based on a critical realist theory of knowledge. This means that the knowledge of positive disciplines, such as economics and engineering, are subject to serious qualitative and normative critique. Systems thinking was used in assessing the overall effects of different policy options. The consequences of climate change - especially indirect ones - are extremely hard to predict. Hence, adaptation strategies to climate change were analyzed from the perspectives of uncertainty, vulnerability and resilience. Cultural feasibility of climate policies was defined using the stream of cultural analysis as described in ChecklandAEs Soft Systems Methodology. Fourteen influential people from Paeijaet-Haeme were interviewed as a basis for this analysis. Interviewees were asked about the views and climate-related goals of their organizations among other things. The study resulted in a set of recommendations for Paeijaet-Haeme Climate Program that are both systemically and culturally justified. Regarding regional planning, the study suggests that the best strategy for Paeijaet-Haeme is to increase the density and diversity of its central town, Lahti. To make public transportation more

  18. Speaking truth to power revisited : science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Two survey questionnaires were circulated among climate scientists located in major institutions in the USA, Germany, Canada, Denmark and Italy to better identify how scientists around the world interpret risks and how they can be negotiated. The selection of countries was representative of national, economic and environmental interests. For instance, because of the geographical expanse of North America, there are several climatic zones and long coastlines to deal with. Emphasis in this paper was on the German context which is more geographically and climatically homogeneous. Denmark and Italy were included because they face greater risks of rising sea levels. The paper also included a self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the relevance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Scientists were asked to assess the ability of atmospheric climate models that deal with the processes of hydrodynamics, radiation, clouds, precipitation and atmospheric convection. They were then asked if the current state of scientific knowledge is adequate to accurately assess the effects of turbulence, surface albedo, land surface processes, sea ice and greenhouse gases. It was shown that there is a reasonable level of agreement among the different scientific communities regarding the abilities of science. However, it was noted that while there is consensus concerning the ability of the science, scientists do not necessarily express an overly high level of confidence in these abilities. The general conclusion reached in this paper was that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science. Compared to scientists, policy makers demonstrate a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Economic Growth Assumptions in Climate and Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that the economic growth seen in recent decades will continue has dominated the discussion of future greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. Given that long-term economic growth is uncertain, the impacts of a wide range of growth trajectories should be considered. In particular, slower economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to the detrimental impacts of climate change. Taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown therefore heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now by moving to renewable energy sources, even if this incurs short-term economic cost. I quantify this counterintuitive impact of economic growth assumptions on present-day policy decisions in a simple global economy-climate model (Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE. In DICE, slow future growth increases the economically optimal present-day carbon tax rate and the utility of taxing carbon emissions, although the magnitude of the increase is sensitive to model parameters, including the rate of social time preference and the elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption. Future scenario development should specifically include low-growth scenarios, and the possibility of low-growth economic trajectories should be taken into account in climate policy analyses.

  20. Expecting the Unexpected Macroeconomic Volatility and Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra S. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Analysts have been comparing a policy scenario with a baseline scenario of future economic conditions without the policy, to estimate the emissions reductions and costs of a climate policy. Both scenarios required assumptions about the future course of numerous factors such as population growth, technical change and non-climate policies like taxes. Approach: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unanticipated macroeconomic shocks to growth in developing countries or a global financial crisis on the performance of three climate policy regimes: A globally-harmonized carbon tax; a global cap and trade system and the McKibbin-Wilcoxen hybrid. The G-cubed dynamic general equilibrium model has been used to explore how the shocks would affect emissions, prices, incomes and wealth under each regime. Results: It has been found that a global cap and trade regime will significantly change the way growth shocks will otherwise be transmitted between regions while price-based systems such as a global carbon tax or a hybrid policy will not. Moreover, in case of a financial meltdown, a price based system will enable significant emissions reductions at low economic cost whereas a quantity target base system will lead to loss of the opportunity for low cost emission reduction because the target is fixed. Conclusion: The results of this study have explored these issues by examining the effects of shocks that have actually occurred in the past decade: A surprising surge of economic growth in developing countries and a global financial crisis. Quantity based approaches such as a global permit trading regime tend to buffer some kinds of macro-economic shocks: Carbon prices rise and fall with the business cycle. However, price-based approaches such as a global carbon tax or a McKibbin Wilcoxen Hybrid would provide stronger firewalls to prevent adverse events in one carbon market from causing a collapse of the global system.

  1. Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

  2. Agriculture and food security challenge of climate change: a dynamic analysis for policy selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study presents an empirical examination of climate change related to vulnerability impacts on food security and remedial adaptation options as a suitable strategy by prioritizing needs over a 50-year period. An Empirical Dynamic Commutable General Equilibrium Model for Climate and the Economy (EDCGECE is applied using future strategies for Malaysia against a baseline scenario of existing conditions, following the top-down options. The model takes into account various climatic variables, including climatic damage, carbon cycle, temperature and rainfall fluctuation, carbon emissions, vulnerability and carbon concentrations, which were adapted from national observational predictions of climatic changes caused by global warming from 2015 to 2065. The results prioritize climate change mitigation for the future. Specifically, this study estimates Malaysia’s food sustainability prospects without adaptation actions and with 5 % to 20 % adaptation actions overtime in different adaptation scenarios, as contrasted with the baseline. The results indicate that food sustainability cost in the baseline in 2015 is 859.3 million US Dollar (USD, which is about a 30-35 % shortage compared with the national targets, and that the shortage will rise over time to USD 987.3 million in 2065. However, the cost of applying different levels of adaptation for food sustainability over time is rising considerably. However, the residual damage also decreases with all adaptation actions in the different scenarios. Thus, adaptation shows a positive sign for Malaysia’s agricultural sectors. As growth values are positive and show rising trends, therefore the projected adaptation policy can be effective for food sustainability for sustainable future strategies in Malaysia.

  3. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pett, Jacky [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society.

  4. Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

    2008-03-01

    New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging).

  5. Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, F

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region.

  6. Modeling water scarcity and droughts for policy adaptation to climate change in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Dinar, Ariel; Albiac, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Growing water extractions combined with emerging demands for environment protection increase competition for scarce water resources worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change is projected to exacerbate water scarcity and increase the recurrence and intensity of droughts. These circumstances call for methodologies that can support the design of sustainable water management. This paper presents a hydro-economic model that links a reduced form hydrological component, with economic and environmental components. The model is applied to an arid and semiarid basin in Southeastern Spain to analyze the effects of droughts and to assess alternative adaptation policies. Results indicate that drought events have large impacts on social welfare, with the main adjustments sustained by irrigation and the environment. The water market policy seems to be a suitable option to overcome the negative economic effects of droughts, although the environmental effects may weaken its advantages for society. The environmental water market policy, where water is acquired for the environment, is an appealing policy to reap the private benefits of markets while protecting ecosystems. The current water management approach in Spain, based on stakeholders' cooperation, achieves almost the same economic outcomes and better environmental outcomes compared to a pure water market. These findings call for a reconsideration of the current management in arid and semiarid basins around the world. The paper illustrates the potential of hydro-economic modeling for integrating the multiple dimensions of water resources, becoming a valuable tool in the advancement of sustainable water management policies.

  7. ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND OPTIONS ON THE RECOGNITION, MEASUREMENT AND DERECOGNITION OF INVENTORIES IN PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA OTILIA ȚENOVICI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International accounting harmonization focuses on improving and reducing the differences between national accounting regulations concerning accounting rules and principles, of general interest, likely to determine the comparability of information in financial statements of institutions, respectively to reduce differences among accounting regulations of different countries. The reference system for drafting accounting policies allows alternatives for accounting registration and assessment, respectively different methods of assessing the patrimony, the result and financial position. The choice of an accounting option is determined by the need to provide a clear financial image on the position and performance of the institution. Thus, for stock assessment they choose the accounting policy likely to provide relevant, reliable, neutral, prudent and complete information in all significant respects by means of with the financial statements.

  8. The effectiveness of recycling policy options: waste diversion or just diversions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, William

    2013-03-01

    Recycling is becoming ever more important as waste generation rates increase globally. Policy-makers must decide which recycling practices to implement from the host of options at their disposal to best divert waste from landfill. This study strived to determine the most important characteristics in recycling programs that were associated with higher material recovery rates, including bag limits, user pay programs, the number of materials collected, curbside collection frequency, promotion and education (P&E) activities, Best Practice principles, and the type of recycling collection stream. Data collected from 223 recycling programs in Ontario during 2005-2010 were used to perform multiple regression analyses. The findings of this study suggest that attributes of convenience are more important to encourage recycling than those that penalize disposal, thus providing important implications for waste policy-makers, both in Ontario and in other jurisdictions.

  9. The New Phase of the Global Policy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Calanter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, a phenomenon that occurs worldwide, is one of the great challenges of our times.The scientific community has repeatedly drawn policy makers attention to the imperative need to adopt ofpreventive, mitigation and adaptation measures to what constitutes a threat to the normal course of life onEarth. Adoption and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, with its ratification by Russia, in February 2005represented a major step forward in the global struggle against climate change. In this moment, however, theconclusion in 2012 of the commitment period for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases provided by theProtocol, and the brokenness of this period, put in front of the international community the need for furtherpolicy measures to prevent and combating climate change and its effects.

  10. Global Climate Change and Society: Scientific, Policy, and Philosophic Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, R.; Bullock, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The summer of 2001 saw the inauguration of the Global Climate Change and Society Program (GCCS), an eight week, NSF-funded experiment in undergraduate pedagogy held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Acknowledging from the start that climate change is more than a scientific problem, GCCS began with the simultaneous study of basic atmospheric physics, classical and environmental philosophy, and public policy. In addition to lectures and discussions on these subjects, our twelve undergraduates (majoring in the physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities) also participated in internships with scholars and researchers at NCAR, University of Colorado's Center of the American West, and the Colorado School of Mines, on specific issues in atmospheric science, science policy, and ethics and values. This talk will discuss the outcomes of GCCS: specifically, new insights into interdisciplinary pedagogy and the student creation of an extraordinary "deliverable," a group summary assessment of the global climate change debate. The student assessment called for an integrated discussion of both the science of climate change and the human values related to how we inhabit the world. The problems facing society today cannot be addressed through the single-minded adherence to science and technology; instead, society must develop new means of integrating the humanities and science in a meaningful dialogue about our common future.

  11. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents’ attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals’ demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several “upstream” climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  12. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  13. The implications of climate policy for the impacts of climate change on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnell, N.W.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Isaac, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of climate policy for exposure to water resources stresses. It compares a Reference scenario which leads to an increase in global mean temperature of 4 °C by the end of the 21st century with a Mitigation scenario which stabilises greenhouse gas concentrations at

  14. Free Markets, Property Rights and Climate Change: How to Privatize Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Dawson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal has been to devise a strategy that protects as much as possible the rights and liberties of all agents, both users of fossil fuels and people whose livelihoods and territories are at risk if the anthropogenic global warming (AGW hypothesis is true. To achieve this goal the standard climate policy instruments, taxes and emissions trading, should be discontinued. There are weaknesses in the theoretical perspectives used to justify these policy instruments and climate science cannot provide the knowledge that would be needed to justify their implementation. In their place I propose a privatised policy, based on Austrian and libertarian frameworks of thought, which share an interpretation of climate change as a putative interpersonal conflict rather than market failure. The use of fossil fuels, like any other economic activity, should be subject to side-constraints designed to avoid the infringement of other people’s property rights. Tort litigation on the basis of strict liability would protect these rights, insofar as they need protecting. By providing a public arena for the competitive testing of scientific hypotheses concerning climate change, such litigation would also promote the public understanding and even the advancement of climate science.

  15. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... entrepreneurship has been present. Theoretically, the study argues that the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ can be usefully borrowed from the public policy literature by researchers of party policy preferences and intra-party politics. Empirically, it adds to the small but growing body of research on climate...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  16. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    presented is based on a flood risk framework that is in accordance with the EU flood directive, but adapted and extended to incorporate anticipated future changes due to city development and hydrologic extremes. The framework is used to study the importance of inherent uncertainties in order to find robust...... adaptation options. The case study is a small urban catchment where no significant city development is anticipated. Therefore the main focus is on estimation of impact of uncertainties related to present and future hydrological conditions, impacts on assets, and costing of the damages. The uncertainties......Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to anthropogenic climate change in many regions of the world. The choice of adaptation strategies can and should be based on a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options...

  17. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  18. The limits of scientific information for informing forest policy decisions under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.

  19. National ownership in the implementation of global climate policy in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the history, from a developing country perspective, of how external interventions to implement global policies on the Climate Convention and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been integrated into national development policy frameworks in the period 1990-2005. The main...... first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited...... national awareness and the fact that climate policy is marginal compared to other national interests in Uganda, the experiences with donor support for the implementation of global climate policy nationally are analysed. This article demonstrates that neither national policies nor national management...

  20. Effectiveness of a segmental approach to climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancik, Jessika E; Chang, Michael T; Karapataki, Christina; Stokes, Leah C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to adopting a cap on greenhouse gas emissions internationally, and across various national contexts, has encouraged alternative climate change mitigation proposals. These proposals include separately targeting clean energy uptake and demand-side efficiency in individual end-use sectors, an approach to climate change mitigation which we characterize as segmental and technology-centered. A debate has ensued on the detailed implementation of these policies in particular national contexts, but less attention has been paid to the general factors determining the effectiveness of a segmental approach to emissions reduction. We address this topic by probing the interdependencies of segmental policies and their collective ability to control emissions. First, we show for the case of U.S. electricity how the set of suitable energy technologies depends on demand-side efficiency, and changes with the stringency of climate targets. Under a high-efficiency scenario, carbon-free technologies must supply 60-80% of U.S. electricity demand to meet an emissions reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels by midcentury. Second, we quantify the enhanced propensity to exceed any intended emissions target with this approach, even if goals are set on both the supply and demand side, due to the multiplicative accumulation of emissions error. For example, a 10% error in complying with separate policies on the demand and supply side would combine to result in a 20% error in emissions. Third, we discuss why despite these risks, the enhanced planning capability of a segmental approach may help counteract growing infrastructural inertia. The emissions reduction impediment due to infrastructural inertia is significant in the electricity sectors of each of the greatest emitters: China, the U.S., and Europe. Commonly cited climate targets are still within reach but, as we show, would require more than a 50% reduction in the carbon intensity of new power plants built in these regions over

  1. Developing and Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Options in Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study in Southwestern Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will likely have significant effects on forest ecosystems worldwide. In Mediterranean regions, such as that in southwestern Oregon, USA, changes will likely be driven mainly by wildfire and drought. To minimize the negative effects of climate change, resource managers require tools and information to assess climate change vulnerabilities and to develop and implement adaptation actions. We developed an approach to facilitate development and implementation of climate change adaptation options in forest management. This approach, applied in a southwestern Oregon study region, involved establishment of a science–manager partnership, a science-based assessment of forest and woodland vulnerabilities to climate change, climate change education in multiple formats, hands-on development of adaptation options, and application of tools to incorporate climate change in planned projects. Through this approach, we improved local manager understanding of the potential effects of climate change in southwestern Oregon, and enabled evaluation of proposed management activities in the context of climatic stressors. Engaging managers throughout the project increased ownership of the process and outcomes, as well as the applicability of the adaptation options to on-the-ground actions. Science–management partnerships can effectively incorporate evolving science, regardless of the socio-political environment, and facilitate timely progress in adaptation to climate change.

  2. Japan after the Quake: Prospects for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luta, Alexandru

    2011-07-01

    The triple calamity of 11 March 2011 has dealt a serious blow domestically to the credibility of the Japanese nuclear industry, putting the country's energy policy in flux.The severe impact on the country's infrastructure, the unwieldiness of its bureaucracy and the chaotic political situation preclude Japan's energy policy from explicitly re-orientating itself before the middle of 2012, but political consensus seems to be emerging that the country's mid-term pledge on emission reductions will need to be curtailed.The bill on renewable energy passed under Prime Minister Kan marked a step in the right direction, but was shallow and politically opportunistic. Its future impact on policy is uncertain.With other policy instruments on climate proposed by the Democratic Party of Japan toothless or abandoned, Tokyo's ability to engage in significant mitigation activities domestically is in question.Opposition to a second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol remains firm; Japan will continue to pursue bilateral mechanisms outside the UNFCCC framework.Given its frail domestic policy and a stated readiness to act internationally outside multilateral frameworks, Japan's promise to carry out significant mitigation activities even in the absence of a clear and comprehensive post-2012 legal instrument should be viewed with a critical eye.(Author)

  3. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  4. Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Asseng, S.; Rotter, R.P.; Hengsdijk, H.; Ruane, A.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation option

  5. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Mejean, Aurelie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economic systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. This article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wide range of integrated assessment models to classify differences among models based on their carbon price responses. Model diagnostics can uncover patterns and provide insights into why, under a given scenario, certain types of models behave in observed ways. Such insights are informative since model behavior can have a significant impact on projections of climate change mitigation costs and other policy-relevant information. The authors propose diagnostic indicators to characterize model responses to carbon price signals and test these in a diagnostic study with 11 global models. Indicators describe the magnitude of emission abatement and the associated costs relative to a harmonized baseline, the relative changes in carbon intensity and energy intensity and the extent of transformation in the energy system. This study shows a correlation among indicators suggesting that models can be classified into groups based on common patterns of behavior in response to carbon pricing. Such a classification can help to more easily explain variations among policy-relevant model results.

