WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate missing links

  1. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen eNovak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE. These conditions are associated with decreased growth of trees and their increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings is responsive to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, cambial cell division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may stop during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR, which can link tree-ring anatomy to the occurrence of extreme events. A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis, a widespread tree species in the Mediterranean basin, was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites throughout its distribution range. Binomial logistic regression analysis of 2595 MR series determined that MR increased in frequency with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of southeastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Further regression analysis indicated that the relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature was non-linear. In this first determination of climatic influences on MR, the formation of MR was most strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature above 10°C from previous October till current February and total precipitation below 50 mm from previous September till current May. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a

  2. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  3. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  4. The Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  5. Participatory arts and affective engagement with climate change: The missing link in achieving climate compatible behaviour change?

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Miriam; Ockwell, David; Whitmarsh, Lorraine

    2018-01-01

    Despite a growing number of arts based climate change interventions and the importance emphasised in the social psychology literature of achieving affective (emotional) engagement with climate change before climate compatible behaviour change is likely (exactly the kind of engagement the arts and humanities are arguably best at), to date there has been no systematic application of interpretive social science techniques to understand the ways in which these arts based interventions do, or do n...

  6. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemen Novak; Martin de Luis; Miguel A. Saz; Luis A. Longares; Roberto Serrano-Notivoli; Josep Raventos; Katarina Cufar; Jozica Gricar; Alfredo Di Filippo; Gianluca Piovesan; Cyrille B.K. Rathgeber; Andreas Papadopoulos; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of...

  7. Uncovering missing links with cold ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of prediction of missing links, the known data are randomly divided into two parts, the training set and the probe set. We argue that this straightforward and standard method may lead to terrible bias, since in real biological and information networks, missing links are more likely to be links connecting low-degree nodes. We therefore study how to uncover missing links with low-degree nodes, namely links in the probe set are of lower degree products than a random sampling. Experimental analysis on ten local similarity indices and four disparate real networks reveals a surprising result that the Leicht-Holme-Newman index [E.A. Leicht, P. Holme, M.E.J. Newman, Vertex similarity in networks, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 026120] performs the best, although it was known to be one of the worst indices if the probe set is a random sampling of all links. We further propose an parameter-dependent index, which considerably improves the prediction accuracy. Finally, we show the relevance of the proposed index to three real sampling methods: acquaintance sampling, random-walk sampling and path-based sampling.

  8. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    , of giving a sense of responsibility to the public and private sectors, of imposing, observing and materializing a real commitment for preventing and fighting corruption, the risk of which may be a threat to national security. Human governance creates a favorable environment for human development and elimination of poverty. If the preoccupations of the governance institutions are centered on the interests, needs, and fundamental rights of the population, progress may be achieved in the fight against poverty. If a country tries to apply economic policies in order to promote a beneficial increase to the poor ones, along with programs meant to help reach the targeted goals, the effects may be attenuated or annulled, when the governance institutions are ineffective or passive. The conclusion is that the governance is the missing link between the efforts of struggle against poverty and reaching the objective of poverty reduction.

  9. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for Development. Book cover ... Gender Working Group of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Publisher(s): ... Knowledge. Innovation.

  10. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  11. Obesity and Asthma: A Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Llorente, Mª Amelia; Romero, Raquel; Chueca, Natalia; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina

    2017-07-11

    Obesity and asthma are two chronic conditions that affect millions of people. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, and early exposure to micro-organisms are important factors that may contribute to the escalating prevalence of both conditions. The prevalence of asthma is higher in obese individuals. Recently, two major phenotypes of asthma with obesity have been described: one phenotype of early-onset asthma that is aggravated by obesity, and a second phenotype of later-onset asthma that predominantly affects women. Systemic inflammation and mechanical effect, both due to the expansion of the adipose tissue, have been proposed as the main reasons for the association between obesity and asthma. However, the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. Moreover, it has also been suggested that insulin resistance syndrome can have a role in the association between these conditions. The intestinal microbiota is an important factor in the development of the immune system, and can be considered a link between obesity and asthma. In the obese state, higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serum levels as a consequence of a microbiota dysbiosis have been found. In addition, changes in microbiota composition result in a modification of carbohydrate fermentation capacity, therefore modifying short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels. The main objective of this review is to summarize the principal findings that link obesity and asthma.

  12. Missing Links in Antibody Assembly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Anelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fidelity of the humoral immune response requires that quiescent B lymphocytes display membrane bound immunoglobulin M (IgM on B lymphocytes surface as part of the B cell receptor, whose function is to recognize an antigen. At the same time B lymphocytes should not secrete IgM until recognition of the antigen has occurred. The heavy chains of the secretory IgM have a C-terminal tail with a cysteine instead of a membrane anchor, which serves to covalently link the IgM subunits by disulfide bonds to form “pentamers” or “hexamers.” By virtue of the same cysteine, unassembled secretory IgM subunits are recognized and retained (via mixed disulfide bonds by members of the protein disulfide isomerase family, in particular ERp44. This so-called “thiol-mediated retention” bars assembly intermediates from prematurely leaving the cell and thereby exerts quality control on the humoral immune response. In this essay we discuss recent findings on how ERp44 governs such assembly control in a pH-dependent manner, shuttling between the cisGolgi and endoplasmic reticulum, and finally on how pERp1/MZB1, possibly as a co-chaperone of GRP94, may help to overrule the thiol-mediated retention in the activated B cell to give way to antibody secretion.

  13. The missing link: leadership, identity, and the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Mark

    2012-05-01

    How the cohesion of a social network is being maintained in spite of having different layers of social interaction is an important question. I argue that the evolution of both (political) hierarchy and social identity play a crucial role in scaling up and bonding social networks. Together they are missing links in the social brain hypothesis, and further research is needed to understand the functions of leadership and social identity. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Orexin: a Missing Link Between Sleep Disorders and Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen; Cabral, Carolina S; Ashley, Euan A; Perez, Marco V

    2017-04-01

    Sleep disorders represent a significant comorbidity in the heart failure population, and there is mounting evidence that treatment of sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea can significantly improve cardiac function. However, the link between these two disorders is still not entirely clear. Recently, a novel neurohormonal pathway has been elucidated involving signaling molecules now collectively known as the orexins, which have been implicated in regulating autonomic function during sleep/wake cycles. Further evidence has mounted that orexin signaling is deeply perturbed in the setting of sleep disorders, and furthermore that abnormal orexin signaling may be implicated in the pathology of heart failure. The orexin signaling pathway represents an enticing novel target for both the treatment of sleep disorders as well as heart failure, and may represent one facet of the "missing link" between these two prevalent and often comorbid diseases.

  15. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses....... The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... subjects. Therefore, a humid indoor climate could also represent a higher risk for persons already sensitized to one or more allergens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In epidemiological studies where the relationship between moisture in the indoor climate, respiratory symptoms and exposure to allergens...

  16. Cannabis and psychosis: have we found the missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Preeti; Basu, Debasish

    2013-08-01

    The association between cannabis and psychosis has long been a matter of debate, with cannabis widely perceived as a harmless recreational drug. Electronic bibliographic databases like PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the format "(psychosis or schizophrenia or synonyms) and (cannabis or synonyms)". Cross-linked searches were made taking the lead from key articles. Recent articles and those exploring the genetic factors or gene-environment interaction between cannabis use and psychosis were focussed upon. Heavy cannabis use at a n young age, in association with genetic liability to psychosis and exposure to environmental stressors like childhood trauma and urban upbringing increases the risk of psychotic outcome in later life. Cannabis acts as a component cause of psychosis, that is, it increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities, though by itself, it is neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause of psychosis. Although significant progress has been made over the last few years, we are yet to find all the missing links. Further work is necessary to identify all the factors that underlie individual vulnerability to cannabis-related psychosis and to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying this risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. With neutrino masses revealed, proton decay is the missing link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    By way of paying tribute to Abdus Salam, I recall the ideas of higher unification that he and I initiated. I discuss the current status of those ideas in the light of recent developments, including those of: (a) gauge coupling unification, (b) discovery of neutrino-oscillation at SuperKamiokande, and (c) ongoing searches for proton decay. It is noted that the mass of ν τ (∼ 1/20 eV), suggested by the SuperK result, provides clear support for the route to higher unification based on the ideas of (i) SU(4)-color, (ii) left-right symmetry and (iii) supersymmetry. The change in perspective, pertaining to both gauge coupling unification and proton decay, brought forth by supersymmetry and superstrings, is noted. And, the beneficial roles of string-symmetries in addressing certain naturalness problems of supersymmetry, including that of rapid proton decay, are emphasized. Further, it is noted that with neutrino masses and coupling unification revealed, proton decay is the missing link. Following recent joint work with K. Babu and F. Wilczek, based on supersymmetric unification, it is remarked that the SuperKamiokande result on neutrino oscillation in fact enhances the expected rate of proton decay compared to prior estimates. Thus, assuming supersymmetric unification, one expects that the discovery of proton decay should not be far behind. (author)

  18. The missing link in the embodiment of syntax: prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Hamutal; Eviatar, Zohar

    2014-10-01

    Neurolinguistic theories are challenged by the amodal abstract representations assumed by linguists. Embodied linguistics offers a conceptualization of the relationship between linguistic representation, experience, and the brain. Findings correlating brain activation patterns with referential features of words (e.g., body parts), suggest that the mechanism underlying linguistic embodiment is an "action-perception simulation". This mechanism accounts for embodied representation of words, but is harder to adapt to syntactic abstractions. We suggest that prosody is the missing link. Prosody is a sensory-motor phenomenon that can evoke an "action-perception simulation" that underpins the syntax-experience-brain association. Our review discusses different embodiment models and then integrates psycholinguistic and neurocognitive studies into a new approach to linguistic embodiment. We propose a novel implementation of the syntax-experience-brain relationship via the mapping between the temporo-spectral aspects of speech prosody and temporo-spectral patterns of synchronized behavior of neural populations. We discuss the potential implications for psycho- and neuro-linguistic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  20. Transitional fossil earwigs - a missing link in Dermaptera evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Dong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dermaptera belongs to a group of winged insects of uncertain relationship within Polyneoptera, which has expanded anal region and adds numerous anal veins in the hind wing. Evolutional history and origin of Dermaptera have been in contention. Results In this paper, we report two new fossil earwigs in a new family of Bellodermatidae fam. nov. The fossils were collected from the Jiulongshan Formation (Middle Jurassic in Inner Mongolia, northeast China. This new family, characterized by an unexpected combination of primitive and derived characters, is bridging the missing link between suborders of Archidermaptera and Eodermaptera. Phylogenetic analyses support the new family to be a new clade at the base of previously defined Eodermaptera and to be a stem group of (Eodermaptera+Neodermaptera. Conclusion Evolutional history and origin of Dermaptera have been in contention, with dramatically different viewpoints by contemporary authors. It is suggested that the oldest Dermaptera might possibly be traced back to the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic and they had divided into Archidermaptera and (Eodermaptera+Neodermaptera in the Middle Jurassic.

  1. 'Religion' and 'body': reclaiming the missing links of Western education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Ergas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts Western education as being led by a scientific ethos of objectivity. Such an ethos lends itself clearly to a disengagement from ‘religion’ as representing the realm of so-called ‘unscientific knowledge’ and speculation on the one hand, and to a disengagement from the ‘body’ as the locus of sentiment and idiosyncrasy on the other. It is argued, that Western education thus promotes a secular mind-oriented ideology, weeding out the spiritual realm on the one hand, and the emotional-physical realm on the other. It is claimed that education can only take place once it becomes an exploratory path which poses the question ‘who am I?’ at its core. The exploration of such a question will forever be a depleted one as long as it is deprived of ‘religion’ and the ‘body’ as possible research paths. This paper is thus an orientation call for the field of curriculum development serving as a foundation for the ‘holistic education’ discourse developed in recent years. ‘Well-being’ is claimed to be the goal of education. Following this it is showed why this goal cannot be achieved given Western education’s rational (‘body-less’ – secular (‘religion-less’ epistemology. There is thus a need for an attempt to reconceptualize education, which can be made by means of reclaiming the ‘body’ and ‘religion’ as Western education’s missing links, reintegrating them into its proper epistemological/ontological basis. Our inherent dualistic conceptualization of reality (education included should be dealt with, as it constitutes an obstacle to the reconceptualization of education.

  2. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Sarah L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a

  3. Linking acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease: the missing links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaballo, Mohammed A; Elsayed, Mohamed E; Stack, Austin G

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered to be a major public health problem around the globe, and it is associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and significant health care costs. There is growing evidence suggesting that AKI is associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While recovery of kidney function occurs in the majority of patients surviving an AKI episode, a large number of patients do not recover completely. Similarly, CKD is a well-known risk factor for the development of AKI. Recent studies suggest that both AKI and CKD are not separate disease entities but are in fact components of a far more closely interconnected disease continuum. However, the true nature of this relationship is complex and poorly understood. This review explores potential relationships between AKI and CKD, and seeks to uncover a number of "missing links" in this tentative emerging relationship.

  4. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  5. A novel multilayer model for missing link prediction and future link forecasting in dynamic complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasami, Yasser; Safaei, Farshad

    2018-02-01

    The traditional complex network theory is particularly focused on network models in which all network constituents are dealt with equivalently, while fail to consider the supplementary information related to the dynamic properties of the network interactions. This is a main constraint leading to incorrect descriptions of some real-world phenomena or incomplete capturing the details of certain real-life problems. To cope with the problem, this paper addresses the multilayer aspects of dynamic complex networks by analyzing the properties of intrinsically multilayered co-authorship networks, DBLP and Astro Physics, and presenting a novel multilayer model of dynamic complex networks. The model examines the layers evolution (layers birth/death process and lifetime) throughout the network evolution. Particularly, this paper models the evolution of each node's membership in different layers by an Infinite Factorial Hidden Markov Model considering feature cascade, and thereby formulates the link generation process for intra-layer and inter-layer links. Although adjacency matrixes are useful to describe the traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is not sufficient to describe and analyze the multilayer dynamic networks. This paper also extends a generalized mathematical infrastructure to address the problems issued by multilayer complex networks. The model inference is performed using some Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling strategies, given synthetic and real complex networks data. Experimental results indicate a tremendous improvement in the performance of the proposed multilayer model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, F1-score, Matthews correlation coefficient, and accuracy for two important applications of missing link prediction and future link forecasting. The experimental results also indicate the strong predictivepower of the proposed model for the application of

  6. Integrating Mechanisms for Insulin Resistance: Common Threads and Missing Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies a single etiological pathway. Accumulation of ectopic lipid metabolites, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and innate immune pathways have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, these pathways are also closely linked to changes in fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure that can impact ectopic lipid deposition. Ultimately, accumulation of specific lipid metabolites (diacylglycerols and/or ceramides) in liver and skeletal muscle, may be a common pathway leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin resistance. PMID:22385956

  7. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  8. The missing link? Testing a schema account of unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Greve, Andrea; Henson, Richard

    2018-05-09

    Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase. During the following relearning phase, a studied word was re-paired with a new word, either related or unrelated to the original associate from study. In a final test phase, memory for the relearned associations was tested. We hypothesized that, if unitized representations act like schemas, then we would observe some generalization to related words, such that memory would be better in the definition than sentence condition for related words, but not for unrelated words. Contrary to the schema hypothesis, evidence favored the null hypothesis of no difference between definition and sentence conditions for related words (Experiment 1), even when each cue was associated with multiple associates, indicating that the associations can be generalized (Experiment 2), or when the schematic information was explicitly re-activated during Relearning (Experiment 3). These results suggest that unitized associations do not generalize to accommodate new information, and therefore provide evidence against the schema account.

  9. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface-a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake ( M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  10. Missing Links in Genes to Traits: Toward Teaching for an Integrated Framework of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Kreher, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetics, one of the most influential fields, underlies all of biology and produces discoveries that are in the news daily. However, many students leave introductory biology and genetics courses lacking a coherent framework of knowledge to use in their daily lives. We identify substantial "missing links" in the teaching of foundational…

  11. The Missing Link Expeditions; or how the Peking Man wasn't found

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    to China as ‘the palaeontological Garden of Eden’. The United States made their bid through a large-scale operation popularly known as ‘The Missing Link Expeditions’. The aim was to use all modern technologies available. Hopes were high and the leader of the expedition, Roy Chapman Andrews, estimated...

  12. Missing links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2011-01-01

    I de sidste tiår har flere Munch-forskere peget på ligheder mellem de videnskabelige studier af mennesket og Edvard Munchs kunst. Det gælder også Munchs første version af Skrik. Trods dette mangler der dog en analyse af den kontekst, der hermed relateres til billedet. Har Munch ikke bare fundet i...

  13. Missing Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    passerer gennem området i form af turister, forretningsrejsende, gods og offshore-industri, og det har en national motorvej, en togrute og færgeforbindelser til en række nordiske lande. Dog oplever byen stadig de samme problemer som en række andre perifere byer: fraflytning, bymæssigt forfald, mangel på...

  14. Link-N: The missing link towards intervertebral disc repair is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C Bach

    Full Text Available Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD is a frequent cause for back pain in humans and dogs. Link-N stabilizes proteoglycan aggregates in cartilaginous tissues and exerts growth factor-like effects. The human variant of Link-N facilitates IVD regeneration in several species in vitro by inducing Smad1 signaling, but it is not clear whether this is species specific. Dogs with IVD disease could possibly benefit from Link-N treatment, but Link-N has not been tested on canine IVD cells. If Link-N appears to be effective in canines, this would facilitate translation of Link-N into the clinic using the dog as an in vivo large animal model for human IVD degeneration.This study's objective was to determine the effect of the human and canine variant of Link-N and short (s Link-N on canine chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs and compare this to those on already studied species, i.e. human and bovine CLCs. Extracellular matrix (ECM production was determined by measuring glycosaminoglycan (GAG content and histological evaluation. Additionally, the micro-aggregates' DNA content was measured. Phosphorylated (p Smad1 and -2 levels were determined using ELISA.Human (sLink-N induced GAG deposition in human and bovine CLCs, as expected. In contrast, canine (sLink-N did not affect ECM production in human CLCs, while it mainly induced collagen type I and II deposition in bovine CLCs. In canine CLCs, both canine and human (sLink-N induced negligible GAG deposition. Surprisingly, human and canine (sLink-N did not induce Smad signaling in human and bovine CLCs. Human and canine (sLink-N only mildly increased pSmad1 and Smad2 levels in canine CLCs.Human and canine (sLink-N exerted species-specific effects on CLCs from early degenerated IVDs. Both variants, however, lacked the potency as canine IVD regeneration agent. While these studies demonstrate the challenges of translational studies in large animal models, (sLink-N still holds a regenerative potential for humans.

  15. Sales-marketing interface and company performance. Is information use the missing link?

    OpenAIRE

    Keszey, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Over the last couple of years there has been an ongoing debate on how sales managers contribute to organizational value. Direct measures between sales-marketing interface quality and company performance are compromised, as company performance is influenced by a plethora of other factors. We advocate that the use of sales information is the missing link between sales-marketing relationship quality and organizational outcomes. We propose and empirically test a model on how sales-mar...

  16. The Missing Link between Juvenile Delinquency and Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Attachment Theory Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Amatya, Pooja L.; Barzman, Drew H.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder, emphasizing the relational basis of the disorder and highlighting the missing link between juvenile delinquency and trauma. The first part of the paper defines trauma and the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, noting child-specific features. The second part reviews the literature emphasizing the relational and attachment relevant nature of trauma. The third part explores psychological mechanisms for how attachment relations could a...

  17. How shared preferences in music create bonds between people: values as the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Strack, Micha; Bond, Michael H; Lo, Eva; Lam, Jason

    2011-09-01

    How can shared music preferences create social bonds between people? A process model is developed in which music preferences as value-expressive attitudes create social bonds via conveyed value similarity. The musical bonding model links two research streams: (a) music preferences as indicators of similarity in value orientations and (b) similarity in value orientations leading to social attraction. Two laboratory experiments and one dyadic field study demonstrated that music can create interpersonal bonds between young people because music preferences can be cues for similar or dissimilar value orientations, with similarity in values then contributing to social attraction. One study tested and ruled out an alternative explanation (via personality similarity), illuminating the differential impact of perceived value similarity versus personality similarity on social attraction. Value similarity is the missing link in explaining the musical bonding phenomenon, which seems to hold for Western and non-Western samples and in experimental and natural settings.

  18. Living long and ageing well: is epigenomics the missing link between nature and nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Irene Maeve; Dellet, Margaret; Mills, Ken I

    2016-02-01

    Human longevity is a complex trait and increasingly we understand that both genes and lifestyle interact in the longevity phenotype. Non-genetic factors, including diet, physical activity, health habits, and psychosocial factors contribute approximately 50% of the variability in human lifespan with another 25% explained by genetic differences. Family clusters of nonagenarian and centenarian siblings, who show both exceptional age-span and health-span, are likely to have inherited facilitatory gene groups, but also have nine decades of life experiences and behaviours which have interacted with their genetic profiles. Identification of their shared genes is just one small step in the link from genes to their physical and psychological profiles. Behavioural genomics is beginning to demonstrate links to biological mechanisms through regulation of gene expression, which directs the proteome and influences the personal phenotype. Epigenetics has been considered the missing link between nature and nurture. Although there is much that remains to be discovered, this article will discuss some of genetic and environmental factors which appear important in good quality longevity and link known epigenetic mechanisms to themes identified by nonagenarians themselves related to their longevity. Here we suggest that exceptional 90-year old siblings have adopted a range of behaviours and life-styles which have contributed to their ageing-well-phenotype and which link with important public health messages.

  19. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  20. Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riewe, R. R. (Roderick R.); Oakes, Jill E. (Jill Elizabeth)

    2006-01-01

    This book includes papers written by over 50 community experts and scientists addressing theoretical concerns, knowledge transfer, adapting to climate change, implications of changing weather, water...

  1. Service delivery and ethical conduct in the public service: the missing links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lues

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a multitude of policies, strategies and programmes directed at the rendering of effective services to the citizens of South Africa by public service managers. However, in spite of the pursuit of effectiveness and the condemning of unethical behaviour by public service managers, scandals still occur and allegations are still made. So, where are the missing links? In this article, a brief description is given of some ethical concepts viewed as important in addressing the question posed. The concluding remarks are twofold: public service organisations need to provide continuous commitment, enforcement, and modelling of leadership in professional ethics by means of, among other things, policy structures; and public service managers need to realise the importance of changing their own mindset and accepting the ethical standards that are established by the public service organisation, even if these differ from their own beliefs and culture.

  2. Strong, weak, and missing links in a microbial community of the N.W. Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarel, Y; Dolan, J R; Hornak, K; Lemée, R; Masin, M; Pedrotti, M-L; Rochelle-Newall, E; Simek, K; Sime-Ngando, T

    2002-12-01

    Planktonic microbial communities often appear stable over periods of days and thus tight links are assumed to exist between different functional groups (i.e. producers and consumers). We examined these links by characterizing short-term temporal correspondences in the concentrations and activities of microbial groups sampled from 1 m depth, at a coastal site of the N.W. Mediterranean Sea, in September 2001 every 3 h for 3 days. We estimated the abundance and activity rates of the autotrophic prokaryote Synechococcus, heterotrophic bacteria, viruses, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, as well as dissolved organic carbon concentrations. We found that Synechococcus, heterotrophic bacteria, and viruses displayed distinct patterns. Synechococcus abundance was greatest at midnight and lowest at 21:00 and showed the common pattern of an early evening maximum in dividing cells. In contrast, viral concentrations were minimal at midnight and maximal at 18:00. Viral infection of heterotrophic bacteria was rare (0.5-2.5%) and appeared to peak at 03:00. Heterotrophic bacteria, as % eubacteria-positive cells, peaked at midday, appearing loosely related to relative changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration. Bacterial production as assessed by leucine incorporation showed no consistent temporal pattern but could be related to shifts in the grazing rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viral infection rates. Estimates of virus-induced mortality of heterotrophic bacteria, based on infection frequencies, were only about 10% of cell production. Overall, the dynamics of viruses appeared more closely related to Synechococcus than to heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, we found weak links between dissolved organic carbon concentration, or grazing, and bacterial activity, a possibly strong link between Synechococcus and viruses, and a missing link between light and viruses.

  3. The Missing Link between Juvenile Delinquency and Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Attachment Theory Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pooja L; Barzman, Drew H

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder, emphasizing the relational basis of the disorder and highlighting the missing link between juvenile delinquency and trauma. The first part of the paper defines trauma and the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, noting child-specific features. The second part reviews the literature emphasizing the relational and attachment relevant nature of trauma. The third part explores psychological mechanisms for how attachment relations could affect trauma responses. Attachment relations (1) shape core schemas of the world, others, and the self and (2) foster emotional engagement or disengagement, both of which have been associated with traumatic responses. The most empirically supported pediatric trauma treatment, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), acknowledges the attachment figure's influence and includes treating and training the parent and conjoint child-parent discussion. The next section reviews the noteworthy link between juvenile delinquency and trauma history. More awareness of trauma and PTSD in children and adolescents is recommended to effectively address juvenile delinquency. The review ends with a few helpful points for practicing pediatricians regarding childhood trauma.

  4. Fixing missing links in shopping routes: Reflections on intra-urban borders and city center redevelopment in Nijmegen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the fixing of missing links in shopping routes and puts redevelopment strategies for Dutch city centres in the theoretical context of entrepreneurial urbanism. The aim is to scrutinize and critically reflect upon how collaborating local authorities, property developers,

  5. Personomics: The Missing Link in the Evolution from Precision Medicine to Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy C. Ziegelstein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other “-omics.” Personalized medicine, as defined herein, uses additional information about the individual derived from knowing the patient as a person. These unique personal characteristics are defined by tools known as personomics which takes into account an individual’s personality, preferences, values, goals, health beliefs, social support network, financial resources, and unique life circumstances that affect how and when a given health condition will manifest in that person and how that condition will respond to treatment. In this paradigm, precision medicine may be considered a necessary step in the evolution of medical care to personalized medicine, with personomics as the missing link.

  6. The Genetic Link between Parkinson's Disease and the Kynurenine Pathway Is Still Missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Nóra; Török, Rita; Szolnoki, Zoltán; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Klivényi, Péter; Vécsei, László

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is substantial evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) plays a role in the normal physiology of the brain and is involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective. We set out to investigate the potential roles in PD of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from one of the key enzymes of the KP, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). Methods. 105 unrelated, clinically definitive PD patients and 131 healthy controls were enrolled to investigate the possible effects of the different alleles of KMO. Fluorescently labeled TaqMan probes were used for allele discrimination. Results. None of the four investigated SNPs proved to be associated with PD or influenced the age at onset of the disease. Conclusions. The genetic link between the KP and PD is still missing. The investigated SNPs presumably do not appear to influence the function of KMO and probably do not contain binding sites for regulatory proteins of relevance in PD. This is the first study to assess the genetic background behind the biochemical alterations of the kynurenine pathway in PD, directing the attention to this previously unexamined field.

  7. The Genetic Link between Parkinson’s Disease and the Kynurenine Pathway Is Still Missing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Török

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is substantial evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP plays a role in the normal physiology of the brain and is involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (PD. Objective. We set out to investigate the potential roles in PD of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from one of the key enzymes of the KP, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO. Methods. 105 unrelated, clinically definitive PD patients and 131 healthy controls were enrolled to investigate the possible effects of the different alleles of KMO. Fluorescently labeled TaqMan probes were used for allele discrimination. Results. None of the four investigated SNPs proved to be associated with PD or influenced the age at onset of the disease. Conclusions. The genetic link between the KP and PD is still missing. The investigated SNPs presumably do not appear to influence the function of KMO and probably do not contain binding sites for regulatory proteins of relevance in PD. This is the first study to assess the genetic background behind the biochemical alterations of the kynurenine pathway in PD, directing the attention to this previously unexamined field.

  8. Radiation-induced genomic instability: Are epigenetic mechanisms the missing link?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aypar, Umut; Morgan, William F.; Baulch, Janet E.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: This review examines the evidence for the hypothesis that epigenetics are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). Conclusion: In addition to the extensively studied targeted effects of radiation, it is now apparent that non-targeted delayed effects such as RIGI are also important post-irradiation outcomes. In RIGI, unirradiated progeny cells display phenotypic changes at delayed times after radiation of the parental cell. RIGI is thought to be important in the process of carcinogenesis, however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be elucidated. In the genomically unstable clones developed by Morgan and colleagues, radiation-induced mutations, double-strand breaks, or changes in mRNA levels alone could not account for the initiation or perpetuation of RIGI. Since changes in the DNA sequence could not fully explain the mechanism of RIGI, inherited epigenetic changes may be involved. Epigenetics are known to play an important role in many cellular processes and epigenetic aberrations can lead to carcinogenesis. Recent studies in the field of radiation biology suggest that the changes in methylation patterns may be involved in RIGI. Together these clues have led us to hypothesize that epigenetics may be the missing link in understanding the mechanism behind RIGI.