  6. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  7. Implications of weak near-term climate policies on long-term climate mitigation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, Gunnar; Bertram, Christoph; Calvin, Katherine V.; De Cian, Enrica; Kriegler, Elmar

    2016-05-09

    While the international community has set a target to limit global warming to no more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels, only a few concrete climate policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been implemented. We use a set of three global integrated assessment models to analyze the implications of current climate policies on long-term mitigation targets. We define a weak-policy baseline scenario, which extrapolates the current policy environment by assuming that the global climate regime remains fragmented and that emission reduction efforts remain unambitious in most of the world’s regions. In this scenario, GHG concentrations stabilize at approximately 650 ppm CO2e, which clearly falls short of the international community’s long-term climate target. We investigate the cost and achievability of the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at 450 ppm CO2e by 2100, if countries follow the weak policy pathway until 2020 or 2030, before global cooperative action is taken to pursue the long-term mitigation target. Despite weak near-term action, a 450 ppm CO2e target is achievable in all the models. However, we find that a deferral of ambitious action exacerbates the challenges of low stabilization. Specifically, weak near-term action leads to (a) higher temporary overshooting of radiative forcing, (b) faster and more aggressive transformations of energy systems after target adoption, (c) more stranded investments in fossil-based capacities, and (d) higher long-term mitigation costs and carbon prices._

  8. Meeting in the MIDDLE:BUILDING off Regional Policies to Promote Climate Education Partnerships on and off Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M.; Stylinski, C.; Shea, N.; Veron, D. E.; Merrill, J.

    2013-12-01

    Both the impacts of climate change and the choices available to adapt and mitigate climate change largely function at the regional scale. Understanding and addressing climate change will require a concerted campaign involving a diverse array of educations from small to large organizations. By focusing on a specific region's climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation options, and existing policies, climate education networks will likely have a higher likelihood of sustainability. Building on this concept, we have developed a climate education partnership, Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR), to better understand effective ways to support formal-, informal- and higher-education practitioners in climate change education in this Mid-Atlantic region. We do so largely through face-to-face and web based professional development for each education practitioner group to improve their capacity to incorporate rigorous regionally-based climate science and solutions into their education strategies. We are promoting communities-of-practice within and across these groups as they share their successes and challenges and consider common messages and approaches. Our training and resources focus on impacts and solutions most relevant to our region including sea level rise, extreme events, and urban heat impacts. Our professional development approach aligns directly with existing education and natural resource, including the region's environmental literacy initiatives, the Next Generation Science Standards, and state climate adaptation and mitigation plans. We anticipate that by building off of existing policy, we will build the success of the network into the future. Our project includes design-based research of all three education groups, and thus we will identify effective climate change education strategies, in and out of schools, that are applicable in other regions.

  9. On the relevance of ideology and environmental values for climate change beliefs, climate policy support, and climate protection activities: An empirical cross country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Based on unique data from representative computer-based surveys among more than 3400 citizens, this paper empirically examines the determinants of climate change beliefs, climate policy support, and climate protection activities in three countries which are key players in international climate policy, namely the USA, Germany (as largest country in the European Union), and China. Our econometric analysis focuses on the effect of ideological and political identification and especially considers...

  10. Tax or no tax? Preferences for climate policy attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Persson, Lars, e-mail: runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2010-03-15

    Today, many countries around the world respond to the global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments such as e.g. taxes, subsidies, emission permit trading, regulations and information campaigns. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analyzed with respect to efficiency, while little effort has been put on public preferences for these instruments. In this paper, an Internet-based choice experiment is conducted where respondents are asked to choose between two alternative policy instruments that both reduce the emissions of CO{sub 2} by the same amount. The policy instruments are characterized by a number of attributes; a technology-effect, an awareness-effect, cost distribution, geographic distribution and private cost (presented in more detail in the paper). By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with instruments labeled by 'tax' and 'other', whereas the other half are faced with unlabeled instruments. As for the label, the results show that people dislike the 'tax'. The results also show that people prefer instruments with a positive effect on environmentally-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice. Finally, the results indicate that Swedes want the reduction to take place in Europe but not necessarily in Sweden

  11. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain

  12. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  13. Long-term perspective underscores need for stronger near-term policies on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, S. A.; Shakun, J. D.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Goldner, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that substantial anthropogenic climate change will occur during the 21st century and beyond, the social, economic and political will to address this global challenge remains mired in uncertainty and indecisiveness. One contributor to this situation may be that scientific findings are often couched in technical detail focusing on near-term changes and uncertainties and often lack a relatable long-term context. We argue that viewing near-term changes from a long-term perspective provides a clear demonstration that policy decisions made in the next few decades will affect the Earth's climate, and with it our socio-economic well-being, for the next ten millennia or more. To provide a broader perspective, we present a graphical representation of Earth's long-term climate history that clearly identifies the connection between near-term policy options and the geological scale of future climate change. This long view is based on a combination of recently developed global proxy temperature reconstructions of the last 20,000 years and model projections of surface temperature for the next 10,000 years. Our synthesis places the 20th and 21st centuries, when most emissions are likely to occur, into the context of the last twenty millennia over which time the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts will occur. This long-term perspective raises important questions about the most effective adaptation and mitigation policies. For example, although some consider it economically viable to raise seawalls and dikes in response to 21st century sea level change, such a strategy does not account for the need for continuously building much higher defenses in the 22nd century and beyond. Likewise, avoiding tipping points in the climate system in the short term does not necessarily imply that such thresholds will not still be crossed in the more distant future as slower components

  14. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    and within certain sectors such that various improvements can be made. Thus, the aim of this report is: to analyze the historical and present impact of the European patent system on innovation and diffusion of knowledge to identify current key trends in the patent system to identify the challenges...... and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...... on two occasions. The study was requested by STOA, a body whose brief is the 'Assessment of Scientific and Technological Policy Options for the European Parliament'....

  15. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  16. Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox

  17. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-01-15

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus an energy policy measures within the EU with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 24 percent by 2020 as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced its GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 24 percent of the energy used in 2020 must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 percent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order ta highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based an supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all EU Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and what will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  18. Diverse policy implications for future ozone and surface UV in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. H.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Young, P. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the success of the Montreal Protocol in limiting emissions of ozone-depleting substances, concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane will control the evolution of total column and stratospheric ozone by the latter half of the 21st century. As the world proceeds down the path of reducing climate forcing set forth by the 2015 Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21), a broad range of ozone changes are possible depending on future policies enacted. While decreases in tropical stratospheric ozone will likely persist regardless of the future emissions scenario, extratropical ozone could either remain weakly depleted or even increase well above historical levels, with diverse implication for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The ozone layer’s dependence on future emissions of these gases creates a complex policy decision space for protecting humans and ecosystems, which includes unexpected options such as accepting nitrous oxide emissions in order to maintain historical column ozone and surface UV levels.

  19. Climate change adaptation and forests in South Asia: Policy for multiple stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshingkar, P.

    1997-12-31

    Moving from a general understanding of the potential dangers of climate change to real policy and investment requires changes in priorities at the level of government as well as the individual. Information should be disseminated through regional technical co-operation as well as improved communication between relevant institutions within countries. Besides fulfilling scientific and economic criteria for sustainability, forest adaption strategies in South asian countries should aim to be participatory and low cost. In the short term, maximizing the utility of existing institutions and skills may be more practical. The removal of market distortions will also enhance adaptive capacity. Continued research and technological innovation must accompany efforts to change management practices. The immediate priority for donor assistance in this area is to conduct vulnerability assessments, evaluate the constraints and develop a menu of adaption options based on multi criteria analysis of different objectives

  20. Optimising Russian natural gas - reform and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-18

    The world's largest gas producer and exporter, Russia has an enormous energy saving potential. At least 30 billion cubic meters, a fifth of Russian exports to European OECD countries, could be saved every year by enhanced technology or energy efficiency. As the era of cheap gas in Russia comes to an end, this potential saving is increasingly important for Russians and importing countries. And, as domestic gas prices increase, efficiency investments will become increasingly economic - not to mention the incentive for Gazprom to enhance its efficiency against a backdrop of high European gas prices. The book analyzes and estimates the potential savings and the associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the oil extraction (flaring), gas transmission, and distribution sectors. Achieving these savings will require linking long-standing energy efficiency goals with energy sector reforms, as well as climate policy objectives. The book also describes Russia's emerging climate policy and institutional framework, including work still ahead before the country is eligible for the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms and can attract financing for greenhouse gas reductions. Stressed is the need for Russia to tap the full potential of energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions through a more competitive environment in the gas sector to attract timely investments.

  1. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  2. Cumulative Impacts of Energy and Climate Change Policies on Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A.; Milnes, R.; Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon leakage occurs when climate change policy aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in one country leads to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a country that is not bound by these policies. Given that climate change is a global issue, carbon leakage impacts upon the effectiveness of climate change policies. This independent study examines the cumulative impact of climate change policies on carbon leakage. The report brings together findings and analysis from a wide range of primary literature in this area and where possible, conclusions relevant to the UK are drawn.

  3. ADAM adaptation and mitigation strategies: supporting European climate policy. Deliverable D3 of work package M1 (code D-M1.3). ADAM 2-degree scenario for Europe - policies and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Wolfgang; Jochem, Eberhard; Barker, Terry (and others)

    2009-07-31

    ADAM research identifies and appraises existing and new policy options that can contribute to different combinations of adaptation and mitigation strategies. These options address the demands a changing climate will place on protecting citizens and valuable ecosystems - i.e., adaptation - as well as addressing the necessity to restrain/control humankind's perturbation to global climate to a desirable level - i.e., mitigation. The work package Mitigation 1 (Ml) has the core objective to simulate mitigation options and their related costs for Europe until 2050 and 2100 respectively. The focus of this deliverable is on the period 2005 to 2050. The long-term period until 2100 is covered in the previous deliverable D2, applying the POLES model for this time horizon. The analysis constitutes basically a techno-economic analysis. Depending on the sector analyzed it is either directly combined with a policy analysis (e.g. in the transport sector, renewables sector) or the policy analysis is performed qualitatively as a subsequent and independent step after the techno-economic analysis is completed (e.g. in the residential and service sectors). The book includes the following chapters: scenarios and macroeconomic assumptions; methodological issues analyzing mitigation options; the integrated global energy model POLES and its projections for the reference and 2 deg C scenarios; forest and basic materials sector; residential sector in Europe; the service (tertiary) and the primary sectors in Europe; basic products and other manufacturing industry sectors; transport sectors in Europe; renewable sector in Europe; conversion sector in Europe; syntheses and sectoral analysis in Europe; macroeconomic impacts of climate policy in the EU; the effects of the financial crisis on baseline simulations with implications for climate policy modeling: an analysis using the global model E3MG 2008-2012; conclusions and policy recommendations.

  4. Multi-basket approaches to climate and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa

    2014-05-01

    Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) receive increasing attention because emission abatements of most of these substances not only reduce air pollution but also slow down the global warming. Cutting the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a long-lived gas in contrast, is of primary importance to mitigate the global climate change as well as to stop ocean acidification. To keep abreast of such multiple challenges in a flexible and cost-effective manner, emission caps can be specified in terms of a reference gas (e.g., CO2) and emissions of different components can be converted according to emission metrics. However, under a current one-basket approach (used continuously in the Kyoto Protocol), which allows trading for all the components, any emission metrics may not be scientifically acceptable due to their diverse atmospheric lifetimes among many other reasons. Here we question whether an emerging multi-basket approach, which groups substances based on their atmospheric lifetimes and permits trading for components within each basket, is more robust in guiding us to achieve multiple policy targets and more useful to maintain the balance between SLCP and CO2 abatements with relatively small additional costs. In a wider context a multi-basket approach may simplify the dialogue among stakeholders and underpin a parallel pursuit of multiple climate and environmental challenges that our society faces.

  5. NAFTA as an agricultural "policy option" for Mexico : a case study within a two-level framework

    OpenAIRE

    Røssaak, Camilla

    1996-01-01

    NAFTA AS AN AGRICULTURAL 'POLICY OPTION' FOR MEXICO: A CASE STUDY WITHIN A TWO- LEVEL FRAMEWORK The main focus of the thesis was the agricultural negotiation process between Mexico and the United States within the NAFTA process. I wanted to investigate to what extent this process led to changes in Mexican agricultural policy. Furthermore I wanted to find out whose interests were taken into consideration when Mexico negotiated agriculture in NAFTA. If so, was this done at the expense o...

  6. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  7. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  8. Regional air quality management aspects of climate change: impact of climate mitigation options on regional air emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Jason; Miller, Paul J; Trail, Marcus A; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    We investigate the projected impact of six climate mitigation scenarios on U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX) associated with energy use in major sectors of the U.S. economy (commercial, residential, industrial, electricity generation, and transportation). We use the EPA U.S. 9-region national database with the MARKet Allocation energy system model to project emissions changes over the 2005 to 2050 time frame. The modeled scenarios are two carbon tax, two low carbon transportation, and two biomass fuel choice scenarios. In the lower carbon tax and both biomass fuel choice scenarios, SO2 and NOX achieve reductions largely through pre-existing rules and policies, with only relatively modest additional changes occurring from the climate mitigation measures. The higher carbon tax scenario projects greater declines in CO2 and SO2 relative to the 2050 reference case, but electricity sector NOX increases. This is a result of reduced investments in power plant NOX controls in earlier years in anticipation of accelerated coal power plant retirements, energy penalties associated with carbon capture systems, and shifting of NOX emissions in later years from power plants subject to a regional NOX cap to those in regions not subject to the cap.

  9. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options: a discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  10. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  11. Evaluation of supplier obligation policy options: Report for DTI and DEFRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radov, Daniel; Klevnas, Per; Nagler, David

    2007-05-23

    This report examines various policy design options for a future 'Supplier Obligation' to promote energy efficiency in the domestic sector. It examines possible reasons that low-cost energy efficiency measures have not been taken up to the extent predicted by simple models of household financial decision-making. Having characterised these 'barriers' to energy efficiency we review a range of policy designs that could be considered to reduce household CO{sub 2} emissions. We then evaluate these options against a range of criteria and suggest areas for further research. There is a substantial literature on the barriers to energy efficiency both within households and more generally across the economy. Based on this literature, w e have identified seven categories of 'barriers'. Briefly, these include: Basic financial barriers: These include the potentially higher (upfront) costs of energy efficient products and the interest rates available to households; Hidden costs: These include 'transaction costs' associated with finding reputable providers, time costs of disruption, and the costs of differences in quality of product or service - all of which may reduce the net benefit derived from efficiency measures. Lack of information: If households do not know their level of energy expenditure, how energy use can be reduced, by how much, or at what cost, they are unlikely to consider investing in energy efficiency. Risks and uncertainty: Uncertainty about future energy prices or period of tenure may deter households from investing, since they cannot be assured of future savings. In addition, households may be wary of the risk associated with new (or unfamiliar) products or services. Poorly aligned incentives: The most commonly cited barrier of this kind is the 'landlord-tenant split, whereby landlords under-invest in energy-efficiency because tenants pay energy bills, or tenants do not economise on energy because the landlord pays

  12. Intensity-based climate change policies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark

    2010-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large industries the Canadian government proposed using a tradable emissions performance standard approach, where the intensity of emissions, rather than the absolute level, is regulated. Unlike a cap and trade system, an emissions performance standard does not guarantee a certain overall level of emission reductions, a fact that has led to significant criticism. However, because of the dynamics of performance standards, they may reduce concerns over reductions in international competitiveness in cases where a country has climate policies that are more aggressive than those of some of its trade partners. Likewise, a performance standard may mesh more efficiently with existing taxes and therefore cause less overall economic impact than an absolute cap and trade system. This paper considers the theoretical arguments for and against such a performance standard system and evaluates it in comparison to a cap and trade system using a dynamic general equilibrium model applied to Canada.

  13. A real options approach to biotechnology Investment policy - the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages...... of the project – and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage......-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors'/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could...

  14. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  15. Advancing methodological thinking and practice for development-compatible climate policy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scrieciu, S. Şerban; Belton, Valerie; Chalabi, Zaid;

    2014-01-01

    There are growing calls for identifying climate mitigation and adaptation policy packages that would also support human development objectives at the national and regional levels. The literature on climate policy analysis and impact assessment continues to be driven by standard economics with its...

  16. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets : Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use

  17. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to clima

  18. Climate Policy Under Fat-Tailed Risk: An Application of Dice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, I.C.; Reynès, F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty plays a significant role in evaluating climate policy, and fat-tailed uncertainty may dominate policy advice. Should we make our utmost effort to prevent the arbitrarily large impacts of climate change under deep uncertainty? In order to answer to this question, we propose a new way of i

  19. Venezuelan policies and responses on climate change and natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Claudio; Rosales, Anibal

    1992-06-01

    Venezuela is an intertropical country which has the fortune not to suffer the severities of natural hazards which are usual in other countries of this region. It is a developing country, whose economy is heavily dependent on oil production and exports. Its greenhouse gas emissions are relatively low, but it is expected that the planned industrialization development will bring an associated increase in emissions. As a nation, Venezuela has a highly developed environmental consciousness. The Ministry of environment, the first in Latin America, was created in 1977, and has been the main contributor to the national policy of Disaster Prevention and Reduction. As in many developing countries actions and responses in this regard have been rather limited in scope, and even though legislation has been developed, many problems arise for its enforcement. Several local warning systems, civil defense procedures, and infrastructural protection measures are operational, however they have not been designed, revised, or planned taking into consideration the potential impacts of climate change. Presently Venezuela is an active participant state in the negotiation for a framework convention on climate change. That is a very difficult negotiation for our country. Here we have to conciliate enviromental principles with national economic interests. The elements of our position in this contex are presented in this statement.