  9. Quantifying the missing link between forest albedo and productivity in the boreal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Aarne; Liang, Jingjing; Korhonen, Lauri; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-11-01

    Albedo and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) determine the shortwave radiation balance and productivity of forests. Currently, the physical link between forest albedo and productivity is poorly understood, yet it is crucial for designing optimal forest management strategies for mitigating climate change. We investigated the relationships between boreal forest structure, albedo and FAPAR using a radiative transfer model called Forest Reflectance and Transmittance model FRT and extensive forest inventory data sets ranging from southern boreal forests to the northern tree line in Finland and Alaska (N = 1086 plots). The forests in the study areas vary widely in structure, species composition, and human interference, from intensively managed in Finland to natural growth in Alaska. We show that FAPAR of tree canopies (FAPARCAN) and albedo are tightly linked in boreal coniferous forests, but the relationship is weaker if the forest has broadleaved admixture, or if canopies have low leaf area and the composition of forest floor varies. Furthermore, the functional shape of the relationship between albedo and FAPARCAN depends on the angular distribution of incoming solar irradiance. We also show that forest floor can contribute to over 50 % of albedo or total ecosystem FAPAR. Based on our simulations, forest albedos can vary notably across the biome. Because of larger proportions of broadleaved trees, the studied plots in Alaska had higher albedo (0.141-0.184) than those in Finland (0.136-0.171) even though the albedo of pure coniferous forests was lower in Alaska. Our results reveal that variation in solar angle will need to be accounted for when evaluating climate effects of forest management in different latitudes. Furthermore, increasing the proportion of broadleaved trees in coniferous forests is the most important means of maximizing albedo without compromising productivity: based on our findings the potential of controlling forest

  10. Hairy root biotechnology--indicative timeline to understand missing links and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Srivastava, Vikas; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Kukreja, A K

    2015-09-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots (HR) were developed in the laboratory to mimic the natural phenomenon of bacterial gene transfer and occurrence of disease syndrome. The timeline analysis revealed that during 90 s, the research expanded to the hairy root-based secondary metabolite production and different yield enhancement strategies like media optimization, up-scaling, metabolic engineering etc. An outlook indicates that much emphasis has been given to the strategies that are helpful in making this technology more practical in terms of high productivity at low cost. However, a sequential analysis of literature shows that this technique is upgraded to a biotechnology platform where different intra- and interdisciplinary work areas were established, progressed, and diverged to provide scientific benefits of various hairy root-based applications like phytoremediation, molecular farming, biotransformation, etc. In the present scenario, this biotechnology research platform includes (a) elemental research like hairy root-mediated secondary metabolite production coupled with productivity enhancement strategies and (b) HR-based functional research. The latter comprised of hairy root-based applied aspects such as generation of agro-economical traits in plants, production of high value as well as less hazardous molecules through biotransformation/farming and remediation, respectively. This review presents an indicative timeline portrayal of hairy root research reflected by a chronology of research outputs. The timeline also reveals a progressive trend in the state-of-art global advances in hairy root biotechnology. Furthermore, the review also discusses ideas to explore missing links and to deal with the challenges in future progression and prospects of research in all related fields of this important area of plant biotechnology.

  11. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Wawoe, Kilian W; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage  = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage  = 20.4, 80.6% women), and Study 4 (N = 309 self-ratings, Mage  = 20.0, 78.3% women; N = 307 other-ratings, Mage  = 24.5, 62.2% women). Participants in the other two studies came from an ISO-certified representative community panel: Study 2 (N = 525, Mage  = 51.2, 52.0% women) and Study 5 (N = 736, Mage  = 42.2, 48.0% women). Proactive Personality and Proactivity were positively related to Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience, but only weakly related or unrelated to Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness, supporting the alignment of Proactive Personality/Proactivity with the hypothesized HEXACO engagement vector. Additionally, Proactivity explained incremental variance in self-rated job performance on top of the HEXACO facets that were most closely associated with Proactive Personality/Proactivity, that is, Social Boldness (an Extraversion facet), Diligence (a Conscientiousness facet), and Creativity (an Openness to Experience facet), but not in entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. Proactivity is the missing engagement link in the HEXACO model of personality. The results are discussed in light of higher-order factors (e.g., general factor of personality and Alpha and Beta) of personality and bandwidth-fidelity controversies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  13. Teleconnection Paths via Climate Network Direct Link Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Gozolchiani, Avi; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-12-31

    Teleconnections describe remote connections (typically thousands of kilometers) of the climate system. These are of great importance in climate dynamics as they reflect the transportation of energy and climate change on global scales (like the El Niño phenomenon). Yet, the path of influence propagation between such remote regions, and weighting associated with different paths, are only partially known. Here we propose a systematic climate network approach to find and quantify the optimal paths between remotely distant interacting locations. Specifically, we separate the correlations between two grid points into direct and indirect components, where the optimal path is found based on a minimal total cost function of the direct links. We demonstrate our method using near surface air temperature reanalysis data, on identifying cross-latitude teleconnections and their corresponding optimal paths. The proposed method may be used to quantify and improve our understanding regarding the emergence of climate patterns on global scales.

  14. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  15. GRB 090227B: THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN THE GENUINE SHORT AND LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccino, M.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Izzo, L.; Penacchioni, A. V. [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    The time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 090227B, made possible by the Fermi-GBM data, allows us to identify in this source the missing link between the genuine short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within the Fireshell model of the GRBs we predict genuine short GRBs: bursts with the same inner engine of the long bursts but endowed with a severely low value of the baryon load, B {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. A first energetically predominant emission occurs at the transparency of the e {sup +} e {sup -} plasma, the Proper-GRB (P-GRB), followed by a softer emission, the extended afterglow. The typical separation between the two emissions is expected to be of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} s. We identify the P-GRB of GRB 090227B in the first 96 ms of emission, where a thermal component with the temperature kT = (517 {+-} 28) keV and a flux comparable with the non-thermal part of the spectrum is observed. This non-thermal component as well as the subsequent emission, where there is no evidence for a thermal spectrum, is identified with the extended afterglow. We deduce a theoretical cosmological redshift z = 1.61 {+-} 0.14. We then derive the total energy E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}= (2.83{+-}0.15) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} erg, the baryon load B = (4.13 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, the Lorentz {Gamma} factor at transparency {Gamma}{sub tr} = (1.44 {+-} 0.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}, and the intrinsic duration {Delta}t' {approx} 0.35 s. We also determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), (n {sub CBM}) = (1.90 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} particles cm{sup -3}. There is no evidence of beaming in the system. In view of the energetics and of the baryon load of the source, as well as of the low interstellar medium and of the intrinsic timescale of the signal, we identify the GRB progenitor as a binary neutron star. From the recent progress in the theory of neutron stars, we obtain

  16. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Expedited Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Labeled Phenols. A Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenellenbogen, John A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Zhou, Dong [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Fluorine-18 (F-18) is arguably the most valuable radionuclide for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. However, while there are many methods for labeling small molecules with F-18 at aliphatic positions and on electron-deficient aromatic rings, there are essentially no reliable and practical methods to label electron-rich aromatic rings such as phenols, with F-18 at high specific activity. This is disappointing because fluorine-labeled phenols are found in many drugs; there are also many interesting plant metabolites and hormones that contain either phenols or other electron-rich aromatic systems such as indoles whose metabolism, transport, and distribution would be interesting to study if they could readily be labeled with F-18. Most approaches to label phenols with F-18 involve the labeling of electron-poor precursor arenes by nucleophilic aromatic substitution, followed by subsequent conversion to phenols by oxidation or other multi-step sequences that are often inefficient and time consuming. Thus, the lack of good methods for labeling phenols and other electron-rich aromatics with F-18 at high specific activity represents a significant methodological gap in F-18 radiochemistry that can be considered a “Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry”. The objective of this research project was to develop and optimize a series of unusual synthetic transformations that will enable phenols (and other electron-rich aromatic systems) to be labeled with F-18 at high specific activity, rapidly, reliably, and conveniently, thereby bridging this gap. Through the studies conducted with support of this project, we have substantially advanced synthetic methodology for the preparation of fluorophenols. Our progress is presented in detail in the sections below, and much has been published or presented publication; other components are being prepared for publication. In essence, we have developed a completely new method to prepare o-fluorophenols from non-aromatic precursors

  18. Hydrologic Response to Climate Change: Missing Precipitation Data Matters for Computed Timing Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, B.

    2016-12-01

    This work demonstrates the derivation of climate timing statistics and applying them to determine resulting hydroclimate impacts. Long-term daily precipitation observations from 50 California stations were used to compute climate trends of precipitation event Intensity, event Duration and Pause between events. Each precipitation event trend was then applied as input to a PRMS hydrology model which showed hydrology changes to recharge, baseflow, streamflow, etc. An important concern was precipitation uncertainty induced by missing observation values and causing errors in quantification of precipitation trends. Many standard statistical techniques such as ARIMA and simple endogenous or even exogenous imputation were applied but failed to help resolve these uncertainties. What helped resolve these uncertainties was use of multiple imputation techniques. This involved fitting of Weibull probability distributions to multiple imputed values for the three precipitation trends.Permutation resampling techniques using Monte Carlo processing were then applied to the multiple imputation values to derive significance p-values for each trend. Significance at the 95% level for Intensity was found for 11 of the 50 stations, Duration from 16 of the 50, and Pause from 19, of which 12 were 99% significant. The significance weighted trends for California are Intensity -4.61% per decade, Duration +3.49% per decade, and Pause +3.58% per decade. Two California basins with PRMS hydrologic models were studied: Feather River in the northern Sierra Nevada mountains and the central coast Soquel-Aptos. Each local trend was changed without changing the other trends or the total precipitation. Feather River Basin's critical supply to Lake Oroville and the State Water Project benefited from a total streamflow increase of 1.5%. The Soquel-Aptos Basin water supply was impacted by a total groundwater recharge decrease of -7.5% and streamflow decrease of -3.2%.

  19. Linked color imaging reduces the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon: a randomized tandem colonoscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Silvia; Mogavero, Giuseppe; Amato, Arnaldo; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Terreni, Natalia; Conforti, Francesco Simone; Conte, Dario; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2018-04-01

    Linked color imaging (LCI) is a newly developed image-enhancing endoscopy technology that provides bright endoscopic images and increases color contrast. We investigated whether LCI improves the detection of neoplastic lesions in the right colon when compared with high definition white-light imaging (WLI).  Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized (1:1) after cecal intubation into right colon inspection at first pass by LCI or by WLI. At the hepatic flexure, the scope was reintroduced to the cecum under LCI and a second right colon inspection was performed under WLI in previously LCI-scoped patients (LCI-WLI group) and vice versa (WLI-LCI group). Lesions detected on first- and second-pass examinations were used to calculate detection and miss rates, respectively. The primary outcome was the right colon adenoma miss rate.  Of the 600 patients enrolled, 142 had at least one adenoma in the right colon, with similar right colon adenoma detection rates (r-ADR) in the two groups (22.7 % in LCI-WLI and 24.7 % in WLI-LCI). At per-polyp analysis, double inspection of the right colon in the LCI-WLI and WLI-LCI groups resulted in an 11.8 % and 30.6 % adenoma miss rate, respectively ( P  one adenoma was identified in the second pass only (incremental ADR) in 2 of 300 patients (0.7 %) in the LCI - WLI group and in 13 of 300 patients (4.3 %) in the WLI - LCI group ( P  = 0.01).  LCI could reduce the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A generalized theory of sun-climate/weather link and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-07-01

    We generalize the theory of Sun-Climate/weather links and climatic change developed earlier by the author. On the basis of this theory, we show mathematically that key climatic/weather parameters are continuously subjected to determinable amplitude modulations and other variations which may be useful in climatic prediction work. A number of new and known terrestrial oscillations in climate and atmospheric behaviour in general, including the known quasi-biennial oscillations and many others, are deduced from the theory and accounted for in terms of their causative physical processes. Finally we briefly discuss the possibility of applying the theory to the planets Mars and Venus as well as Saturn's largest satellite, Titan. (author). 30 refs, 1 fig

  1. Global Commodity Chains & World Income Inequalities: The Missing Link of Inequality and the “Upgrading” Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Brewer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article links key findings from two major research literatures within contemporary development and globalization studies: global commodity/value chains, and world income inequalities. Forging this missing link exposes what I call the “upgrading paradox” within commodity and value chain analysis. The paradox hinges on the disconnect between the global commodity/value chain literature’s focus on the potential for firms and nations to “upgrade” their position within chains and the roots of the global commodity chain construct in world-systems analysis, a theoretical framework that rejects the potential for widespread and generalizable developmental progress. Findings from the world income inequalities literature do indeed confirm the paradoxical nature of the upgrading discourse, so I conclude by discussing two potential paths for a “post-paradox” commodity chain analysis.

  2. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  3. Strong, weak, and missing links in microbial community of the N.W. Mediterranean Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bettarel, Y.; Dolan, J. R.; Horňák, Karel; Lemée, R.; Mašín, Michal; Pedrotti, M. L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Šimek, Karel; Sime-Ngando, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2002), s. 451-462 ISSN 0168-6496 Grant - others:CNRS-PICS(FR) project 1111 Keywords : microbial abundances and activities * diurnal cycles * trophic and functional links Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2002

  4. Linking models of human behaviour and climate alters projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Brian; Gross, Louis J.; Lacasse, Katherine; Carr, Eric; Metcalf, Sara S.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Howe, Peter D.; Fefferman, Nina; Franck, Travis; Zia, Asim; Kinzig, Ann; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2018-01-01

    Although not considered in climate models, perceived risk stemming from extreme climate events may induce behavioural changes that alter greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we link the C-ROADS climate model to a social model of behavioural change to examine how interactions between perceived risk and emissions behaviour influence projected climate change. Our coupled climate and social model resulted in a global temperature change ranging from 3.4-6.2 °C by 2100 compared with 4.9 °C for the C-ROADS model alone, and led to behavioural uncertainty that was of a similar magnitude to physical uncertainty (2.8 °C versus 3.5 °C). Model components with the largest influence on temperature were the functional form of response to extreme events, interaction of perceived behavioural control with perceived social norms, and behaviours leading to sustained emissions reductions. Our results suggest that policies emphasizing the appropriate attribution of extreme events to climate change and infrastructural mitigation may reduce climate change the most.

  5. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  6. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  7. Persistent Identifiers for Field Deployments: A Missing Link in the Provenance Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Ji, P.; Fils, D.; Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-12-01

    Research in the geosciences is characterized by a wide range of complex and costly field deployments including oceanographic cruises, submersible dives, drilling expeditions, seismic networks, geodetic campaigns, moored arrays, aircraft flights, and satellite missions. Each deployment typically produces a mix of sensor and sample data, spanning a period from hours to decades, that ultimately yields a long tail of post-field products and publications. Publishing persistent, citable identifiers for field deployments will facilitate 1) preservation and reuse of the original field data, 2) reproducibility of the resulting publications, and 3) recognition for both the facilities that operate the platforms and the investigators who secure funding for the experiments. In the ocean domain, sharing unique identifiers for field deployments is a familiar practice. For example, the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) routinely links datasets to cruise identifiers published by the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program. In recent years, facilities have started to publish formal/persistent identifiers, typically Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), for field deployments including seismic networks, oceanographic cruises, and moored arrays. For example, the EarthChem Library (ECL) publishes a DOI for each dataset which, if it derived from an oceanographic research cruise on a US vessel, is linked to a DOI for the cruise published by R2R. Work is underway to create similar links for the IODP JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO) and the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO). We present results and lessons learned including a draft schema for publishing field deployments as DataCite DOI records; current practice for linking these DOIs with related identifiers such as Open Researcher and Contributor IDs (ORCIDs), Open Funder Registry (OFR) codes, and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs); and consideration of other

  8. Connecting organisational culture and quality of care in the hospital: is job burnout the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Kehoe, Ian; Valkanos, Efthymios

    2011-01-01

    To date, relatively little evidence has been published as to what represents an effective and efficient way to improve quality of care and safety in hospitals. In addition, the initiatives that do exist are rarely designed or developed with regard to the individual and organisational factors that determine the success or failure of such initiatives. One of the challenges in linking organisational culture to quality of care is to identify the focal point at which a deficient hospital culture and inadequate organisational resources are most evident. The accumulated evidence suggests that such a point is physician burnout. This paper sets out to examine this issue. The paper reviews the existing literature on organisational culture, burnout and quality of care in the healthcare sector. A new conceptual approach as to how organisational culture and quality of care can be more effectively linked through the physician experience of burnout is proposed. Recommendations are provided with regard to how future research can approach quality of care from a bottom-up organisational change perspective. In addition, the need to widen the debate beyond US and North European experiences is discussed. The present paper represents an attempt to link organisational culture, job burnout and quality of care in a more meaningful way. A conceptual model has been provided as a way to frame and evaluate future research.

  9. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and low milk supply: Is insulin resistance the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the known maternal and infant benefits of breastfeeding, only about two-fifths of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, with low milk supply among the most commonly cited reasons for breastfeeding cessation. Although anecdotal reports from lactation consultants indicate that polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS interferes with lactation, very few studies have examined this relationship, and the association between PCOS and lactation dysfunction remains poorly understood. Moreover, studies have reported conflicting results when examining breastfeeding success in women with PCOS, and divergence of the PCOS phenotype may be responsible for the heterogeneous results to date. Specifically, insulin resistance may have an aggravating or even essential role in the pathogenesis of low milk supply. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F has been identified as a potential biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. Accordingly, interventions targeting insulin action have been recognized as potentially promising strategies toward the treatment of lactation dysfunction. This review will highlight studies linking PCOS with low milk supply and explore potential mechanisms that contribute to lactation dysfunction in these women.

  10. COPD and stroke: are systemic inflammation and oxidative stress the missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Victoria; Crack, Peter J; Bozinovski, Steven; Miller, Alyson A; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and loss of lung function, and is currently the third largest cause of death in the world. It is now well established that cardiovascular-related comorbidities such as stroke contribute to morbidity and mortality in COPD. The mechanisms linking COPD and stroke remain to be fully defined but are likely to be interconnected. The association between COPD and stroke may be largely dependent on shared risk factors such as aging and smoking, or the association of COPD with traditional stroke risk factors. In addition, we propose that COPD-related systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may play important roles by promoting cerebral vascular dysfunction and platelet hyperactivity. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathogenesis of COPD, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and cardiovascular comorbidities associated with COPD, in particular stroke. We also highlight and discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning the link between COPD and stroke, with a particular focus on the roles of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  12. Low-molecular-weight cyclin E: the missing link between biology and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akli, Said; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin E, a key mediator of transition during the G 1 /S cellular division phase, is deregulated in a wide variety of human cancers. Our group recently reported that overexpression and generation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) isoforms of cyclin E were associated with poor clinical outcome among breast cancer patients. However, the link between LMW cyclin E biology in mediating a tumorigenic phenotype and clinical outcome is unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we assessed the role of LMW isoforms in breast cancer cells; we found that these forms of cyclin E induced genomic instability and resistance to p21, p27, and antiestrogens in breast cancer. These findings suggest that high levels of LMW isoforms of cyclin E not only can predict failure to endocrine therapy but also are true prognostic indicators because of their influence on cell proliferation and genetic instability

  13. Simulation-Based Learning Environments to Teach Complexity: The Missing Link in Teaching Sustainable Public Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Deegan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While public-sector management problems are steeped in positivistic and socially constructed complexity, public management education in the management of complexity lags behind that of business schools, particularly in the application of simulation-based learning. This paper describes a Simulation-Based Learning Environment for public management education that includes a coupled case study and System Dynamics simulation surrounding flood protection, a domain where stewardship decisions regarding public infrastructure and investment have direct and indirect effects on businesses and the public. The Pointe Claire case and CoastalProtectSIM simulation provide a platform for policy experimentation under conditions of exogenous uncertainty (weather and climate change as well as endogenous effects generated by structure. We discuss the model in some detail, and present teaching materials developed to date to support the use of our work in public administration curricula. Our experience with this case demonstrates the potential of this approach to motivate sustainable learning about complexity in public management settings and enhance learners’ competency to deal with complex dynamic problems.

  14. Ethnic variations in immigrant poverty exit and female employment: the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Despite widespread interest in poverty among recent immigrants and female immigrant employment, research on the link between the two is limited. This study evaluates the effect of recently arrived immigrant women's employment on the exit from family poverty and considers the implications for ethnic differences in poverty exit. It uses the bivariate probit model and the Fairlie decomposition technique to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), a nationally representative survey of immigrants arriving in Canada, 2000-2001. Results show that the employment of recently arrived immigrant women makes a notable contribution to lifting families out of poverty. Moreover, the wide ethnic variations in the probability of exit from poverty between European and non-European groups are partially explained by the lower employment rates among non-European women. The results suggest that the equal earner/female breadwinner model applies to low-income recent immigrant families in general, but the male breadwinner model explains the low probability of poverty exit among select non-European groups whose female employment rates are notably low.

  15. Smooth to rough dissociation in Brucella: the missing link to virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos eMancilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociation encompasses changes in a series of phenotypes: colony and cell morphology, inmunological and biochemical reactions and virulence. The concept is generally associated to the in vitro transition between smooth (S and rough (R colonies, a phenotypic observation in Gram-negative bacteria commonly made since the beginning of microbiology as a science. It is also well known that the loss of the O-polysaccharide, the most external lipopolysaccharide (LPS moiety, triggers the change in the colony phenotype. Although dissociation is related to one of the most basic features used to distinguish between species, i.e. colony morphology, and, in the case of pathogens, predict their virulence behaviour, it has been considered a laboratory artifact and thus did not gain further attention. However, recent insights into genetics and pathogenesis of members of Brucella, causative agents of brucellosis, have brought a new outlook on this experimental fact, suggesting that it plays a role beyond the laboratory observations.In this perspective article, the current knowledge on Brucella LPS genetics and its connection with dissociation in the frame of evolution is discussed. Latest reports support the notion that, by means of a better understanding of genetic pathways linked to R phenotype and the biological impact of this intriguing old phenomenon, unexpected applications can be achieved.

  16. Analysis of the solid waste management practices in Chinhoyi: bridging the missing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishumael SANGO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, there has been noticeable and steady mismatch between urban population growth and capacity for managing the corresponding increases in solid wastes. The local community is greatly concerned because it is aware of the clear link between poorly managed waste and the potential for the spread of diseases. This study was carried out to examine the solid waste management practices in Chinhoyi urban area and assess the impacts on the environment and human health. The study combined quantitative and qualitative data collected through fieldwork, questionnaires, interviews and document reviews. The population of Chinhoyi stands at about 60 000 generating more than 100 tons of waste per day. Results of the study include high percentage of uncollected waste, high levels of health and safety related problems such as lacerations, contusions, strain/sprains, and illness as well as noticeable deterioration of facilities and the environment. Issues affecting the effective management of waste are discussed. Recommendations based on the sustainable principle of integrated solid waste management are suggested. Sustainability requires the system to be environmentally effective, economically affordable, and socially acceptable.

  17. Smooth to Rough Dissociation in Brucella: The Missing Link to Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Dissociation encompasses changes in a series of phenotypes: colony and cell morphology, inmunological and biochemical reactions and virulence. The concept is generally associated to the in vitro transition between smooth (S) and rough (R) colonies, a phenotypic observation in Gram-negative bacteria commonly made since the beginning of microbiology as a science. It is also well known that the loss of the O-polysaccharide, the most external lipopolysaccharide (LPS) moiety, triggers the change in the colony phenotype. Although dissociation is related to one of the most basic features used to distinguish between species, i.e., colony morphology, and, in the case of pathogens, predict their virulence behavior, it has been considered a laboratory artifact and thus did not gain further attention. However, recent insights into genetics and pathogenesis of members of Brucella, causative agents of brucellosis, have brought a new outlook on this experimental fact, suggesting that it plays a role beyond the laboratory observations. In this perspective article, the current knowledge on Brucella LPS genetics and its connection with dissociation in the frame of evolution is discussed. Latest reports support the notion that, by means of a better understanding of genetic pathways linked to R phenotype and the biological impact of this intriguing "old" phenomenon, unexpected applications can be achieved.

  18. The missing link? Nuclear proliferation and the international mobility of Russian nuclear experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinberg, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time, rumors fly about the attempted purchase of nuclear 'brains' by Third World nations eager to acquire nuclear technologies. With few exceptions they have not been substantiated although efforts to document them are met by either denial or the cover of 'classified'. The rapid succession of reported findings of radioactive material in Germany, the Czech Republic, and Hungary has heightened speculation about whether scientists, engineers, or other technical personnel, singly or in collusion with mafia members, might have provided access to the material. There does not appear to be any unclassified hard data to demonstrate that a particular scientist or engineer was responsible for the appearance of nuclear materials either within the countries where fissile materials have been interdicted. Continuing crises in Russia, in particular, heighten concerns about the likelihood that scientists, engineers and technologists will be actively, passively, or inadvertently involved in nuclear proliferation. The economic, social, and political climates have worsened for many scientists, engineers and technologists. Many trained in weapons technology have lost their jobs and also their position in society. Psychological demoralization combined with the financial deprivations and anxiety about the future enormously increase the likelihood that a certain percentage of un- or underemployed scientists, engineers and technologists will succumb to the temptations offered by would-be nuclear nations. The likelihood that terrorists will acquire nuclear material either for use or as threat has become more real as the supplies of fissile material appear in black markets in Europe. The means by which nuclear knowledge is proliferated throughout the world have grown exponentially since the Former Soviet Union borders became permeable in 1989. The new mobility also poses a conundrum for the already-thorny issue of the international education of foreign students. Russia is

  19. Oscillatory theta activity during memory formation and its impact on overnight consolidation: a missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Schabus, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote memory consolidation driven by certain oscillatory patterns, such as sleep spindles. However, sleep does not consolidate all newly encoded information uniformly but rather "selects" certain memories for consolidation. It is assumed that such selection depends on salience tags attached to the new memories before sleep. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes reflecting presleep memory tagging. The current study sought to address the question of whether event-related changes in spectral theta power (theta ERSP) during presleep memory formation could reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Twenty-four participants memorized 160 word pairs before sleep; in a separate laboratory visit, they performed a nonlearning control task. Memory performance was tested twice, directly before and after 8 hr of sleep. Results indicate that participants who improved their memory performance overnight displayed stronger theta ERSP during the memory task in comparison with the control task. They also displayed stronger memory task-related increases in fast sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, presleep theta activity was directly linked to fast sleep spindle activity, indicating that processes during memory formation might indeed reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Interestingly, our results further indicate that the suggested relation between sleep spindles and overnight performance change is not as direct as once believed. Rather, it appears to be mediated by processes beginning during presleep memory formation. We conclude that theta ERSP during presleep memory formation reflects cortico-hippocampal interactions that lead to a better long-term accessibility by tagging memories for sleep spindle-related reprocessing.