  20. Climate Wrongs and Human Rights. Putting people at the heart of climate-change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raworth, K. (ed.) (and others)

    2008-09-15

    In failing to tackle climate change with urgency, rich countries are effectively violating the human rights of millions of the world's poorest people. Continued excessive greenhouse-gas emissions primarily from industrialised nations are - with scientific certainty - creating floods, droughts, hurricanes, sea-level rise, and seasonal unpredictability. The result is failed harvests, disappearing islands, destroyed homes, water scarcity, and deepening health crises, which are undermining millions of peoples' rights to life, security, food, water, health, shelter, and culture. Such rights violations could never truly be remedied in courts of law. Human-rights principles must be put at the heart of international climate-change policy making now, in order to stop this irreversible damage to humanity's future.

  1. A real options approach to biotechnology investment policy-the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine development in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages of the project - and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors'/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could be to issue put options for the vaccine candidate, enabling vaccine developers to hedge against the economic risk from market volatility.

  2. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  3. Adapting to Uncertainty: Comparing Methodological Approaches to Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, J.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change adaptation represents a number of unique policy-making challenges. Foremost among these is dealing with the range of future climate impacts to a wide scope of inter-related natural systems, their interaction with social and economic systems, and uncertainty resulting from the variety of downscaled climate model scenarios and climate science projections. These cascades of uncertainty have led to a number of new approaches as well as a reexamination of traditional methods for evaluating risk and uncertainty in policy-making. Policy makers are required to make decisions and formulate policy irrespective of the level of uncertainty involved and while a debate continues regarding the level of scientific certainty required in order to make a decision, incremental change in the climate policy continues at multiple governance levels. This project conducts a comparative analysis of the range of methodological approaches that are evolving to address uncertainty in climate change policy. It defines 'methodologies' to include a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches involving both top-down and bottom-up policy processes that attempt to enable policymakers to synthesize climate information into the policy process. The analysis examines methodological approaches to decision-making in climate policy based on criteria such as sources of policy choice information, sectors to which the methodology has been applied, sources from which climate projections were derived, quantitative and qualitative methods used to deal with uncertainty, and the benefits and limitations of each. A typology is developed to better categorize the variety of approaches and methods, examine the scope of policy activities they are best suited for, and highlight areas for future research and development.

  4. Understanding How and Why Cities Engage with Climate Policy: An Analysis of Local Climate Action in Spain and Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analysis show a trend towards an increasing awareness on climate mitigation (highly focused on energy efficiency and the promotion of cleaner energy sources, while adaptation remains an incipient local policy area in both countries. The analysis identifies also the beneficial influence of national and international climate city networks.

  5. The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled? A Climate Change Mitigation Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, S.; Hall, C.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Scott, D.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through deep emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism s

  6. Policies, Actions and Effects for China s Forestry Response to Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a great concern of various countries, the public and science community, and forest plays an important role in mitigating climate change. The paper made a comprehensive analysis regarding the policy selections of China to promote forestry response to the global climate change, and elaborated the concrete actions and achievements in this regard. Policy selections include: 1) Reinforce tree planting and afforestation, increase the forested area and enhance the capacity of carbon sequestration...

  7. Multi-level governance of climate change in Belgium. Modest subnational policies in a complex setting

    OpenAIRE

    Happaerts, Sander

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes subnational climate policies in Belgium as a crucial case of multi-level policy-making in Europe. In Belgian federalism, the subnational governments have a large autonomy to conduct their own climate policies, while the scope to act at the federal level is very limited. Moreover, the federal system had produced complex and ineffective coordination patterns, where the federal and the subnational governments each have the possibility to block agreements, e.g. on the intra-Be...

  8. Water resource impacts of climate and land cover change in New Zealand: Balancing scientific supply and policy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Rouse, H. L.; Duncan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land cover have a range of effects on water resources. The policies in place to manage these potential changes depend on the biophysical drivers, the societal and environmental vulnerabilities, and the environmental (or resource management) governance institutions in place. As the science advances, so too will the policy, and as policy needs are identified, so too will the science advance. To illustrate the co-evolution of water resource science and policy, their dependence on environmental and social contexts, and their potential for further evolution, examples are drawn from New Zealand. Climate change is projected to have a range of impacts on the water resource system, including both increases and decreases in water supply, more severe droughts and floods, and degraded aquatic ecosystems. This is expected to have significant implications for the country's water-based agricultural economy and other societal values. Consequently, recent central government policy has directed all regional resource managers to take into consideration the foreseeable impacts of climate change, yet in many places projections of potential water resource change are lacking. In a similar vein, land cover change, such as the clearance of forest for dairy farming or the expansion of forests for carbon farming, also alters the quantity, quality and timing of water supply. In contrast to climate change, however, there has been no specific direction given from central government regarding land cover management, but rather a requirement to integrate land use change in broader limit setting. Going beyond this, two of the 16 regional authorities have already put in place policies that restrict forest expansion based on the potential reductions in catchment water supply. The differential responses to potential climate and land cover change depend on a range of scientific and societal factors, including the vulnerability of the water resource system and

  9. Climate change, geological and hydrological hazard and adaptation policy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    The present work try to underling the scientific and technical background for a national plan for adaptation to climate change in the field of geo hydrological disasters. The adaptation policy represents the need tool to prevent from the adverse effect of climate change, minimizing the impacts and maximizing the opportunity from these changes. The "decision and policy makers" therefore needs to understand the vulnerability of existing territory in terms of impacts, related risks, opportunities, costs and consequences of different options and scenarios. Climate change has significant impacts on the hydrological cycle and all its related phenomena. Landslide and floods represent the conflict between natural and physic system and social and economical setting, constituting a fundamental imbalance and risk for population. Italian territory due to geological and geomorphological settings is always been interested by geological and hydrological extreme events. Between 1279 and 2002 A.D. in Italy, the AVI catalog (http://avi.gndci.cnr.it) recorded 4521 extreme events in terms of damages. In the same period we had 13.8 victims per year during landslide and 49.6 victims per year due to floods. To define a strong correlation between actual trend in occurrence of geological and hydrological hazards and future scenarios, it seems to be very difficult. The correlation should consider the relationship between meteorological trigger mechanisms (not yet very well associated to climate change) and hazard. For the Italian situations the most recent models provide the following scenario: further increase in temperature (steadily increasing trend already in the last two decades) with increasing periods of drought and heat waves; a general decrease in average precipitation; a decrease in wet days; an increase in intensity of rainfall (extreme events). Such trend seem to be more relevant in the southern part of Italy. The same problems arise when defining the socio economic impacts. The

  10. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  11. The Greening of Innovation Systems for Eco-innovation - Towards an Evolutionary Climate Mitigation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    -innovation policies in important ways. The paper argues that the evolutionary economic perspective entails a new policy rationale which not only puts more emphasis on greening of markets as a means towards reaching climate goals but also shifts the representation of the economy towards a more dynamic one. The policy...

  12. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  13. National Climate Change Policies and Sustainable Water Management: Conflicts and Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Pittock

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of climate change, freshwater ecosystems and the resources they provide for people are under great pressure because of increasing demand for water and declines in water quality. The imminent onset of climate change will exacerbate these impacts, placing even greater pressure on already stressed resources and regions. A plethora of national climate change policies have been adopted that emphasize structural adjustment in the energy sector and increasing carbon sinks. To date, most public debate on water has focused on the direct impacts of climate change on hydrology. However, there is growing evidence that climate change policies themselves may have substantial additional and negative impacts on freshwater resources and ecosystems and may thus result in maladaptation. To avoid such maladaptation, integrated, coordinated policy making is required. In this paper, national climate change policies from Australia, Brazil, China, the European Union (EU, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania, and the United Kingdom are compared to: (i identify where negative trade-offs exist between climate change policies and freshwater resources, (ii analyze where institutions and structures exist to optimize integration among climate, water, and biodiversity policies, and (iii provide a much needed overview from a broad selection of countries with a view to identifying further opportunities for theoretical exploration and testing. The synergies and conflicts among climate, energy, water, and environmental policies create additional challenges for governments to develop integrated policies to deliver multiple benefits. Success factors for better policy development identified in this assessment and synthesis include engagement of senior political leaders, cyclical policy development, multi-agency and stakeholder processes, and stronger accountability and enforcement measures.

  14. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  15. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  16. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  17. The health co-benefits of climate change policies: doctors have a responsibility to future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Mitigating climate change presents unrivalled opportunities for improving public health. The policies that need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will also bring about substantial reductions in heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, road deaths and injuries, and air pollution. The health benefits arise because climate change policies necessarily impact on two of the most important determinants of health: human nutrition and human movement. Although the health co-benefits of climate change policies are increasingly recognised by health professionals they are not widely appreciated by those responsible for policy. Because the existence of important health co-benefits will dramatically reduce the cost to society of taking strong action to mitigate climate change, failure to appreciate their importance could have serious environmental consequences. Health professionals have an urgent responsibility to ensure that the health benefits of environmental policies are understood by the public and by policymakers.

  18. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process? Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pett, Jacky [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society.

  19. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  20. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  1. The Impact of Climate Change on Maize Yield and Farmers’ Adaptation Options:Evidence from Three Provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiliang; MA; Weisheng; KONG

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question that whether farmers can adjust better to climate change in the short-term than in long-term by using panel data models and long difference models respectively.We find that short term weather shocks are less detrimental to maize yield than the long-term climate changes,which can be seen as the evidences of adaptations.For adaptation options,we find farmers choose to decrease maize planting area or enlarge the irrigation inputs to cope with the increase of extreme heat days;when there are more precipitations,farmers will increase the input of fertilizer or labor.

  2. Research-Informed Policy Options for Infant and Toddler Early Care and Education: Research-to-Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This Research-to-Policy Resource List compiles research-based policy documents published in 2010 and later on the following topics: Early learning guidelines for infants and toddlers; Program standards for settings serving infants and toddlers; Core competencies and credentials for caregivers of infants and toddlers; Use of infant/toddler…

  3. Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands: Inventory and options for extended use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Beukering, van P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the ‘policy toolbox’. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study exp

  4. Perceptions of climate change in China:The research and policy connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHua Zhou; J Scott Hauger; Ning Liu; HuiLing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has evolved from a scientific problem into an economic and political problem of worldwide inter-est. National perspectives play a crucial role in addressing climate change. Mutual understanding of perspectives is nec-essary to result in rational policies and a consensus among stakeholders with divergent interests. Conceptual frameworks for understanding the problem of climate change in China, the largest developing country and the largest greenhouse gas emitter, are of great significance to national and international efforts to address the problems of climate change. Chinese perceptions of climate change as a sustainable development problem have recently been in tension with an emerging Western perspective that frames climate change as a security issue. This paper explores Chinese perceptions of climate change as expressed in recent governmental policy statements, public opinion surveys, and academic scholarship with a focus on publications in Chinese-language journals, often unfamiliar in the West. It looks at the relationship between Chinese research and policy and finds that the Chinese policy frame of climate change as a sustainable development problem draws from the body of domestic research and is reflective of the perspectives and multidisciplinary approach of Chinese researchers in areas of climate change.

  5. Organisational sustainability policies and employee green behaviour : The mediating role of work climate perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Thomas A.; Zacher, Hannes; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2014-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly introducing sustainability policies to encourage environmentally friendly behaviours. Employees' green work climate perceptions (i.e., how they perceive their organisations' and co-workers' orientations towards environmental sustainability) may constitute psychological

  6. Vulnerability of drained and rewetted organic soils to climate change impacts and associated adaptation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renou-Wilson, Florence; Müller, Christoph; Wilson, David

    2016-04-01

    With 20% of the land covered with peat soils, Ireland needs to develop a deeper understanding among stakeholders of the potential vulnerability of peatlands and organic soils to climate change (both gradual and extreme events) in the context of current land use changes. The fate of carbon in organic soils is critical for predicting future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. While keeping carbon stock in organic soils (for example by rewetting drained sites) can be an effective mitigation measures to reduce CO2 emissions, adaptation options are also required to ensure their 'resilience'. Rewetting of drained organic soils has been initiated at several sites across the country with the aim to (i) reduce net GHG emissions at the source and/or (ii) create suitable conditions for carbon sequestration in active peatland habitats. We present here two sites: an industrial cutaway peatland and an extensive grassland over organic soil, where long-term (> 4 years) environmental and GHG flux (chamber) datasets in both drained and rewetted areas have provided information on the impact of annual weather variability on net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Statistical response functions estimated for gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were used to reconstruct annual CO2 balances using site-specific models driven by soil temperature, solar radiation, soil water table levels and leaf area index. The modification of some of the model parameters to fit predicted future climate scenarios for the region allowed potential changes in modelled NEE to be assessed. Both sites were, on average, an annual source of CO2 when drained (138 - 232 g C m-2 yr-1) and a sink when rewetted (ranging from -40 g C m-2 yr-1 in the ungrazed rewetted grassland to a maximum of -260 g C m-2 yr-1 in the rewetted cutaway). At both sites, soil temperatures and water table levels varied significantly between all years. Average NEE at each site displayed a very large

  7. "It's a question of prestige": Climate change as public policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdi Lelandais, Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Climate change has been a preoccupation of public bodies in Turkey since the country signed the UNFCC in 2004. Before then, periodic environmental policies were enacted, but under the remit of each Cabinet ministry and without handing over central control of the Ministry of the Environment. Furthermore, no action-oriented policies on climate change were developed. The issue came to public prominence relatively recently in Turkey, but interest in the issues at state is ...

  8. Climate paradox of the G-8: legal obligations, policy declarations and implementation gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Guenter Brauch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the climate policy performance of the G-8 from 1992 to 2012 based on their legal commitments (Annex-1 and Annex-B countries under the UNFCCC (1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997 and their policy declarations on their GHG reduction goals until 2050. A climate paradox has emerged due to a growing implementation gap in Canada, USA and Japan, while Russia, Germany, UK, France and Italy fulfilled their GHG reduction obligation.

  9. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  10. Southern voices on climate policy choices: Analysis of and lessons learned from civil society advocacy on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Ampomah, Gifty; Prera, Maria Isabel Olazabal; Rabbani, Golam; Zvigadza, Shepard

    2012-05-15

    This report provides an analysis of the tools and tactics advocacy groups use to influence policy responses to climate change at international, regional, national and sub-national levels. More than 20 climate networks and their member organisations have contributed to the report with their experiences of advocacy on climate change, including over 70 case studies from a wide range of countries - including many of the poorest - in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. These advocacy activities primarily target national governments, but also international and regional processes, donors and the private sector. Analyses and case studies show how civil society plays key roles in pushing for new laws, programmes, policies or strategies on climate change, in holding governments to account on their commitments; in identifying the lack of joined-up government responses to climate change; and in ensuring that national policy making does not forget the poor and vulnerable. The report is the first joint product of the Southern Voices Capacity Building Programme, or for short: Southern Voices on Climate Change.

  11. Adaptation and mitigation options to manage aflatoxin contamination in food with a climate change perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambui, J. M.; Karuri, E. G.; Ojiambo, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of climate change remains vital for food safety and public health. Of particular importance is the influence of climatic conditions on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of their toxins. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual impact of climate change...

  12. Global climate change : Canadian policy and the role of terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Hauer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Canadian climate change policy. It is argued that voluntary action will contribute little to climate change mitigation and that forest management strategies can, at most, contribute some 7.5 percent of Canada’s required Kyoto CO2-emissions reduction target. To do s

  13. The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions on Mitigation Policy Stringency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2015-07-01

    Climate sensitivity and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks interact to determine how global carbon and energy cycles will change in the future. While the science of these connections is well documented, their economic implications are not well understood. Here we examine the effect of climate change on the carbon cycle, the uncertainty in climate outcomes inherent in any given policy target, and the economic implications. We examine three policy scenarios—a no policy “Reference” (REF) scenario, and two policies that limit total radiative forcing—with four climate sensitivities using a coupled integrated assessment model. Like previous work, we find that, within a given scenario, there is a wide range of temperature change and sea level rise depending on the realized climate sensitivity. We expand on this previous work to show that temperature-related feedbacks on the carbon cycle result in more mitigation required as climate sensitivity increases. Thus, achieving a particular radiative forcing target becomes increasingly expensive as climate sensitivity increases.

  14. Efficacy Trade-Offs in Individuals' Support for Climate Change Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, Lynn D.; Saelensminde, Ingrid; Ekström, Frida; Böhm, Gisela; Bostrom, Ann; Hanss, Daniel; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data, the authors developed an architecture of climate change beliefs in Norway and their correlation with support for policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A strong majority of respondents believe that anthropogenic climate change is occurring and identify carbon dioxide emissions as a cause. Regression analysis shows…

  15. Mitigation and adaptation within a climate change policy portfolio: A research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is now recognized that optimal global climate policy is a portfolio of the two key responses for reducing the risks of climate change: mitigation and adaptation. Significant differences between the two responses have inhibited understanding of how to appropriately view these...

  16. Companies and Climate Risk: Opportunities to Engage the Business Community in Promoting Climate-conscious Policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of their policy orientation, the business community has an interest in how climate change impacts will affect their operations and ultimately change their bottom line. The reality that climate change presents material and financial risks to many companies in diverse sectors of the economy presents an opportunity to engage companies on climate-related issues. Company investors are exposed to such financial risks and can pressure public companies to change behavior through shareholder resolutions, voting, and election of new board members. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) obligates all publicly traded companies to discuss risks that might materially affect their business in their annual Form 10-K filings. In 2010, the guidance for the Form 10-K specifically suggested that companies consider and discuss any significant risks to their business from climate change--both from its physical effects and from impacts of climate regulations. Form 10-Ks for 28 US companies were analyzed for the years 2009 and 2010. Results indicate that some companies comprehensively considered climate-related risks. However, in spite of the SEC guidance, some fail to mention climate change at all. Additionally, many companies discuss only the impacts that regulation would have on their business--not the physical effects of climate change itself. The lack of consideration of climate-related risks in companies' risk assessments demonstrates a need for a more uniform understanding of SEC requirements and additionally, this state of affairs presents an opportunity to push companies to more deeply consider climate change impacts. Several avenues are available for engaging with companies themselves, their shareholders, the SEC, and the public. We will explore what strategies have been effective for engaging such actors and what further opportunities exist for working with the business community to promote more climate-conscious policies and practices.

  17. Immediate challenge of combating climate change: Effective implementation of energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvaj, Zoran; Bukarica, Vesna

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. Therefore, it is the focus of energy and climate change policies world wide. The results of these policies are still missing in the desired extent, even in the EU, which has the most advanced energy efficiency policy. The main reason behind this policy failure is a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake. Embracing full-scale energy management systems in public and business sectors and mobilisation of and cooperation between all stakeholders are the way towards higher efficiency.

  18. Reviews of the Norwegian climate policy - a synthesis of four international reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjoernaes, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin

    2011-07-01

    The report is a synthesis of four reviews on the Norwegian climate policy: 1. Environmental performance review of Norway, OECD 2011 2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, Norway, IEA 2011 3. Economic Survey of Norway, OECD 2010 4. Report on the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Norway.(auth)

  19. The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Karoly, David; Wiseman, John

    2016-01-01

    Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies. PMID:27657098

  20. National Climate Change Policies and Sustainable Water Management: Conflicts and Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Pittock

    2011-01-01

    Even in the absence of climate change, freshwater ecosystems and the resources they provide for people are under great pressure because of increasing demand for water and declines in water quality. The imminent onset of climate change will exacerbate these impacts, placing even greater pressure on already stressed resources and regions. A plethora of national climate change policies have been adopted that emphasize structural adjustment in the energy sector and increasing carbon sinks. To dat...

  1. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  2. Impact of Climate Change: Views and Perceptions of Policy Makers on Smallholder Agriculture in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tetteh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The threat of global climate change has caused intense debate among policy makers as agricultural productivity and food security risks considerable decline due to changes in rainfallpatterns and temperature. Although the impact of climate change on crop yields vary greatly from region to region, smallholder farmers in developing countries who depend solely on rain-fed agriculture are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. While the successes in agricultural production in Africa and Ghana over the last decades are heralded, the inequitable distribution of benefits and unsustainable impacts on natural resources are becoming more evident. Many authors have blamed global warming and climate change on the emission of greenhouse gasses however, farming methods and other human activities are also to blame for the emerging change in the climate. Therefore, bringing farming practices and ecosystem services into decision-making in order to make full use of the potential gains from working with the natural environment and the underpinning biophysical processes is imperative. This paper assesses the views and perceptions of Ghanaian policy makers on the impact of climate change on smallholder agricultural productivity in order to sustain agricultural productivity in Ghana. The study used data from a case study conducted by the Environment Policy Action Node Project with sponsorship from the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA in Ghana between 2012 and 2013. An interview guide was used to collect qualitatively data from 35 key policy making institutions/organization in Ghana. One important finding of the paper is that even though Ghana has a climate change policy, most of the policy makers were not aware of the policy document and its contents. The paper however argues that to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Ghana, a national debate on climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are needed to ensure coherence

  3. Mitigation of adverse effects on competitiveness and leakage of unilateral EU climate policy: An assessment of policy instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antimiani, A.; Costantini, V.; Kuik, O.J.; Paglialunga, E.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed a strategy to mitigate climate change by cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fostering low carbon technologies. However, the risk of implementing unilateral policies is that distortive effects are generated at the global scale affecting world energy price

  4. Cost-effectiveness of climate change policies for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rudd, Anne Elizabeth Sally

    2012-01-01

    This research project applies a hybrid energy-economy model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation policies for the United States. Five policies are compared: (1) a technology regulation phasing out coal and natural gas generation, (2) Clean Electricity Standard, (3) Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard, (4) Vehicles Emissions Standard, (5) economy-wide GHG tax. The cost of these policies is estimated using three different methodologies. The first methodol...

  5. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  6. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  7. Climate Change Risk Perception and Policy Preferences. The Role of Affect, Imagery, and Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiserowitz, A. [Decision Research, 1201 Oak Street, Suite 200, Eugene, OR 97401 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    A national, representative survey of the U.S. public found that Americans have moderate climate change risk perceptions, strongly support a variety of national and international policies to mitigate climate change, and strongly oppose several carbon tax proposals. Drawing on the theoretical distinction between analytic and experiential decision-making, this study found that American risk perceptions and policy support are strongly influenced by experiential factors, including affect, imagery, and values, and demonstrates that public responses to climate change are influenced by both psychological and socio-cultural factors.

  8. Study of the Option Ordering Policy concerning Perishable Farm Produce Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing; LIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the two-echelon supply chain system which consists of single agricultural producers and retailers,and analyzes the impact of sharing ratio on the option ordering quantity,and retailers and producers’ expected profits.Studies have shown that in the case of decentralization,when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0 and 0.3,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is a decreasing function of the sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.3 and 1,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is an increasing function of sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.421 and 1,the agricultural producers and retailers’ expected profits are an increasing function of sharing ratio.Finally,through the numerical calculation,the applicability of the conclusions is verified,to provide a reference for the supply chain management practices.

  9. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities.

  10. Implications of Climate Policies for Future Aerosol: Health and Economic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Paltsev, S.; Webster, M. D.; Reilly, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    We quantify the global changes in atmospheric aerosol (PM2.5) and their related health and economic impacts under a reference case and four greenhouse gas stabilization scenarios to 2050. Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions could reduce emissions of aerosol precursors, due to reduced energy use or cleaner energy generation. We assess these potential benefits using climate policy scenarios from the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) framework, which consists of a set of coupled models for the climate, ecosystem, atmospheric chemistry and economy, at global scale. We use aerosol precursor emissions and greenhouse gas forcings from the IGSM to drive the MIT/NCAR version of the Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). We calculate the influence of future aerosol precursor emissions changes, climatic changes, and their combined effects on population-weighted average PM2.5 in sixteen global regions. We then use an economic and health model to quantify the implications of these changes for human disease and the global economy. Finally, we compare the magnitude of these changes to the cost of greenhouse gas policies. We find that global aerosol-related health and economic benefits associated with climate policies are smaller than estimated global costs of climate policy, but not negligible in the context of policy analysis.

  11. Who's getting the job done? An interview with Alden Meyer on the slow pace of climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    New Solutions interviewed Alden Meyer, the director of strategy & policy for the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). His work focuses primarily on climate change policy at the state, federal and international levels. He discusses the current state of climate change policy, progress and innovation on the state and international fronts, and the tangible impacts we can make as citizens to hasten political action.

  12. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  13. Optimal climate policy is a utopia. From quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-20

    The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate-economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that does more harm than good. An alternative approach is to focus the attention on extreme events, structural change and complexity. It is argued that a qualitative rather than a quantitative CBA that takes account of these aspects can support the adoption of a minimax regret approach or precautionary principle in climate policy. This means: implement stringent GHG reduction policies as soon as possible.

  14. Climate change ethics, rights, and policies: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, J.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zito, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change continues to dominate academic work within green/environmental politics. Indeed, there appears to be almost an inverse relationship between the lack of political leadership on tackling climate change and the growth in ever more sophisticated academic analyses of this complex and multi

  15. Climate change policy in the European Union: Confronting the dilemmas of mitigation and adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alan

    2011-08-01

    There is no doubt that climate change presents an exquisite dilemma to global society and our systems of governance. Either we accept our collective responsibility and adapt our energy systems, or our societies and many critical ecosystems may be swept away by climate extremes, food crises, and, eventually, rising seas. The European Union (EU) has emerged in a leading role in the international struggle to govern climate change. Climate change is an accepted part of the political agenda in the EU, so agreement on targets has been relatively easy compared to the actual implementation of policies to reduce emissions. This book addresses in a historical context, from the late 1980s to 2010, the challenges that climate change policy has presented to the EU and how policy has been developed. The risks posed by climate change have been known for several decades. The evolution of climate change policy in the EU has occurred in parallel with extensive expansion of the EU itself, which grew from 9 member countries in the 1980s to its present 27. The EU is a relatively large emitter of greenhouse gases, and with 27 countries, it represents a microcosm of the global community, albeit with a unique form of governance.

  16. Policy Options for Private Forest Owners in Western Balkans: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersudin AVDIBEGOVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Private forest owners start to play an important role in Western Balkans’ forestry and they are essential to the successful implementation of environmental policies. Little is known about how forest policy can support private forest owners in these countries and therefore this study was conducted though a qualitative method, based on personal interviews with representatives of 54 stakeholders that include state forest authorities and administration, private forest owners associations, forest science and research and private sector in Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The results show significant homogeneity across the region towards creation of independent interest forest owners associations based on financial support. Regression analysis identified stakeholder attitudes as significant predictors of policy preferences and also identified owners of production forest as more supportive of such policies

  17. Climate Change Policies for the XXIst Century: Mechanisms, Predictions and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Khmelinskii, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental works demonstrated that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis, embodied in a series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models, is erroneous. These works prove that atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes only very moderately to the observed warming, and that there is no climatic catastrophe in the making, independent on whether or not carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced. In view of these developments, we discuss climate predictions for the XXIst century. Based on the solar activity tendencies, a new Little Ice Age is predicted by the middle of this century, with significantly lower global temperatures. We also show that IPCC climate models can't produce any information regarding future climate, due to essential physical phenomena lacking in those, and that the current budget deficit in many EU countries is mainly caused by the policies promoting renewable energies and other AGW-motivated measures. In absence of any predictable adverse climate...

  18. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  19. Viewpoint – The Next Nexus? Environmental Ethics, Water Policies, and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Groenfeldt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water policies are based on ethical assumptions, and efforts to promote more sustainable policies need to address those underlying values. The history of water policies from 'command-and-control' to more ecological approaches reveals an ethical evolution, but adaptation to climate change will require further ethical shifts. The case of the Santa Fe river in New Mexico (USA illustrates how values that go unrecognised interfere with sustainable management. Exploring the underlying value dynamics is an essential step in the policy reform process and takes on added urgency in the face of climate change and the need to formulate adaptive water strategies. Bringing the topic of values and ethics into the water policy discourse can help clarify management goals and promote more sustainable practices.

  20. Climate change and diarrhoeal disease: Perspectives for development policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    2010-01-01

    This paper points to the key role of health in development programmes and illustrates through diarrhoeal diseases as a case example, how climate change can impose increasing risks, which particularly will hit young children and the poor. The increased incidence can both be expected to emerge from...... that can help to reduce these risks. An attempt to start such a process i.e. has been done by the Danish Overseas Development Assistance Programme, Danida, which has conducted a climate screening of programme activities in Bangladesh. The paper presents a number of conclusions from this climate screening...

  1. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  2. Climate change and infectious diseases in Australia: future prospects, adaptation options, and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, David; Bi, Peng; Hall, Gillian; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Tong, Shilu; Williams, Craig

    2011-03-01

    Climate change will have significant and diverse impacts on human health. These impacts will include changes in infectious disease incidence. In this article, the authors review the current situation and potential future climate change impacts for respiratory, diarrheal, and vector-borne diseases in Australia. Based on this review, the authors suggest adaptive strategies within the health sector and also recommend future research priorities.

  3. Adaptation and mitigation options for forests and forest management in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, M.; Lindner, M.; Parotta, J.; Giessen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is now accepted as an important issue for forests and forest management around the world. Climate change will affect forests' ability to provide ecosystem goods and services on which human communities depend: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, regulation of water quality and quantity

  4. Out of the Comfort Zone : Institutional Context and the Scope for Legitimate Climate Adaptation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennekes, Joost; Driessen, Peter P J; van Rijswick, Helena F M W; van Bree, Leendert

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is gradually becoming accepted as one of the major challenges in regional and urban planning. However, the scope for options that make our societies less vulnerable to flood risks, disruptive quantities of rainwater in cities, or urban heat stress tends to be narrowed do

  5. Out of the Comfort Zone: Institutional Context and the Scope for Legitamate Climate Adaptation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennekes, J.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Bree, L. van

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is gradually becoming accepted as one of the major challenges in regional and urban planning. However, the scope for options that make our societies less vulnerable to flood risks, disruptive quantities of rainwater in cities, or urban heat stress tends to be narrowed do

  6. Exploiting Soil-Management Strategies for Climate Mitigation in the European Union: Maximizing "Win-Win" Solutions across Policy Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bugge. Henriksen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has identified a number of soil-management strategies that can be implemented to reduce GHG emissions. However, before deciding which of these strategies are most appropriate in any given situation, it is important to investigate how these strategies affect other aspects of sustainable development. For instance, some attempts to sequester carbon in the landscape could alter the soil's capacity to filter water. Alternatively, other strategies could unintentionally increase net energy consumption through greater fertilizer use. Focusing specifically on opportunities to implement soil-management strategies in the European Union (EU, we discuss the synergies and trade-offs of those strategies with respect to water resources management and energy security. The focus of the analysis is two-fold: first, we analyze the net benefit of strategies such as crop management, nutrient management, tillage and residue management, water management, and bioenergy vis-a-vis their implications for water resources and energy security; second, we undertake an assessment of the EU's relevant policy frameworks to assess whether the potential synergies from various soil-management strategies are being encouraged or, conversely, where perverse outcomes or trade-offs are likely. Our findings suggest there is much scope to encourage soil-management strategies in Europe that would mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but these synergies are currently not fully exploited at the EU policy level. We identify a number of options for better policy integration among the Common Agricultural Policy, the Water Framework Directive, and the Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package.

  7. Climate change impacts: Public policies and perception in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Pojani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the main impacts of climate change in Albania. More specifically the paper will try to analyze the public response toward these new challenges. This analysis will be preceded by a brief review of the international literature regarding climate change consequences. In addition, the paper will discuss public perception and awareness toward climate change. This discussion will be based on a survey which has involved a wide range of population. The main results of the survey show that the level of awareness of the study group (which consisted mainly on high educated participants about climate change and its relationship with the development is very low. Therefore more emphasis should be put to information regarding environmental issues, through education system and awareness campaigns.

  8. Summing up the parts. Combining Policy Instruments for Least-Cost Climate Mitigation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Meeting the enormous challenge of decarbonising world energy systems will require a rapid expansion of investment in clean technologies on a global scale. Mobilising these resources will be a daunting task, and it is important to undertake the transition at the lowest cost possible. This paper seeks to provide some guidance on climate change policy-making within real-world constraints, focusing on the justification of policies to supplement a carbon price, interactions between carbon pricing and supplementary policies, and management of these interactions to enable a least-cost policy response.

  9. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  10. Paradigms of global climate change and sustainable development: Issues and related policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.

  11. Relevance Between City Size and Tra c Congestion and Its Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Bo; ZHAO Min; LI Caige

    2012-01-01

    The study finds that,the traffic congestion will worsen along with the expansion of city size,if the factors of traffic structure,proportion of urban road area,spatial distribution of city traveling,and occurrence intensity of travel are fixed.Therefore,the need for certain public policies and intervention of urban transportation is related with city size.It is an unavoidable and urgent task for the governments of large and supper cities to formulate and implement scientific transportation policies in order to guarantee the operation efficiency of urban transportation system.

  12. The impacts of climate change and environmental management policies on the trophic regimes in the Mediterranean Sea: Scenario analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P.; Mattia, G.; Solidoro, C.; Salon, S.; Crise, A.; Zavatarelli, M.; Oddo, P.; Vichi, M.