  20. Enrichment of Data Publications in Earth Sciences - Data Reports as a Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Evans, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    During the past decade, the relevance of research data stewardship has been rising significantly. Preservation and publication of scientific data for long-term use, including the storage in adequate repositories has been identified as a key issue by the scientific community as well as by bodies like research agencies. Essential for any kind of re-use is a proper description of the datasets. As a result of the increasing interest, data repositories have been developed and the included research data is accompanied with at least a minimum set of metadata. This metadata is useful for data discovery and a first insight to the content of a dataset. But often data re-use needs more and extended information. Many datasets are accompanied by a small 'readme file' with basic information on the data structure, or other accompanying documents. A source of additional information could be an article published in one of the newly emerging data journals (e.g. Copernicus's ESSD Earth System Science Data or Nature's Scientific Data). Obviously there is an information gap between a 'readme file', that is only accessible after data download (which often leads to less usage of published datasets than if the information was available beforehand) and the much larger effort to prepare an article for a peer-reviewed data journal. For many years, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences publishes 'Scientific Technical Reports (STR)' as a report series which is electronically persistently available and citable with assigned DOIs. This series was opened for the description of parallel published datasets as 'STR Data'. These are internally reviewed and offer a flexible publication format describing published data in depth, suitable for different datasets ranging from long-term monitoring time series of observatories to field data, to (meta-)databases, and software publications. STR Data offer a full and consistent overview and description to all relevant parameters of a linked published

  1. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R; Romansic, John M; McCallum, Hamish; Hudson, Peter J

    2008-11-11

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global warming and Bd-related declines sparked the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis, which proposes that global warming increased cloud cover in warm years that drove the convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures toward the thermal optimum for Bd growth. In contrast, the spatiotemporal-spread hypothesis states that Bd-related declines are caused by the introduction and spread of Bd, independent of climate change. We provide a rigorous test of these hypotheses by evaluating (i) whether cloud cover, temperature convergence, and predicted temperature-dependent Bd growth are significant positive predictors of amphibian extinctions in the genus Atelopus and (ii) whether spatial structure in the timing of these extinctions can be detected without making assumptions about the location, timing, or number of Bd emergences. We show that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp. extinctions but that the cause of this structure remains equivocal, emphasizing the need for further molecular characterization of Bd. We also show that the reported positive multi-decade correlation between Atelopus spp. extinctions and mean tropical air temperature in the previous year is indeed robust, but the evidence that it is causal is weak because numerous other variables, including regional banana and beer production, were better predictors of these extinctions. Finally, almost all of our findings were opposite to the predictions of the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis. Although climate change is likely to play an important role in worldwide amphibian declines

  2. Patient-specific reconstruction plates are the missing link in computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction: A showcase for technical description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Smolka, Wenko; Giessler, Goetz A; Wilde, Frank; Probst, Florian A

    2015-06-01

    Preoperative planning of mandibular reconstruction has moved from mechanical simulation by dental model casts or stereolithographic models into an almost completely virtual environment. CAD/CAM applications allow a high level of accuracy by providing a custom template-assisted contouring approach for bone flaps. However, the clinical accuracy of CAD reconstruction is limited by the use of prebent reconstruction plates, an analogue step in an otherwise digital workstream. In this paper the integration of computerized, numerically-controlled (CNC) milled, patient-specific mandibular plates (PSMP) within the virtual workflow of computer-assisted mandibular free fibula flap reconstruction is illustrated in a clinical case. Intraoperatively, the bone segments as well as the plate arms showed a very good fit. Postoperative CT imaging demonstrated close approximation of the PSMP and fibular segments, and good alignment of native mandible and fibular segments and intersegmentally. Over a follow-up period of 12 months, there was an uneventful course of healing with good bony consolidation. The virtual design and automated fabrication of patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plates provide the missing link in the virtual workflow of computer-assisted mandibular free fibula flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Regulatory Fatigue: A Missing Link in Understanding Fibromyalgia and Other Chronic MultiSymptom Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Ehlers, Shawna L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Patients with chronic multisymptom illnesses such as fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are experiencing a multitude of physical and mental challenges. Facing such challenges may drain capacity to self-regulate, and research suggests patients with these illnesses may experience self-regulatory fatigue (SRF). This study sought to examine whether SRF can be associated with quality of life (QoL) in patients with FMS. Patients (N = 258) diagnosed with FMS completed self-report measures related to demographics, SRF (Self-Regulatory Fatigue 18 [SRF-18]), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire [GAD-7]), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), physical fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), symptoms related to FMS (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), and QoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]). Hierarchical regressions showed higher SRF to be associated with lower QoL in terms of lower overall physical QoL, with subscales related to physical functioning, role limitations-physical, bodily pain, and general health (all P's > 0.001), as well as lower overall mental QoL, with subscales related to vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, and mental health (all P's > 0.001). Including traditional predictors such as anxiety, depression, physical fatigue, and FMS-related symptoms as covariates in the analyses reduced the link between SRF and QoL somewhat, but the associations remained generally strong, particularly for SRF and mental QoL. This is the first study to show higher SRF relating to lower QoL for patients with FMS. Results suggest that SRF is distinct from anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and predicts QoL above and beyond these traditional factors in the area of chronic multisymptom illnesses such as FMS. SRF may be a "missing link" in understanding the complex nature of chronic multisymptom illnesses. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Divestiture: strategy's missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranikoff, Lee; Koller, Tim; Schneider, Antoon

    2002-05-01

    Although most companies dedicate considerable time and attention to acquiring and creating businesses, few devote much effort to divestitures. But regularly divesting businesses--even good, healthy ones--ensures that remaining units reach their potential and that the overall company grows stronger. Drawing on extensive research into corporate performance over the last decade, McKinsey consultants Lee Dranikoff, Tim Koller, and Antoon Schneider show that an active divestiture strategy is essential to a corporation's long-term health and profitability. In particular, they say that companies that actively manage their businesses through acquisitions and divestitures create substantially more shareholder value than those that passively hold on to their businesses. Therefore, companies should avoid making divestitures only in response to pressure and instead make them part of a well-thought-out strategy. This article presents a five-step process for doing just that: prepare the organization, identify the best candidates for divestiture, execute the best deal, communicate the decision, and create new businesses. As the fifth step suggests, divestiture is not an end in itself. Rather, it is a means to a larger end: building a company that can grow and prosper over the long haul. Wise executives divest so that they can create new businesses and expand existing ones. All of the funds, management time, and support-function capacity that a divestiture frees up should therefore be reinvested in creating shareholder value. In some cases, this will mean returning money to shareholders. But more likely than not, it will mean investing in attractive growth opportunities. In companies as in the marketplace, creation and destruction go hand in hand; neither flourishes without the other.

  5. The missing link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    Innovation indgår som et centralt tema i mange virksomheders vision og mission statements. Det giver god mening, da innovation er bredt anerkendt som noget positivt, der skaber værdi for kunden, og samtidigt giver virksomheden konkurrencemæssig fordel. Men paradoksalt nok, så afspejler...

  6. CHARMe Commentary metadata for Climate Science: collecting, linking and sharing user feedback on climate datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Lawrence, Bryan; Kershaw, Philip; Nagni, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The research process can be thought of as an iterative activity, initiated based on prior domain knowledge, as well on a number of external inputs, and producing a range of outputs including datasets, studies and peer reviewed publications. These outputs may describe the problem under study, the methodology used, the results obtained, etc. In any new publication, the author may cite or comment other papers or datasets in order to support their research hypothesis. However, as their work progresses, the researcher may draw from many other latent channels of information. These could include for example, a private conversation following a lecture or during a social dinner; an opinion expressed concerning some significant event such as an earthquake or for example a satellite failure. In addition, other sources of information of grey literature are important public such as informal papers such as the arxiv deposit, reports and studies. The climate science community is not an exception to this pattern; the CHARMe project, funded under the European FP7 framework, is developing an online system for collecting and sharing user feedback on climate datasets. This is to help users judge how suitable such climate data are for an intended application. The user feedback could be comments about assessments, citations, or provenance of the dataset, or other information such as descriptions of uncertainty or data quality. We define this as a distinct category of metadata called Commentary or C-metadata. We link C-metadata with target climate datasets using a Linked Data approach via the Open Annotation data model. In the context of Linked Data, C-metadata plays the role of a resource which, depending on its nature, may be accessed as simple text or as more structured content. The project is implementing a range of software tools to create, search or visualize C-metadata including a JavaScript plugin enabling this functionality to be integrated in situ with data provider portals

  7. The secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA: a missing link between inflammation, activated renin-angiotensin system, and atherogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Divchev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimitar Divchev, Bernhard SchiefferDepartment of Cardiology and Angiology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, GermanyAbstract: Inflammation, lipid peroxidation and chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS are hallmarks of the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of the pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA in atherogenesis. This enzyme is produced by different cell types through stimulation by proinflammatory cytokines. It is detectable in the intima and in media smooth muscle cells, not only in atherosclerotic lesions but also in the very early stages of atherogenesis. sPLA2-IIA can hydrolyse the phospholipid monolayers of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Such modified LDL show increased affinity to proteoglycans. The modified particles have a greater tendency to aggregate and an enhanced ability to insert cholesterol into cells. This modification may promote macrophage LDL uptake leading to the formation of foam cells. Furthermore, sPLA2-IIA is not only a mediator for localized inflammation but may be also used as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes. An interaction between activated RAS and phospholipases has been indicated by observations showing that inhibitors of sPLA2 decrease angiotensin (Ang II-induced macrophage lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, various interactions between Ang II and oxLDL have been demonstrated suggesting a central role of sPLA2-IIA in these processes and offering a possible target for treatment. The role of sPLA2-IIA in the perpetuation of atherosclerosis appears to be the missing link between inflammation, activated RAS and lipidperoxidation.Keywords: secretory phospholipase A2, lipoproteins, renin-angiotensin system, inflammation, atherosclerosis

  8. The quality of hospital work environments and missed nursing care is linked to heart failure readmissions: a cross-sectional study of US hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthon, J Margo Brooks; Lasater, Karen B; Sloane, Douglas M; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Threats to quality and patient safety may exist when necessary nursing care is omitted. Empirical research is needed to determine how missed nursing care is associated with patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between missed nursing care and hospital readmissions. Methods Cross-sectional examination, using three linked data sources—(1) nurse survey, (2) patient discharge data from three states (California, New Jersey and Pennsylvania) and (3) administrative hospital data— from 2005 to 2006. We explored the incidence of 30-day readmission for 160 930 patients with heart failure in 419 acute care hospitals in the USA. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of missed care on the odds of readmission, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Results The most frequently missed nursing care activities across all hospitals in our sample included talking to and comforting patients (42.0%), developing and updating care plans (35.8%) and educating patients and families (31.5%). For 4 of the 10 studied care activities, each 10 percentage-point increase in the number of nurses reporting having missed the activity was associated with an increase in the odds of readmission by 2–8% after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. However, missed nursing care was no longer a significant predictor of readmission once adjusting for the nurse work environment, except in the case of the delivery of treatments and procedures (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14). Conclusions Missed care is an independent predictor of heart failure readmissions. However, once adjusting for the quality of the nurse work environment, this relationship is attenuated. Improvements in nurses’ working conditions may be one strategy to reduce care omissions and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25672342

  9. Novethic explains the links between climate and finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The COP 21 conference is the stage for UN climate negotiations among countries and has elicited unprecedented involvement by economic and financial players. For more than a year now, Novethic has been analysing and quantifying the move to incorporate the climate into financial management, a movement that counts nearly 1,000 investors representing Euro 30 trillion. Novethic has prepared four quick guides to ending coal investments, green financing, carbon risk and the climate commitments of the systemic banks and insurance companies

  10. Estimating missing hourly climatic data using artificial neural network for energy balance based ET mapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) mapping has become an important tool for water resources management at a regional scale. Accurate hourly climatic data and reference ET are crucial input for successfully implementing remote sensing based ET models such as Mapping ET with internal calibra...

  11. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat. A missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A. [Lab. for Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Jakl, T. [Chemicals Policy Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays. Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting the main trophic levels (algae, Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely between microflora and earthworms. Protozoa are an ideal missing link as they were shown to be the most prominent faunal contributors to nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems and as they represent the lacking first level consumers as well as the highly diverse microfauna. As protozoa inhabit the soil pore water, they can serve as direct indicators for the solved and thus bioavailable portion of xenobiotics. In order to widen the spectrum of available toxicity tests for a meaningful effect assessment for the soil compartment, a test with the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Protozoa), introduced by Pratt et al. (1997), was improved. Methods. The novel improvements comprise a substantially refined inoculation and counting procedure, as well as the adaptation to yeast as a nutritional source. The test was designed to be rapid and easy to perform, in order to have both a higher degree of standardisation and reproducibility, as well as to be in compliance with international test guidelines. Results and Discussion. Five test substances, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, acetone, atrazine, and metolachlor, were used in single-compound, static, short-term exposure (24 h, 48 h) tests to examine the effect on the population growth of C. inflata. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.17 to 0.26 mg/l for Cd, 34 to 63 mg/l for Cr, >3000 mg/l for acetone, 91-112 mg/l for atrazine and 83-119 mg/l for metolachlor. The equilibrium partitioning approach was used to extrapolate the results to total soil exposure and thus enable a sensitivity comparison to

  12. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  13. Linking city development and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Steiner; Rudolf Bauer; Jana Knezova

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is happening, projected to continue and poses serious challenges also for cities' development. Extreme weather events resulting in hazards such as heat waves, floods and droughts are expected to happen more frequently in many parts of Europe. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts global temperatures to rise an additional 2-4˚C by the end of this century and graduation of weather extremes. While urban areas will generally experience the sam...

  14. Thermohaline circulation: a missing equation and its climate-change implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang

    2018-01-01

    We formulate a box model of coupled ocean-atmosphere to examine the differential fields interactive with the thermohaline circulation (THC) and their response to global warming. We discern a robust convective bound on the atmospheric heat transport, which would divide the climate regime into warm and cold branches; but unlike the saline mode of previous box models, the cold state, if allowed, has the same-signed—though weaker—density contrast and THC as the present climate, which may explain its emergence from coupled general circulation models. We underscore the nondeterminacy of the THC due to random eddy shedding and apply the fluctuation theorem to constrain the shedding rate, thus closing the problem. The derivation reveals an ocean propelled toward the maximum entropy production (MEP) on millennial timescale (termed "MEP-adjustment"), the long timescale arising from the compounding effect of microscopic fluctuations in the shedding rate and their slight probability bias. Global warming may induce hysteresis between the two branches, like that seen in GCMs, but the cold transition is far more sensitive to the moistening than the heating effects as the latter would be countered by the hydrological feedback. The uni- or bi-modality of the current state—hence whether the THC may recover after the cold transition—depends on the global-mean convective flux and may not be easily assessed due to its observed uncertainty.

  15. The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2017-07-01

    Current anthropogenic climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources. We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions) actions with the potential to contribute to systemic change and substantially reduce annual personal emissions: having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 tonnes CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year), living car-free (2.4 tCO2e saved per year), avoiding airplane travel (1.6 tCO2e saved per roundtrip transatlantic flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tCO2e saved per year). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like comprehensive recycling (four times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing household lightbulbs (eight times less). Though adolescents poised to establish lifelong patterns are an important target group for promoting high-impact actions, we find that ten high school science textbooks from Canada largely fail to mention these actions (they account for 4% of their recommended actions), instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential emissions reductions. Government resources on climate change from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia also focus recommendations on lower-impact actions. We conclude that there are opportunities to improve existing educational and communication structures to promote the most effective emission-reduction strategies and close this mitigation gap.

  16. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  17. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandom, Christopher James; Faurby, Søren; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2014-01-01

    by glacial–interglacial climate change and humans. We show that the severity of extinction is strongly tied to hominin palaeobiogeography, with at most a weak, Eurasia-specific link to climate change. This first species-level macroscale analysis at relatively high geographical resolution provides strong...

  18. Climate change and atopic dermatitis: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Andersen, Louise Kronborg; Davis, Mark Denis P

    2018-06-05

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a growing health concern, because of its high prevalence and associated low quality of life. The etiology of AD is multifactorial with interaction between various factors such as genetic predisposition, immune, and importantly, environmental factors. Since climate change is associated with a profound shift in environmental factors, we suggest that AD is being influenced by climate change. This review highlights the effects of ultraviolet light, temperature, humidity, pollens, air pollutants, and their interaction between them contributing to the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AD. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. 'Hurrah for the missing link!': A history of apes, ancestors and a crucial piece of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the idea of a ‘missing link’ connecting humans with the rest of the animal kingdom was eagerly embraced by professional scientists and popularizers. After the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859, many tied the idea and subsequent search for a crucial...

  20. Urethral Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infections in Men With Anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum and Their Partners: The Missing Link in the Current Epidemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; van Rooijen, Martijn; Speksnijder, Arjen Gerard Cornelis Lambertus; de Vries, Henry John C.

    2013-01-01

    Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is not screened routinely. We found that in 341 men having sex with men with anorectal LGV, 7 (2.1%) had concurrent urethral LGV. Among 59 partners, 4 (6.8%) had urethral LGV infections. Urethral LGV is common, probably key in transmission, and missed in

  1. Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum infections in men with anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum and their partners: the missing link in the current epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; van Rooijen, Martijn; Speksnijder, Arjen Gerard Cornelis Lambertus; de Vries, Henry John C

    2013-08-01

    Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is not screened routinely. We found that in 341 men having sex with men with anorectal LGV, 7 (2.1%) had concurrent urethral LGV. Among 59 partners, 4 (6.8%) had urethral LGV infections. Urethral LGV is common, probably key in transmission, and missed in current routine LGV screening algorithms.

  2. TESTING THE LINK BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND GALACTIC SPIRAL ARM TRANSIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, Andrew C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Pohl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine past suggestions of a close link between terrestrial climate change and the Sun's transit of spiral arms in its path through the Milky Way galaxy. These links produced concrete fits, deriving the unknown spiral pattern speed from terrestrial climate correlations. We test these fits against new data on spiral structure based on CO data that do not make simplifying assumptions about symmetry and circular rotation. If we compare the times of these transits with changes in the climate of Earth, the claimed correlations not only disappear, but we also find that they cannot be resurrected for any reasonable pattern speed.

  3. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  4. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  5. LINKING MICROBES TO CLIMATE: INCORPORATING MICROBIAL ACTIVITY INTO CLIMATE MODELS COLLOQUIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, Edward; Harwood, Caroline; Reid, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This report explains the connection between microbes and climate, discusses in general terms what modeling is and how it applied to climate, and discusses the need for knowledge in microbial physiology, evolution, and ecology to contribute to the determination of fluxes and rates in climate models. It recommends with a multi-pronged approach to address the gaps.

  6. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Eimear M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth’s cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1 monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2 daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on sudden high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush decrease events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS. Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983–1995 period are attributed to the chance agreement between solar changes and artificially induced cloud trends. It is possible that the satellite cloud datasets and analysis methods may simply be too insensitive to detect a small solar signal. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. However, a poor understanding of these mechanisms and their effects on cloud makes the net impacts of such links uncertain. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds.

  7. Linking seasonal climate forecasts with crop models in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision

  8. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marshall L.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Mitchell, Todd P.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Van Dolah, Frances; Barber, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.

  9. Geological support for the Umbrella Effect as a link between geomagnetic field and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The weakening of the geomagnetic field causes an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. Some researchers argue that enhanced GCR flux might lead to a climatic cooling by increasing low cloud formation, which enhances albedo (umbrella effect). Recent studies have reported geological evidence for a link between weakened geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. However, more work is needed on the mechanism of this link, including whether the umbrella effect is playing a central role. In this research, we present new geological evidence that GCR flux change had a greater impact on continental climate than on oceanic climate. According to pollen data from Osaka Bay, Japan, the decrease in temperature of the Siberian air mass was greater than that of the Pacific air mass during geomagnetic reversals in marine isotope stages (MIS) 19 and 31. Consequently, the summer land-ocean temperature gradient was smaller, and the summer monsoon was weaker. Greater terrestrial cooling indicates that a reduction of insolation is playing a key role in the link between the weakening of the geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. The most likely candidate for the mechanism seems to be the increased albedo of the umbrella effect. PMID:28091595

  10. Linking an ecosystem model and a landscape model to study forest species response to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff; Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    No single model can address forest change from single tree to regional scales. We discuss a framework linking an ecosystem process model {LINKAGES) with a spatial landscape model (LANDIS) to examine forest species responses to climate warming for a large, heterogeneous landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. Individual species response at the ecosystem scale was...

  11. Discovery of the elusive leptin in birds: identification of several 'missing links' in the evolution of leptin and its receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy W Prokop

    Full Text Available Leptin is a pleiotropic protein best known for regulation of appetite and fat storage in mammals. While many leptin orthologs have been identified among vertebrates, an authentic leptin in birds has remained elusive and controversial. Here we identify leptin sequence from the Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (pfleptin, and identify sequences from two other birds (mallard and zebra finch, and 'missing' vertebrates (elephant shark, alligator, Indian python, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, and coelacanth. The pattern of genes surrounding leptin (snd1, rbm28 is syntenic between the falcon and mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of all known leptin protein sequences improves our understanding of leptin's evolution. Structural modeling of leptin orthologs highlights a highly conserved hydrophobic core in the four-helix cytokine packing domain. A docked model of leptin with the leptin receptor for Peregrine falcon reveals several conserved amino acids important for the interaction and possible coevolution of leptin with its receptor. We also show for the first time, an authentic avian leptin sequence that activates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These newly identified sequences, structures, and tools for avian leptin and its receptor will allow elucidation of the function of these proteins in feral and domestic birds.

  12. The association between late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment and dementia: is inflammation the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Adriana P; McDonald, William M; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Depression, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are highly prevalent conditions that are increasing exponentially with similarly expanding social, medical and economic burdens. While there is a clear clinical connection between these three disorders, the mechanism of action that links them is less well understood. The lack of well-accepted biomarkers results in high levels of diagnostic subjectivity, which then greatly impacts research results when attempting to further explore their association. There is also a variety of clinical presentations of depressive syndromes, particularly in the elderly; each one may be associated with a different risk in the progression from MCI to different types of dementia. The diagnostic challenges, the importance of biomarkers and the discussion of inflammation as a possible link between depression, MCI and dementia are examined in this article. PMID:23234395

  13. North Atlantic variability and its links to European climate over the last 3000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa-Sánchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R

    2017-11-23

    The subpolar North Atlantic is a key location for the Earth's climate system. In the Labrador Sea, intense winter air-sea heat exchange drives the formation of deep waters and the surface circulation of warm waters around the subpolar gyre. This process therefore has the ability to modulate the oceanic northward heat transport. Recent studies reveal decadal variability in the formation of Labrador Sea Water. Yet, crucially, its longer-term history and links with European climate remain limited. Here we present new decadally resolved marine proxy reconstructions, which suggest weakened Labrador Sea Water formation and gyre strength with similar timing to the centennial cold periods recorded in terrestrial climate archives and historical records over the last 3000 years. These new data support that subpolar North Atlantic circulation changes, likely forced by increased southward flow of Arctic waters, contributed to modulating the climate of Europe with important societal impacts as revealed in European history.

  14. Linking global climate and temperature variability to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R

    2010-05-04

    The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic variability, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional temperature variability, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate variables tested, only factors associated with temperature variability could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two variables alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase temperature variability, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to temperature variability associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean temperature.

  15. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  16. The Missing Link - Likely Pathogenetic Role of GM3 and Other Gangliosides in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vukovic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific advances, diabetic nephropathy remains both a therapeutical challenge, and one of the major diabetic complications. Chemical structure of gangliosides, the most complex of glycosphingolipids, is characterised by one or more sialic acids and carbohydrate groups linked to a ceramide structure. Their potential pathogenetic role in a number of disorders linked to diabetes mellitus has recently been conjectured, due to evidence of their negative modulation of the insulin-mediated signaling and general effects on key cell functions like proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cellular signaling and adhesion. Elevated levels of advanced glycation products (AGE usually found in diabetic conditions seem to be responsible for increased concentration of a-series gangliosides in tissues, most notably GM3. GM3 was shown to compromise the renal pericyte and mesangial cell regeneration via the inactivation of VEGF receptor and the receptor-associated Akt signaling pathway. Likewise, the lipid raft theory opened a new research area for GM3 influence, since in the glycosynapse model glycosphingolipids have a key cell-to-cell communication unit with modulating capabilities on signaling receptors. The goal of this review is to provide insight into currently available theories on proposed mechanisms that mark the GM3 as a pathophysiological mediator in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Making the links: do we connect climate change with health? A qualitative case study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Francesca S; Elliott, Susan J

    2013-03-08

    Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Typically framed as an environmental issue, some suggest this view has contributed to public ambivalence and hence a lack of public engagement. The lack of understanding of climate change as a significant environmental health risk on the part of the lay public represents a significant barrier to behaviour change. We therefore need to think about reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a health issue. This paper builds on calls for increased understanding of the public's views of human health risks associated with climate change, focusing on facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 22) with residents of the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario were conducted between August 2010 and January 2011. Topics included individual and community health, climate change, and facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Few participants recognized the role of the environment in the context of either individual and community health. When asked about health concerns specific to their community, however, environmental issues were mentioned frequently. Health effects as possible impacts of global environmental change were mentioned by 77% of participants when prompted, but this link was not described in great detail or within the context of impacting their communities or themselves. Participants were willing to act in environmentally friendly ways, and possible incentives to undertake behaviour change such as decreasing cost were described. Health co-benefits were not identified as incentives to engaging in mitigative or adaptive behaviours. The results support recent calls for reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a public health issue in order to increase public engagement in adaptive and mitigative behaviour change. While previous research has touched on public awareness of the

  18. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Central Serotonin-2A (5-HT2A Receptor Dysfunction in Depression and Epilepsy: The Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pierre Guiard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses.

  20. Creativity and psychiatric illness: the search for a missing link--an historical context for current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is an important human quality upon which many achievements of humankind are based. Defined as the ability to produce something that is novel and useful or meaningful, it is difficult to operationalize for research. This text provides an overview of the historical and cultural context of this research. The assumption that creativity is related to psychiatric vulnerability dates back to antiquity. The modern interest in the subject stems from the romantic era and gained a scientific aura in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a further entanglement of creativity and psychopathology came about through the influence of patient artists on regular art. Psychometric, psychodiagnostic and genetic research supports a connection between creativity and psychiatric illness within the bipolar-psychotic continuum, with schizotypy/thymotypy as prototypes of creativity-related disorders. Evolutionary hypotheses link the schizophrenia paradox to a survival advantage through enhanced creative ability. The relevance of scientific research in this complex and heterogeneous area can be increased if creativity and psychopathology are further operationalized and if underlying art concepts are made explicit and placed in a broader cultural context. There is a continuing need for meaningful definitions and measures, as well as a multidisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Socio-Economic Factors Related to Moral Reasoning in Childhood and Adolescence: The Missing Link between Brain and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carla Silvia eCaravita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic dimensions, i.e. living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES, affect moral reasoning as operationalized in moral domain theory (a seminal approach in psychological studies on morality and in Greene and colleagues’ (2001 perspective (one of the main approaches in neuroethics research. Participants were 81 primary school (M = 8.98 yrs.; SD = 0.39, 72 middle school (M = 12.14 yrs.; SD = 0.61 and 73 high school (M = 15.10 yrs.; SD = 0.38 students from rural and urban areas. Participants’ immigrant status (native vs. immigrant and family SES level were recorded. Moral reasoning was assessed by means of a series of personal and impersonal dilemmas based on Greene and colleagues' (2001 neuroimaging experiment and a series of moral and socio-conventional rule dilemmas based on the moral domain theory. Living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES mainly affected evaluations of moral and, to a higher extent, socio-conventional dilemmas, but had no impact on judgment of personal and impersonal dilemmas. Results are mainly discussed from the angle of possible theoretical links and suggestions emerging for studies on moral reasoning in the frameworks of neuroscience and psychology.

  2. Not the time or the place: the missing spatio-temporal link in publicly available genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lisa C; Liggins, Libby; Keyse, Jude; Carvalho, Silvia B; Riginos, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Genetic data are being generated at unprecedented rates. Policies of many journals, institutions and funding bodies aim to ensure that these data are publicly archived so that published results are reproducible. Additionally, publicly archived data can be 'repurposed' to address new questions in the future. In 2011, along with other leading journals in ecology and evolution, Molecular Ecology implemented mandatory public data archiving (the Joint Data Archiving Policy). To evaluate the effect of this policy, we assessed the genetic, spatial and temporal data archived for 419 data sets from 289 articles in Molecular Ecology from 2009 to 2013. We then determined whether archived data could be used to reproduce analyses as presented in the manuscript. We found that the journal's mandatory archiving policy has had a substantial positive impact, increasing genetic data archiving from 49 (pre-2011) to 98% (2011-present). However, 31% of publicly archived genetic data sets could not be recreated based on information supplied in either the manuscript or public archives, with incomplete data or inconsistent codes linking genetic data and metadata as the primary reasons. While the majority of articles did provide some geographic information, 40% did not provide this information as geographic coordinates. Furthermore, a large proportion of articles did not contain any information regarding date of sampling (40%). Although the inclusion of spatio-temporal data does require an increase in effort, we argue that the enduring value of publicly accessible genetic data to the molecular ecology field is greatly compromised when such metadata are not archived alongside genetic data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in

  4. Reduced arctic tundra productivity linked with landform and climate change interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J.; Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Martin, Philip; McGuire, A. David

    2018-01-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity. We analyzed the spatial variability of decadal-scale trends in surface greenness across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km²) using the Landsat archive (1999–2014), in combination with novel 30 m classifications of polygonal tundra and regional watersheds, finding landscape heterogeneity and regional climate change to be the most important factors controlling historical greenness trends. Browning was linked to increased temperature and precipitation, with the exception of young landforms (developed following lake drainage), which will likely continue to green. Spatiotemporal model forecasting suggests carbon uptake potential to be reduced in response to warmer and/or wetter climatic conditions, potentially increasing the net loss of carbon to the atmosphere, at a greater degree than previously expected.

  5. Linking glacial and future climates through an ensemble of GCM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the relationships between the modelled climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and that for doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide compared to the pre-industrial climate by analysing the output from an ensemble of runs from the MIROC3.2 GCM. Our results lend support to the idea in other recent work that the Antarctic is a useful place to look for historical data which can be used to validate models used for climate forecasting of future greenhouse gas induced climate changes, at local, regional and global scales. Good results may also be obtainable using tropical temperatures, particularly those over the ocean. While the greater area in the tropics makes them an attractive area for seeking data, polar amplification of temperature changes may mean that the Antarctic provides a clearer signal relative to the uncertainties in data and model results. Our result for Greenland is not so strong, possibly due to difficulties in accurately modelling the sea ice extent. The MIROC3.2 model shows an asymmetry in climate sensitivity calculated by decreasing rather than increasing the greenhouse gases, with 80% of the ensemble having a weaker cooling than warming. This asymmetry, if confirmed by other studies would mean that direct estimates of climate sensitivity from the LGM are likely to be underestimated by the order of half a degree. Our suspicion is, however, that this result may be highly model dependent. Analysis of the parameters varied in the model suggest the asymmetrical response may be linked to the ice in the clouds, which is therefore indicated as an important area for future research.