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of climate change and environmental management policies on the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in multi-annual simulations of carbon cycling in a planktonic ecosystem model. The modeling system is based on a high-resolution coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model that is off-line and forced by medium-resolution global climate simulations and by estimates of continental and river inputs of freshwater and nutrients. The simulations span the periods 1990-2000 and 2090-2100, assuming the IPCC SRES A1B scenario of climatic change at the end of the century. The effects of three different options on land use, mediated through rivers, are also considered. All scenarios indicate that the increase in temperature fuels an increase in metabolic rates. The gross primary production increases approximately 5% over the present-day figures, but the changes in productivity rates are compensated by augmented community respiration rates, so the net community production is stable with respect to present-day figures. The 21st century simulations are characterized by a reduction in the system biomass and by an enhanced accumulation of semi-labile dissolved organic matter. The largest changes in organic carbon production occur close to rivers, where the influence of changes in future nutrient is higher.

  13. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Climate change and maritime transport on the Saint Lawrence : exploratory study of adaptation options; Changements climatiques et transport maritime sur le Saint-Laurent : etude exploratoir d'options d'adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcy, P. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Quebec Region, PQ (Canada); Bibeault, J.F. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Raffa, R. [Transport Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Some climate change scenarios envisage a decrease in water levels in the Saint Lawrence Seaway, which could have appreciable impacts on commercial navigation. This study focused on climate adaptation options that would allow maritime and harbour activities to remain at their current level. The study was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated the modelled water levels in the river part of the St. Lawrence from Montreal to Quebec City. The evaluation was carried out using a numerical hydraulic model which integrated the results of the most recent climatic scenarios for the Great Lakes Basin, the Ottawa River and apprehended rising ocean levels. According to the worst case climatic scenario, the decrease in water levels could reach 1 meter in Montreal and 30 centimetres at Trois-Rivieres. Simulations identified the area around Becancour as the limit for the effect of water level decrease. New regulations to be adopted by the International Joint Committee will seek to share the impacts between the upstream, Great Lakes and the downstream, Saint Lawrence Seaway. The paper emphasized the complexity of predicting the recurrence of hydrological events of this magnitude because of the uncertainty of climatic conditions. The second part of the study presented 2 options for commercial navigation in changing water levels. The first option excluded any physical modification from the river, while the second included alteration work. The economic, environmental and social impacts of both options were discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  16. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  17. Combining analytiacal frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptiation option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.J.; Schwilch, G.; Springer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerabili

  18. Family Policy Options for the Welfare of China's Children in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHaijun,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's current child welfare policies principally stress the importance of family care. The state will not intervene unless there is harm to the child. Owing to economic and human resource limitations, govemment child welfare work is mainly remedial: rendering assistance to orphaned,

  19. Digital platforms: an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Fahy, R.; van Til, H.; Nooren, P.; Stokking, H.; Gelevert, H.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, a project consortium of TNO, Ecorys and IViR have developed a framework to analyse policy questions regarding ‘digital platforms’. This framework enables the government to take advantage of the opportunities these platforms offer and to appreciate

  20. Sensitising rural policy: Assessing spatial variation in rural development options for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van D.B.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional distinctiveness is supported by the European Union in rural development policy. However, there is little information about the spatial distribution of the potential for rural development across Europe. The concept of territorial capital is used to consider spatial characteristics in assessi

  1. Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

  2. Covert Coercion: A Formal Analysis of Unconventional Warfare as an Interstate Coercive Policy Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan Freedom Fighters, the Chinese Communist Invasion , and the Ultimate Fall of Tibet . New York: Penguin, 2004. Felix, Christopher. A Short...Policy Objective, Game Theory, Decision Theory, Expected Utility, Prospect Theory, Iran, Lebanon, Iraq, Cuban Missile Crisis, Tibet , Afghanistan...Karkerên Kurdistan (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) PRC People’s Republic of China SCIRI Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq SF Special

  3. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp eve

  4. Options for national parks and reserves for adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Gunderson, Lance; Allen, Craig D.; Fleishman, Erica; McKenzie, Donald; Meyerson, Laura A.; Oropeza, Jill; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Past and present climate has shaped the valued ecosystems currently protected in parks and reserves, but future climate change will redefine these conditions. Continued conservation as climate changes will require thinking differently about resource management than we have in the past; we present some logical steps and tools for doing so. Three critical tenets underpin future management plans and activities: (1) climate patterns of the past will not be the climate patterns of the future; (2) climate defines the environment and influences future trajectories of the distributions of species and their habitats; (3) specific management actions may help increase the resilience of some natural resources, but fundamental changes in species and their environment may be inevitable. Science-based management will be necessary because past experience may not serve as a guide for novel future conditions. Identifying resources and processes at risk, defining thresholds and reference conditions, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs are among the types of scientific practices needed to support a broadened portfolio of management activities. In addition to the control and hedging management strategies commonly in use today, we recommend adaptive management wherever possible. Adaptive management increases our ability to address the multiple scales at which species and processes function, and increases the speed of knowledge transfer among scientists and managers. Scenario planning provides a broad forward-thinking framework from which the most appropriate management tools can be chosen. The scope of climate change effects will require a shared vision among regional partners. Preparing for and adapting to climate change is as much a cultural and intellectual challenge as an ecological challenge.

  5. Thermal emissions and climate change: Cooler options for future energy technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cowern, Nick E.B.; Ahn, Chihak

    2008-01-01

    Global warming arises from 'temperature forcing', a net imbalance between energy fluxes entering and leaving the climate system and arising within it. Humanity introduces temperature forcing through greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture, and thermal emissions from fuel burning. Up to now climate projections, neglecting thermal emissions, typically foresee maximum forcing around the year 2050, followed by a decline. In this paper we show that, if humanity's energy use grows at 1%/year, slower ...

  6. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  7. Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020. Economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries. Pre2020 climate policy ambition. Draft version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Nadine; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; Day, Thomas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Healy, Sean; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-06-06

    The objective of this research paper is to analyse the current efforts of country activities towards the 2020 2 C target, in order to identify best practices and their possible impact on emission reduction in 2020. A first scan of policies in countries with high greenhouse gas emissions and countries with remarkably ambitious climate change mitigation strategies (see Table 1) revealed that thematic areas with notable coverage in domestic climate policy are: general strategies and targets, renewable energy support schemes for electricity, product standards and codes for energy efficiency in buildings, and direct subsidies and fuel quotas for renewables in Transport. From this, along with initial indications of mitigation potential, we identified four areas where ambition could be significantly enhanced by 2020.

  8. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: How is climate change research perceived in policy documents?

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2015-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric - a start-up providing publication level metrics - started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 percent (2341) out of 191276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the po...

  9. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  10. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  11. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  12. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, S.; Eikeland, P.O.; Eleri, E.O.; Fermann, G.; Fredriksen, O.; Halseth, A.; Hansen, S.; Haugland, T.; Malnes, R.; Skjaerseth, J.B.; Ottosen, R

    1993-07-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of

  13. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  14. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals......The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...

  15. Building Upon Kyoto. The Long Term Prospects of International Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-23

    The first day of this two-day conference reviewed the UNFCCC process and the latest climate science as well as in-depth analyses of different post-2012 regimes that had been proposed to date. The environmental community's view on the future targets was also presented. The second day focused on the current status and challenges of policy implementation in key industrialized countries. The conference was intended to provide vital information for policymakers, experts and the general public in considering long-term international climate policies.

  16. Greenhouse policy without regrets. A free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, J.H. (et al.)

    2000-07-01

    Due to uncertainty about climate change, and human contributions thereto, many policymakers call for 'precautionary' measures to reduce the risk of global warming. Such policies are characterized as 'insurance'. Such insurance against the risks of climate change can be achieved by either lessening the likelihood of change by reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases through a combination of emission controls and carbon sequestration strategies, or by enacting mitigation measures to reduce the possible economic and ecological impact of a potential climate change. No insurance policy is worthwhile if the cost of the premiums exceeds the protection purchased. For greenhouse insurance to be worthwhile, it must either reduce the risks of anthropogenic climate change or reduce the costs of emission reductions designed to achieve the same goal, without imposing off-setting risks, such as those which would result from policies that slow economic growth and technological advance. Currently proposed precautionary measures, such as the Kyoto Protocol, call for government interventions to control greenhouse-gas emissions and suppress the use of carbon-based fuels. Such policies would impose substantial costs and yet do little, if anything, to reduce the risks of climate change. Such policies cannot be characterized as cost-effective greenhouse 'insurance'. Rather than adopt costly regulatory measures that serve to suppress energy use and economic growth, policy makers should seek to eliminate government interventions in the marketplace that obstruct emission reductions and discourage the adoption of lower emission technologies. Such an approach is a 'no regrets' strategy, as these policy recommendations will provide economic and environmental benefits by fostering innovation and economic efficiency whether or not climate change is a serious threat. While fear of global warming may prompt the enactment of these reforms, they

  17. Comparison and interactions between the long-term pursuit of energy independence and climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; Vinichenko, Vadim; McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Riahi, Keywan; Aboumahboub, Tino; Fricko, Oliver; Harmsen, Mathijs; Kober, Tom; Krey, Volker; Marangoni, Giacomo; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van der Zwaan, Bob; Cherp, Aleh

    2016-06-01

    Ensuring energy security and mitigating climate change are key energy policy priorities. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III report emphasized that climate policies can deliver energy security as a co-benefit, in large part through reducing energy imports. Using five state-of-the-art global energy-economy models and eight long-term scenarios, we show that although deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions would reduce energy imports, the reverse is not true: ambitious policies constraining energy imports would have an insignificant impact on climate change. Restricting imports of all fuels would lower twenty-first-century emissions by only 2-15% against the Baseline scenario as compared with a 70% reduction in a 450 stabilization scenario. Restricting only oil imports would have virtually no impact on emissions. The modelled energy independence targets could be achieved at policy costs comparable to those of existing climate pledges but a fraction of the cost of limiting global warming to 2 ∘C.

  18. The Current Policy of the European Parliament on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODEA Al.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches are presented to Parliament in order to take measures on climate change through suitable laws thataims to reduce bad habits that lead to greenhouse gas emissions, in order to reduce them by 20%, increase energyefficiency by 20% and use of resources renewable energy reaching 20% of all energy - with the deadline until 2020.

  19. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  20. Trends in Mexican gasoline consumption; Challenges and policy options for upgrading production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Moreno, I. (El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Economicos (MX))

    1990-01-01

    Production and consumption of motor gasolines in Mexico confront many problems at present: the product is of low quality and highly pollutant, there is inefficiency in consumption, and the existence of technical and financial ''bottle-necks'' inhibit increases of output and supply. Currently, the oil monopoly --PEMEX-- has become a target of criticism by the Salinas de Gortari administration, whose new ''liberal'' policies aim at strengthening the activities and interests of private concerns. However, even though private investments were recently allowed in the production of several petrochemical products, upstream as well as downstream activities will ramain a monopoly of the state company. The main problems that Mexican gasolines are confronting and the new policies launched very recently by the Salinas government in order to solve the problem of production and quality are reviewed. (AB).

  1. Making the best of climatic variability: options for upgrading rainfed farming in water scarce regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, J

    2004-01-01

    Coping with climatic variability for livelihood security is part of everyday life for rural communities in semi-arid and dry sub-humid savannas. Water scarcity caused by rainfall fluctuations is common, causing meteorological droughts and dry spells. However, this paper indicates, based on experiences in sub-Saharan Africa and India, that the social impact on rural societies of climatically induced droughts is exaggerated. Instead, water scarcity causing food deficits is more often caused by management induced droughts and dry spells. A conceptual framework to distinguish between manageable and unmanageable droughts is presented. It is suggested that climatic droughts require focus on social resilience building instead of land and water resource management. Focus is then set on the manageable part of climatic variability, namely the almost annual occurrence of dry spells, short 2-4 week periods of no rainfall, affecting farmer yields. On-farm experiences in savannas of sub-Saharan Africa of water harvesting systems for dry spell mitigation are presented. It is shown that bridging dry spells combined with soil fertility management can double and even triple on-farm yield levels. Combined with innovative systems to ensure maximum plant water availability and water uptake capacity, through adoption of soil fertility improvement and conservation tillage systems, there is a clear opportunity to upgrade rainfed farming systems in vulnerable savanna environments, through appropriate local management of climatic variability.

  2. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  3. Analysis Of Policy Options To Convert Human-Elephant Conflict Into Human-Elephant Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Rawadee Jarungrattanapong; Siriporn Sajjanand

    2011-01-01

    In Thailand the number of elephants are declining, and many of the remaining animals are protected in a network of wildlife sanctuaries. Unfortunately, elephants from these protected areas are coming into conflict with farmers. This human-elephant conflict (HEC) is causing crop damage. It is also leading to injury and loss of life amongst both farmers and elephants. This study has looked at this problem and has highlighted a combination of policies that should help to reduce it. It finds that...

  4. Sexual Orientation and U.S. Military Personnel Policy: Options and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    physical or verbal conduct toward others, based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical features), abuse of authority, displays of affection... active -duty military personnel. It also reviewed the scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality , and related health issues. It examined a number of...discharge. Even if no sexual activity had occurred, a growing body of policy supported the view that a homosexual 1Alan B~rub6, Coming Out Under Fire

  5. Global Food Crisis & Inflationary Pressures: Short and Medium to Long Term Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Syed Kanwar

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is an initiative to pin down major factors behind exorbitant inflationary pressures in the global economy. The paper mentions that among other factors productivity shocks, external shocks, inflationary expectations and conversion of food crops into fuel generation are the major drivers of inflation (especially food inflation) in the present inflationary era. An attempt is also made to offer some short and medium to long term policy recommendations in this regard. Especially,...

  6. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    relevance of nationality based on ethnic lines. For example, Germany has retained exclusivist policies regarding the acquisition of citizenship, stemming...that in the western part of Europe. Frustrated Nationalism The exclusivist tendencies inherent in ethnic nationalism in the cen- tral part of Europe...Ethnic Nationalism Under Communism Communist domination of the region did not result in the elimina- tion of the exclusivist ethnic nationalist

  7. Benefits of European climate policies for mercury air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafaj, P.; Cofala, J.; Kuenen, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Zyśk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewab

  8. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  9. A New Wave of European Climate and Energy Policy: Towards a 2030 Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Gina

    2013-06-11

    Against a complex, challenging, and often contradictory background, the EU is currently trying to decide what kind of climate and energy regime it wants and needs in the post-2020 period. Should it replicate the formula of the 2008 Climate and Energy Package to 2030 and beyond? Or are there other pathways that may prove more effective or politically palatable? The European Commission has recently published a consultation paper on a 2030 climate and energy framework and enormous efforts are being expended in Brussels and across the Member States as stakeholders work to shape to terms of the debate. This policy brief attempts to provide an understanding of the current debates and to illuminate the key challenges in designing a new wave of European climate policy. It first sets out the current EU energy and climate framework and discusses progress made to date, before going on to outline a range of key challenges in the design of a 2030 framework. This is the fourth in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by experts in the field of climate, energy, agriculture and water.

  10. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  11. Climate agreements and India: aligning options and opportunities on a new track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2011-01-01

    The Climate negotiations in Copenhagen in December 2009 witnessed the emerging power of Brazil, South Africa, India, and China (BASIC). Although still focussed on domestic development goals, BASIC countries have made important steps toward a greater engagement in the global climate agenda....... For India, the shift was marked by a voluntary, but conditional, target of reducing emission intensity, away from the past normative position based on ‘‘equal per capita,’’ emissions entitlements. The new track aims at finding cost-effective mitigation strategies that align national development goals...... that emerges is however much lower than in a conventional mitigation scenario. Finally, this paper proposes to shift the negotiations away from the current climate-centric focus toward ‘‘development,’’ in order to reduce conflicts and deliver greater global and national benefits....

  12. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...... livestockkeeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. Wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigation opportunities......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....

  13. The Future of the International Investment Law and Policy Re-gime:Options for Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl P.Sauvant; Federico Ortino

    2014-01-01

    The international investment regime faces broader chal-lenges, as reflected especially in the discussions regarding the investor-state dispute-settlement mechanism and the quest to make the international investment regime more oriented toward sustainable development objectives and to strengthen disciplines for the behavior of multinational enterprises. A number of options of how the regime can be improved are laid out in this article, including engaging in fact finding processes; establishing consen-sus-building working groups; formulating a model international investment agreement; building specific mechanisms to improve the investment re-gime;and commencing intergovernmental processes.An international in-vestment consensus-building process is advocated to facilitate the improve-ment of the international investment regime.

  14. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC

  15. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  16. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary E;

    2016-01-01

    findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii......?benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should...

  17. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  18. Framework for multi-scale integrated impact analyses of climate change mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Soba, M.; Parr, T.; Roupioz, L.F.S.; Winograd, M.; Peña-Claros, M.; Varela Ortega, C.; Ascarrunz, N.; Balvanera, P.; Bholanath, P.; Equihua, M.; Guerreiro, L.; Jones, L.; Maass, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forest ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and represent one of the largest terrestrial carbon stocks, making their role in climate change mitigation (CCM) programmes increasingly important (e.g. REDD+). In Latin America these ecosystems suffer from high land use pressures that have re

  19. Climate change and energy options. Decision making in the midst of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, J.I. [Department of Chemistry and Program for Environmental Education and Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 2-221, 02139 Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Understanding the world's natural systems, and how our own activities may be affecting those systems, are crucial for the long-term well-being of our society and of all the inhabitants of this world. One of the most complex of these is the global climate system. The nature and extent of significant alterations to the global climate system due to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), resulting from human activity such as energy production and manufacturing processes, is still the subject of considerable uncertainty and, indeed, controversy. However, the possible consequent effects on ecological systems and human society may be of such profound gravity, that continuing research into the causes and effects of climate change, and development of viable technology solutions for mitigation of these effects, are essential. Understanding the global climate system, determining how our activities may be influencing it, and taking responsible actions to protect it for future generations, may be among the greatest challenges that humanity has ever faced.