  6. Customer value - the missing link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, A.R.; Martin, M.G.; Wagner, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    For many years electric utilities found it easy to provide value to their shareholders. With a monopoly service and decreasing costs it was easy to sell 70% more electricity each year and earn attractive returns. In the last 20 years electric utilities have teamed that it is not possible to provide value to their shareholders without providing value to their customers. Detroit Edison is learning that customer value is not always what the utility thinks it is. There is no better way to find out what customers value than to ask them. Detroit Edison has done a lot of direct asking in the last couple of years, through market research and individual interviews, and has learned indirectly from customers when a particular program does not succeed as we thought it should. Two areas where more has been learned about customer value are Demand Side Management (DSM) and Power Quality

  7. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  8. Activation of MSRV-Type Endogenous Retroviruses during Infectious Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Latency: The Missing Link with Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Giordano; Mei, Alessandra; Uleri, Elena; Poddighe, Luciana; Delogu, Lucia G.; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Serra, Caterina; Manetti, Roberto; Mura, Maria S.; Dolei, Antonina

    2013-01-01

    novel findings suggest HERV-W/MSRV activation as the missing link between EBV and MS, and may open new avenues of intervention. PMID:24236019

  9. Activation of MSRV-type endogenous retroviruses during infectious mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus latency: the missing link with multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Giordano; Mei, Alessandra; Uleri, Elena; Poddighe, Luciana; Delogu, Lucia G; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Serra, Caterina; Manetti, Roberto; Mura, Maria S; Dolei, Antonina

    2013-01-01

    novel findings suggest HERV-W/MSRV activation as the missing link between EBV and MS, and may open new avenues of intervention.

  10. Data Mashups: Linking Human Health and Wellbeing with Weather, Climate and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L. E.; Sarran, C.; Golding, B.; Haines, A.; Kessel, A.; Djennad, M.; Hajat, S.; Nichols, G.; Gordon Brown, H.; Depledge, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large part of the global disease burden can be linked to environmental factors, underpinned by unhealthy behaviours. Research into these linkages suffers from lack of common tools and databases for investigations across many different scientific disciplines to explore these complex associations. The MEDMI (Medical and Environmental Data-a Mash-up Infrastructure) Partnership brings together leading organisations and researchers in climate, weather, environment, and human health. We have created a proof-of-concept central data and analysis system with the UK Met Office and Public Health England data as the internet-based MEDMI Platform (www.data-mashup.org.uk) to serve as a common resource for researchers to link and analyse complex meteorological, environmental and epidemiological data in the UK. The Platform is hosted on its own dedicated server, with secure internet and in-person access with appropriate safeguards for ethical, copyright, security, preservation, and data sharing issues. Via the Platform, there is a demonstration Browser Application with access to user-selected subsets of the data for: a) analyses using time series (e.g. mortality/environmental variables), and b) data visualizations (e.g. infectious diseases/environmental variables). One demonstration project is linking climate change, harmful algal blooms and oceanographic modelling building on the hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled models; in situ and satellite observations as well as UK HAB data and hospital episode statistics data are being used for model verification and future forecasting. The MEDMI Project provides a demonstration of the potential, barriers and challenges, of these "data mashups" of environment and health data. Although there remain many challenges to creating and sustaining such a shared resource, these activities and resources are essential to truly explore the complex interactions between climate and other environmental change and health at the local and global scale.

  11. Reply to Comment on ‘The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2018-04-01

    In their comment piece, van Basshuysen and Brandstedt raise three main issues: first, whether population at the global scale, or individual family planning decisions, are relevant for climate change mitigation; second, they offer useful critiques of the methodologies to attribute greenhouse gas emissions for the choice to have a child; and third, they question the appropriate ethical responsibility for emissions resulting from personal choices. Here we reply that first, we consider choices regarding family size to meet the authors’ criteria for actions ‘under the control of the individual agent and which, with a significant probability, contribute to’ (increased greenhouse gas emissions), and therefore are relevant to consider for climate mitigation. Second, we acknowledge both methodological issues inherent in allocating responsibility for emissions, and encourage more research on this topic especially for the climate impact of reproductive choices. Third, we address ethical questions about responsibility for emissions, and conclude that while such discussions are important, and individual choices are only one part of necessary emissions reductions, people alive today are the last to have a chance at remaining within the carbon budget to meet international climate targets, and therefore do have a special responsibility to reduce emissions.

  12. Missing School Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted by the Office for Civil Rights show that 6 million public school students (13%) are not attending school regularly. Chronic absenteeism--defined as missing more than 10% of school for any reason--has been negatively linked to many key academic outcomes. Evidence shows that students who exit chronic absentee status can…

  13. Opening Up Climate Research: A Linked Data Approach to Publishing Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Shaon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a dataset’s provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI – a widely adopted citation technique – with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.

  14. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandom, Christopher; Faurby, Søren; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-22

    The late Quaternary megafauna extinction was a severe global-scale event. Two factors, climate change and modern humans, have received broad support as the primary drivers, but their absolute and relative importance remains controversial. To date, focus has been on the extinction chronology of individual or small groups of species, specific geographical regions or macroscale studies at very coarse geographical and taxonomic resolution, limiting the possibility of adequately testing the proposed hypotheses. We present, to our knowledge, the first global analysis of this extinction based on comprehensive country-level data on the geographical distribution of all large mammal species (more than or equal to 10 kg) that have gone globally or continentally extinct between the beginning of the Last Interglacial at 132,000 years BP and the late Holocene 1000 years BP, testing the relative roles played by glacial-interglacial climate change and humans. We show that the severity of extinction is strongly tied to hominin palaeobiogeography, with at most a weak, Eurasia-specific link to climate change. This first species-level macroscale analysis at relatively high geographical resolution provides strong support for modern humans as the primary driver of the worldwide megafauna losses during the late Quaternary.

  15. Novel sedimentological fingerprints link shifting depositional processes to Holocene climate transitions in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; Rea, Brice; Spagnolo, Matteo; Roerdink, Desiree L.; Jørgensen, Steffen L.; Bakke, Jostein

    2018-05-01

    The Arctic warms faster than any other region of our planet. Besides melting glaciers, thawing permafrost and decreasing sea-ice, this amplified response affects earth surface processes. This geomorphological expression of climate change may alter landscapes and increase the frequency and magnitude of geohazards like floods or mass-movements. Beyond the short span of sparse monitoring time series, geological archives provide a valuable long-term context for future risk assessment. Lake sediment sequences are particularly promising in this respect as continuous recorders of surface process change. Over the past decade, the emergence of new techniques that characterize depositional signatures in more detail has enhanced this potential. Here, we present a well-dated Holocene-length lake sediment sequence from Ammassalik Island on southeast Greenland. This area is particularly sensitive to regional shifts in the Arctic climate system due to its location near the sea-ice limit, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the convergence of polar and Atlantic waters. The expression of Holocene change is fingerprinted using physical (grain size, organic content, density), visual (3-D Computed Tomography) and geochemical (X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction) evidence. We show that three sharp transitions characterize the Holocene evolution of Ymer Lake. Between 10 and 9.5 cal. ka BP, rapid local glacier loss from the lake catchment culminated in an outburst flood. Following a quiescent Holocene climatic optimum, Neoglacial cooling, lengthening lake ice cover and shifting wind patterns prompted in-lake avalanching of sediments from 4.2 cal. ka BP onwards. Finally, glaciers reformed in the catchment around 1.2 cal. ka BP. The timing of these shifts is consistent with the regional expression of deglaciation, Neoglacial cooling and Little Ice Age-type glacier growth, respectively. The novel multi-proxy approach applied in this study rigorously links depositional sediment signatures to

  16. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, Mario; Salzmann, Nadine; Stoffel, Markus; Kulkarni, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H 2 O, CO 2 , CH 4 , and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance – such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon – or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. - Highlights: • Remotely sensed snow-cover data need to be validated by in-situ measurements. • More in-situ snow measurement programs are needed along

  17. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Mario [Meteodat GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Salzmann, Nadine [Department of Geosciences, Geography, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Chemin de Drize 7, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Dendrolab.ch, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kulkarni, Anil V. [Divecha Center for Climate Change, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance – such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon – or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. - Highlights: • Remotely sensed snow-cover data need to be validated by in-situ measurements. • More in-situ snow measurement programs are

  18. A Linked Science Investigation: Enhancing Climate Change Data Discovery with Semantic Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchard, Line C; Branstetter, Marcia L; Cook, Robert B; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Green, Jim; Palanisamy, Giri; Alexander, Paul; Noy, Natalya F

    2013-09-01

    Linked Science is the practice of inter-connecting scientific assets by publishing, sharing and linking scientific data and processes in end-to-end loosely coupled workflows that allow the sharing and re-use of scientific data. Much of this data does not live in the cloud or on the Web, but rather in multi-institutional data centers that provide tools and add value through quality assurance, validation, curation, dissemination, and analysis of the data. In this paper, we make the case for the use of scientific scenarios in Linked Science. We propose a scenario in river-channel transport that requires biogeochemical experimental data and global climate-simulation model data from many sources. We focus on the use of ontologies-formal machine-readable descriptions of the domain-to facilitate search and discovery of this data. Mercury, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a tool for distributed metadata harvesting, search and retrieval. Mercury currently provides uniform access to more than 100,000 metadata records; 30,000 scientists use it each month. We augmented search in Mercury with ontologies, such as the ontologies in the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) collection by prototyping a component that provides access to the ontology terms from Mercury. We evaluate the coverage of SWEET for the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC).

  19. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Mario; Salzmann, Nadine; Stoffel, Markus; Kulkarni, Anil V

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H2O, CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance - such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon - or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factor XII (Hageman factor) is a missing link between stress and hypercoagulability and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2006-01-01

    A new hypothesis is presented on the function of factor XII, which is postulated to be a "missing link" between acute stress and transient hypercoagulability. The implications of this idea are developed to show how chronic stress, which involves activation of hypertension and migraine as well as hypercoagulability, can cause of cerebrovascular disease. "Acute stress" is defined as "the normal short-term physiological response to the perception of major threats or demands". "Chronic stress" is "the abnormal ongoing physiological response to the continuing perception of unresolvable major threats or demands". The factor XII hypothesis is as follows: Acute stress includes release of epinephrine by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine activates platelets by binding to alpha-2A adrenergic receptors. Activated platelets convert pre-bound factor XII to its active form, which then initiates the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This can be called the "activated platelet initiation pathway" for coagulation. Neither tissue factor nor pre-formed thrombin is required. Thrombosis proceeds to completion, but only a minute amount of thrombin is formed, and the process normally stops at this point. In people who lapse into a state of chronic stress, essential hypertension, which is also a manifestation of stress, synergizes with hypercoagulability: there is both a baseline rise in blood pressure and systemic platelet activation as well as superimposed labile rises of both. Upregulation of these two stress parameters is atherogenic: epinephrine-activated platelets stimulating thrombin formation interact with endothelial cells activated by angiotensin II to cause, first, smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is a histological hallmark of atherosclerosis, and, lastly, a symptomatic thrombotic occlusion-the stroke. The migraine symptoms which often accompany this process are a marker of chronic stress and ongoing pathophysiologic damage. Therapeutic predictions are made regarding novel

  1. Strengthening education in human values - The Link between Recycling and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanidou, Sofia

    2014-05-01

    This work is an environmental education program of 50 hours- off curriculum, currently run by High school of Nikaia - Larissas. I as coordinator teacher, another two teachers and 24 students participate in this program. Intended learning outcomes: students will be able to define the importance of climate change, to evaluate the effect of human activities on climate, and to recognize the role of recycling in preventing global climate change. It is an environmental program with social goals. That means students have to understand the link between human and environment and learn how to combine environmental protection with human help. As a consequence collaboration has already begun between High school of Nikaia and the Paraplegic & Physically Disabled Association of Pella-Greece. This is a nonprofit association that collects plastic caps; with the contribution of a recycling company the Paraplegic Association converts plastic caps in wheelchairs and gives them to needy families. So, recycling caps becomes a meaningful form of environmental and social activism. Students are educated about the meaning of recycling and encouraged to collect all types of plastic caps; they are also educated in the meaning of helping people. Further, this environmental education program consists of two parts, a theoretical and a practical one: a) Theoretical part: education is an essential element of the global response to climate change, so students have to research on climate change; they visit the Center for Environmental Education in Florina and experience the aquatic ecosystem of Prespa lakes; specialists of the Centre inform students about the effects of climate change on wetlands; students have further to research how recycling can help fight global climate change as well as examine how recycling a key component of modern waste reduction is, as the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy; they discover the interdependence of society, economy and the natural

  2. Common species link global ecosystems to climate change: dynamical evidence in the planktonic fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Haaga, Kristian Agasøster; Reitan, Trond; Diego, David; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2017-07-12

    Common species shape the world around us, and changes in their commonness signify large-scale shifts in ecosystem structure and function. However, our understanding of long-term ecosystem response to environmental forcing in the deep past is centred on species richness, neglecting the disproportional impact of common species. Here, we use common and widespread species of planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments to track changes in observed global occupancy (proportion of sampled sites at which a species is present and observed) through the turbulent climatic history of the last 65 Myr. Our approach is sensitive to relative changes in global abundance of the species set and robust to factors that bias richness estimators. Using three independent methods for detecting causality, we show that the observed global occupancy of planktonic foraminifera has been dynamically coupled to past oceanographic changes captured in deep-ocean temperature reconstructions. The causal inference does not imply a direct mechanism, but is consistent with an indirect, time-delayed causal linkage. Given the strong quantitative evidence that a dynamical coupling exists, we hypothesize that mixotrophy (symbiont hosting) may be an ecological factor linking the global abundance of planktonic foraminifera to long-term climate changes via the relative extent of oligotrophic oceans. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Linking Climate Change Education through the Integration of a Kite-Borne Remote Sensing System: Linking Climate Change Education and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yichun; Henry, Andy; Bydlowski, David; Musial, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A majority of secondary science teachers are found to include the topic of climate change in their courses. However, teachers informally and sporadically discuss climate change and students rarely understand the underlying scientific concepts. The project team developed an innovative pedagogical approach, in which teachers and students learn…

  4. Predicting future US water yield and ecosystem productivity by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Sun; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Peter Caldwell; K. Duan; Y. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on water yield and ecosystem productivity (i.e., carbon balances) is essential to developing sound watershed restoration plans, and climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. This study links an ecohydrological model (Water Supply and Stress Index, WaSSI) with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model)...

  5. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  6. Accounting for Resource Use at the School-Level and Below: The Missing Link in Education Administration and Policy Making. Working Paper #09-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Dwight V.; Stiefel, Leanna; Hartman, William; Deegan, Michele Moser

    2009-01-01

    A long standing debate among policymakers as well as researchers is whether and how funding affects the quality of education. Often missing from the discussion is information about the costs of providing education at the school level and below, yet such information could impart a better indication of the linkages between outcomes and resources…

  7. Using linked educational attainment data to reduce bias due to missing outcome data in estimates of the association between the duration of breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John

    2015-06-01

    Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990-91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. IQ at 15 was MNAR-individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Temporal variability of gravity wave drag - vertical coupling and possible climate links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksovsky, Jiri; Sacha, Petr; Kuchar, Ales; Pisoft, Petr

    2017-04-01

    In the atmosphere, the internal gravity waves (IGW) are one of the fastest ways of natural information transfer in the vertical direction. Tropospheric changes that result in modification of sourcing, propagation or breaking conditions for IGWs almost immediately influence the distribution of gravity wave drag in the stratosphere. So far most of the related studies deal with IGW impacts higher in the upper stratospheric/mesospheric region and with the modulation of IGWs by planetary waves. This is most likely due to the fact that IGWs induce highest accelerations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. However, the imposed drag force is much bigger in the stratosphere. In the presented analysis, we have assessed the relationship between the gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and other climatic phenomena through statistical techniques. Multivariable regression has been applied to investigate the IGW-related eastward and northward wind tendencies in the CMAM30-SD data, subject to the explanatory variables involving local circulation characteristics (derived from regional configuration of the thermobaric field) as well as the phases of the large-scale internal climate variability modes (ENSO, NAO, QBO). Our tests have highlighted several geographical areas with statistically significant responses of the orographic gravity waves effect to each of the variability modes under investigation; additional experiments have also indicated distinct signs of nonlinearity in some of the links uncovered. Furthermore, we have also applied composite analysis of displaced and split stratospheric polar vortex events (SPV) from CMAM30-SD to focus on how the strength and occurrence of the IGW hotspots can play a role in SPV occurrence and frequency.

  9. Mid-Piacenzian Variability of Nordic Seas Surface Circulation Linked to Terrestrial Climatic Change in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Sina; De Schepper, Stijn; Salzmann, Ulrich; Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Clotten, Caroline; Hocking, Emma P.

    2017-12-01

    During the mid-Piacenzian, Nordic Seas sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were higher than today. While SSTs provide crucial climatic information, on their own they do not allow a reconstruction of potential underlying changes in water masses and currents. A new dinoflagellate cyst record for Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 642 is presented to evaluate changes in northward heat transport via the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) between 3.320 and 3.137 Ma. The record is compared with vegetation and SST reconstructions from Site 642 and SSTs from Iceland Sea ODP Site 907 to identify links between SSTs, ocean currents, and vegetation changes. The dinocyst record shows that strong Atlantic water influence via the NwAC corresponds to higher-than-present SSTs and cool temperate vegetation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) transition M2-M1 and KM5. Reduced Atlantic water inflow relative to the warm stages coincides with near-modern SSTs and boreal vegetation during MIS M2, KM6, and KM4-KM2. During most of the studied interval, a strong SST gradient between Sites 642 and 907 indicates the presence of a proto-Arctic Front (AF). An absent gradient during the first half of MIS KM6, due to reduced Atlantic water influence at Site 642 and warm, presumably Atlantic water reaching Site 907, is indicative of a weakened NwAC and East Greenland Current. We conclude that repeated changes in Atlantic water influence directly affect terrestrial climate and that an active NwAC is needed for an AF to develop. Obliquity forcing may have played a role, but the correlation is not consistent.

  10. Species turnover in tropical montane forest avifauna links to climatic correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined avifauna richness and composition in Taiwan’s tropical montane forests, and compared to historical records dated 22 years ago. A richness attrition of 44 species caused a discrepancy of 30.2%, and an estimated yearly turnover of 2.2%. More resident species that were narrower or lower in elevation distribution, insectivores/omnivores, small to medium-sized, forest/open-field dwelling, and canopy/ground foragers, vanished; whereas piscivores, carnivores, riparian- and shrub-dwellers, ground and mid-layer foragers, and migrants suffered by higher proportions. Occurrence frequencies of persistent species remained constant but varied among ecological groups, indicating an increased homogeneity for smaller-sized insectivores/omnivores dwelling in the forest canopy, shrub, or understory. While the overall annual temperature slightly increased, a relatively stable mean temperature was replaced by an ascending trend from the mid-1990s until 2002, followed by a cooling down. Mean maximum temperatures increased but minimums decreased gradually over years, resulting in increasing temperature differences up to over 16 °C. This accompanied an increase of extreme typhoons affecting Taiwan or directly striking these montane forests during the last decade. These results, given no direct human disturbances were noted, suggest a link between the species turnover and recent climate change, and convey warning signs of conservation concerns for tropical montane assemblages.

  11. Linking coral river runoff proxies with climate variability, hydrology and land-use in Madagascar catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Joseph; de Moel, Hans; Vermaat, Jan E; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Guillaume, Mireille M M; Grove, Craig A; Madin, Joshua S; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Zinke, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the linkages between coastal watersheds and adjacent coral reefs is expected to lead to better coral reef conservation strategies. Our study aims to examine the main predictors of environmental proxies recorded in near shore corals and therefore how linked near shore reefs are to the catchment physical processes. To achieve these, we developed models to simulate hydrology of two watersheds in Madagascar. We examined relationships between environmental proxies derived from massive Porites spp. coral cores (spectral luminescence and barium/calcium ratios), and corresponding time-series (1950-2006) data of hydrology, climate, land use and human population growth. Results suggest regional differences in the main environmental drivers of reef sedimentation: on annual time-scales, precipitation, river flow and sediment load explained the variability in coral proxies of river discharge for the northeast region, while El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and temperature (air and sea surface) were the best predictors in the southwest region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Earthwatch and the HSBC Climate Partnership: Linking climate change and forests management one citizen scientist at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, D. B.; Jones, A.; Kusek, K.; Bebber, D.; Phillips, R.; Campbell, J.

    2010-12-01

    Earthwatch has engaged more than 90,000 citizen scientists in long-term research studies since its founding in 1971. One of its newer research and engagement programs is the HSBC Climate Partnership, a five-year global program on climate change to inspire action by individuals, businesses and governments (2007-2012). In this unique NGO-business partnership, Earthwatch has implemented five forest research-focused climate centers in the US, UK, Brazil, India and China. At each center, a team of scientists—supported by HSBC banking employees and local citizen scientists—is gathering data to determine how temperate and tropical forests are affected by changes in climate and human activity. Results are establishing baseline data to empower forest managers, conservationists and communities with the information they need to better manage forests within a changing climate. A critical component of the program is the engagement of 2,200 corporate HSBC employees who spend two weeks out of the office at one of the regional climate centers. They work alongside leading scientists to perform forest research by day, and participate each evening in an interactive education program on the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of climate change—including how climate change impacts HSBC’s bottom line. Program participants are empowered and have successfully developed sustainability projects they implement back in their office, homes and communities that furthers corporate and public commitment to sustainability and combating the effects of climate change. In addition to the corporate engagement model, Earthwatch has successfully engaged scores of local community stakeholders in the HSBC Climate Partnership, including teachers who report back to their classrooms “live from the field,” reporters and other business/NGO leaders in modified one week versions of the field program. New models of citizen science engagement are currently under development, with best practices and

  13. Biodiversity, climate change and complexity: An opportunity for securing co-benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Dilys

    2006-10-15

    Climate change and biodiversity loss are both major environmental concerns, yet the links between them often go unrecognised. Not only does the science of climate change and biodiversity share similar characteristics, but climate change both affects, and is affected by biodiversity. Diversity confers far greater resilience on natural systems, thus reducing their vulnerability – and the vulnerability of the people that depend upon them – to climate change. Yet climate adaptation and mitigation strategies that are blind to biodiversity can undermine this natural and social resilience. Ignoring the links between biodiversity and climate risks exacerbates the problems associated with climate change and represents a missed opportunity for maximising co-benefits.

  14. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, 7-8 (2012), s. 1681-1695 ISSN 0930-7575 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Grant - others:ENSEMBLES: EU-FP6(XE) 505539 Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Regional climate models * Global climate models * Atmospheric circulation * Surface air temperature * ENSEMBLES * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.231, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-011-1278-8#

  15. Linking environmental filtering and disequilibrium to biogeography with a community climate framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Nogués-Bravo, David; Borregaard, Michael K; Donoghue, John C; Jørgensen, Peter M; Kraft, Nathan J B; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Violle, Cyrille; Rahbek, Carsten; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    We present a framework to measure the strength of environmental filtering and disequilibrium of the species composition of a local community across time, relative to past, current, and future climates. We demonstrate the framework by measuring the impact of climate change on New World forests, integrating data for climate niches of more than 14000 species, community composition of 471 New World forest plots, and observed climate across the most recent glacial-interglacial interval. We show that a majority of communities have species compositions that are strongly filtered and are more in equilibrium with current climate than random samples from the regional pool. Variation in the level of current community disequilibrium can be predicted from Last Glacial Maximum climate and will increase with near-future climate change.

  16. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    soil moisture) under a more variable precipitation regime, rather than reduced population numbers (A. gerardii tiller densities did not differ between altered and ambient treatments; p = 0.505) or a priori differences in genotype richness (Avolio et al.2013a). This ecological sorting of genotypes, which accounts for 40% of all sampled individuals in the altered plots, is an important legacy of the press chronic climate changes in the RaMPs experiment. Objective 2 In May 2010, we established the Climate Extremes Experiment at the Konza Prairie Biological Station. For the experiment, a gradient of temperatures, ranging from ambient to extreme, were imposed in 2010 and 2011 as a mid-season heat wave under well-watered or severe drought conditions. This study allowed us for the first time to examine species-specific thresholds of responses to climate extremes and assess how these phenotypic responses may impact selection of particular genotypes, with the ultimate goal of linking alterations in individual performance and genetic diversity to ecosystem structure and functioning. We found that tallgrass prairie was resistant to heat waves, but it was not resistant to extreme drought, which reduced aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) below the lowest level measured in this grassland in almost thirty years (Hoover et al. in press(a)). This extreme reduction in ecosystem function was a consequence of reduced productivity of both C4 grasses and C3 forbs. This reduction in biomass of the C4 grasses (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans) was, in part, due to significant reductions in photosynthesis, leaf water potential and productivity with drought in the dominant grasses species, with S. nutans was more sensitive than A. gerardii to drought (Hoover et al. in press(b)). However, the dominant forb was negatively impacted by the drought more than the dominant grasses, and this led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Although this change in

  17. Unraveling the link between managerial risk-taking and innovation: The mediating role of a risk-taking climate

    OpenAIRE

    García-Granero , Ana; Llopis , Óscar; Fernández-Mesa , Anabel; Alegre , Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Scholars have proposed that taking risks in organizations is important for explaining innovation performance. Scholars traditionally have analyzed this link from two unconnected perspectives. From a managerial perspective, entrepreneurial orientation and leadership theories have been used to explain the positive relation between risk taking and innovation. From an employee perspective, creativity theory suggests that a risk-taking climate helps to explain innovative be...

  18. Species distributions and climate change - linking the past and the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsky, Irina

    Climate change is predicted to have a marked impact on biodiversity, and changes in the distributions of numerous species have already been correlated with ongoing climate change. Climatic oscillations, however, were also the rule during the Pleistocene, and a look to the past may therefore shed ...... conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum, explore surrogates for the dispersal ability of African starlings and critically assess the tools I use and the assumptions behind them....

  19. Making the links: do we connect climate change with health? A qualitative case study from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Francesca S; Elliott, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Typically framed as an environmental issue, some suggest this view has contributed to public ambivalence and hence a lack of public engagement. The lack of understanding of climate change as a significant environmental health risk on the part of the lay public represents a significant barrier to behaviour change. We therefore need to think about reframing the impact of climate change from an ...

  20. Linked Climatic, Environmental, and Societal Changes in the Lower Yellow River Area during the Neolithic-Bronze Age Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding human-environment interactions during times of large and rapid climatic changes in the second half of the Holocene may deepen our insight into human adaptation and resilience against potential climate anomalies in the future. However, the drivers and societal responses tend to be different from area to area, and the degree and nature of this link are still a matter of debate. Flooding sediments preserved within the cultural stratigraphical context at archaeological sites in the lower Yellow River area may offer an ideal framework for evaluating the association between evolution of Neolithic cultures and climate fluctuations. Here, we present evidence from a mound site for the prevalence of extreme overbank floods during the Neolithic-Bronze Age transition most likely triggered by excessive summer precipitation in the Yellow River valley when prolonged weak El Niño condition prevailed. Repeated flooding during around 4000-3500 cal yr BP substantially modified the floodplain landscape, thereby driving people to disperse to areas dominated by the Erlitou culture and eventually giving rise to a state-level society in central China historiographically identified as the Xia Dynasty. Changes in the drainage network due to repeated flooding also exerted a profound impact on the rice farming-based communities centered in the region of the floods. Our results provide a precise past analogue of the linked climatic, environmental, and societal changes at a time when human societies were evolving into a hierarchy similar to those of today.

  1. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Chris E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology; Barsugli, Joseph J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). CIRES; Li, Wei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  2. Potential climatic mechanisms associated with the mega drought at 4200 cal yr BP: linking proxy data with modern climate analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, V.; Shinker, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Roughly 4200 years ago, a 150-year long mega drought occurred in the central Rocky Mountains, as indicated by pollen evidence from lake sediments from Long Lake, south-eastern Wyoming. However, pollen evidence does not record the climate mechanisms that caused the drought; they only provide evidence that the drought occurred. A modern climate analogue technique using North American Regional Reanalysis data was applied to the sedimentary data in order to identify possible synoptic and dynamic patterns that may have caused the mega drought at 4200 cal yr BP. Our results suggest warm and dry conditions were a result of anomalously higher-than-normal geopotential heights that were centred over the Great Plains beginning in the spring and persisting through the fall. Drought conditions during the growing seasons was the result of the anomalous high-pressure ridge, which suppressed moisture transport via the low level jet from the Gulf of Mexico, as well as brought in dry continental air from in the interior region of North America. The conditions associated with modern analogues offer a potential climate mechanism that caused the mega drought 4200 years ago, and likely led to the changes in vegetation composition as evidenced by the pollen record from Long Lake, Wyoming.

  3. Organic condensation - a vital link connecting aerosol formation to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Nieminen, T.; Häkkinen, S.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Lehtipalo, K.; Petäjä, T.; Slowik, J.; Chang, R.; Shantz, N. C.; Abbatt, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Pandis, S. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Kulmala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence global climate as well as impair air quality through their effects on atmospheric visibility and human health. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particles often dominate aerosol numbers, and nucleation of atmospheric vapors is an important source of these particles. To have climatic relevance, however, the freshly-nucleated particles need to grow in size. We combine observations from two continental sites (Egbert, Canada and Hyytiälä, Finland) to show that condensation of organic vapors is a crucial factor governing the lifetimes and climatic importance of the smallest atmospheric particles. We demonstrate that state-of-the-science organic gas-particle partitioning models fail to reproduce the observations, and propose a modeling approach that is consistent with the measurements. We demonstrate the large sensitivity of climatic forcing of atmospheric aerosols to these interactions between organic vapors and the smallest atmospheric nanoparticles - highlighting the need for representing this process in global climate models.

  4. Characterization of the Dynamics of Climate Systems and Identification of Missing Mechanisms Impacting the Long Term Predictive Capabilities of Global Climate Models Utilizing Dynamical Systems Approaches to the Analysis of Observed and Modeled Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Uma S. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Wackerbauer, Renate [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Physics; Polyakov, Igor V. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Newman, David E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sanchez, Raul E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fusion Energy Division; Univ. Carlos III de Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-13

    The goal of this research was to apply fractional and non-linear analysis techniques in order to develop a more complete characterization of climate change and variability for the oceanic, sea ice and atmospheric components of the Earth System. This research applied two measures of dynamical characteristics of time series, the R/S method of calculating the Hurst exponent and Renyi entropy, to observational and modeled climate data in order to evaluate how well climate models capture the long-term dynamics evident in observations. Fractional diffusion analysis was applied to ARGO ocean buoy data to quantify ocean transport. Self organized maps were applied to North Pacific sea level pressure and analyzed in ways to improve seasonal predictability for Alaska fire weather. This body of research shows that these methods can be used to evaluate climate models and shed light on climate mechanisms (i.e., understanding why something happens). With further research, these methods show promise for improving seasonal to longer time scale forecasts of climate.

  5. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  6. Climate change links fate of glaciers and an endemic alpine invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Giersch, J. Joseph; Hauer, F. Richard; Pederson, Gregory T.; Luikart, Gordon; Peterson, Douglas P.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming in the mid- to high-latitudes and high-elevation mountainous regions is occurring more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, causing extensive loss of glaciers and snowpack. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on alpine stream biota, especially invertebrates. Here, we show a strong linkage between regional climate change and the fundamental niche of a rare aquatic invertebrate—themeltwater stonefly Lednia tumana—endemic toWaterton- Glacier International Peace Park, Canada and USA. L. tumana has been petitioned for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to climate-change-induced glacier loss, yet little is known on specifically how climate impacts may threaten this rare species and many other enigmatic alpine aquatic species worldwide. During 14 years of research, we documented that L. tumana inhabits a narrow distribution, restricted to short sections (∼500 m) of cold, alpine streams directly below glaciers, permanent snowfields, and springs. Our simulation models suggest that climate change threatens the potential future distribution of these sensitive habitats and persistence of L. tumana through the loss of glaciers and snowfields. Mountaintop aquatic invertebrates are ideal early warning indicators of climate warming in mountain ecosystems. Research on alpine invertebrates is urgently needed to avoid extinctions and ecosystem change.

  7. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The climate change research community's shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national levels, they have to be connected to an exploration of drivers and challenges informed by regional expertise. In this paper, we present scenarios for West Africa developed by regional stakeholders and quantified using two global economic models, GLOBIOM and IMPACT, in interaction with stakeholder-generated narratives and scenario trends and SSP assumptions. We present this process as an example of linking comparable scenarios across levels to increase coherence with global contexts, while presenting insights about the future of agriculture and food security under a range of future drivers including climate change. In these scenarios, strong economic development increases food security and agricultural development. The latter increases crop and livestock productivity leading to an expansion of agricultural area within the region while reducing the land expansion burden elsewhere. In the context of a global economy, West Africa remains a large consumer and producer of a selection of commodities. However, the growth in population coupled with rising incomes leads to increases in the region's imports. For West Africa, climate change is projected to have negative effects on both crop yields and grassland productivity, and a lack of investment may exacerbate these effects. Linking multi-stakeholder regional scenarios to the global SSPs ensures scenarios that are regionally appropriate and useful for policy development as evidenced in the case study, while allowing for a critical link to global contexts.

  8. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Justin E.; Davis, Sarah C.; Georgescu, Matei; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Miller, Jesse; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; VanLoocke, Andy; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for bioenergy agroecosystems to provide global-scale climate regulating ecosystem services via biogeochemical processes. Such as those processes associated with carbon uptake, conversion, and storage that have the potential to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, the expansion of bioenergy crops can also lead to direct biophysical impacts on climate through water regulating services. Perturbations of processes influencing terrestrial energy fluxes can result in impacts on climate and water across a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about biophysical feedbacks between vegetation, water, and climate that would be affected by bioenergy-related land use change. The physical mechanisms involved in biophysical feedbacks are detailed, and interactions at leaf, field, regional, and global spatial scales are described. Locally, impacts on climate of biophysical changes associated with land use change for bioenergy crops can meet or exceed the biogeochemical changes in climate associated with rising GHG's, but these impacts have received far less attention. Realization of the importance of ecosystems in providing services that extend beyond biogeochemical GHG regulation and harvestable yields has led to significant debate regarding the viability of various feedstocks in many locations. The lack of data, and in some cases gaps in knowledge associated with biophysical and biochemical influences on land–atmosphere interactions, can lead to premature policy decisions. - Highlights: • The physical basis for biophysical impacts of expanding bioenergy agroecosystems on climate and water is described. • We

  9. Strengthening the link between climate, hydrological and species distribution modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseuil, C; Vrac, M; Grenouillet, G; Wade, A J; Gevrey, M; Oberdorff, T; Grodwohl, J-B; Lek, S

    2012-05-01

    To understand the resilience of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change, it is important to determine how multiple, related environmental factors, such as near-surface air temperature and river flow, will change during the next century. This study develops a novel methodology that combines statistical downscaling and fish species distribution modeling, to enhance the understanding of how global climate changes (modeled by global climate models at coarse-resolution) may affect local riverine fish diversity. The novelty of this work is the downscaling framework developed to provide suitable future projections of fish habitat descriptors, focusing particularly on the hydrology which has been rarely considered in previous studies. The proposed modeling framework was developed and tested in a major European system, the Adour-Garonne river basin (SW France, 116,000 km(2)), which covers distinct hydrological and thermal regions from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic coast. The simulations suggest that, by 2100, the mean annual stream flow is projected to decrease by approximately 15% and temperature to increase by approximately 1.2 °C, on average. As consequence, the majority of cool- and warm-water fish species is projected to expand their geographical range within the basin while the few cold-water species will experience a reduction in their distribution. The limitations and potential benefits of the proposed modeling approach are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine ...

  11. Malaria early warning tool: linking inter-annual climate and malaria variability in northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Tahani, Lloyd; Bobogare, Albino; Bugoro, Hugo; Otto, Francis; Fafale, George; Hiriasa, David; Kazazic, Adna; Beard, Grant; Amjadali, Amanda; Jeanne, Isabelle

    2017-11-21

    Malaria control remains a significant challenge in the Solomon Islands. Despite progress made by local malaria control agencies over the past decade, case rates remain high in some areas of the country. Studies from around the world have confirmed important links between climate and malaria transmission. This study focuses on understanding the links between malaria and climate in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, with a view towards developing a climate-based monitoring and early warning for periods of enhanced malaria transmission. Climate records were sourced from the Solomon Islands meteorological service (SIMS) and historical malaria case records were sourced from the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). A declining trend in malaria cases over the last decade associated with improved malaria control was adjusted for. A stepwise regression was performed between climate variables and climate-associated malaria transmission (CMT) at different lag intervals to determine where significant relationships existed. The suitability of these results for use in a three-tiered categorical warning system was then assessed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Of the climate variables considered, only rainfall had a consistently significant relationship with malaria in North Guadalcanal. Optimal lag intervals were determined for prediction using R 2 skill scores. A highly significant negative correlation (R = - 0.86, R 2  = 0.74, p malaria transmission periods in January-June. Cross-validation emphasized the suitability of this relationship for forecasting purposes [Formula: see text]  as did Mann-Whitney U test results showing that rainfall below or above specific thresholds was significantly associated with above or below normal malaria transmission, respectively. This study demonstrated that rainfall provides the best predictor of malaria transmission in North Guadalcanal. This relationship is thought to be underpinned by the unique hydrological conditions

  12. Linking climate change education through the integration of a kite-borne remote sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A majority of secondary science teachers are found to include the topic of climate change in their courses. However, teachers informally and sporadically discuss climate change and students rarely understand the underlying scientific concepts. The project team developed an innovative pedagogical approach, in which teachers and students learn climate change concepts by analyzing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA global data collected through satellites and by imitating the NASA data collection process through NASA Airborne Earth Research Observation Kites And Tethered Systems (AEROKATS, a kite-borne remote sensing system. Besides AEROKATS, other major components of this system include a web-collection of NASA and remote sensing data and related educational resources, project-based learning for teacher professional development, teacher and student field trips, iOS devices, smart field data collector apps, portable weather stations, probeware, and a virtual teacher collaboratory supported with a GIS-enabled mapping portal. Three sets of research instruments, the NASA Long-Term Experience –Educator End of Event Survey, the Teacher End of Project Survey, and the pre-and-post-Investigating Climate Change and Remote Sensing (ICCARS project student exams, are adapted to study the pedagogical impacts of the NASA AEROKATS remote sensing system. These findings confirm that climate change education is more effective when both teachers and students actively participate in authentic scientific inquiry by collecting and analyzing remote sensing data, developing hypotheses, designing experiments, sharing findings, and discussing results.

  13. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yonghong; Jia Gensuo; Guo Huadong

    2009-01-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  14. Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific Cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth S. Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg and 13C/15N ratios in the bone collagen of archaeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers.

  15. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris

    2017-12-05

    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; EI Laamrani, Abderahmane; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence.

  17. A balance of bottom-up and top-down in linking climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica F.; Sterner, Thomas; Wagner, Gernot

    2014-12-01

    Top-down climate negotiations embodied by the Kyoto Protocol have all but stalled, chiefly because of disagreements over targets and objections to financial transfers. To avoid those problems, many have shifted their focus to linkage of bottom-up climate policies such as regional carbon markets. This approach is appealing, but we identify four obstacles to successful linkage: different levels of ambition; competing domestic policy objectives; objections to financial transfers; and the difficulty of close regulatory coordination. Even with a more decentralized approach, overcoming the 'global warming gridlock' of the intergovernmental negotiations will require close international coordination. We demonstrate how a balance of bottom-up and top-down elements can create a path toward an effective global climate architecture.

  18. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked Super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet's climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition an...

  19. Quantifying and qualifying terroir: Empirical evidence linking climate, vineyards, and people across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to

  20. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S. [Univ. of Quebec (Canada); Cote, Jean [Univ. of Quebec (Canada)

    2009-10-09

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and

  1. ''Cube-on-hexagon'' orientation relationship for Fe on GaN(0001): The missing link in bcc/hcp epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Cunxu; Brandt, Oliver; Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Jenichen, Bernd; Schoenherr, Hans-Peter; Erwin, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the epitaxy of body-centered-cubic Fe on hexagonal GaN. For growth on the Ga-polar GaN(0001) surface we find the well-known Pitsch-Schrader orientation relationship between Fe and GaN. On the N-polar GaN(0001) surface we observe coexistence between the familiar Burgers orientation and a new orientation in which the Fe(001) plane is parallel to GaN(0001). This 'cube-on-hexagon' orientation constitutes the high-symmetry link required for constructing a symmetry diagram for bcc/hcp systems in which all orientation relationships are connected by simple rotations.

  2. Linking climate change and downed woody debris decomposition across forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Russell; C.W. Woodall; A.W. D' Amato; S. Fraver; J.B. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon (C) is stored through photosynthesis and released via decomposition and combustion. Relative to C fixation in biomass, much less is known about C depletion through decomposition of woody debris, particularly under a changing climate. It is assumed that the increased...

  3. Climate change and States security: an operational link to develop locally and on the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that climate change and environmental degradations induce new logics in international relationships, and then discusses how consequences of climate change can be factors of instability for States, and how to address them. He recalls and comments the main effects of climate change as they have been described in IPCC reports. He outlines limitations of conventional approaches in terms of direct and indirect impacts on States. Direct effects concern territories (for example, a modification of borders due to sea level rise or to erosion), populations (impact of extreme events on housing, on health) and the economy (more particularly the primary sector and high levels of adaptation costs). The author outlines the limitations of these global models, and proposes additional and corrective approaches: hybrid (regional and global) approaches, local and medium term-based approach (some natural resource management can be assessed and organised only locally). An appendix proposes a contribution of an IPCC work-group in which impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities of the different regions of the world in front of climate changes are summarized

  4. Linking two centuries of tree growth and glacier dynamics with climate changes in Kamchatka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Jiří; Altman, Jan; Vetrova, V. P.; Hara, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 124, 1-2 (2014), s. 207-220 ISSN 0165-0009 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : climate change * Little Ice Age * tree ring reconstruction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  5. Location-level links between diversity and innovative climate depend on national power distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Van de Vliert, Evert; Huang, X

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between the demographic diversity and innovative climates of 248 organizational locations of a multinational company in 24 countries. Supporting a status characteristics perspective, multilevel analyses revealed that diversity in the more task-oriented

  6. Climate-change adaptation on rangelands: Linking regional exposure with diverse adaptive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Briske; Linda A. Joyce; H. Wayne Polley; Joel R. Brown; Klaus Wolter; Jack A. Morgan; Bruce A. McCarl; Derek W. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of climate change are predicted to vary greatly throughout US rangelands. Projections show warming and drying in the southern Great Plains and the Southwest, warmer and drier summers with reduced winter snowpack in the Northwest, and warmer and wetter conditions in the northern Great Plains. Primarily through their combined effects on soil...

  7. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector's reproductive activity.

  8. Punctuated Holocene climate of Vestfirðir, Iceland, linked to internal/external variables and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.

    2018-06-01

    Emerging Holocene paleoclimate datasets point to a non-linear response of Icelandic climate against a background of steady orbital cooling. The Vestfirðir peninsula (NW Iceland) is an ideal target for continued climate reconstructions due to the presence of a small ice cap (Drangajökull) and numerous lakes, which provide two independent means to evaluate existing Icelandic climate records and to constrain the forcing mechanisms behind centennial-scale cold anomalies. Here, we present new evidence for Holocene expansions of Drangajökull based on 14C dates from entombed dead vegetation as well as two continuous Holocene lake sediment records. Lake sediments were analyzed for both bulk physical (MS) and biological (%TOC, δ13C, C/N, and BSi) parameters. Composite BSi and C/N records from the two lakes yield a sub-centennial qualitative perspective on algal (diatom) productivity and terrestrial landscape stability, respectively. The Vestfirðir lake proxies suggest initiation of the Holocene Thermal Maximum by ∼8.8 ka with subsequent and pronounced cooling not apparent until ∼3 ka. Synchronous periods of reduced algal productivity and accelerated landscape instability point to cold anomalies centered at ∼8.2, 6.6, 4.2, 3.3, 2.3, 1.8, 1, and 0.25 ka. Triggers for cold anomalies are linked to variable combinations of freshwater pulses, low total solar irradiance, explosive and effusive volcanism, and internal modes of climate variability, with cooling likely sustained by ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. The climate evolution reflected by our glacial and organic proxy records corresponds closely to marine records from the North Iceland Shelf.

  9. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  10. Millennial Scale Variability of the AMOC and its Link to Climate During the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornalley, D. J.; Oppo, D.; Keigwin, L. D.; Hall, I. R.; Moffa Sanchez, P.

    2014-12-01

    Several proxy and modelling studies suggest that there may have been considerable change in the operation the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the Holocene. Yet despite its importance for regional and global climate, the Holocene history of the AMOC is poorly constrained. Improving our knowledge of past AMOC variability will contribute to our general understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation and the role it may play in causing or amplifying climate variability on millennial timescales. We present Holocene grain-size records in depth transects from Blake Outer Ridge and Cape Hatteras, sampling the full-depth range of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC), the lower limb of the AMOC. These records will complement a depth-transect of grain-size records sampling the Iceland-Scotland (I-S) overflow, showing Holocene variations that reflect deglacial meltwater forcing in the early Holocene and insolation-forced trends from the middle-to-late Holocene (Thornalley et al., 2013, Climate of the Past). We will also present detailed grain-size records for the last 2,000 years, both in a depth transect of cores off Cape Hatteras, and from cores in the Iceland Basin, sampling the I-S overflow. Our extensive datasets enable us to provide a coherent synthesis of changes in the flow strength of key components of the AMOC on centennial-millennial and orbital timescales, which we can use to develop our understanding of past millennial-scale climate variability. Specific questions to be addressed include: How well coupled are Holocene trends in Iceland-Scotland overflow and the DWBC? How did I-S overflow and the AMOC vary during the last millennia, including the last ~150 years since the end of the Little Ice Age? Initial results suggest a long-term anti-phasing of the Nordic overflows, wherein mid-late Holocene weakening of the I-S overflow has been compensated for by a strengthening of Denmark Strait overflow. We will also report on pronounced

  11. The missing link: Bordetella petrii is endowed with both the metabolic versatility of environmental bacteria and virulence traits of pathogenic Bordetellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneiker-Bekel Susanne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella petrii is the only environmental species hitherto found among the otherwise host-restricted and pathogenic members of the genus Bordetella. Phylogenetically, it connects the pathogenic Bordetellae and environmental bacteria of the genera Achromobacter and Alcaligenes, which are opportunistic pathogens. B. petrii strains have been isolated from very different environmental niches, including river sediment, polluted soil, marine sponges and a grass root. Recently, clinical isolates associated with bone degenerative disease or cystic fibrosis have also been described. Results In this manuscript we present the results of the analysis of the completely annotated genome sequence of the B. petrii strain DSMZ12804. B. petrii has a mosaic genome of 5,287,950 bp harboring numerous mobile genetic elements, including seven large genomic islands. Four of them are highly related to the clc element of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, which encodes genes involved in the degradation of aromatics. Though being an environmental isolate, the sequenced B. petrii strain also encodes proteins related to virulence factors of the pathogenic Bordetellae, including the filamentous hemagglutinin, which is a major colonization factor of B. pertussis, and the master virulence regulator BvgAS. However, it lacks all known toxins of the pathogenic Bordetellae. Conclusion The genomic analysis suggests that B. petrii represents an evolutionary link between free-living environmental bacteria and the host-restricted obligate pathogenic Bordetellae. Its remarkable metabolic versatility may enable B. petrii to thrive in very different ecological niches.

  12. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  13. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  14. Wind power: Addressing wildlife impacts, assessing effects on tourism, and examining the link between climate change perceptions and support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Meredith Blaydes

    incidental take permits at wind facilities. Equal protections for bats are also recommended. In examining the potential effect of offshore wind power on coastal tourism, the second paper reports the findings of a summer 2007 survey of over 1,000 out-of-state tourists at Delaware beaches. Randomly sampled beachgoers were shown photo-simulations of wind turbines at increasing distances from shore and asked how each simulation would affect visitation. With wind turbines located six miles offshore, approximately one-quarter would switch to a different beach. This stated avoidance, however, diminishes with increasing wind project distance from shore. Additionally, stated avoidance of a beach with turbines six miles offshore is exceeded by: avoidance of a beach with an equidistant, inland, fossil fuel power plant; attraction to a beach in order to see turbines six miles offshore; and the likelihood of paying for an offshore wind boat tour. Further, logistic regression modeling reveals that neither trip cost nor income significantly influences the likelihood of visiting a beach with offshore wind. These findings suggest that to limit beach avoidance, offshore wind developers could site wind facilities further from shore, particularly in areas with high recreational use. Moreover, with wind turbines six miles offshore serving more as an attraction than as a deterrent, offshore wind development may, in fact, bolster local tourism revenues. The third study examines public perceptions of climate change and the link between those perceptions and support for wind power, both in general and with respect to specific offshore sites. Analyzing data from five surveys, this research uncovers low climate awareness and concern levels overall. Respondents demonstrate a poor understanding of climate change impacts and of how to effectively address climate change. In accordance with the New Ecological Paradigm, still fewer are concerned about climate change. The issue ranks 6th in Delaware and 8th

  15. A dynamical link between the Arctic and the global climate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Benkel, A.

    2006-01-01

    and snow albedo treatment changes the ice-albedo feedback and the radiative exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean-sea-ice system. The planetary wave energy fluxes in the middle troposphere of mid-latitudes between 30 and 50°N are redistributed, which induces perturbations in the zonal...... and meridional planetary wave trains from the tropics over the mid-latitudes into the Arctic. It is shown, that the improved parameterization of Arctic sea-ice and snow albedo can trigger changes in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillation pattern with strong implications for the European climate.......By means of simulations with a global coupled AOGCM it is shown that changes in the polar energy sink region can exert a strong influence on the mid- and high-latitude climate by modulating the strength of the mid-latitude westerlies and storm tracks. It is found, that a more realistic sea-ice...

  16. Human-Induced Climate Variations Linked to Urbanization: From Observations to Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this session is to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results focusing on the impact of urbanization on the climate. The discussion will highlight current observational and modeling capabilities being employed for investigating the urban environment and its linkage to the change in the Earth's climate system. The goal of the session is to identify our current stand and the future direction on the topic. Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of population of the world has moved to urban areas. By 1995, more than 70% of population of North America and Europe were living in cities. By 2025, the United Nations estimates that 60% of the worlds population will live in cities. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is urban, better understanding of how the atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of human activities on this system is critical. Our understanding of urbanization effect is incomplete, partly because human activities induce new changes on climate in addition to the original natural variations, and partly because previously few data available for study urban effect globally. Urban construction changes surface roughness, albedo, heat capacity and vegetation coverage. Traffic and industry increase atmospheric aerosol. It is suggested that urbanization may modify rainfall processes through aerosol-cloud interactions or dynamic feedbacks. Because urbanization effect on climate is determined by many factors including land cover, the city's microscale features, population density, and human lifestyle patterns, it is necessary to study urban areas over globe.

  17. Building on the links between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available supply will subsequently be reduced. In some southern African countries, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been embraced to address challenges of low productivity and related occurrences of food insecurity; but that adaptation to climate... dispersal and erosion mean that containing the effects of GMOs in one area is difficult. The same challenges apply for DRR activities, except that they tend to be a subset of adaptation. In addition, DRR activities tend to cover a smaller scale...

  18. Building on the links between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available countries, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been embraced to address challenges of low productivity and related occurrences of food insecurity; but that adaptation to climate change may be seen as placing an increased risk on genetic diversity... and terrestrial ecosystems. This is because it can “out-compete” other varieties locally, reducing species composition and thus the gene pool; but also because forces such as wind dispersal and erosion mean that containing the effects of GMOs in one area...

  19. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patricia S; Smart, Peter L; Richards, David A; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2004-12-09

    The tropics are the main source of the atmosphere's sensible and latent heat, and water vapour, and are therefore important for reconstructions of past climate. But long, accurately dated records of southern tropical palaeoclimate, which would allow the establishment of climatic connections to distant regions, have not been available. Here we present a 210,000-year (210-kyr) record of wet periods in tropical northeastern Brazil--a region that is currently semi-arid. The record is obtained from speleothems and travertine deposits that are accurately dated using the U/Th method. We find wet periods that are synchronous with periods of weak East Asian summer monsoons, cold periods in Greenland, Heinrich events in the North Atlantic and periods of decreased river runoff to the Cariaco basin. We infer that the wet periods may be explained with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. This widespread synchroneity of climate anomalies suggests a relatively rapid global reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere system. We conclude that the wet periods probably affected rainforest distribution, as plant fossils show that forest expansion occurred during these intermittent wet intervals, and opened a forest corridor between the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests.

  20. Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ∼17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R; Burke, Andrea; Dunbar, Nelia W; Köhler, Peter; Thomas, Jennie L; Arienzo, Monica M; Chellman, Nathan J; Maselli, Olivia J; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess F; Baggenstos, Daniel; Burkhart, John F; Brook, Edward J; Buizert, Christo; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Fudge, T J; Knorr, Gregor; Graf, Hans-F; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Iverson, Nels; McGwire, Kenneth C; Mulvaney, Robert; Paris, Guillaume; Rhodes, Rachael H; Saltzman, Eric S; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Taylor, Kendrick C; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-09-19

    Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ∼17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ∼192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes extending from the Antarctic Peninsula to the subtropics-similar to those associated with modern stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica-plausibly link the Mount Takahe eruptions to the onset of accelerated Southern Hemisphere deglaciation ∼17.7 ka.

  1. Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Gielen, Bert; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Vicca, Sara; Guenet, Bertrand; Vos, Bruno De; Cools, Nathalie; Ahrens, Bernhard; Altaf Arain, M.; Borken, Werner; Clarke, Nicholas; Clarkson, Beverley; Cummins, Thomas; Don, Axel; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Laudon, Hjalmar; Moore, Tim; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Siemens, Jan; Janssens, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lateral transport of carbon plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is, however, a lack of information on the factors controlling one of the main C sources of this lateral flux, i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in

  2. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2016-04-01

    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  3. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2017-01-01

    Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement). The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase) and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade), suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  4. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly E McDermott

    Full Text Available Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1 how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2 if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3 whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement. The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade, suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  5. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavcova, Eva; Kysely, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  6. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  7. Linking slope stability and climate change: the Nordfjord region, western Norway, case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasskog, K.; Waldmann, N.; Ariztegui, D.; Simpson, G.; Støren, E.; Chapron, E.; Nesje, A.

    2009-12-01

    Valleys, lakes and fjords are spectacular features of the Norwegian landscape and their sedimentary record recall past climatic, environmental and glacio-isostatic changes since the late glacial. A high resolution multi-proxy study is being performed on three lakes in western Norway combining different geophysical methods and sediment coring with the aim of reconstructing paleoclimate and to investigate how the frequency of hazardous events in this area has changed through time. A very high resolution reflection seismic profiling revealed a series of mass-wasting deposits. These events, which have also been studied in radiocarbon-dated cores, suggest a changing impact of slope instability on lake sedimentation since the late glacial. A specially tailored physically-based mathematical model allowed a numerical simulation of one of these mass wasting events and related tsunami, which occurred during a devastating rock avalanche in 1936 killing 74 persons. The outcome has been further validated against historical, marine and terrestrial information, providing a model that can be applied to comparable basins at various temporal and geographical scales. Detailed sedimentological and geochemical studies of selected cores allows characterizing the sedimentary record and to disentangle each mass wasting event. This combination of seismic, sedimentary and geophysical data permits to extend the record of mass wasting events beyond historical times. The geophysical and coring data retrieved from these lakes is a unique trace of paleo-slope stability generated by isostatic rebound and climate change, thus providing a continuous archive of slope stability beyond the historical record. The results of this study provide valuable information about the impact of climate change on slope stability and source-to-sink processes.

  8. Linking the Agricultural Production and Climate Change in Central Asia: 1991-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarskii, V.; Shemyakina, O.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the impact of climate change on the agricultural output in Central Asia (CA) since 1991. While profit-maximizing farmers in the market based economies would be expected to change their cropping patterns fairly fast in response to climate change, we do not expect that to happen in the CA region that was for a long time driven by Soviet production plans with a limited room for personal choice. We explore the relationship between the agricultural productivity (measured by the actual output) and the variations in average monthly temperatures during growing seasons and precipitation. The climate data for Central Asia are generated using the Weather Research (WRF) Model for 1985-2012. We make use of data on air temperature on 2m height, C, and total precipitation. The data on the agricultural production comes from the State Statistical Agencies of the three Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Data on agricultural production for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not available from online government sources. We model the agricultural production as a function of annual realization of weather in a specific region. This economic approach includes converting daily temperature into degree days, which represents heating units. The two key weather variables are a measure of heat (degree days) and total precipitation in the growing season, April 1st to October 30th. Preliminary regression results estimated for Kazakhstan, indicate that degree days during growing season is negatively and total precipitation is positively associated with the agricultural output. Both coefficients are not statistically significant. Further analysis will include data from other countries and also by the region.