  20. Equitable cost-benefit analysis of climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, R.S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Studies, Hamburg University, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    The literature of welfare-maximising greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies pays remarkably little attention to equity. This paper introduces three ways to consider efficiency and equity simultaneously. The first method, inspired by Kant and Rawls, maximises net present welfare, without international cooperation, as if all regions share the fate of the region affected worst by climate change. Optimal emission abatement varies greatly depending on the spatial and temporal resolution, that is, the grid at which 'maximum impact' is defined. The second method is inspired by Varian's no-envy. Emissions are reduced so as to equalise total costs and benefits of climate change over all countries of the world and over all time periods. Emission reductions are substantial. This method approximately preserves the inequities that would occur in a world without climate change. The third method uses non-linear aggregations of welfare (the utilitarian default is linear) in a cooperative setting. This method cannot distinguish between sources of inequity. The higher the aversion to inequity, the higher optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction. 59 refs.

  1. Sensitive But Unclassified Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-14

    National Laboratory, a Department of Energy affiliated national laboratory, in “F.A.Q. Mozart ,” at [http://www.pnl.gov/isrc / mozart /faq.html]. 2...within the scientific community....” This policy is reflected in Executive Order 12958. NSDD-189 is still in effect , as stated in a letter from the... effect increased from 4,736 in 2001 to 4,885 in 2004 (p. 5) However, it is likely that most of these were recommended by, and issued to, federal agencies

  2. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  3. Benefits of European climate policies for mercury air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix) model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Polluti...

  4. Climate Change Adaptation Among Tibetan Pastoralists: Challenges in Enhancing Local Adaptation Through Policy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R. Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-10-01

    While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

  5. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  6. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationally, particularly as it relates to climate change health adaptation and mitigation programs (such as C-CHAMP of Korea), in order to assess and elicit directions for a robust environmental health policy that is adaptive to the health impacts of climate change. In Korea, comprehensive measures to prevent or mitigate overall health effects are limited, and the diffusion of responsibility among various government departments makes consistency in policy execution very difficult. This paper proposes integration, synergy, and utilization as the three core principles of policy direction for the assessment and adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. For specific action plans, we suggest policy making based on scientifically integrated health impact assessments and the prioritization of environmental factors in climate change; the development of practical and technological tools that support policy decisions by making their political implementation more efficient; and customized policy development that deals with the vulnerability of local communities.

  7. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  8. Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.

  9. Climate change and the future of freshwater biodiversity in Europe: a primer for policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, B.; Hering, D.; Green, A.J.; Aidoud, A.; Becares, E.; Beklioglu, M.; Bennion, H.; Boix, D.; Carvalho, L.; Clement, B.; Davidson, T.; Declerck, S.; Dobson, M.; Donk, van E.; Dudley, B.; Feuchtmayr, H.; Friberg, N.; Grenouillet, G.; Hillebrand, H.; Hobaek, A.; Irvine, K.; Jeppesen, E.; Johnson, R.; Jones, I.; Kernan, M.; Lauridsen, T.L.; Manca, M.; Meerhoff, M.; Olafsson, J.; Ormerod, S.; Papastergiadou, E.; Penning, W.E.; Ptacnik, R.; Quintana, X.; Sandin, L.; Seferlis, M.; Simpson, G.; Triga, C.; Verschoor, A.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Weyhenmeyer, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Earth’s climate is changing, and by the end of the 21st century in Europe, average temperatures are likely to have risen by at least 2 °C, and more likely 4 °C, with associated effects on patterns of precipitation and the frequency of extreme weather events. Attention among policy-makers is divided

  10. Comparing apples and oranges: the dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuis, J.; Biesbroek, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have compared climate change adaptation policies within and between different countries. In this paper we show that these comparative studies suffer from what is known as the ‘‘dependent variable problem’ – the indistinctness of the phenomenon that is being measured,

  11. The climate challenge: the limits of public policies; Le defi climatique: les limites des politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, D. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires sur le Developpement Durable, 10 - Troyes (France)

    2003-07-01

    Can democratic societies organize the energy diet imposed by the prevention of climate change? What would be the difficulties to overcome? This challenge could not be met without changing the nature of public policies and without learning how to determine collectively new individual lifestyles, not separable from duties. (author)

  12. EU and international policies for hydrometeorological risks:Operational aspects and link to climate action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philippe QUEVAUVILLER; Marco GEMMER

    2015-01-01

    Changes in hydrometeorological characteristics and risks have been observed and are projected to increase under climate change. These considerations are scientifically well studied and led to the development of a complex policy framework for adaptation and mitigation for hydrometeorological risks. Awareness for policy actions is growing worldwide but no legal framework is in place to tackle climate change impacts on water at a global scale. With the example of international frameworks and the legislation on EU-level, this article elaborates that hydrometeorological risks are not considered in the framework of one single policy. However, various policy instruments are directly or indirectly considering these risks at different operational levels. It is discussed that a tailor-made framework for hydrometeorological risks would improve coordination at international or national level. A major drawback for a single operational framework is that hydrometeorological risks are scientifically tackled in two large communities:the disaster risk reduction community and the climate change adaptation community, both of which are bound to different research and operational funding budgets. In future, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation will need been seen as a complementary set of actions that requires collaboration.

  13. Recent Trends in National Policy on Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessøe, Jeppe; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Climate change education (CCE) is a new phenomenon which is gaining increasing significance in the work of international organizations and international non-governmental organizations. Based primarily on a cross-national desk study of national policy documents relevant to CCE in 17 countries, which was commissioned by UNESCO to gain a robust…

  14. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Michael [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Economics and World Trade; Loeschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  15. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: A national health account (NHA provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE. Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita, compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion: The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of

  16. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank

  17. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  18. Coastal Blue Carbon: Climate and Coastal Resilience National and International Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Grier, A.; McCarty, A.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing interest nationally and internationally in leveraging the carbon benefits (termed "blue carbon") of coastal habitats in climate and coastal resilience policies. Coastal wetlands (specifically mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows) have unique characteristics that make them incredibly efficient, natural carbon sinks with most carbon stored belowground in soils. Protecting and restoring these ecosystems around the globe will help maintain all the societal benefits these ecosystems provide including the natural climate mitigation benefits, but also the food security, water quality, and storm protection benefits that enhance coastal communities and economies. This presentation will focus on some emerging policy opportunities including: (1) incorporation of coastal wetland carbon in U.S. national climate, resilience, and conservation efforts; (2) potential steps to incorporate coastal wetlands in national greenhouse gas inventories as suggested by the 2013 International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Wetlands Supplement; and (3) dialogue at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) about blue carbon habitats and their potential for inclusion. The presentation will conclude by highlighting some of the most pressing blue carbon scientific gaps that need to be filled in order to support these developing policies.

  19. Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

  20. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  1. Coping with Climate Change: A Food Policy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Timmer, C. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The early drafts of Food Policy Analysis were stimulated by the attention to high food prices following the world food crisis in 1973-74, and the fears of a repeat in 1979-80. But by the fourth full draft, in 1982, it became apparent that surpluses were returning to world food markets. A volume predicated on a world running out of food would have been out of date before the ink was dry, and a full-scale revamping of the analytical messages was needed. After a nearly complete re-write, the new...

  2. Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

  3. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  4. A balance of bottom-up and top-down in linking climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica F.; Sterner, Thomas; Wagner, Gernot

    2014-12-01

    Top-down climate negotiations embodied by the Kyoto Protocol have all but stalled, chiefly because of disagreements over targets and objections to financial transfers. To avoid those problems, many have shifted their focus to linkage of bottom-up climate policies such as regional carbon markets. This approach is appealing, but we identify four obstacles to successful linkage: different levels of ambition; competing domestic policy objectives; objections to financial transfers; and the difficulty of close regulatory coordination. Even with a more decentralized approach, overcoming the 'global warming gridlock' of the intergovernmental negotiations will require close international coordination. We demonstrate how a balance of bottom-up and top-down elements can create a path toward an effective global climate architecture.

  5. Food Trade and Its Water Footprint Under Climate and Policy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Hussein, Z.; Hanasaki, N.

    2014-12-01

    Trade has become increasingly important in the global redistribution of food, with important ramifications for food security, water resources, and transportation infrastructure, among others. Thus, it essential to understand how food trade and its water footprint may change in the future. To this end, we project international food trade, as well as its water footprint, under climate and policy scenarios for the year 2030. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to staple crop yields and evapotranspiration. Using the yield changes projected with the H08 model, we estimate the bilateral trade of staple crops using the Global Trade Analysis Project model. We combine these projections to obtain the water footprint of food trade, global network properties, and trade-based water savings across scenarios. Our findings indicate the relative importance of near-future climate and policy scenarios for food trade and its water footprint.

  6. Equity and the Global Policy on Climate Change: A Law and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Gunawan Wibisana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The opponents of the global commitment to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions seem to have shifted their arguments from the one emphasising on the issue of uncertainty to the one focusing on the economic burdens disproportionately placed on the current generation in general, and some developed countries in particular. Inevitably, the issue of equity becomes of highly importance in the recent climate policy debates. This paper attempts to analyze the implementation of equity principles, i.e. intergenerational and intragenerational equity, in the global climate policy. In doing so, it will first briefly outline some prominent economic appraisals on the impacts of climate change. Afterwards, some proposals to incorporate equity into the economic appraisals will be analyzed. Emphasizing on the concepts of equity, this paper will finally offer some recommendations for post-Kyoto negotiations.

  7. Explaining the evolution of European Union foreign climate policy: A case of bounded adaptiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schunz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the inception of the United Nations climate regime in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading part in the global combat against climate change. Based on an analysis of how the Union has developed its foreign climate policy to fulfil this role over the past two decades, the paper sets out to identify the driving factors behind this evolution. It demonstrates that the EU’s development in this area was co-determined by adaptations to shifting international dynamics strongly bounded by purely domestic concerns. Providing a concise understanding and explanation of how the Union designs its foreign policy with regard to one emblematic issue of its international activity, the contribution provides insights into the remarkably rapid, but not always effective maturation of this unique actor’s involvement in global politics.

  8. Benefits of European Climate Policies for Mercury Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rafaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model, which prepared projections of mercury releases to the atmosphere through 2050, based on the current air pollution control policies in each country. Data on mercury emissions from individual sectors were subsequently disaggregated to a fine spatial resolution using various proxy parameters. Finally, the dispersion of mercury in the atmosphere was computed by the chemistry transport model, implemented to the air quality system, Polyphemus. The simulations provided information on changes in concentrations and depositions of various forms of mercury over Europe. Scenarios that simulate a substantial expansion of renewable energies within the power sector indicate extensive co-benefits for mercury abatement, due to the restructuring of the energy system and changes in the fuel mix. The potential for mercury reductions in Europe depends on the rate of fuel switches and renewable technology deployment, but is also influenced by the stringency and timing of the air quality measures. The overall scope for co-benefits is therefore higher in regions relying on coal combustion as a major energy source.

  9. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  10. Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    Given the bleak prospects for a global agreement on mitigating climate change, pressure for unilateral abatement is increasing. A major challenge is emissions leakage. Border carbon adjustments and output-based allocation of emissions allowances can increase effectiveness of unilateral action but introduce distortions of their own. We assess antileakage measures as a function of abatement coalition size. We first develop a partial equilibrium analytical framework to see how these instruments affect emissions within and outside the coalition. We then employ a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use to assess the strategies as the coalition grows. We find that full border adjustments rank first in global cost-effectiveness, followed by import tariffs and output-based rebates. The differences across measures and their overall appeal decline as the abatement coalition grows. In terms of cost, the coalition countries prefer border carbon adjustments; countries outside the coalition prefer output-based rebates.(Author)

  11. TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torpey K

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience.

  12. The delusion of decoupling, and policy options for mitigating the rebound effect and the environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    reduce, or at least limit, ‘P’ and ‘A’, including their rebound growth from the ‘T’ decrease. The paper suggest this to be achievable in affluent countries, by letting ‘P’ decline through low birth rates, and encouraging ‘A’ to decline in exchange for lowering labor input to the economy, partly......When analyzing environmental problems, it is useful to apply the following simple equation for the environmental impact ‘I’, (here representing energy consumption): I = P·A·T, With ‘P’ representing population, ‘A’ affluence per capita, and ‘T’ resource intensity, i.e. energy per affluence unit ‘A......’. All three factors are through the equation coupled to ‘I’, and in general we should avoid using the misleading terminology of decoupling environmental impact (energy consumption) from the economy, represented by ‘P·A’. So far essentially all policies towards lowering ‘I’ has been devoted towards...

  13. Compensating the opportunity cost of forest functional zoning - two alternative options for the Romanian forest policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Drăgoi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge of the environmental policy is conceivingappropriate economic instruments able to account for the positive externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This issue is extremely important for implementing the provisions of the Romanian Forest Act, which states that forest owners shall be compensated for the opportunity costs of giving up harvesting operations due to various conservation purposes. The paper presents a statistical method based on analytical assessment of the effective forgone revenues brought about by banning the harvesting operations in 96 cases, each case being a distinctive forest management plan conceived for a large forest area, i.e. a production unit. Doing so, the scale effect has been taken into account because all legal provisions referring to forest management planning systems are focused on production units, considered the basic reference elements for sustainable forest management. The multiple regression function produced by the statistical analysis was turned into a simple formula allowing for a straightforward set up of the average compensation worth being paid per year and hectare. In order to better fetch the real opportunity cost paid for each hectare of protected forest, the algorithmwas further improved in order to account for the differences in stumpage residual value. Actually, the average compensation is differentiated onto five categories of hauling distances, using the same algorithm used by the National Forest Administration for differentiating the average reservation price established at national level on the ground of full-cost method stumpage pricing system.

  14. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  15. From climate change uncertainties to strategic options. Objectives, instruments, timing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [French Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The question of climate change is characterised by major uncertainties. For some, this means that no action should be undertaken for the time being. For others, forceful action is needed to avoid potentially disastrous consequences: targets and timetables for emission reductions must be agreed. This communication is an attempt to suggest a third alternative, with two main conclusions. The international decision process should focus on instruments and degrees of effort, rather than on `emission trajectories` (the evolution of emission levels over time), rather than on quantitative objectives tied to precise timetables. In this perspective action can start right away. (author)

  16. Formalization and separation: A systematic basis for interpreting approaches to summarizing science for climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Göran; Bohlin, Ingemar; Hermansen, Erlend A T; Yearley, Steven

    2015-06-01

    In studies of environmental issues, the question of how to establish a productive interplay between science and policy is widely debated, especially in relation to climate change. The aim of this article is to advance this discussion and contribute to a better understanding of how science is summarized for policy purposes by bringing together two academic discussions that usually take place in parallel: the question of how to deal with formalization (structuring the procedures for assessing and summarizing research, e.g. by protocols) and separation (maintaining a boundary between science and policy in processes of synthesizing science for policy). Combining the two dimensions, we draw a diagram onto which different initiatives can be mapped. A high degree of formalization and separation are key components of the canonical image of scientific practice. Influential Science and Technology Studies analysts, however, are well known for their critiques of attempts at separation and formalization. Three examples that summarize research for policy purposes are presented and mapped onto the diagram: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the European Union's Science for Environment Policy initiative, and the UK Committee on Climate Change. These examples bring out salient differences concerning how formalization and separation are dealt with. Discussing the space opened up by the diagram, as well as the limitations of the attraction to its endpoints, we argue that policy analyses, including much Science and Technology Studies work, are in need of a more nuanced understanding of the two crucial dimensions of formalization and separation. Accordingly, two analytical claims are presented, concerning trajectories, how organizations represented in the diagram move over time, and mismatches, how organizations fail to handle the two dimensions well in practice.

  17. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  18. The interaction of climate observation, parameter estimation, and mitigation decisions: Modeling climate policy under uncertainty with a partially observable Markov decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, E.; Webster, M.

    2013-12-01

    Though climate sensitivity remains poorly constrained, the trajectory of future greenhouse gas emissions and observable climate data could lead to improved estimates. Updated parameter estimates could alter decisions on greenhouse mitigation policy, which in turn influences future observed climate data and parameter estimation. Previous research on global climate mitigation policy neglects the cyclic nature of climate observation, parameter estimation, and policy action, instead treating uncertainty in climate sensitivity with scenario analysis or assuming that it will be resolved completely at some point in the future. This paper advances quantitative analysis of decision making under uncertainty (DMUU) in climate sensitivity by modeling the observation/parameter estimation/policy action cycle as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). In a POMDP framework, an objective function is maximized while both observable parameters and probability distributions over unobservable parameters are retained as system states. As time progresses and more data are collected, the probability distributions are updated with Bayesian analysis. To model anthropogenic climate change as a POMDP, we maximize social welfare using a modified DICE model. Climate sensitivity is never directly observable; instead it is modeled with a distribution that is subject to Bayesian updating after observation of stochastic changes in global mean temperature. The maximization problem is posed as a stochastic Bellman equation, which expresses total social welfare as the sum of immediate social welfare resulting from a current mitigation decision under current knowledge of climate sensitivity and the expected cost-to-go, which is the discounted future social welfare in the subsequent time interval as a function of both global mean temperature and the consequent probability distribution over climate sensitivity. While similar, smaller stochastic dynamic programming problems can be solved

  19. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeters G

    2008-01-01

    will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential.

  20. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  1. Planning and costing agriculture's adaptation to climate change: Policy Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Tom; Chambwera, Muyeye; Venton, Courtnay Cabot; Dyszynski, Jillian; Crawford, Victoria

    2011-10-15

    Agriculture has a crucial role to play in meeting development goals – from demand for food as populations grow and become wealthier to maintaining essential ecosystem services, diverse livelihoods, and economic development. Underinvestment over the past 20 years has resulted in a sector that is not adequately prepared for the challenges of climate change. Yet for most developing countries, agriculture has been one of the earliest sectors to be affected by climate change, with negative impacts already apparent and more serious consequences projected for the future. There is increasing recognition by both the climate change and agricultural development communities that agriculture needs to be part of a new global climate change deal. 'No agriculture, no deal' is a clear signal from concerned stakeholders that agriculture will be a key feature of climate change negotiations, both for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting vulnerable populations and economies. There has been a long history of assessments of the impact of climate change on agriculture, and recent international movements to press toward effective action are noteworthy. This Policy Perspectives paper summarises the results from a recent study led by the International Institute for Environment and Development, the Stockholm Environment Institute and the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership, with national teams in five developing countries. The principal conclusions inform policy and planning by addressing the following issues: 1. Framing and methodological development in the assessment of climate adaptation. 2. Assessment of current vulnerabilities, and potential future impacts and costs of adaptation. 3. Identification of strategies and measures considered priorities across regions and types of agriculture in 'pathways of adaptation'.

  2. Thinking Copenhagen: The Cognitive Dimension of Climate Change Policy Making In Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Langevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making in Brazil and the United States as both countries prepare for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP15 in Copenhagen. The comparative policy analysis is framed by Putnam (1988 and informed by Bazerman (2009, but adapted to explore the cognitive expressions of policymaking through investigation of public opinion, newspaper coverage, and policymaker statements. The analysis reveals key differences in the ways that Brazilian and U.S. citizens, journalists, and policymakers understand global warming and climate change and think through the policy alternatives for addressing this global challenge through national policy and international negotiations. Brazil’s cognitive dimension provides its negotiators with a wide range of strategic positions, allowing this country to play the role of dealmaker. The U.S. administration arrives at Copenhagen with a narrow win-set, limited by the discordant and divisive cognitive expressions that surround policymaking. These differences limit bilateral cooperation and complicate the COP15 negotiations.

  3. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    sum, understanding how the rate of change and degree of patchiness of change will constrain adaptive options is a critical consideration in preparing for climate change.

  4. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  5. Time for a reality check on global climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Keefe, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    Right now no one knows enough about global warming to advocate with certainty the kinds of actions that could jeopardize our economic well being -- and the economic aspirations of developing countries. That doesn`t mean no action, which is usually described perjoratively and erroneously as business as usual. It does mean actions must be based on facts, not misperceptions and myths. It does mean a mindset that reexamines, rethinks and changes course based on new knowledge. In short, I am advocating a reality check on the process based on the political, scientific and economic realities. Each of these realities has an important role in determining how we respond to the global warming threat. Our goal should be to identify actions that do the least damage to material well-being and that preserve the path to a better way of life, especially for the developing nations. What we have instead is a process driven by political gamesmanship that will devolve into beggar the neighbor policies reminiscent of 18th century mercantilism.

  6. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationall...

  7. Turkey's climate policy between ambition and reality; Die Klimapolitik der Tuerkei zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieler, Wolfgang [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Interkulturelle und Internationale Studien; Cetinyilmaz, Hakan

    2015-07-01

    This volume examines the Turkish climate policy and its main influencing factors. In what policy area, the priorities of Turkey between environmental, climate, and growth policies are to be located? What are the shaping factors of Turkish climate policy? What driving torques? In Turkish and international political science analyzes the subject has been previously treated only in basic approaches, so that the volume can be understood as a basic introduction to the Turkish climate policy. [German] Dieser Band untersucht die tuerkische Klimapolitik und ihre wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren. In welchem Politikbereich sind die Prioritaeten der Tuerkei zwischen Umwelt-, Klima-, und Wachstumspolitik zu verorten? Welches sind die praegenden Faktoren tuerkischer Klimapolitik? Welche Antriebsmomente? In tuerkischen wie auch internationalen politikwissenschaftlichen Analysen ist das Thema bisher nur in Ansaetzen behandelt worden, so dass der Band als grundlegende Einfuehrung in die tuerkische Klimapolitik verstanden werden kann.

  8. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  9. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats.

  10. Global Warming and the Green Paradox: A review of adverse effects of climate policies

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the possible adverse effects of well-intended climate policies. A weak Green Paradox arises if the announcement of a future carbon tax or a sufficiently fast rising carbon tax encourages fossil fuel owners to extract reserves more aggressively, thus exacerbating global warming. We argue that such policies may also encourage more fossil fuel to be locked in the crust of the earth, which can offset the adverse effects of the weak Green Paradox. We show that a subsidy on cl...

  11. Bottom-up instead of top-down. International climate policy is facing a change of paradigm; Bottom-Up statt Top-Down. Die internationale Klimapolitik vor dem Paradigmenwechsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geden, Oliver [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    After 20 years of discussions and negotiations, the international climate diplomacy has achieved little success. It would be an illusion to hope for a functioning world climate convention during the next few years. Even more important, global carbon dioxide emissions have increased by about one third since 1990, and a change of trend is not in sight. This is a problem not only for the world climate but also for the European Union that invested much political capital in climate diplomacy and focused its climate policy ambitions to progress on a global scale. Now that failure of the top-down problem solving strategy is impending, the EU will have to find more realistic political options.

  12. Evaluating adaptation options for urban flooding based on new high-end emission scenario regional climate model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonardsen, L.; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees C in 2100 as well as a projection based on a high radiative forcing scenario (RCP8.5). With these scenarios, projected impacts of extreme precipitation increase significantly. For extreme sea surges, the impacts do...... by almost 4 and 8 times the current EAD for the RCP8.5 and 6 degrees C scenario, respectively. For both hazards, business-as-usual is not a possible scenario, since even in the absence of policy-driven changes, significant autonomous adaptation is likely to occur. Copenhagen has developed an adaptation plan...... is significantly reduced (corresponding to 0.6-1.0 and 1.2-2.1 times the current EAD for the RCP8.5 and 6 degrees C scenario, respectively)....

  13. A short note on integrated assessment modeling approaches : Rejoinder to the review of "Making or breaking climate targets - The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Bauer, Nico; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Petermann, Nils; Bosetti, Valentina; Marcucci, Adriana; Otto, Sander; Paroussos, Leonidas; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Currás, Tabaré Arroyo; Ashina, Shuichi; Bollen, Johannes; Eom, Jiyong; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Longden, Thomas; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Sano, Fuminori; Schaeffer, Michiel; Wada, Kenichi; Capros, Pantelis; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Bertram, Christoph; Bibas, Ruben; Edmonds, Jae; Johnson, Nils; Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; McCollum, David; Jiang, Kejun

    2015-01-01

    We provide a rejoinder to a review (Rosen, 2015) of our original article "Making or breaking climate targets - the AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy" (Kriegler et al., 2015a). We have a substantial disagreement with the content of the review, and feel that it is plagued b

  14. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  15. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  16. The role of the US in the geopolitics of climate policy and stranded oil reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Amy Myers

    2016-10-01

    Computer-assisted technological innovation and breakthroughs in drilling are revolutionizing the energy landscape, creating greater uncertainty about the future trends for oil use. These new dynamics are prompting major oil producers to reconsider the commercial value of their assets, potentially changing the long-term outlook for oil prices. A shift in investment and production strategy by major oil-producing countries and large multinational companies to pre-empt the risk of stranded assets would have significant implications on energy markets. This Perspective surveys the competitive forces at play that are able to shift the dynamics of the global oil market and discusses their implications for US climate and energy policy. A declining long-term oil price might imply that energy and climate scientists and policymakers should revisit the road map of the optimum policies to promote the transition to lower carbon energy and to defend technology gains already achieved.

  17. Co-creation of climate change mitigation policies: the superiority of a community-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    research project and spread over the continuum from local government initiated to citizen initiated, and from projects aimed at changing individual behaviour to projects involving bigger communities (housing association, villages, etc.), it will be argued that both from a governance perspective (CO2......-reductions), as well as from a democratic perspective, citizen initiated projects involving communities of different kinds are clearly superior to for example government initiated campaigns aimed at the behaviour of individuals. This finding has clear policy-implications meaning that local climate change...... mitigation policies should be aimed at finding ways to support citizen initiated initiatives to a greater extent than is currently the case. Keywords: climate change mitigation, co-creation, behaviour, communities, citizen driven innovation....

  18. An Integrated Systems Approach to Designing Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, D.; Malano, H. M.; Davidson, B.; George, B.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change projections are characterised by large uncertainties with rainfall variability being the key challenge in designing adaptation policies. Climate change adaptation in water resources shows all the typical characteristics of 'wicked' problems typified by cognitive uncertainty as new scientific knowledge becomes available, problem instability, knowledge imperfection and strategic uncertainty due to institutional changes that inevitably occur over time. Planning that is characterised by uncertainties and instability requires an approach that can accommodate flexibility and adaptive capacity for decision-making. An ability to take corrective measures in the event that scenarios and responses envisaged initially derive into forms at some future stage. We present an integrated-multidisciplinary and comprehensive framework designed to interface and inform science and decision making in the formulation of water resource management strategies to deal with climate change in the Musi Catchment of Andhra Pradesh, India. At the core of this framework is a dialogue between stakeholders, decision makers and scientists to define a set of plausible responses to an ensemble of climate change scenarios derived from global climate modelling. The modelling framework used to evaluate the resulting combination of climate scenarios and adaptation responses includes the surface and groundwater assessment models (SWAT & MODFLOW) and the water allocation modelling (REALM) to determine the water security of each adaptation strategy. Three climate scenarios extracted from downscaled climate models were selected for evaluation together with four agreed responses—changing cropping patterns, increasing watershed development, changing the volume of groundwater extraction and improving irrigation efficiency. Water security in this context is represented by the combination of level of water availability and its associated security of supply for three economic activities (agriculture

  19. Relating climate change policy to poverty policy: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the COP21 conference in Paris this year, the World Bank published a report called "Shockwaves - Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty". The report flagged that ending poverty and stabilizing climate change should be jointly tackled and that without a good joint policy, a further 100 million people could become trapped in poverty by 2050. As part of the "Shockwaves" report, we investigated whether low-income households are disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. We also show how the amount of affected people to these natural hazards change in the future if nothing is done. We use recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard and a large sample of household surveys containing asset and income data to explore the relationships.

  20. Geospatial Issues in Energy-Climate Modeling: Implications for Modelers, Economists, Climate Scientists and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Short, W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate characterizations of renewable energy technologies, particularly wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, require an increasingly sophisticated understanding of location-specific attributes, including generation or production costs and the cost of transmission or transportation to a point of use, and climate induced changes to the resource base. Capturing these site-specific characteristics in national and global models presents both unique opportunities and challenges. National and global decisions, ideally, should be informed by geospatially rich data and analysis. Here we describe issues related to and initial advances in representing renewable energy technologies in global models, and the resulting implications for climate stabilization analysis and global assessments, including IPCC’s Assessment Round 5 and IEA’s World Energy Outlook.

  1. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social–ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that eme...

  2. What is preventing relevant understanding of climate science in the public, media, and policy arenas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    We need to do a critical self examination of why the communication has thus far failed to sufficiently convey relevance in order to provide a basis for public and policy-maker understanding of the science. This session will focus on major impediments to communicating relevance and the foundations of climate science in two target audiences, those that are unsure, and those that have been misled. The question of 'why' is key. Considerations focus on social psychology and confluence effects that improve, or impede, climate communications and achievement of relevant understanding. Key components of human understanding require context in order to be addressed. Understanding these components form the basis for more effective climate communications.

  3. Climate change, aeroallergens, natural particulates, and human health in Australia: state of the science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.

  4. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  5. Climate Adaptation in Swedish Forestry: Exploring the Debate and Policy Process, 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ulmanen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how climate change adaptation concerns were integrated into the Swedish forestry debate and policy process during the period of 1990–2012, and draws lessons on barriers and opportunities identified in this process. Using a framework focusing on “advocacy coalitions”, we analyze how the adaptation debate in the forestry sector evolved over the period; who the main advocates for and against adaptation were; and which main arguments and processes affected the debate and policy. The results show that academics advocating climate change adaptation, aided by outside influences, such as political pressure for adaptation responses and the negative impacts of the 2005 storm Gudrun, contributed to an increased general awareness and understanding of adaptation issues amongst forestry stakeholders. Nonetheless, the strong dominance of actors arguing for increased forest production and the limited number and relatively poor organization of adaptation advocates have acted as barriers to mainstreaming adaptation concerns into forestry policy and practice. The dominant coalitions and their values have also determined the direction of debate and policy. The main conclusions for policymakers aiming to further this integration process are the importance of stimulating adaptation coalitions and the value of creating arenas for multiple stakeholder learning about adaptation.

  6. Data Discovery of Big and Diverse Climate Change Datasets - Options, Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, G.; Boden, T.; McCord, R. A.; Frame, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Developing data search tools is a very common, but often confusing, task for most of the data intensive scientific projects. These search interfaces need to be continually improved to handle the ever increasing diversity and volume of data collections. There are many aspects which determine the type of search tool a project needs to provide to their user community. These include: number of datasets, amount and consistency of discovery metadata, ancillary information such as availability of quality information and provenance, and availability of similar datasets from other distributed sources. Environmental Data Science and Systems (EDSS) group within the Environmental Science Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a long history of successfully managing diverse and big observational datasets for various scientific programs via various data centers such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), DOE's Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC), USGS's Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) metadata Clearinghouse and NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). This talk will showcase some of the recent developments for improving the data discovery within these centers The DOE ARM program recently developed a data discovery tool which allows users to search and discover over 4000 observational datasets. These datasets are key to the research efforts related to global climate change. The ARM discovery tool features many new functions such as filtered and faceted search logic, multi-pass data selection, filtering data based on data quality, graphical views of data quality and availability, direct access to data quality reports, and data plots. The ARM Archive also provides discovery metadata to other broader metadata clearinghouses such as ESGF, IASOA, and GOS. In addition to the new interface, ARM is also currently working on providing DOI metadata records to publishers such as Thomson Reuters and Elsevier. The ARM

  7. Carbon emissions from U.S. ethylene production under climate change policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Matthias; Amato, Anthony D; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur

    2002-01-15

    This paper presents the results from a dynamic computer model of U.S. ethylene production, designed to explore implications of alternative climate change policies for the industry's energy use and carbon emissions profiles. The model applies to the aggregate ethylene industry but distinguishes its main cracker types, fuels used as feedstocks and for process energy, as well as the industry's capital vintage structure and vintage-specific efficiencies. Results indicate that policies which increase the cost of carbon of process energy-such as carbon taxes or carbon permit systems-are relatively blunt instruments for cutting carbon emissions from ethylene production. In contrast, policies directly affecting the relative efficiencies of new to old capital-such as R&D stimuli or accelerated depreciation schedules-may be more effective in leveraging the industry's potential for carbon emissions reductions.

  8. Land-use change and global climate policies; Usage des terres et politiques climatiques globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitz, V

    2004-03-15

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  9. Developing research about extreme events and impacts to support international climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike; James, Rachel; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Jones, Richard; Allen, Myles; Mitchell, Daniel; Cornforth, Rosalind

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have some of its most significant impacts through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. There is a pressing need for policy to support adaptation to changing climate risks, and to deal with residual loss and damage from climate change. In 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism was established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to address loss and damage in developing countries. Strategies to help vulnerable regions cope with losses from extreme events will presumably require information about the influence of anthropogenic forcing on extreme weather. But what kind of scientific evidence will be most useful for the Warsaw Mechanism? And how can the scientific communities working on extreme events and impacts develop their research to support the advance of this important policy? As climate scientists conducting probabilistic event attribution studies, we have been working with social scientists to investigate these questions. Our own research seeks to examine the role of external drivers, including greenhouse gas emissions, on the risk of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding, and drought. We use large ensembles of climate models to compute the probability of occurrence of extreme events under current conditions and in a world which might have been without anthropogenic interference. In cases where the models are able to simulate extreme weather, the analysis allows for conclusions about the extent to which climate change may have increased, decreased, or made no change to the risk of the event occurring. These results could thus have relevance for the UNFCCC negotiations on loss and damage, and we have been communicating with policymakers and observers to the policy process to better understand how we can develop our research to support their work; by attending policy meetings, conducting interviews, and using a participatory game developed with the Red Cross

  10. MCA4climate - a practical framework for pro-development climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevor, Morgan

    Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinate opportunity to transform economies onto a low-carbon, resourcee !cient Green Economy path. Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gas emissions as part of e”orts to limit a global temperature rise to under 2 degrees C or more...... in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations—issues at the centre of Rio+20 next year in Brazil as governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementation of the agreements...