  9. A multi-level analysis of the EU linking directive process: the controversial connection between EU and global climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline Haegstad

    2007-10-15

    Despite initial scepticism in the EU towards the Kyoto Protocol's project mechanisms (the CDM and JI), the 'Linking Directive' was adopted in October 2004, connecting the EU emissions trading scheme with the project mechanisms. Not only was the Linking Directive settled remarkably quickly, the decision-making process also left a more liberal text, with fewer restrictions on the use of the project mechanisms, as compared to the initial directive proposal. This report examines possible explanations to this puzzle, evaluating whether Member State preferences, EU institutions or external influence from the climate regime best can contribute to understanding the process. On the basis of the analysis of written sources stemming from the decision-making process, as well as seven in-depth interviews, the report finds that Member State preferences were the main driver in the Linking Directive process. This gives support to the intergovernmentalist mantra, that Member States are the main decision-makers in the EU. It also challenges much recent research claiming that EU policy-making is increasingly being taken out of the hands of the nation-state and into supranational actors such as the Commission and the European Parliament. (author). 41 refs., figs., tabs

  10. A multi-level analysis of the EU linking directive process: the controversial connection between EU and global climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline Haegstad

    2007-10-15

    Despite initial scepticism in the EU towards the Kyoto Protocol's project mechanisms (the CDM and JI), the 'Linking Directive' was adopted in October 2004, connecting the EU emissions trading scheme with the project mechanisms. Not only was the Linking Directive settled remarkably quickly, the decision-making process also left a more liberal text, with fewer restrictions on the use of the project mechanisms, as compared to the initial directive proposal. This report examines possible explanations to this puzzle, evaluating whether Member State preferences, EU institutions or external influence from the climate regime best can contribute to understanding the process. On the basis of the analysis of written sources stemming from the decision-making process, as well as seven in-depth interviews, the report finds that Member State preferences were the main driver in the Linking Directive process. This gives support to the intergovernmentalist mantra, that Member States are the main decision-makers in the EU. It also challenges much recent research claiming that EU policy-making is increasingly being taken out of the hands of the nation-state and into supranational actors such as the Commission and the European Parliament. (author). 41 refs., figs., tabs

  11. Decadal- to Orbital-Scale Links Between Climate, Productivity and Denitrification on the Peru Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, M. J.; Altabet, M. A.; Herbert, T. D.

    2002-12-01

    Denitrification is the predominant global loss term for combined nitrogen and can exert a major control on its oceanic inventory, global productivity and atmospheric CO2. Our prior work demonstrates that proxy records for changing denitrification, oxygenation and productivity in the recent geological past in the Arabian Sea exhibit unprecedented similarity with abrupt climate fluctuations recorded in high-latitude ice-cores. Since the Peru Margin and Arabian Sea together constitute almost two-thirds of global marine water-column denitrification, changes in concert in these two regions could potentially have effected rapid global climate changes through an oceanic mechanism. The Peru Margin is intimately coupled to the Equatorial Pacific, source of El Ni&ño-La Niña SST, productivity and precipitation anomalies. Here, biogeochemical cycles are especially sensitive to abrupt climatic changes on decadal time-scales by virtue of this ENSO coupling. The purpose of our research is to investigate whether longer changes in tropical Pacific oceanography represent a 'scaling up' of anomalous ENSO conditions, modulated by both internal (e.g. nutrient inventory or WPWP heat budget) and external (e.g. orbital) forcing throughout the last glacial/inter-glacial cycle. Here we present first results of a detailed investigation of recently-recovered sediments from ODP Site 1228 on the Peru margin upper continental slope, in an attempt to capture some of the essential aspects of ENSO-like variability. Despite the existing availability of high quality sediment cores from this margin, little detailed paleoclimatic information currently exists because of poor sedimentary carbonate preservation (exacerbated post-recovery) which has limited generation of essential chronostratigraphic controls. Instead, we rely on the development and novel application of compound-specific AMS dating verified and supplemented by intermittent foraminiferal and bulk-carbon AMS dates, a magnetic paleo

  12. Linking climate change to water provision: greywater treatment by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Setyono, P.; Sobriyah

    2018-03-01

    Climate change has been felt to take place in Indonesia, causing the temperature to increase, additional drought with more moisture evaporates from rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water, and intense rainfall in a shorter rainy season. One of the major concerns is the risk of severe drought leading to water shortages. It will affect water supply and agriculture yields. As a country extremely vulnerable to the climate change, Indonesia must adapt to the serious environmental issues. This paper aims to offer an effort of water provision by recycling and reusing of greywater applying constructed wetland systems. The treated greywater is useful as water provision for non-consumptive uses. A recent experiment was conducted on a household yard using a single horizontal subsurface flow type of constructed wetland. The experiments demonstrated that the constructed wetland systems reduced effectively the pollutants of TSS, BOD, COD, and detergent to the level that are compliant with regulatory standards. The constructed wetland has been established for almost two years however the system still works properly.

  13. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2017-11-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet’s climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition and the magnitude of these seemingly contradictory features. We confirm theoretical models of tidally locked circulation are consistent with our numerical model of 55 Cnc e, and rule out certain atmospheric compositions based on their thermodynamic properties. Our best-fitting atmosphere has a significant hot-spot shift and day-night contrast, although these are not as large as the observed phase curve. We discuss possible physical processes that could explain the observations, and show that night-side cloud formation from species such as SiO from a day-side magma ocean could potentially increase the phase curve amplitude and explain the observations. We conclude that the observations could be explained by an optically thick atmosphere with a low mean molecular weight, a surface pressure of several bars, and a strong eastward circulation, with night-side cloud formation a possible explanation for the difference between our model and the observations.

  14. Placing lochs in their landscapes: linking landscape ecology, ecohydrology and conservation interest in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, M. C.; Spray, C. J.; Rowan, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Scotland is a country with outstanding freshwater systems providing multiple social, economic and cultural functions as well as ecological services of international importance. Scotland's lakes (locally termed lochs) occupy approximately 3% of the country's land mass and contain more than 90% of Great Britain's total freshwater resource. With over 25,000 lochs (surface area greater than 0.1 hectares) standing freshwaters are an iconic part of Scotland's landscape and they come in a myriad of forms and sizes contributing outstanding geodiversity as well as habitats of international importance for numerous species of conservation interest. There is undoubtedly a need to protect the conservation interests of designated sites in the face of changing loch and catchment pressures - which include diffuse pollutants, morphological modification, recreation and invasive species. Climate change presents a new set of challenges with potential impacts across the entire standing water resource base and predicting how these systems might respond to these changes greatly amplifies uncertainties implicit in their environmental management. Global climate change is predicted to be a major cause of change across all ecosystems and there are particular concerns about impacts on freshwater systems due to the coupling of impacts to both hydrology and ecology. Climate change is likely to affect the hydrological cycle in a number of ways, most significantly through changing temperature and precipitation patterns, intensities and extremes. These changes, coupled with reduced snow and ice cover, frequency and duration, will lead to changes in soil moisture conditions and subsequently runoff. This is turn will impact on river flow, loch water levels, epilimnic temperatures, nutrient availability and, subsequently, the ecological structure and function of the entire standing water system. For some species these habitat changes will push them to the very limits of their natural tolerances and a

  15. Links between circulation indices and precipitation in the Mediterranean in an ensemble of regional climate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, Romana; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2016), s. 693-701 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 505539 - ENSEMBLES Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmospheric sciences climatology * atmospheric protection * air quality control * air pollution * waste water technology * water pollution control * water management * aquatic pollution Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-015-1381-6

  16. Linking soil chemistry, treeline shifts and climate change: scenario modeling using an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Anderson, Susanne; Blum, Alex; Wells, Aaron; Dahms, Dennis; Egli, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and global warming have a strong influence on the landscape development. As cold areas become warmer, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions (a). It is widely accepted that climate changes deeply influence the treeline shifts. In addition to that, wildfires, plant diseases and insect infestation (i.e. mountain pine beetle) can promote a selective replacement of plants, inhibiting some and favoring others, thus modifying the ecosystem in diverse ways. There is little knowledge on the behavior of soil chemistry when such changes occur. Will elemental availability become a crucial factor as a function of climate changes? The Sinks Canyon and Stough Basin - SE flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA - offer an ideal case study. Conceptually, the areas were divided into three main subsets: tundra, forest and a subarid environment. All soils were developed on granitoid moraines (b, c). From each subset, a liquid topsoil extract was produced and mixed with the solid subsoil samples in batch reactors at 50 °C. The batch experiments were carried out over 1800 h, and the progress of the dissolution was regularly monitored by analyzing liquid aliquots using IC and ICP-OES. The nutrients were mostly released within the first hours of the experiment. Silicon and Al were continuously released into the solution, while some alkali elements - i.e. Na - showed a more complex trend. Organic acids (acetic, citric) and other ligands produced during biodegradation played an active role in mineral dissolution and nutrient release. The mineral colloids detected in the extract (X-ray diffraction) can significantly control surface reactions (adsorption/desorption) and contributed to specific cationic concentrations. The experimental set up was then compared to a computed dissolution model using SerialSTEADYQL software (d, e). Decoding the mechanisms driving mineral weathering is the key to understand the main geochemical aspects of adaptation during climate

  17. New evidence for "far-field" Holocene sea level oscillations and links to global climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, N. D.; Welsh, K. J.; Clark, T. R.; Feng, Y.-x.; Pandolfi, J. M.; Zhao, J.-x.

    2018-04-01

    Rising sea level in the coming century is of significant concern, yet predicting relative sea level change in response to eustatic sea level variability is complex. Potential analogues are provided by the recent geological past but, until recently, many sea level reconstructions have been limited to millennial scale interpretations due to age uncertainties and paucity in proxy derived records. Here we present a sea level history for the tectonically stable "far-field" Great Barrier Reef, Australia, derived from 94 high precision uranium-thorium dates of sub-fossil coral microatolls. Our results provide evidence for at least two periods of relative sea level instability during the Holocene. These sea level oscillations are broadly synchronous with Indo-Pacific negative sea surface temperature anomalies, rapid global cooling events and glacial advances. We propose that the pace and magnitude of these oscillations are suggestive of eustatic/thermosteric processes operating in conjunction with regional climatic controls.

  18. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2016-01-01

    concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under...... and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63tyr.-1 and 9tyr.-1, respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific...... environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions....

  19. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  20. Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum linked to continental arc flare-up in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Kuiper, K.; van der Ploeg, R.; Cramwinckel, M.; Honarmand, M.; Sluijs, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    A 500 kyr episode of 3-5 °C gradual global climate warming, some 40 Myr ago, has been termed the Middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO). It has been associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the source of this carbon remains enigmatic. We show, based on new Ar-Ar ages of volcanic rocks in Iran and Azerbaijan, that the time interval spanning the MECO was associated with a massive increase in continental arc volcanism. We also collected almost 300 Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages from literature. Typically, U-Pb ages from the Eocene are slightly younger, by 3 Myr, than Ar-Ar ages. We observed that U-Pb ages are obtained mostly from intrusive rocks and therefore must reflect an intrusive stage that post-dated extrusive volcanism. Combining all ages for extrusive rocks, we show that they cluster around 40.2 Ma, exactly within the time span of the MECO (40.5-40.0 Ma). We estimate volumes of volcanism based on a shapefile of outcrops and average thickness of the sequences. We calculate CO2 estimates using a relation volcanism-CO2 that was earlier used for the Deccan traps (Tobin et al., 2017). Our calculations indicate that the volume of the Iranian middle Eocene volcanic rocks (estimated at 37000 km3) is sufficient to explain the CO2 rise during the MECO. We conclude that continental arc flare-up in the Neotethys subduction zone is a plausible candidate for causing the MECO.

  1. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  2. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  3. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  4. Indo-Pacific hydroclimate over the past millennium and links with global climate variabilty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Drysdale, R.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Hua, Q.; Johnson, K. R.; Gagan, M. K.; Cole, J. E.; Cook, B. I.; Zhao, J. X.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Hantoro, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) are the dominant modes of hydroclimate variability in the tropical Pacific and have far-reaching impacts on Earth's climate. Experiments combining instrumental records with climate-model simulations have highlighted the dominant role of the Pacific Walker circulation in shaping recent trends in global temperatures (Kosaka and Xie, 2013, 2016). However, the paucity of high-resolution terrestrial paleoclimate records of deep atmospheric convection over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) precludes a comprehensive assessment as to role of the tropical Pacific in modulating radiative-forced shifts in global temperature on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Here we present a suite of new high-resolution oxygen-isotope records from Indo-Pacific speleothems, which, based on modern rainfall and cave drip-water monitoring studies, along with trace element (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses, are interpreted to reflect changes in Australasian monsoon variability during the Common Era (C.E.). Our results reveal a protracted decline in southern Indonesian monsoon rainfall between 1000-1400 C.E. but stronger between 1500-1900 C.E. These centennial-scale patterns over southern Indonesia are consistent with other proxy records from the region but anti-phased with records from India and China, supporting the paradigm that Northern Hemisphere cooling increased the interhemispheric thermal gradient, displacing the Australasian ITCZ southward. However, our findings are also compatible with a recent synthesis of paleohydrologic records for the Australasian monsoon region, which, collectively, suggest that rather than moving southward during the LIA, the latitudinal range of monsoon-ITCZ migration probably contracted equatorward (Yan et al., 2015). This proposed LIA ITCZ contraction likely occurred in parallel with a strengthening of the Walker circulation (as indicated through comparison with our hydroclimate

  5. Remarkable link between projected uncertainties of Arctic sea-ice decline and winter Eurasian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Keenlyside, Noel; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Zhou, Wen

    2018-01-01

    We identify that the projected uncertainty of the pan-Arctic sea-ice concentration (SIC) is strongly coupled with the Eurasian circulation in the boreal winter (December-March; DJFM), based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis of the forced response of 11 CMIP5 models. In the models showing a stronger sea-ice decline, the Polar cell becomes weaker and there is an anomalous increase in the sea level pressure (SLP) along 60°N, including the Urals-Siberia region and the Iceland low region. There is an accompanying weakening of both the midlatitude westerly winds and the Ferrell cell, where the SVD signals are also related to anomalous sea surface temperature warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic. In the Mediterranean region, the anomalous circulation response shows a decreasing SLP and increasing precipitation. The anomalous SLP responses over the Euro-Atlantic region project on to the negative North Atlantic Oscillation-like pattern. Altogether, pan-Arctic SIC decline could strongly impact the winter Eurasian climate, but we should be cautious about the causality of their linkage.

  6. Making the link: climate policy and the reform of the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the barriers to energy efficiency in the construction of non-domestic buildings in the UK. The source of the barriers is argued to lie in the organisation of the construction industry, including the linear design process, the reliance on cost-based competitive tendering and the incentives placed upon different actors. The consequences include oversizing of equipment, reduced quality, neglect of whole life costs and lack of integrated design. Each of these problems can usefully be interpreted using concepts from the new institutional economics. While the barriers are well known to construction industry specialists, they are relatively neglected in the academic literature on energy policy. Furthermore, conventional policy measures such as building regulations leave these barriers largely untouched. The UK construction industry is currently undergoing a series of reforms which aim to change the relationship between different actors and to achieve improvements in product quality and productivity. While these reforms have the potential to address many of the barriers, the reform agenda makes practically no reference to sustainability. This paper argues that climate policy objectives must be integrated into the reform agenda if the UK is to begin the transition to a low carbon built environment

  7. The missing link in sustainable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje

    This thesis investigates options for handling the problem of intermittency related to large-scale penetration of wind power into the West Danish energy system. But rather than being a story about wind power, the thesis explores the principles by which distributed energy plants could be better...... designed and operated to provide energy system services, supporting intermittent supply, while reducing the need for central power plants and cross-national transmission capacities. In essence, the thesis assesses the consequences of integrating large-scale heat pumps with distributed cogenerators...... in favour of a domestic integration strategy for handling intermittency towards a sustainable energy system. It is found that large-scale transcritical compression heat pumps are suitable and ready for integration with existing cogenerators, but that system-wide energy, environmental, and economic benefits...

  8. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J

    2010-10-05

    The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.

  9. Missing link or not, mobilise against delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Valerie J; Casarin, Annalisa

    2014-01-31

    Delirium is known to be a predictor of adverse outcomes. In a prospective study Abelha and colleagues showed that postoperative delirium was an independent risk factor for deterioration in functional capacity following discharge. While evidence for causality remains elusive, there is no doubt that patients who develop delirium are left with new functional and cognitive impairment. Finding a pharmacological treatment for the prevention and treatment of delirium is a priority in delirium research and the results of ongoing trials are awaited. Early mobilisation of ICU patients has been demonstrated to decrease delirium and improve functional outcomes. Resources should be directed to appropriate, progressive mobilisation of all critically ill patients as a priority.

  10. AMD genetics in India: The missing links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration is a disease condition which occurs in aged peoples. There are various changes occurs at the cellular, molecular and physiological levels with age (Kaushal et al, 2013; Samiec et al 1988. Drusen deposition between RPE and Bruch’s membrane is one of the key features in AMD patients (Mullins RF et al, 2000; Hagemana et al, 2001 as Aβ/tau aggregates in AD patients. The primary goal of this review is to discuss whether the various candidate genes and associated biomarkers, that are supposed to play an independent role in progression of AMD, exert deleterious effect on phenotype, alone or in combination, in Indian AMD patients from the same ethnic group. A statistical model for probable interaction between genes could also be derived from such analysis. We can use multiple modalities to identify and enrol AMD patients based on established clinical criteria and examine the risk factors to determine if these genes are associated with risk factors, biomarkers or disease by Mendelian randomization. Similarly, there are large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs identified in human population. Even non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs are believed to induce deleterious effects on the functionality of various proteins. The study of such snSNPs could provide a better genetic insight for diverse phenotypes of AMD patients, predicting significant risk factors for the disease. Therefore, the prediction of biological effect of nsSNPs in the candidate genes is highly solicited.Therefore, genotyping and levels of protein expression of various genes would provide bigger canvas in genetic complexity of AMD pathology which should be evaluated by valid statistical and bioinformatics’ tools. Longitudinal follow up of Indian AMD patients to evaluate the temporal effect of SNPs and biomarkers on progression of disease could also provide unique strategy in the field.

  11. Multitasking Teachers: Mistake or Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenwine, Marilyn J.; Hadley, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents case studies involving graduate students who exhibited multitasking behaviors during their university courses, and explores how those behaviors functioned in their own classrooms. Though these university students appeared to be inattentive, their multitasking proved to be indicative of creativity and flexibility in their…

  12. Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jinzhong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. Results In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Conclusion Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms.

  13. The Missing Curriculum Link: Personal Financial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidermeyer, Adolph A.; Neidermeyer, Presha E.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing personal and business financial challenges facing today's professionals, we, as business school faculty, have a responsibility to offer the educational background that should enable rising professionals to successfully manage finances. Unfortunately, the results of a recent analysis of curriculum offerings in Personal Financial…

  14. Changes of cloudiness over tropical land during the past few decades and its link to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, P.; Fu, R.; Li, W.

    2007-12-01

    Tropical forests play a key role in determining the global carbon-climate feedback in the 21st century. Changes in rainforest growth and mortality rates, especially in the deep and least perturbed forest areas, have been consistently observed across global tropics in recent years. Understanding the underlying causes of these changes, especially their links to the global climate change, is especially important in determining the future of the tropical rainforests in the 21st century. Previous studies have mostly focus on the potential influences from elevated atmospheric CO2 and increasing surface temperature. Because the rainforests in wet tropical region is often light limited, we explore whether cloudiness have changed, if so, whether it is consistent with that expected from changes in forest growth rate. We will report our observational analysis examining the trends in annual average shortwave (SW) downwelling radiation, total cloud cover, and cumulus cover over the tropical land regions and to link them with trends in convective available potencial energy (CAPE). ISCCP data and radiosonde records available from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Wyoming (http://www.weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html) are used to study the trends. The period for the trend analysis is 1984-2004 for the ISCCP data and 1980-2006 for the radiosondes. The results for the Amazon rainforest region suggest a decreasing trend in total cloud and convective cloud covers, which results in an increase in downwelling SW radiation at the surface. These changes of total and convective clouds are consistent with a trend of decreasing CAPE and an elevated Level of Free Convection (LFC) height, as obtained from the radiosondes. All the above mentioned trends are statistically significant based on the Mann-Kendall test with 95% of confidence. These results consistently suggest the downward surface solar radiation has been increasing since 1984, result from a decrease

  15. Miss Lora juveelikauplus = Miss Lora jewellery store

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Narvas Fama kaubanduskeskuses (Tallinna mnt. 19c) asuva juveelikaupluse Miss Lora sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Annes Arro ja Hanna Karits. Poe sisu - vitriinkapid, vaip, valgustid - on valmistatud eritellimusel. Sisearhitektide tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  16. A missing piece of the puzzle in climate change hotspots: Near-surface turbulent interactions controlling ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Gianotti, Daniel J.; Rigden, Angela J.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Being located in the transitional zone between dry and wet climate areas, semiarid ecosystems (and their associated ecohydrological processes) play a critical role in controlling climate change and global warming. Land evapotranspiration (ET), which is a central process in the climate system and a nexus of the water, energy and carbon cycles, typically accounts for up to 95% of the water budget in semiarid areas. Thus, the manner in which ET is partitioned into soil evaporation and plant transpiration in these settings is of practical importance for water and carbon cycling and their feedbacks to the climate system. ET (and its partitioning) in these regions is primarily controlled by surface soil moisture which varies episodically under stochastic precipitation inputs. Important as the ET-soil moisture relationship is, it remains empirical, and physical mechanisms governing its nature and dynamics are underexplored. Thus, the objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide observational evidence for the influence of surface cover conditions on ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid regions using soil moisture data from NASA's SMAP satellite mission combined with independent observationally based ET estimates, and (2) to develop a relatively simple mechanistic modeling platform improving our physical understanding of interactions between micro and macroscale processes controlling ET and its partitioning in partially vegetated areas. To this end, we invoked concepts from recent progress in mechanistic modeling of turbulent energy flux exchange in bluff-rough regions, and developed a physically based ET model that explicitly accounts for how vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region influences soil drying and thus ET rates and dynamics. Model predictions revealed nonlinearities in the strength of the ET-soil moisture relationship (i.e., ∂ET/∂θ) as vegetation cover fraction increases, accounted for by the nonlinearity of surface

  17. Adaptation of irrigation networks to climate change: Linking robust design and stakeholder contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, A.; Martín-Carrasco, F.J.; García de Jalón, S.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-07-01

    Agriculture is a particularly sensitive sector to the potential impacts of climate change. Thus, irrigation infrastructure is required to be robust to cope with these potential threats. The objective of this research is designing more robust irrigation networks, considering cost and stakeholder contribution. To that end, the investigation was addressed in three phases: a sensitivity analysis to understand the effectiveness of the distinct variables, a cost-effectiveness analysis assessing their efficiency, and a global study of the most efficient variables to provide an insight into their function. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the networks oversized by means of the coefficient of utilisation or the factor of safety, behave better than those oversized via the continuous specific discharge; moreover, the degree of freedom has been shown ineffective. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that the coefficient of utilisation and the factor of safety are the most efficient variables, as they introduced safety margin oversizing fewer network elements and to a lesser extent than the continuous specific discharge. It also shows that stakeholder contribution, conveyed as a reduction of the degree of freedom, plays an important role in the network’s adaptive capacity to change. The global study of these variables reveals the subtlety of the coefficient of utilisation, which is the variable that better reproduces the farmer behaviour during demand increase scenarios. In conclusion, the results identify the coefficient of utilisation as the variable which provides the safest margins and reveal the importance of stakeholder contribution in absorb the demand increase in a better manner. (Author)

  18. Changes in water consumption linked to heavy news media coverage of extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J; Ajami, Newsha K

    2017-10-01

    Public awareness of water- and drought-related issues is an important yet relatively unexplored component of water use behavior. To examine this relationship, we first quantified news media coverage of drought in California from 2005 to 2015, a period with two distinct droughts; the later drought received unprecedentedly high media coverage, whereas the earlier drought did not, as the United States was experiencing an economic downturn coinciding with a historic presidential election. Comparing this coverage to Google search frequency confirmed that public attention followed news media trends. We then modeled single-family residential water consumption in 20 service areas in the San Francisco Bay Area during the same period using geospatially explicit data and including news media coverage as a covariate. Model outputs revealed the factors affecting water use for populations of varying demographics. Importantly, the models estimated that an increase of 100 drought-related articles in a bimonthly period was associated with an 11 to 18% reduction in water use. Then, we evaluated high-resolution water consumption data from smart meters, known as advanced metering infrastructure, in one of the previously modeled service areas to evaluate breakpoints in water use trends. Results demonstrated that whereas nonresidential commercial irrigation customers responded to changes in climate, single-family residential customers decreased water use at the fastest rate following heavy drought-related news media coverage. These results highlight the need for water resource planners and decision makers to further consider the importance of effective, internally and externally driven, public awareness and education in water demand behavior and management.

  19. Adaptation of irrigation networks to climate change: Linking robust design and stakeholder contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Granados

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a particularly sensitive sector to the potential impacts of climate change. Thus, irrigation infrastructure is required to be robust to cope with these potential threats. The objective of this research is designing more robust irrigation networks, considering cost and stakeholder contribution. To that end, the investigation was addressed in three phases: a sensitivity analysis to understand the effectiveness of the distinct variables, a cost-effectiveness analysis assessing their efficiency, and a global study of the most efficient variables to provide an insight into their function. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the networks oversized by means of the coefficient of utilisation or the factor of safety, behave better than those oversized via the continuous specific discharge; moreover, the degree of freedom has been shown ineffective. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that the coefficient of utilisation and the factor of safety are the most efficient variables, as they introduced safety margin oversizing fewer network elements and to a lesser extent than the continuous specific discharge. It also shows that stakeholder contribution, conveyed as a reduction of the degree of freedom, plays an important role in the network’s adaptive capacity to change. The global study of these variables reveals the subtlety of the coefficient of utilisation, which is the variable that better reproduces the farmer behaviour during demand increase scenarios. In conclusion, the results identify the coefficient of utilisation as the variable which provides the safest margins and reveal the importance of stakeholder contribution in absorb the demand increase in a better manner.

  20. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  1. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Vance-Borland, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love) is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (Ptypes. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  2. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  3. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities. A research project on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development models. Paper 1 - Climate and development finance institutions: linking climate finance, development finance and the transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Risler, Ophelie; Forestier, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Development finance institutions (DFIs) are in a position to be key actors in aligning development and the 2 deg. challenge. One of the principal challenges today is to scale-up the financial flows to the trillions of dollars per year necessary to achieve the 2 deg. C long-term objectives. Achieving this transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient (LCCR) economic model requires the integration or 'mainstreaming' of climate issues as a prism through which all investment decisions should be made. This paper presents an overview of the opportunities and challenges of linking a LCCR transition with the objectives of development finance. It first presents the two-fold challenge of climate change and development for countries around the world. Second, the paper explores the role of development finance institutions and their support for the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economic model. Finally, it examines a necessary paradigm shift to integrate climate and development objectives to establish a 'LCCR development model' able to simultaneously tackling development priorities and needs for resilient, low-carbon growth. This will necessitate a move from focusing on a 'siloed' vision of climate finance to a means of aligning activities across the economy with the LCCR objectives to ensure that the majority of investments are coherent with this long-term transition. (authors)

  4. SO2 photoexcitation mechanism links mass-independent sulfur isotopic fractionation in cryospheric sulfate to climate impacting volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Schmidt, Johan A.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Yamada, Akinori; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Natural climate variation, such as that caused by volcanoes, is the basis for identifying anthropogenic climate change. However, knowledge of the history of volcanic activity is inadequate, particularly concerning the explosivity of specific events. Some material is deposited in ice cores, but the concentration of glacial sulfate does not distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric eruptions. Stable sulfur isotope abundances contain additional information, and recent studies show a correlation between volcanic plumes that reach the stratosphere and mass-independent anomalies in sulfur isotopes in glacial sulfate. We describe a mechanism, photoexcitation of SO2, that links the two, yielding a useful metric of the explosivity of historic volcanic events. A plume model of S(IV) to S(VI) conversion was constructed including photochemistry, entrainment of background air, and sulfate deposition. Isotopologue-specific photoexcitation rates were calculated based on the UV absorption cross-sections of 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2, and 36SO2 from 250 to 320 nm. The model shows that UV photoexcitation is enhanced with altitude, whereas mass-dependent oxidation, such as SO2 + OH, is suppressed by in situ plume chemistry, allowing the production and preservation of a mass-independent sulfur isotope anomaly in the sulfate product. The model accounts for the amplitude, phases, and time development of Δ33S/δ34S and Δ36S/Δ33S found in glacial samples. We are able to identify the process controlling mass-independent sulfur isotope anomalies in the modern atmosphere. This mechanism is the basis of identifying the magnitude of historic volcanic events. PMID:23417298

  5. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  6. Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  7. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and fjord system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, O.; Wright, R.F.; Barkved, L.J.; Bjerkeng, B.; Engen-Skaugen, T.; Magnusson, J.; Saelthun, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km 2 ) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1 deg. C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3 deg. C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N-limited benthic

  8. Changes in hydro-meteorological conditions over tropical West Africa (1980-2015) and links to global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E.; Awange, Joseph L.; Agutu, Nathan O.; Okwuashi, Onuwa

    2018-03-01

    The role of global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in modulating rainfall in the African region has been widely studied and is now less debated. However, their impacts and links to terrestrial water storage (TWS) in general, have not been studied. This study presents the pioneer results of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of TWS derived from both global reanalysis data (1980-2015) and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) (2002-2014) with SST fields. The main issues discussed include, (i) oceanic hot spots that impact on TWS over tropical West Africa (TWA) based on CCA, (ii) long term changes in model and global reanalysis data (soil moisture, TWS, and groundwater) and the influence of climate variability on these hydrological indicators, and (iii) the hydrological characteristics of the Equatorial region of Africa (i.e., the Congo basin) based on GRACE-derived TWS, river discharge, and precipitation. Results of the CCA diagnostics show that El-Niño Southern Oscillation related equatorial Pacific SST fluctuations is a major index of climate variability identified in the main portion of the CCA procedure that indicates a significant association with long term TWS reanalysis data over TWA (r = 0.50, ρ < 0.05). Based on Mann-Kendall's statistics, the study found fairly large long term declines (ρ < 0.05) in TWS and soil moisture (1982 - 2015), mostly over the Congo basin, which coincided with warming of the land surface and the surrounding oceans. Meanwhile, some parts of the Sahel show significant wetting (rainfall, soil moisture, groundwater, and TWS) trends during the same period (1982-2015) and aligns with the ongoing narratives of rainfall recovery in the region. Results of singular spectral analysis and regression confirm that multi-annual changes in the Congo River discharge explained a considerable proportion of variability in GRACE-hydrological signal over the Congo basin (r = 0.86 and R2 = 0.70, ρ < 0.05). Finally, leading

  9. Large increase in nest size linked to climate change: an indicator of life history, senescence and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2015-11-01

    Many animals build extravagant nests that exceed the size required for successful reproduction. Large nests may signal the parenting ability of nest builders suggesting that nests may have a signaling function. In particular, many raptors build very large nests for their body size. We studied nest size in the goshawk Accipiter gentilis, which is a top predator throughout most of the Nearctic. Both males and females build nests, and males provision their females and offspring with food. Nest volume in the goshawk is almost three-fold larger than predicted from their body size. Nest size in the goshawk is highly variable and may reach more than 600 kg for a bird that weighs ca. 1 kg. While 8.5% of nests fell down, smaller nests fell down more often than large nests. There was a hump-shaped relationship between nest volume and female age, with a decline in nest volume late in life, as expected for senescence. Clutch size increased with nest volume. Nest volume increased during 1977-2014 in an accelerating fashion, linked to increasing spring temperature during April, when goshawks build and start reproduction. These findings are consistent with nest size being a reliable signal of parental ability, with large nest size signaling superior parenting ability and senescence, and also indicating climate warming.