  11. Effect of taxes and climate policy instruments on harvesting of managed forests and on tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, Sepul K.

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of taxes and policy instruments that aim to regulate climate services from forests. It consists of a summary section and four articles. Articles (1) and (2) examine the effects of taxes on management decisions in the context of managed boreal forests distinguished by forest-owners amenity preferences and also their age. Articles (3) and (4) examine the role of carbon-based policy instruments in the presence of taxes on land incomes in curbing tropical deforestation. Article (1) reveals that the intensity of forest-owners preferences for forest amenities affects the non-neutrality of forest taxes pertaining to forest harvesting. Therefore, the effects of taxes depend on this intensity. This highlights the importance of developing methods to measure forest-owners amenity preferences quantitatively. Article (2) shows that the age of forest-owners governs their propensity to consume as opposed to leave bequests. Furthermore, it shown that the effects of capital income and inheritance taxes vary across different age-groups of forest-owners. Article (3) demonstrates that taxes on forestry and cash-crop incomes, per se, may be ineffective in curbing tropical forest loss. The carbon payments may complement these taxes, and an effective policy to combat tropical deforestation should jointly target forestry and cash-crop sectors. Article (4) demonstrates the link between carbon compensation policies and land income taxation. An optimal carbon compensation scheme may require that national governments are allowed to use different compensation rates from that applied globally when passing national level compensations on to the local level. These results suggest that existing policies such as taxation should be accounted for in the analysis and design of international carbon policy instruments that aim at enhancing forests role in climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  12. The impact of climate change and climate policy on the Canadian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Jim; MacGee, Jim; Wibe, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relative benefits of policy aimed at mitigating GHG emissions in Canada and globally. We find that while a carbon tax that holds the stock of global emissions below the 550 ppm level would yield positive net benefits for the world economy, the impact of such a tax on the Canadian economy would be negative. This result is largely driven by our finding that the damages from small increases in temperature are much smaller in Canada than in the rest of the world.

  13. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios describe emission developments in 26 world regions for the 21st century, using a matrix of climate and air pollution policies. For climate policy, the study uses a baseline resulting in forcing levels slightly above RCP6.0 and an ambitious climate policy scenario similar to RCP2.6. For air pollution, the study explores increasingly tight emission standards, ranging from no improvement, current legislation and three variants assuming further improvements. For all pollutants, the results show that more stringent control policies are needed after 2030 to prevent a rise in emissions due to increased activities and further reduce emissions. The results also show that climate mitigation policies have the highest impact on SO2 and NOX emissions, while their impact on BC and OC emissions is relatively low, determined by the overlap between greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission sources. Climate policy can have important co-benefits; a 10% decrease in global CO2 emissions by 2100 leads to a decrease of SO2 and NOX emissions by about 10% and 5%, respectively compared to 2005 levels. In most regions, low levels of air pollutant emissions can also be achieved by solely implementing stringent air pollution policies. The largest differences across the scenarios are found in Asia and other developing regions, where a combination of climate and air pollution policy is needed to bring air pollution levels below those of today.

  14. Uncertainty vs. learning in climate policy: Some classical results and new directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Univ. of Maryland (United States); Treich, N. [Univ. of Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    Climate policy decisions today have to be made under substantial uncertainty: the impact of accumulating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is not perfectly known, the future economic and social consequences of climate change, in particular the valuation of possible damages, are uncertain. However, learning will change the basis of making future decisions on abatement policies. These important issues of uncertainty and learning are often presented in a colloquial sense. Two opposing effects are typically put forward: First, uncertainty about future climate damage, which is often associated with the possibility of a catastrophic scenario is said to give a premium to slow down global warming and therefore to increase abatement efforts today. Second learning opportunities will reduce scientific undertainty about climate damage over time. This is often used as an argument to postpone abatement efforts until new information is received. The effects of uncertainty and learning on the optimal design of current climate policy are still much debated both in the academic and the political arena. In this paper, the authors study and contrast the effect of uncertainty and learning in a two-decision model that encompasses most existing microeconomics models of climate change. They first consider the common expected utility framework: While uncertainty has generally no or a negative effect on welfare, learning has always a positive, and thus opposite, effect. The effects of both uncertainty and learning on decisions are less clear. Neither uncertainty nor learning can be used as an argument to increase or reduce emissions today, independently on the degree of risk aversion of the decision-marker and on the nature of irreversibility constraints. The authors then deviate from the expected utility framework and consider a model with ambiguity aversion. The model accounts well for situations of imprecise or multiple probability distributions, as present in the context of climate

  15. Global land-use and market interactions between climate and bioenergy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past few years, interest in bioenergy has boomed with higher oil prices and concerns about energy security, farm incomes, and mitigation of climate change. Large-scale commercial bioenergy production could have far reaching implications for regional and global land use and output markets associated with food, forestry, chemical, and energy sectors, as well as household welfare. Similarly, there is significant interest in international agricultural and forestry based carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, which could also provide revenue to developing countries and farmers in exchange for modifying land management practices. However, bioenergy and climate policies are being formulated largely independent of one another. Understanding the interaction between these potentially competing policy objectives is important for identifying possible constraints that one policy might place on the other, potential complementarities that could be exploited in policy design, and net land-use change and management implications over time. This study develops a new dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model GDyn-E-AEZ to assess the interaction between biofuels production and climate mitigation policies. The model is built on several existing CGE platforms, including 1) GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009), 2) GTAP-BIO (Birur et al., 2008; Taheripour and Tyner, 2011), and 3) GDyn framework (Ianchovichina and McDougall, 2001) extended to investigate the role of population and per capita income growth, changing consumption patterns, and global economic integration in determining long-run patterns of land-use change. The new model is used to assess the effects of domestic and global bioenergy expansion on future land use, as well as sectoral, regional and global GHG emissions mitigation potential. Do bioenergy programs facilitate or constrain GHG mitigation opportunities? For instance, Golub et al. (2009) estimate substantial GHG

  16. An Econometric Study of Economic Growth, Energy and Exports in Mauritius: Implications for Trade and Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While electricity from fossil fuels is among a major source of greenhouse gases and global warming, it is also a key resource in the industrial sector geared towards exports and economic growth. This study attempts to examine the export-GDP nexus and electricity-GDP nexus in addition to a supplementary hypothesis between exports and electricity in Mauritius for the period of 1970-2009. An augmented neo-classical aggregate production model is used. The ARDL bounds test and the Johansen cointegration test confirm the existence of a long-run relationship between these variables. The multivariate Granger-causality analysis indicates that electricity and exports Granger-cause economic growth in the long-run. Electricity remains a significant causal variable in the short-run and is also found to lead exports. The empirical findings suggest that conserving electricity as a climate policy may not be conducive for exports and economic growth. The use of renewable sources for electricity may be the right option.

  17. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate... Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions... implementing NEPA, recognizes that it is a visionary and versatile law that can be used effectively to...

  18. Climate Change Research. Agencies Have Data-Sharing Policies but Could Do More to Enhance the Availability of Data from Federally Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements 39 Background 39 Applicability 40 Guidelines and Their Application 40 Suggested Data...the Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements, an interagency policy under the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), provides...Program Source: GAO analysis of survey responses. Note: The CCSP data-sharing policy, Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements

  19. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    the third group, Risk Management and Adaptation Technology, is to develop the procedures and principles of planning adaptation measures, to propose social-economic tactics and science development strategies, and to integrate policy early warning and decision making supported with risk management. International collaborations and knowledge/experience exchanges with a variety of climate change sensitive sectors, organizations, and nations are highly expected.

  20. Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Mark; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas; Hof, Andries F.; Braun, Nadine; Fekete, Hanna; Böttcher, Hannes; Brandsma, Ruut; Larkin, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the e

  1. The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Weyant, John; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Krey, Volker; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Richels, Richard G.; Rose, Steven; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the synthesis of results from the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Study 27, an inter-comparison of 19 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. The study investigated the value of individual mitigation technologies such as energy intensity improvements, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), nuclear power, solar and wind power and bioenergy for climate mitigation. Achieving atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration targets at 450 and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent requires massive greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A fragmented policy approach at the level of current ambition is inconsistent with these targets. The availability of a negative emissions technology, in most models biofuels with CCS, proved to be a key element for achieving the climate targets. Robust characteristics of the transformation of the energy system are increased energy intensity improvements and the electrification of energy end use coupled with a fast decarbonization of the electricity sector. Non-electric energy end use is hardest to decarbonize, particularly in the transport sector. Technology is a key element of climate mitigation. Versatile technologies such as CCS and bioenergy have largest value, due in part to their combined ability to produce negative emissions. The individual value of low-carbon power technologies is more limited due to the many alternatives in the sector. The scale of the energy transformation is larger for the 450 ppm than for the 550 ppm CO2e target. As a result, the achievability and the costs of the 450 ppm target are more sensitive to variations in technology variability. Mitigation costs roughly double when moving from 550 ppm to 450 ppm CO2e, but remain below 3% of GDP for most models.

  2. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    emissions in transportation, as other jurisdictions weigh similar climate policies and debate mechanisms and costs and California announced an ambitious target of halving petroleum use by 2030.

  3. Analysis of the EU policy package on climate change and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capros, Pantelis; Mantzos, Leonidas; Parousos, Leonidas; Tasios, Nikolaos [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou street, 15773 Zografou Campus (Greece); Klaassen, Ger, E-mail: gerardus.klaassen@ec.europa.e [European Commission, DG Climate Action, Avenue de Beaulieu 1, 1160 Brussels (Belgium); Van Ierland, Tom [European Commission, DG Climate Action, Avenue de Beaulieu 1, 1160 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    In 2009 the EU decided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at least by 20% in 2020 compared to 1990 and to supply 20% of energy needs by 2020 from renewable energy sources. This paper uses an energy model coupled with a non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas model to assess the range of policy options that were debated to meet both targets. Policy options include trading of renewable targets, carbon trading in power plants and industry and the use of the Clean Development Mechanism to improve cost-efficiency. The models also examined fairness by analysing the distribution of emission reduction in the non-emission trading sector, the distribution of CO{sub 2} allowances in the emission trading sector and the reallocation of renewable targets across Member States. The overall costs of meeting both targets range from 0.4% to 0.6% of GDP in 2020 for the EU as a whole. The redistribution mechanisms employed significantly improve fairness compared to a cost-effective solution. - Research highlights: {yields} Meeting the EU's greenhouse gas and renewable targets costs 0.4-0.6% of GDP. {yields} Trading national targets for renewable energy reduces costs. {yields} Carbon trading in power plants and industry and CDM also lowers costs. {yields} The redistribution mechanisms agreed by the EU significantly improve fairness.

  4. Energy sector water use implications of a 2 °C climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricko, Oliver; Parkinson, Simon C.; Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; van Vliet, Michelle TH; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying water implications of energy transitions is important for assessing long-term freshwater sustainability since large volumes of water are currently used throughout the energy sector. In this paper, we assess direct global energy sector water use and thermal water pollution across a broad range of energy system transformation pathways to assess water impacts of a 2 °C climate policy. A global integrated assessment model is equipped with the capabilities to account for the water impacts of technologies located throughout the energy supply chain. The model framework is applied across a broad range of 2 °C scenarios to highlight long-term water impact uncertainties over the 21st century. We find that water implications vary significantly across scenarios, and that adaptation in power plant cooling technology can considerably reduce global freshwater withdrawals and thermal pollution. Global freshwater consumption increases across all of the investigated 2 °C scenarios as a result of rapidly expanding electricity demand in developing regions and the prevalence of freshwater-cooled thermal power generation. Reducing energy demand emerges as a robust strategy for water conservation, and enables increased technological flexibility on the supply side to fulfill ambitious climate objectives. The results underscore the importance of an integrated approach when developing water, energy, and climate policy, especially in regions where rapid growth in both energy and water demands is anticipated.

  5. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  6. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E McNamara

    Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  7. The effect of framing and normative messages in building support for climate policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hurlstone

    Full Text Available Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a "foregone-gain"--incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts--rather than as a "loss"--incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2. The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1, whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2. The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts.

  8. The effect of framing and normative messages in building support for climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R; Sewell, Brittany

    2014-01-01

    Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a "foregone-gain"--incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts--rather than as a "loss"--incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts.

  9. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  10. Price caps and price floors in climate policy: a quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Cedric

    2008-12-15

    This study assesses the long-term economic and environmental effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical climate change mitigation architecture, which aims to reduce global energy-related CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050. Based on abatement costs in IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms what qualitative analyses have already suggested: introducing price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. With price caps, the expected costs could be reduced by about 50% and the uncertainty on economic costs could be one order of magnitude lower. Reducing economic uncertainties may spur the adoption of more ambitious policies by helping to alleviate policy makers' concerns of economic risks. Meanwhile, price floors would reduce the level of emissions beyond the objective if the abatement costs ended up lower than forecasted. If caps and floors are commensurate with the ambition of the policy pursued and combined with slightly tightened emission objectives, climatic results could be on average similar to those achieved with 'straight' objectives (i.e. with no cost-containment mechanism). (auth)

  11. ECLIPSE: An integrated energy-economy model for climate policy and scenario analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, Hal [Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This paper describes the development of the Energy and Climate Policy and Scenario Evaluation (ECLIPSE) model - a flexible integrated assessment tool for energy and climate change policy and scenario assessment. This tool builds on earlier efforts to link top-down and bottom-up models, and combines a macroeconomic energy demand model and a consumer-budget transport demand model with the technology-rich bottom-up energy and transport system model Energy Research and Investment Strategy (ERIS), and solves the models iteratively. Compared to previous efforts, ECLIPSE includes many new features, such as a more disaggregated production function, improved calibration and parameterization and separate modeling of passenger transport demand. The separate modeling of transportation makes ECLIPSE particularly well-suited to analyzing interactions between the transport sector and the broader energy market and economy. This paper presents results illustrating some features of the integrated model, compares technology deployment results with ECLIPSE and the bottom-up ERIS model, and briefly describes illustrative baseline and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios to highlight some of the features of the framework outlined in this paper. A number of modeling and policy insights arising from this scenario analysis are discussed. (author)

  12. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  13. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  14. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  15. The co-production of science and policy in integrated climate assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, M.C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment; Morehouse, B.J. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). Institute for the Study of Planet Earth

    2005-04-15

    This paper examines the use of interactive models of research in the US regional integrated scientific assessments (RISAS), using as a case study the climate assessment of the Southwest (CLIMAS). It focuses on three components of regional climate assessments: interdisciplinarity, interaction with stakeholders and production of usable knowledge, and on the role of three explanatory variables - the level of 'fit' between state of knowledge production and application, disciplinary and personal flexibility, and availability of resources - which affect the co-production of science and policy in the context of integrated assessments. It finds that although no single model can fulfill the multitude of goals of such assessments, it is in highly interactive models that the possibilities of higher levels of innovation and related social impacts are most likely to occur. (author)

  16. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs: an integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of including adaptation and residual damage in equity considerations by determining how the allocation of emission allowances would change to counteract regional differences in total climate costs, defined as the costs of mitigation, adaptation, and residual damage. We compare emission levels resulting from a global carbon tax with two allocations of emission allowances under a global cap-and-trade system: one equating mitigation costs and one equating total climate costs as share of GDP. To account for uncertainties in both mitigation and adaptation, we use a model-comparison approach employing two alternative modeling frameworks with different damage, adaptation cost, and mitigation cost estimates, and look at two different climate goals. Despite the identified model uncertainties, we derive unambiguous results on the change in emission allowance allocation that could lessen the unequal distribution of adaptation costs and residual damages through the financial transfers associated with emission trading.

  17. CLIMATE CHANGES AND ADAPTATION POLICIES IN THE BALTIC AND THE ADRIATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bosnjakovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of differences and similarities of the current climate changes in the Baltic and Adriatic coastal regions and appropriate adaptation policies on national, regional and European level. All reparian countries are at different stages of developing and implementing national adaptation strategies. The proposal for an overall BSR wide Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan has been launched with the aim to recommend actions for climate change adaptation in the Baltic region. No similar agreement has been concluded yet on the protection of the semi-closed Adriatic Sea, the surface of which is about 1/2 of that of the Baltic Sea, and whose coastal region is home to about 1/4 of that of the Baltic Sea. The differences in the socio-economic characteristics and indicators may be partly responsible for the differring attitudes, actions and reporting concerning the adaptation to climate change, both between individual countries, as well as between the two regions as a whole

  18. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. The case of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, E. [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Jacob, J.S. [Texas Sea Grant, Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A and M University System, Houston, TX (United States); Ramos Bustillos, L.E. [Ramos-Hoek Consultancy, Ajijic, Chapala (Mexico); Ortiz, I. [SAFS University of Washington, Washington DC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper is the third in a series of AIXG (Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) papers that analyse the roles that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is unlikely to be a standalone process. It occurs within the existing sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, including legal provisions, institutional s