  10. The interannual precipitation variability in the southern part of Iran as linked to large-scale climate modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourasghar, Farnaz; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Sari Sarraf, Behrooz [The University of Tabriz, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tozuka, Tomoki [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ghaemi, Hooshang [Iran Meteorological Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Application Laboratory/JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The interannual variation of precipitation in the southern part of Iran and its link with the large-scale climate modes are examined using monthly data from 183 meteorological stations during 1974-2005. The majority of precipitation occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows apparently a significant positive correlation with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anti-cyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. On the other hand, the moisture flux has northerly anomaly over Iran during the negative IOD, which results in reduced moisture supply from the south. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. (orig.)

  11. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Johnson

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (P<0.01. Octoploids had larger leaves, longer culms, and greater crown circumference than tetraploids but the numerical ranges of plant traits and their source climates overlapped between ploidy types. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  12. Mapping and linking supply-and demand-side measures in climate-smart agriculture. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherer, L.A.; Verburg, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and food security are two of humanity’s greatest challenges and are highly interlinked. On the one hand, climate change puts pressure on food security. On the other hand, farming significantly contributes to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This calls for climate-smart

  13. The Missing Link in Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion: the BDLF3 Gene Induces Ubiquitination and Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Laura L; Williams, Luke R; White, Claire; Forrest, Calum; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to spread and persist in human populations relies on a balance between host immune responses and EBV immune evasion. CD8(+) cells specific for EBV late lytic cycle antigens show poor recognition of target cells compared to immediate early and early antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. This phenomenon is due in part to the early EBV protein BILF1, whose immunosuppressive activity increases with lytic cycle progression. However, published data suggest the existence of a hitherto unidentified immune evasion protein further enhancing protection against late EBV antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. We have now identified the late lytic BDLF3 gene as the missing link accounting for efficient evasion during the late lytic cycle. Interestingly, BDLF3 also contributes to evasion of CD4(+) cell responses to EBV. We report that BDLF3 downregulates expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules in the absence of any effect upon other surface molecules screened, including CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD71 (transferrin receptor). BDLF3 both enhanced internalization of surface MHC molecules and reduced the rate of their appearance at the cell surface. The reduced expression of surface MHC molecules correlated with functional protection against CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell recognition. The molecular mechanism was identified as BDLF3-induced ubiquitination of MHC molecules and their subsequent downregulation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Immune evasion is a necessary feature of viruses that establish lifelong persistent infections in the face of strong immune responses. EBV is an important human pathogen whose immune evasion mechanisms are only partly understood. Of the EBV immune evasion mechanisms identified to date, none could explain why CD8(+) T cell responses to late lytic cycle genes are so infrequent and, when present, recognize lytically infected target cells so poorly relative to CD8(+) T cells specific for

  14. Development of a browser application to foster research on linking climate and health datasets: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, Shakoor; Whitmore, Ceri; Sarran, Christophe; Haines, Andy; Golding, Brian; Gordon-Brown, Harriet; Kessel, Anthony; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed. A 'storyboard approach' was used to aid the initial design and development of the application. The application followed a 3-tier architecture: a spatial database server for storing and querying data, server-side code for processing and running models, and client-side browser code for user interaction and for displaying data and results. The browser was validated by reproducing previously published results from a regression analysis of time-series datasets of daily mortality, air pollution and temperature in London. Data visualisation and analysis options of the application are presented. The main factors that shaped the development of the browser were: accessibility, open-source software, flexibility, efficiency, user-friendliness, licensing restrictions and data confidentiality, visualisation limitations, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. Creating dedicated data and analysis resources, such as the one described here, will become an increasingly vital step in improving understanding of the complex interconnections between the environment and human health and wellbeing, whilst still ensuring appropriate confidentiality safeguards. The issues raised in this paper can inform the future development of similar tools by other researchers working in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Miss Julie: A Psychoanalytic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sigmund Freud theorized that ‘the hero of the tragedy must suffer…to bear the burden of tragic guilt…(that lay in rebellion against some divine or human authority.’ August Strindberg, the Swedish poet, playwright, author and visual artist, like Shakespeare before him, portrayed insanity as the ultimate of tragic conflict. In this paper I seek to explore and reiterate the dynamics of human relationships that are as relevant today as they were in Strindberg’s time. I propose to examine Strindberg’s Miss Julie, a play set in nineteenth century Sweden, through a psychoanalytic lens. The play deals with bold themes of class and sexual identity politics. Notwithstanding the progress made in breaking down gender barriers, the inequalities inherent in a patriarchal system persist in modern society. Miss Julie highlights these imbalances. My analysis of the play deals with issues of culture and psyche, and draws on Freud, Melanie Klein, Lacan, Luce Irigaray and other contemporary feminists. Miss Julie is a discourse on hysteria, which is still pivotal to psychoanalysis. Prominent philosophers like Hegel and the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan have written about the dialectic of the master and the slave – a relationship that is characterized by dependence, demand and cruelty. The history of human civilization shows beyond any doubt that there is an intimate connection between cruelty and the sexual instinct. An analysis of the text is carried out using the sado-masochistic dynamic as well the slave-master discourse. I argue that Miss Julie subverts the slave-master relationship. The struggle for dominance and power is closely linked with the theme of sexuality in the unconscious. To quote the English actor and director Alan Rickman, ‘Watching or working on the plays of Strindberg is like seeing the skin, flesh and bones of life separated from each other. Challenging and timeless.’

  16. Linking Glaciochemical and Historical Evidence to Study the Impact of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Human Populations in the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, A.; Chaplin, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    A transdisciplinary approach to study the impact of climate change and air pollution has already yielded significant results, where the detail afforded by historical records has linked glaciochemical data with major economic, epidemiological and climatic events (e.g. More et al., Geohealth, 2017). Historical data has allowed for more accurate calibration of ice-core chronologies, reaching sub-annual accuracy. In turn, more precise chronologies and higher resolution glaciochemical data has added a new dimension to our understanding of the environment and human experience in the last millennium of the Common Era. In this paper we propose examples of the benefits of linking highly detailed and large historical datasets with ultra-high-resolution glaciochemical data obtained through laser ablation, inductively coupled mass spectrometry. We will first examine the signature left in the ice-core record by documented, catastrophic epidemiological and economic events. Epidemics reduced population size, thus affecting economic productivity and therefore atmospheric pollution, especially from labor intensive activities such as the mining of metals (copper, iron, silver, lead), or the consumption of firewood. We will then turn our attention to the impact of increased precipitation and severe climate change on human subsistence and stability. We link glaciochemical signals associated with increased precipitation and temperature decreases with multiple, large datasets of historical records of population collapse and increased civil strife in the middle of the Little Ice Age. In particular, we will focus on how in concomitance with severe climate deterioration European countries began prosecuting citizens—by the thousands—for crimes associated with poor harvests. These prosecutions were often the result of an increase in baseless accusations of supernatural influences of thousands of individuals on phenomena such as incessant rain, unseasonal temperature decreases, frosts

  17. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M.; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The climate change research community’s shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national

  18. Vulnerability of water supply from the Oregon Cascades to changing climate: linking science to users and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Farley; Christina Tague; Gordon E. Grant

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvements in understanding biophysical response to climate change, a better understanding of how such changes will affect societies is still needed. We evaluated effects of climate change on the coupled human-environmental system of the McKenzie River watershed in the Oregon Cascades in order to assess its vulnerability. Published empirical and modeling...

  19. SueMulador: Herramienta para la Simulación de Datos Faltantes en Series Climáticas Diarias de Zonas Ecuatoriales SueMulador: A Tool For Missing Data Simulation of Climatic Series in Equatorial Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Chica Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En la actualidad, los modelos de cultivo son unaherramienta útil a la hora de tomar decisiones, no obstante, pese a su disponibilidad y facilidad de uso, la información necesaria para utilizarlos no existe o no tiene la calidad suficiente. Un ejemplo preciso del déficit de calidad en los datos lo constituyen las series meteorológicas diarias en las que predominan faltantes. Para hacer frente a esta situación y poder utilizar los modelos de cultivo se elaboró un software para llenar espacios vacíos en series climáticas diarias, basada en una cadena de Markov de orden dosy dos estados. La herramienta llamada SueMulador, se probó y validó con éxito en tres estaciones ubicadas en zonas contrastantes de la geografía colombiana. / Abstract. Currently, crop models are an useful tool for decision making; however, even though they are available and are easy to use, the information needed to use does not exist or not have sufficient quality. A specific example of the lack of quality is the daily weather series, in which there is too much missing data. To address this situation and to use crop models, we developed a software to fill gaps in daily climate series based on a Markov chain of order two and two states. The new tool, called SueMulador, was successfully tested and validated in three contrasting regions of Colombia.

  20. Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Agut, Sonia; Peiró, José María

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the mediating role of service climate in the prediction of employee performance and customer loyalty. Contact employees (N=342) from 114 service units (58 hotel front desks and 56 restaurants) provided information about organizational resources, engagement, and service climate. Furthermore, customers (N=1,140) from these units provided information on employee performance and customer loyalty. Structural equation modeling analyses were consistent with a full mediation model in which organizational resources and work engagement predict service climate, which in turn predicts employee performance and then customer loyalty. Further analyses revealed a potential reciprocal effect between service climate and customer loyalty. Implications of the study are discussed, together with limitations and suggestions for future research. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Service employees give as they get: internal service as a moderator of the service climate-service outcomes link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Karen Holcombe; Witt, L A; Schneider, Benjamin; Perry, Sara Jansen

    2011-03-01

    We lend theoretical insight to the service climate literature by exploring the joint effects of branch service climate and the internal service provided to the branch (the service received from corporate units to support external service delivery) on customer-rated service quality. We hypothesized that service climate is related to service quality most strongly when the internal service quality received is high, providing front-line employees with the capability to deliver what the service climate motivates them to do. We studied 619 employees and 1,973 customers in 36 retail branches of a bank. We aggregated employee perceptions of the internal service quality received from corporate units and the local service climate and external customer perceptions of service quality to the branch level of analysis. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that high-quality internal service is necessary for branch service climate to yield superior external customer service quality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Mead, Jerry V; Goyder, David J; Brannin, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Climate change that increases mortality of plants and pollinators can create mate-finding Allee effects and thus act as a strong selective force on floral morphology. Milkweeds (Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae; Apocynaceae) are typically small plants of seasonally dry habitats, with pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency. Their sister group (tribe Baisseeae and Dewevrella) is mostly comprised of giant lianas of African rainforests, with pollen in monads. Comparison of the two groups motivated a new hypothesis: milkweeds evolved in the context of African aridification and the shifting of rainforest to dry forest. Pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency may have been adaptations that alleviated mate-finding Allee effects generated by high mortality during droughts. We formally tested whether milkweeds have a drier climate niche by comparing milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae) and the milkweed sister group in continental Africa. We georeferenced specimens of the milkweed sister group and Secamonoideae in continental Africa, extracted 19 climatic variables from the Worldclim model, conducted factor analysis to identify correlated suites of variables, and compared the frequency distributions of the two lineages relative to each factor. The distributions of Secamonoideae and the milkweed sister group differed significantly relative to four factors, each correlated with a distinct suite of climate parameters: (1) air temperature (Secamonoideae: cooler), (2) total and (3) summer precipitation (Secamonoideae: drier), and (4) temperature seasonality and isothermality (Secamonoideae: more seasonal and less isothermal). Secamonoideae in continental Africa inhabit drier, cooler sites than do the milkweed sister group, consistent with a shift from rainforests to dry forests in a cooling climate.

  3. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Links between the built environment, climate and population health: interdisciplinary environmental change research in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Sclar, Elliott D; Kinney, Patrick L; Knowlton, Kim; Crauderueff, Robert; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region. These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policy-oriented research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to address these

  5. Netbooks The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks are the hot new thing in PCs -- small, inexpensive laptops designed for web browsing, email, and working with web-based programs. But chances are you don't know how to choose a netbook, let alone use one. Not to worry: with this Missing Manual, you'll learn which netbook is right for you and how to set it up and use it for everything from spreadsheets for work to hobbies like gaming and photo sharing. Netbooks: The Missing Manual provides easy-to-follow instructions and lots of advice to help you: Learn the basics for using a Windows- or Linux-based netbookConnect speakers, printe

  6. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  7. Linking wood anatomy and xylogenesis allows pinpointing of climate and drought influences on growth of coexisting conifers in continental Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Carrer, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Forecasted warmer and drier conditions will probably lead to reduced growth rates and decreased carbon fixation in long-term woody pools in drought-prone areas. We therefore need a better understanding of how climate stressors such as drought constrain wood formation and drive changes in wood anatomy. Drying trends could lead to reduced growth if they are more intense in spring, when radial growth rates of conifers in continental Mediterranean climates peak. Since tree species from the aforementioned areas have to endure dry summers and also cold winters, we chose two coexisting species: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill., Pinaceae) and Spanish juniper (Juniperus thuriferaL., Cupressaceae) (10 randomly selected trees per species), to analyze how growth (tree-ring width) and wood-anatomical traits (lumen transversal area, cell-wall thickness, presence of intra-annual density fluctuations-IADFs-in the latewood) responded to climatic variables (minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, soil moisture deficit) calculated for different time intervals. Tree-ring width and mean lumen area showed similar year-to-year variability, which indicates that they encoded similar climatic signals. Wet and cool late-winter to early-spring conditions increased lumen area expansion, particularly in pine. In juniper, cell-wall thickness increased when early summer conditions became drier and the frequency of latewood IADFs increased in parallel with late-summer to early-autumn wet conditions. Thus, latewood IADFs of the juniper capture increased water availability during the late growing season, which is reflected in larger tracheid lumens. Soil water availability was one of the main drivers of wood formation and radial growth for the two species. These analyses allow long-term (several decades) growth and wood-anatomical responses to climate to be inferred at intra-annual scales, which agree with the growing patterns already described by xylogenesis approaches for the same

  8. Technical Note: Linking climate change and downed woody debris decomposition across forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon (C) is stored through photosynthesis and released via decomposition and combustion. Relative to C fixation in biomass, much less is known about C depletion through decomposition of woody debris, particularly under a changing climate. It is assumed that the increased temperatures and longer growing seasons associated with projected climate change will increase the decomposition rates (i.e., more rapid C cycling) of downed woody debris (DWD); however, the magnitude of this increase has not been previously addressed. Using DWD measurements collected from a national forest inventory of the eastern United States, we show that the residence time of DWD may decrease (i.e., more rapid decomposition) by as much as 13% over the next 200 years, depending on various future climate change scenarios and forest types. Although existing dynamic global vegetation models account for the decomposition process, they typically do not include the effect of a changing climate on DWD decomposition rates. We expect that an increased understanding of decomposition rates, as presented in this current work, will be needed to adequately quantify the fate of woody detritus in future forests. Furthermore, we hope these results will lead to improved models that incorporate climate change scenarios for depicting future dead wood dynamics in addition to a traditional emphasis on live-tree demographics.

  9. Science and Photography Linked in iPad and iPhone Apps About Climate Change and Repeat Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, G.; Hone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Red Hill Studio and World View of Global Warming co-developed apps for the iPad and iPhone which graphically show climate-driven changes in repeat photographs and maps. The climate app, with 17 interactive screens that show climate changes to glaciers, coasts, rivers and world temperature, reaches a new part of the public, was featured in USA Today and is used in schoolrooms and museums. It led a list of top ten climate apps for 2012. The low price for this app encourages more users and income is being shared with the Union of Concerned Scientists. Red Hill Studio is also developing an app which is an aid for making time series and repeat photography. The Now & Then Cam app will allow scientists and citizens to take closely aligned repeat photos by overlaying the iPad/iPhone's camera image on top of an archival photo. This guides the photographer back towards the original location of the archival shot - leading to a more carefully aligned repeat photograph. The developers hope this app will contribute to both scientific and artistic creation of time-series photographs, an important and persuasive visualization of change. The Painting with Time and Now & Then Cam apps build upon a traveling museum exhibition, Playing with Time, and an international documentary special, Exploring Time, that were developed by Red Hill Studios under grants from the National Science Foundation. The app programmers, Charlie Brown and J.A. Nelson, use Objective C to create fluid, responsive interfaces with no distracting latencies or delays. World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. Repeat and time-series photography is an integral part it its climate communication.

  10. Linking climate change to community-level impacts on copepods via a new, trait-based model: Life-history and metabolic mechanisms compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Neil S.; Møller, Eva Friis; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    A new, trait-based copepod model ("Coltrane": Copepod Life-history Traits and Adaptation to Novel Environments) has been developed, drawing on past work on both optimal annual routines and trait-based plankton metacommunity models, in order to evaluate climate impacts on copepods via 1) phenology...... and physiology of local populations of C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyperboreus. Futhermore, the model replicates the observed range of stored lipid content of these copepod populations (30–60%, C. finmarchicus–C. hyperboreus), suggesting a means for linking changes in temperature and primary production...

  11. Linking climate change to community-level impacts on copepods via a new, trait-based model: Life-history and metabolic mechanisms compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Neil S.; Møller, Eva Friis; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    A new, trait-based copepod model ("Coltrane": Copepod Life-history Traits and Adaptation to Novel Environments) has been developed, drawing on past work on both optimal annual routines and trait-based plankton metacommunity models, in order to evaluate climate impacts on copepods via 1) phenology...... and physiology of local populations of C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyperboreus. Futhermore, the model replicates the observed range of stored lipid content of these copepod populations (30–60%, C. finmarchicus–C. hyperboreus), suggesting a means for linking changes in temperature and primary production...

  12. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1960 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil A.I.I.Sc., FNA 1971-79; Secretary 1977-79. Date of birth: 23 August 1918. Date of death: 16 August 2001. Specialization: Atmospheric Physics and Instrumentation Last known address: c/o Mr K.T. Chandy, 14, ...

  13. Some 'Near Miss ' Experiences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perienced health Workers, especially at lower level units, poor referral ... in the wards or operating theatre, and inability to access the busy health .... clinics, costs incurred and by who, who decided on hospitalisation, who .... pected pregnancy as I had missed my period the previous month. .... the patient received attention.

  14. The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halabisky, David; Potter, Jonathan; Thompson, Stuart

    OECD's LEED Programme and the European Commission's DG on Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion recently published the second book as part of their programme of work on inclusive entrepreneurship. The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 examines how public policies at national and local levels can...

  15. Linking Climate Change Science and Adaptation Policy at the Community Scale through Anticipatory Governance: A Review of Concepts with Application to Arizona Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. D.; Quay, R.; Ferguson, D. B.; Buizer, J. L.; Guido, Z.; Chhetri, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific consensus and certainty varies regarding the link between climate change, specific natural hazards and extreme events, and local and regional impacts. Despite these uncertainties, it is necessary to apply the best available scientific knowledge to anticipate a range of possible futures, develop mitigation and adaptation strategies, and monitor changes to build resilience. While there is widespread recognition of the need to improve the linkages between climate science information and public policy for adaptation at the community scale, there are significant challenges to this goal. Many community outreach and engagement efforts, for instance, operate using a one-size-fits-all approach. Recent research has shown this to be problematic for local governments. Public policy occurs in a cycle that includes problem understanding, planning and policy approval, and implementation, with ongoing policy refinement through multiple such cycles. One promising approach to incorporating scientific knowledge with uncertainty into public policy is an anticipatory governance approach. Anticipatory governance employs a continual cycle of anticipation (understanding), planning, monitoring, and adaptation (policy choice and implementation). The types of information needed in each of these phases will be different given the nature of each activity and the unique needs of each community. It is highly unlikely that all local governments will be in the same phase of climate adaptation with the same unique needs at the same time and thus a uniform approach to providing scientific information will only be effective for a discrete group of communities at any given point in time. A key concept for the effective integration of scientific information into public discourse is that such information must be salient, credible, and legitimate. Assuming a scientific institution has established credibility with engaged communities, maximizing the effectiveness of climate science requires

  16. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Osadetz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2012), s. 667-682 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : climate change * Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin * permafrost Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  17. Synchronous mid-Holocene climate deteriorations in circum-Mediterranean and their links with ancient civilizations: first speloethem and archeological evidences from N-Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiaoyang; Kherbouche, Farid; Genty, Dominique; Cheng, Hai; Dewilde, Fabien; Blamart, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, ancient civilizations during the Holocene were heavily studied at many places around the Mediterranean region such as Libya and Italy, and changes in the past social activities were widely assumed to be linked to regional climate variability. However, in many cases the climatic records were apart from the archaeological sites and the archaeological chronologies were not well constrained, which makes these links uncertain. Here we present a 230Th-dated decadal resolution climate record for 6034-3185yr BP based on the δ18O and δ13C analyses of two overlapping stalagmites from Gueldaman GLD1 Cave (36°26'N, 4°34'E, 507 m asl), N-Algeria. Recent archaeological work in this cave brought first information about the Neolithisation process since ca 7000yr cal BP in the region where little was known before. Together with new charcoal 14C dates from the digging sections we test the link between past climate change and human activities in the cave. GLD1 stalagmite records reveal a dry event at ca 5700-5500yr BP and a drying trend toward extreme aridity, since ca 4700yr BP, peaking at ca 4200yr BP. These climatic deteriorations in N-Algeria, within dating errors, are synchronous with dry phases observed on speleothem records from central (Corchia Cave and Renella Cave, Italy) and eastern (Soreq Cave, Israel) Mediterranean. Specifically, climatic condition was harsher at ca 4200yr BP than at ca 5700-5500yr BP in central and W-Mediterranean; while it was harsher at ca 5700-5500yr BP in E-Mediterranean. The new 14C dates relatively well anchor the age of sediment layers with the richest anthropogenic deposits (i.e. charcoal, bone and Neolithic pottery) to ca 4900-4400yr cal BP, coinciding with the wettest period inferred from the stalagmite records. Shortly following this period, archaeological remains were becoming very rare in the sediments, which might be the consequence of establishing extremely arid phase at ca 4200yr BP. This suggests a possible

  18. SO2 photoexcitation mechanism links mass-independent sulfur isotopic fractionation in cryospheric sulfate to climate impacting volcanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattori, Shohei; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Natural climate variation, such as that caused by volcanoes, is the basis for identifying anthropogenic climate change. However, knowledge of the history of volcanic activity is inadequate, particularly concerning the explosivity of specific events. Some material is deposited in ice cores......, but the concentration of glacial sulfate does not distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric eruptions. Stable sulfur isotope abundances contain additional information, and recent studies show a correlation between volcanic plumes that reach the stratosphere and mass-independent anomalies in sulfur isotopes...... plume chemistry, allowing the production and preservation of a mass-independent sulfur isotope anomaly in the sulfate product. The model accounts for the amplitude, phases, and time development of Δ(33)S/δ(34)S and Δ(36)S/Δ(33)S found in glacial samples. We are able to identify the process controlling...

  19. Climate Museum and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jay; Bille, Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    The Climate Museum and Garden is conceived as a cross-disciplinary experience, where the arts and sciences link together to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and its relevance to our fate as a species. This would be a place of inspiration. The Climate Museum and Garden would merge concepts of modern art museums and modern science museums, with exhibitions, live music and theater performances, visitor interaction, unique discoveries and reflection. It would be a place where visitors are immersed in experiences, lingering indoors and out in quiet consideration and gratitude for our planet's atmosphere. The story of climate change is compelling in its own right; theories of the greenhouse effect go back over century and climate policy has stretched back a few decades. Whereas scientific researchers have been contributing to understanding the mechanisms and impacts of climate change for many decades; whereas researchers have participated in climate summits and informed policy makers; whereas researchers have taught classes of gifted students; in all of this, the public has mostly missed out. This public relations gap has been unfortunately filled by those that would seek to politicize and mislead the public, leading to an engagement gap among the general public. Now we stand on a precipice. Therefore we see a ripe opportunity to reach out and inspire the population. We build off of current pedagogic research that shows that experienced-based learning is more impactful when it engages the senses and elicits an emotional response. People understand what they experience, what they feel, and this serves as the basis for personal reflection. In this sense the visitor experience is generative, in that it promotes further personal investigation and interaction. The Climate Museum and Garden would be a start. In the future, we envisage a future network of climate museums in all major cities. It would be a flagship attraction for any city, along with their art

  20. Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Štěpánek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2014), s. 2885-2898 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Grant - others:FP6 ENSEMBLES(XE) 505539 Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation * atmospheric circulation * regional climate models * ENSEMBLES * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2014

  1. Persistent shift of Calanus spp. in the south-western Norwegian Sea since 2003, linked to ocean climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Inga; Gaard, Eilif; Hátún, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern Norwegian Sea is characterized by an inflow of warm and saline Atlantic water from the southwest and cold and less saline East IcelandicWater (EIW), of Arctic origin, from the northwest. These two water masses meet and form the Iceland-Faroe Front (IFF). In this region, the copep...... on the ecosystem and pelagic fish in this subpolar Atlantic region under expected climate change...

  2. Missed opportunities in crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-09-01

    Scrutinized from the perspective of time, the giants in the history of crystallography more than once missed a nearly obvious chance to make another great discovery, or went in the wrong direction. This review analyzes such missed opportunities focusing on macromolecular crystallographers (using Perutz, Pauling, Franklin as examples), although cases of particular historical (Kepler), methodological (Laue, Patterson) or structural (Pauling, Ramachandran) relevance are also described. Linus Pauling, in particular, is presented several times in different circumstances, as a man of vision, oversight, or even blindness. His example underscores the simple truth that also in science incessant creativity is inevitably connected with some probability of fault. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Miss World going deshi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In November 1996 the South Indian metropolis Bangalore hosted the annual Miss World show. The live event and its televisualisation became a prominent symbol for the India's economic liberalisation and for the immanent globalizing dimensions of this development. As such, the highly prestigious......, the pageant's contestation, which gave rise to a series of vehement protests and a broad public debate about the country's cultural alienation, marked a crucial point in time and trend towards the (re)localisation of the Indian television landscape. In consequence, the 1996 Miss World show and its...... their vision and politics of gender, nation and modernity on the larger Indian public, over the last two decades. Engaging the Indian population increasingly by way of the new electronic, c&s distributed media, competing discourses of gender and sexuality were projected, basically as a necessary, effective...

  4. Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Zhao, Yingming; Stockwell, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Future changes to climate in the Great Lakes may have important consequences for fisheries. Evidence suggests that Great Lakes air and water temperatures have risen and the duration of ice cover has lessened during the past century. Global circulation models (GCMs) suggest future warming and increases in precipitation in the region. We present new evidence that water temperatures have risen in Lake Erie, particularly during summer and winter in the period 1965–2000. GCM forecasts coupled with physical models suggest lower annual runoff, less ice cover, and lower lake levels in the future, but the certainty of these forecasts is low. Assessment of the likely effects of climate change on fish stocks will require an integrative approach that considers several components of habitat rather than water temperature alone. We recommend using mechanistic models that couple habitat conditions to population demographics to explore integrated effects of climate-caused habitat change and illustrate this approach with a model for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreum). We show that the combined effect on walleye populations of plausible changes in temperature, river hydrology, lake levels, and light penetration can be quite different from that which would be expected based on consideration of only a single factor.

  5. Teaching About the Links Between Soils and Climate: An International Year of Soil Outreach by the Soil Science Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil scientists are well aware of the intimate links that exist between soils and climate, but the same is not always true of the broader population. In an attempt to help address this, the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) has designated the theme "Soils and Climate" for the month of November, 2015 as part of the SSSA International Year of Soil (IYS) celebration. The topic has been further subdivided into three subthemes: 1) carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases, 2) Soils and past environments, and 3) Desertification and drought. Each subtheme outreach has two parts 1) lesson plans that K-12 educators can use in their classrooms, and 2) materials that a trained soil scientist can present to the general public. Activities developed for the theme include classroom activities to accompany an online game that students can play to see how farm management choices influence greenhouse gas emissions, questions to go with a vermicomposting activity, and discussion session questions to go with a movie on the USA Dust Bowl. All materials are available online free of charge. The Soils and Climate materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys/12-month-resources/november; all of the SSSA IYS materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys.

  6. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana, Mahanadi (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cazcarro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA. The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana, Mahanadi Delta (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh. Hybrid methods of input-output (IO construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture. The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%.

  7. What Can Funders Do to Better Link Science with Decisions? Case Studies of Coastal Communities and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matso, Kalle E.; Becker, Mimi L.

    2014-12-01

    Many reports and studies have noted that a significant portion of problem-oriented coastal science does not actually link to decisions. Here, three competitively funded project case studies are studied to determine what funders can and should do to better link science with decisions. The qualitative analysis used for this study indicates that the studied program was seen as being unusually attentive to the issue of linking science to decisions, as opposed to simply generating new knowledge. Nevertheless, much of the data indicate that funders can and should do more. Three ideas figured most prominently in the qualitative data: (1) funders should do more to ensure that the problem itself is defined more thoroughly with people who are envisioned as potential users of the science; (2) funders need to allocate more resources and attention to communicating effectively (with users) throughout the project; and (3) funders need to demand more engagement of users throughout the project. These findings have important implications for how funders review and support science, especially when competitive processes are used. Most importantly, funders should adjust what kind of science they ask for. Secondly, funders need to change who is involved in the review process. Currently, review processes focus on knowledge generation, which means that the reviewers themselves have expertise in that area. Instead, review panels should be balanced between those who focus on knowledge generation and those who focus on linking knowledge to decisions; this is a separate but critical discipline currently left out of the review process.

  8. The missed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the questions that haunts the radiologist as he shuffles through piles of films is ''What am I missing?'' This same question takes on even more meaning when the radiologist is pressed for time, when he reluctantly checks the night work of the resident, when the patient left before more or better films could be obtained; or when the radiologist is involved in a subspecialty in which he is not properly trained. According to Dr. Berlin's survey, the missed diagnosis category accounted for the largest number of radiology malpractice cases. We all know that many diagnoses are more easily made using the ''retrospectoscope.'' But is the plaintiff attorney also adept at using this instrument? Just how knowledgeable must the radiologist be in the use of the ''prospectoscope''? A familiarity with cases that have already been tried should at least alert radiologists to the chances of their own involvement in litigation. While the missed diagnosis is by no means peculiar to the radiologist, it is one of the principal reasons that he may find himself in court

  9. Semiparametric Theory and Missing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiatis, Anastasios A

    2006-01-01

    Missing data arise in almost all scientific disciplines. In many cases, missing data in an analysis is treated in a casual and ad-hoc manner, leading to invalid inferences and erroneous conclusions. This book summarizes knowledge regarding the theory of estimation for semiparametric models with missing data.

  10. Late Holocene vegetation and climate change on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications for the Indian Summer Monsoon and links to the Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Wang, Yongbo; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Ni, Jian; Liao, Mengna; Xiao, Xiayun

    2017-12-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is one of the most important climate systems, whose variability and driving mechanisms are of broad interest for academic and societal communities. Here, we present a well-dated high-resolution pollen analysis from a 4.82-m long sediment core taken from Basomtso, in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP), which depicts the regional climate changes of the past millennium. Our results show that subalpine coniferous forest was dominant around Basomtso from ca. 867 to ca. 750 cal. yr BP, indicating a warm and semi-humid climate. The timberline in the study area significantly decreased from ca. 750 to ca. 100 cal. yr BP, and a cold climate, corresponding to the Little Ice Age (LIA) prevailed. Since ca. 100 cal. yr BP, the vegetation type changed to forest-meadow with rising temperatures and moisture. Ordination analysis reveals that the migration of vegetation was dominated by regional temperatures and then by moisture. Further comparisons between the Basomtso pollen record and the regional temperature reconstructions underscore the relevance of the Basomtso record from the southeastern TP for regional and global climatologies. Our pollen based moisture reconstruction demonstrates the strong multicentennial-scale link to ISM variability, providing solid evidence for the increase of monsoonal strengths over the past four centuries. Spectral analysis indicates the potential influence of solar forcing. However, a closer relationship has been observed between multicentennial ISM variations and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs), suggesting that the variations in monsoonal precipitation over the southeastern TP are probably driven by the Indian Ocean Dipole on the multicentennial scale.

  11. Building an Open Data Portal for the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative based on an Iterative Development Methodology and Linked Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P.; Bennett, V. L.; Stephens, A.; Wilson, A.; Waterfall, A. M.; Petrie, R.; Iwi, A.; Donegan, S.; Juckes, M. N.; Parton, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme was initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2009 to address the GCOS Essential Climate Variable (ECV) requirements to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based data products to characterise the climate system and its changes. CEDA, working as part of a project consortium, were awarded the contract to build the Open Data Portal, consisting collectively of a central archive and single point of access for dissemination of the data to the international user community. Reflecting climate and earth observation community requirements, the system needed to support a range of access services in use by this domain and specifically, to integrate into existing infrastructure in the form of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). This range of requirements together with the heterogeneity of the ECV datasets presented significant challenges. However, the use of Linked Data technologies and an iterative approach to data model development and data publishing have been instrumental in meeting the objectives and building a cohesive system. The portal supports data discovery based on the OGC CSW specification and on ESGF's powerful faceted search. These services provide complementary content at different levels of granularity and it therefore became clear that a common data model was needed. Key terms are defined in vocabularies serialised in SKOS and OWL and are accessible from a central vocabulary server to provide a single authoritative source for applications consuming metadata content. Exploiting the vocabulary service therefore, it has been possible to develop an innovative solution tagging ISO 19115 records for the CSW with the equivalent vocabulary terms used for the ESGF faceted search system. In this way it has been possible to create a rich user interface for the portal combining search results from both search services and the ability to dynamically populate facet selection and context-based help information from the

  12. Linking climate suitability, spread rates and host-impact when estimating the potential costs of invasive pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Biosecurity agencies need robust bioeconomic tools to help inform policy and allocate scarce management resources. They need to estimate the potential for each invasive alien species (IAS to create negative impacts, so that relative and absolute comparisons can be made. Using pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa sensu lato as an example, these needs were met by combining species niche modelling, dispersal modelling, host impact and economic modelling. Within its native range (the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent areas, T. pityocampa causes significant defoliation of pines and serious urticating injuries to humans. Such severe impacts overseas have fuelled concerns about its potential impacts, should it be introduced to New Zealand. A stochastic bioeconomic model was used to estimate the impact of PPM invasion in terms of pine production value lost due to a hypothetical invasion of New Zealand by T. pityocampa. The bioeconomic model combines a semi-mechanistic niche model to develop a climate-related damage function, a climate-related forest growth model, and a stochastic spread model to estimate the present value (PV of an invasion. Simulated invasions indicate that Thaumetopoea pityocampa could reduce New Zealand's merchantable and total pine stem volume production by 30%, reducing forest production by between NZ$1,550 M to NZ$2,560 M if left untreated. Where T. pityocampa is controlled using aerial application of an insecticide, projected losses in PV were reduced, but still significant (NZ$30 M to NZ$2,210 M. The PV estimates were more sensitive to the efficacy of the spray program than the potential rate of spread of the moth. Our novel bioeconomic method provides a refined means of estimating potential impacts of invasive alien species, taking into account climatic effects on asset values, the potential for pest impacts, and pest spread rates.

  13. Linking climate suitability, spread rates and host-impact when estimating the potential costs of invasive pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Leriche, Agathe; Palmer, David J; Cook, David C; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Stephens, Andréa E A; Watt, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Biosecurity agencies need robust bioeconomic tools to help inform policy and allocate scarce management resources. They need to estimate the potential for each invasive alien species (IAS) to create negative impacts, so that relative and absolute comparisons can be made. Using pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa sensu lato) as an example, these needs were met by combining species niche modelling, dispersal modelling, host impact and economic modelling. Within its native range (the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent areas), T. pityocampa causes significant defoliation of pines and serious urticating injuries to humans. Such severe impacts overseas have fuelled concerns about its potential impacts, should it be introduced to New Zealand. A stochastic bioeconomic model was used to estimate the impact of PPM invasion in terms of pine production value lost due to a hypothetical invasion of New Zealand by T. pityocampa. The bioeconomic model combines a semi-mechanistic niche model to develop a climate-related damage function, a climate-related forest growth model, and a stochastic spread model to estimate the present value (PV) of an invasion. Simulated invasions indicate that Thaumetopoea pityocampa could reduce New Zealand's merchantable and total pine stem volume production by 30%, reducing forest production by between NZ$1,550 M to NZ$2,560 M if left untreated. Where T. pityocampa is controlled using aerial application of an insecticide, projected losses in PV were reduced, but still significant (NZ$30 M to NZ$2,210 M). The PV estimates were more sensitive to the efficacy of the spray program than the potential rate of spread of the moth. Our novel bioeconomic method provides a refined means of estimating potential impacts of invasive alien species, taking into account climatic effects on asset values, the potential for pest impacts, and pest spread rates.

  14. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  15. Facebook The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Veer, E

    2011-01-01

    Facebook's spreading about as far and fast as the Web itself: 500 million members and counting. But there's a world of fun packed into the site that most folks miss. With this bestselling guide, learn how to unlock Facebook's talents as personal website creator, souped-up address book, and bustling community forum. It's an eye-opening, timesaving tour, guaranteed to help you get the most out of your Facebook experience. Coverage includes: Get started, get connected. Signing up is easy, but the real payoff comes when you tap into networks of coworkers, classmates, and friends. Pick and choose

  16. Post-Younger Dryas climate interval linked to circumpolar vortex variability: isotopic evidence from Fayetteville Green Lake, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M. E.; Patterson, W. P.; Mullins, H. T.; Burnett, A. W.

    2002-04-01

    The late-Glacial/Holocene transition in the North Atlantic-European sectors has long been known to be a period of rapid climate change. There is, however, a continued need for acquiring and developing paleoclimate archives spanning this interval from continental settings. Here we report on a lacustrine (Fayetteville Green Lake) isotope record sampled at a 10-year resolution from the NE USA over the late-Glacial/Holocene interval (14,600-8000 cal year BP). Based on prior isotopic and hydrologic research from Green Lake, the δ18O(calcite) values predominantly reflect winter moisture source and thus winter atmospheric patterns. Furthermore, we use historic (AD 1948-1980) winter circulation data and δ18O(calcite) values from varved sediments to examine the relationship between the circumpolar vortex latitude and isotopes which results in a strong (r = -0.79 r2 = 0.63) negative relationship. Using the linear regression from the isotope-vortex relationship, we model the winter vortex latitude for the late-Glacial/Holocene transition over the NE USA. In addition, we identify an interval from 11,600 to 10,300 cal year BP (the post-Younger Dryas climate interval) wherein the mean winter vortex over the NE USA was expanded by 6° latitude ( 36.1°N i.e., 630 km) from its mean historic position between AD 1948-1998 ( 41.8°N). Renewal of more vigorous thermohaline circulation following the Younger Dryas cold event may have forced the post-Younger Dryas climate interval. Increased poleward heat transport due to an active oceanic conveyor would have strengthened the thermal contrast between the NE USA and the North Atlantic thereby enhancing atmospheric pressure gradients and firmly establishing the semi-permanent winter trough over the NE USA. Consequently, storms tracked more frequently up the east coast of the United States from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic regions delivering precipitation with relatively high δ18O values to the NE USA. Alternatively, the relative

  17. Stable and Radiogenic Sr Isotopes in Barite - Clues on the Links Between Weathering, Climate and the C Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Wallmann, K. J. G.; Griffith, E. M.; Ridgwell, A.

    2017-12-01

    The radiogenic Sr-isotopic signature (87Sr/86Sr) of seawater fluctuates primarily in response to changes in the inputs of Sr from weathering and hydrothermal activity, which have distinct 87Sr/86Sr values. Changes in the isotopic ratio of the weathered terrain also contribute to observed changes in 87Sr/86Sr. The stable Sr-isotope ratios in seawater (mass dependent isotopic fractionation; δ88/86Sr) fluctuate primarily in response to the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulation at the seafloor. Together the radiogenic and stable Sr can constrain the coupling between weathering and sedimentation and shed light on the relation between weathering, CaCO3 deposition, the global carbon (C) cycle and climate. Reconstruction of the coupled stable and radiogenic Sr seawater curves over the past 35 Ma of Earth history indicates that the location and rate of CaCO3 burial in the ocean fluctuated considerably over the past 35 Ma. Between 35 to 18 Ma a reduction in neritic CaCO3 burial and increased burial in pelagic settings is observed. The trend was reversed between 20 and 3 Ma and finally over the last 3 million years a rapid change from neritic to pelagic burial is seen. The lack of continues increase of pelagic CaCO3 burial rates suggests that silicate weathering rates have not increased monotonically over the past 35 Ma implying strong feedbacks operating in the climate system - lower atmospheric pCO2 and cooling trends (which control chemical weathering as seen from carbonate deposition in the ocean) countered the effects of uplift (which controls physical weathering) - modulating weathering rates and preventing a runaway ice-house. In addition the data suggests considerable fluctuations in seawater Sr concentrations over time. These data demonstrate how using multiple isotope proxies can help constrain interpretations of the geological record.

  18. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quant......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  19. El eslabón perdido de las imágenes en el genocidio camboyano: En torno a La imagen perdida (Rithy Panh, 2013 / The Missing Link in the Images of the Cambodia Genocide: On The Missing Picture (Rithy Panh, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Biosca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La imagen perdida (L’image manquante / The Missing Picture, Rithy Panh, 2013 constituye una indagación, a la vez intimista e histórica, acerca de las posibilidades, y por tanto también los límites, de cualquier imagen para capturar acontecimientos extremos de la historia y de la experiencia humana del dolor, en este caso ante el teatro del genocidio camboyano perpetrado por los Jemeres Rojos (1975-1979. En realidad, las imágenes que se utilizan en ámbitos documentales y ficcionales para representar el genocidio son de muy diversa condición. En primer lugar, este artículo expone las modalidades de dichas imágenes en función de su relación con los hechos y el tipo de mirada que las funda (imágenes de perpetradores, de liberadores, testimoniales, post facto… para adentrarse más tarde en el estudio de otras formas carentes de soporte físico (imágenes espectrales, traumáticas o interiores. Una vez considerada su migración en el tiempo y el tejido icónico que entre todas conforman, el artículo estudia cómo actúan estos distintos tipos de imagen en el film y cómo, además de imágenes socializadas, Rithy Panh da forma a imágenes memorísticas incorpóreas.Palabras clave: imagen y atrocidades, genocidio camboyano, Rithy Panh, cine documental.Abstract: L’image manquante / The Missing Picture (Rithy Panh, 2013 might be considered an investigation, both intimate and historical, on the possibilities and limits for any image to represent atrocities and the experience of atrocities. The theatre of this reflection is the Cambodian genocide (1975-1979. As a matter of fact, the range of images commonly used to embody the extermination perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge are extremely varied. First, this article analyzes their modality in relation to the facts they are supposed to convey, in particular, the kind of gaze they put forward so as to distinguish among perpetrators images, liberators images, testimonial images, images post facto

  20. Linking tree demography to climate change feedbacks: fire, larch forests, and carbon pools of the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. D.; Loranty, M. M.; Natali, S.; Pena, H., III; Ludwig, S.; Spektor, V.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Mack, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Fire severity is increasing in larch forests of the Siberian Arctic as climate warms, and initial fire impacts on tree demographic processes could be an especially important determinant of long-term forest structure and carbon (C) dynamics. We hypothesized that (1) larch forest regrowth post-fire is largely determined by residual soil organic layer (SOL) depth because of the SOL's role as a seedbed and thermal regulator, and (2) changes in post-fire larch recruitment impact C accumulation through stand density impacts on understory microclimate and permafrost thaw. We tested these hypotheses by (1) experimentally creating a soil burn severity gradient in a Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) forest near Cherskiy, Russia and (2) quantifying C pools across a stand density gradient within a 75-year old fire scar. From 2012-2015, we added larch seeds to plots burned at different severities and monitored recruitment along with permafrost and active layer (i.e., subject to annual freeze-thaw) conditions (SOL depth, temperature, moisture, and thaw depth). Across the density gradient, we inventoried larch trees and harvested ground-layer vegetation to estimate aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools and sampled belowground C pools (soil, fine roots, and coarse roots) in the organic + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil. Larch recruits were rare in unburned and low severity plots, but a total of 6 new germinants m-2 were tallied in moderate and high severity plots during the study. Seedling survival for > 1 year was only 40 and 25% on moderate and high severity treatments, respectively, but yielded net larch recruitment of 2 seedlings m-2, compared to 0.3 seedlings m-2 on low severity plots. Density of both total and established recruits increased with decreasing residual SOL depth, which correlated with increased soil temperature, moisture, and thaw depth. At 75-year post-fire, total C pools increased with increased larch density, largely due to

  1. Linking photosynthesis and leaf N allocation under future elevated CO2 and climate warming in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Whitney, Spencer M.; Ellsworth, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and Vcmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees. The kinetics of E. globulus and tobacco Rubisco at 25 °C were similar. In vitro estimates of Vcmax derived from measures of E. globulus Rubisco content and kinetics were consistent, although slightly lower, than the in vivo rates extrapolated from gas exchange. In E. globulus, the fraction of N invested in Rubisco was substantially lower than for crop species and varied with treatments. Photosynthetic acclimation of E. globulus leaves to eC was underpinned by reduced leaf N and Rubisco contents; the opposite occurred in response to eT coinciding with growth resumption in spring. Our findings highlight the adaptive capacity of this key forest species to allocate leaf N flexibly to Rubisco and other photosynthetic proteins across differing canopy positions in response to future, warmer and elevated [CO2] climates. PMID:28064178

  2. A unifying view of climate change in the Sahel linking intra-seasonal, interannual and longer time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, A; Salack, S; Gaye, A T; Lodoun, T; Ali, A; Ndiaye, O

    2013-01-01

    We propose a re-interpretation of the oceanic influence on the climate of the African Sahel that is consistent across observations, 20th century simulations and 21st century projections, and that resolves the uncertainty in projections of precipitation change in this region: continued warming of the global tropical oceans increases the threshold for convection, potentially drying tropical land, but this ‘upped ante’ can be met if sufficient moisture is supplied in monsoon flow. In this framework, the reversal to warming of the subtropical North Atlantic, which is now out-pacing warming of the global tropical oceans, provides that moisture, and explains the partial recovery in precipitation since persistent drought in the 1970s and 1980s. We find this recovery to result from increases in daily rainfall intensity, rather than in frequency, most evidently so in Senegal, the westernmost among the three Sahelian countries analyzed. Continuation of these observed trends is consistent with projections for an overall wetter Sahel, but more variable precipitation on all time scales, from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal. (letter)

  3. Linking climate change and health outcomes: Examining the relationship between temperature, precipitation and birth weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  4. New or ν missing energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    flavor structures. Monojet data alone can be used to infer the mass of the "missing particle" from the shape of the missing energy distribution. In particular, 13 TeV LHC data will have sensitivity to DM masses greater than $\\sim$ 1 TeV. In addition to the monojet channel, NSI can be probed in multi......Missing energy signals such as monojets are a possible signature of Dark Matter (DM) at colliders. However, neutrino interactions beyond the Standard Model may also produce missing energy signals. In order to conclude that new "missing particles" are observed the hypothesis of BSM neutrino......-lepton searches which we find to yield stronger limits at heavy mediator masses. The sensitivity offered by these multi-lepton channels provide a method to reject or confirm the DM hypothesis in missing energy searches....

  5. What's happening out there? (Climatic change impacts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visconti, G.

    1990-01-01

    This article briefly comments on some stumbling-blocks to climatic change modelling accuracy - in assessments of the greenhouse effect, 25% (missing link) of atmospheric carbon dioxide absorption is still unaccounted for; 1989 World Bank estimates of the Amazon rain forest deforestation rate have since proven to be inaccurate; there are difficulties in assessing the movement of the earth's crust relative to variations in sea level; and different studies vary in results relative to global temperature measurement and trend assessment. The need for an assessment of the economic impacts of increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is also pointed out

  6. Wikipedia the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Want to be part of the largest group-writing project in human history? Learn how to contribute to Wikipedia, the user-generated online reference for the 21st century. Considered more popular than eBay, Microsoft.com, and Amazon.com, Wikipedia servers respond to approximately 30,000 requests per second, or about 2.5 billion per day. It's become the first point of reference for people the world over who need a fact fast.If you want to jump on board and add to the content, Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is your first-class ticket. Wikipedia has more than 9 million entries in 250 languages, over 2

  7. Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majorowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane from episodic gas hydrate (GH destabilization, the "clathrate gun" hypothesis, is proposed to affect past climates, possibly since the Phanerozoic began or earlier. In the terrestrial Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB, GHs occur commonly below thick ice-bearing permafrost (IBP, but they are rare within it. Two end-member GH models, where gas is either trapped conventionally (Case 1 or where it is trapped dynamically by GH formation (Case 2, were simulated using profile (1-D models and a 14 Myr ground surface temperature (GST history based on marine isotopic data, adjusted to the study setting, constrained by deep heat flow, sedimentary succession conductivity, and observed IBP and Type I GH contacts in Mallik wells. Models consider latent heat effects throughout the IBP and GH intervals. Case 1 GHs formed at ~0.9 km depth only ~1 Myr ago by in situ transformation of conventionally trapped natural gas. Case 2 GHs begin to form at ~290–300 m ~6 Myr ago in the absence of lithological migration barriers. During glacial intervals Case 2 GH layers expand both downward and upward as the permafrost grows downward through and intercalated with GHs. The distinctive model results suggest that most BMB GHs resemble Case 1 models, based on the observed distinct and separate occurrences of GHs and IBP and the lack of observed GH intercalations in IBP. Case 2 GHs formed >255 m, below a persistent ice-filled permafrost layer that is as effective a seal to upward methane migration as are Case 1 lithological seals. All models respond to GST variations, but in a delayed and muted manner such that GH layers continue to grow even as the GST begins to increase. The models show that the GH stability zone history is buffered strongly by IBP during the interglacials. Thick IBP and GHs could have persisted since ~1.0 Myr ago and ~4.0 Myr ago for Cases 1 and 2, respectively. Offshore BMB IBP and GHs formed terrestrially during Pleistocene sea level low

  8. Comparing Enchytraeus albidus populations from contrasting climatic environments suggest a link between cold tolerance and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Anamarija; Holmstrup, Martin; Simčič, Tatjana; Debeljak, Barabara; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-06-06

    Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons. First, avoidance of the additive effect of ROS production from metabolism and freezing, and second, as an energy-saving mechanism under extended periods of freezing where the animal is metabolically active, but unable to feed. We used the terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus albidus, which is widely distributed from Spain to the high Arctic and compared eight populations originating across a broad geographical and climatic gradient after they had been cold acclimated at 5 °C in a common garden experiment. Cold tolerance (lower lethal temperature: LT50) and the potential metabolic activity (PMA, an estimator of the maximal enzymatic potential of the mitochondrial respiration chain) of eight populations were positively correlated amongst each other and correlated negatively with latitude and positively with average yearly temperature and the average temperature of the coldest month. These results indicate that low PMA in cold tolerant populations is important for survival in extremely cold environments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Flexible Imputation of Missing Data

    CERN Document Server

    van Buuren, Stef

    2012-01-01

    Missing data form a problem in every scientific discipline, yet the techniques required to handle them are complicated and often lacking. One of the great ideas in statistical science--multiple imputation--fills gaps in the data with plausible values, the uncertainty of which is coded in the data itself. It also solves other problems, many of which are missing data problems in disguise. Flexible Imputation of Missing Data is supported by many examples using real data taken from the author's vast experience of collaborative research, and presents a practical guide for handling missing data unde

  10. Creating a Website The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Think you need an army of skilled programmers to build a website? Think again. With nothing more than an ordinary PC, some raw ambition, and this book, you'll learn how to create and maintain a professional-looking, visitor-friendly site. This Missing Manual gives you all the tools, techniques, and expert advice you need. Plan your site. Create web pages by learning the basics of HTML and HTML5.Control page design with CSS. Format text, images, links, tables, and other elements.Attract visitors. Ensure that people can find your site through popular search engines.Build a community. Add forums

  11. Missing money and missing markets: Reliability, capacity auctions and interconnectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David

    2016-01-01

    In the energy trilemma of reliability, sustainability and affordability, politicians treat reliability as over-riding. The EU assumes the energy-only Target Electricity Model will deliver reliability but the UK argues that a capacity remuneration mechanism is needed. This paper argues that capacity auctions tend to over-procure capacity, exacerbating the missing money problem they were designed to address. The bias is further exacerbated by failing to address some of the missing market problems also neglected in the debate. It examines the case for, criticisms of, and outcome of the first GB capacity auction and problems of trading between different capacity markets. - Highlights: •Energy-only markets can work if they avoid missing money and missing market problems. •Policy makers over-estimate the cost of so-called “loss of load events”. •Policy makers tend to over-procure capacity, exacerbating the missing money problem. •Rectifying missing market problems simplifies trade between different capacity markets. •Addressing missing market problems makes under-procurement cheaper than over-procurement.

  12. Abrupt Climatic Change during the Latest Maastrichtian: Establishing Robust Temporal Links with the Onset of Deccan Volcanism and K/Pg Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, J.; Littler, K.; Kroon, D.; Leng, M. J.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    A transient period of climate change, characterized by a global warming of 2.5-5°C followed by a cooling to pre-excursion conditions, occurred during the last 300 kyr of the Maastrichtian ( 66.34-66.02 Ma). This instability may have played a role in destabilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems, priming the system for abrupt extinction at the K-Pg boundary, likely triggered by a large bolide impact. This pre-K-Pg warming event has often been linked to the main phase of Deccan Trap volcanism, however large uncertainties associated with radio-isotopic dating methods of basalts, along with low sedimentation rates and hiatuses in many studied sedimentary sequences, have long hampered a definitive correlation. To complement recent advances in dating of the traps, we have generated the first complete and highest resolution (2.5-4 kyr) benthic stable δ13C and δ18O record for the final million years of the Maastrichtian using the epifaunal foraminifera species Nuttallides truempyi from ODP Site 1262, Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic, calibrated to an updated orbitally-tuned age model. We then compare our data to other previously published geochemical data from other sites in the high, middle, and low latitudes. Our data confirms that the onset of the warming event coincides with the onset of the main phase of Deccan volcanism, strongly suggesting a causal link. Furthermore, spectral analysis of our extended late Maastrichtian-Early Eocene record suggests that the onset of the warming event corresponds to a 405-kyr eccentricity minima, in contrast to many transient warming events (hyperthermals) of the Paleogene, suggesting a control by orbital forcing alone is unlikely. A peculiar feature of the event, compared to other hyperthermals, is a muted carbon cycle response during warming, which may be related to the comparatively heavier δ13C signature of volcanogenic CO2 (-7‰), compared to other sources of light carbon invoked to explain Paleogene hyperthermals. The warming

  13. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  14. Climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, D.; Favier, R.; Bourg, D.; Marchand, J.P.

    2005-04-01

    The climatic risks are analyzed in this book under the cross-vision of specialists of different domains: philosophy, sociology, economic history, law, geography, climatology and hydrology. The prevention of risks and the precautionary principle are presented first. Then, the relations between climatic risk and geography are analyzed using the notion of territoriality. The territory aspect is in the core of the present day debates about the geography of risks, in particular when the links between climate change and public health are considered. Then the main climatic risks are presented. Droughts and floods are the most damaging ones and the difficulties of prevention-indemnification coupling remain important. (J.S.)

  15. The 2016 gigantic twin glacier collapses in Tibet: towards an improved understanding of large glacier instabilities and their potential links to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Adrien; Leinss, Silvan; Evans, Steve; Tian, Lide; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeffrey; Gimbert, Florent; Chao, Wei-An; Gascoin, Simon; Bueler, Yves; Berthier, Etienne; Yao, Tandong; Huggel, Christian; Farinotti, Daniel; Brun, Fanny; Guo, Wanqin; Leonard, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    In northwestern Tibet (34.0°N, 82.2°E) near lake Aru Co, the entire ablation area of an unnamed glacier (Aru-1) suddenly collapsed on 17 July 2016 and transformed into a mass flow that ran out over a distance of over 8 km, killing nine people and hundreds of cattle. Remarkably, a second glacier detachment with similar characteristics (Aru-2) took place 2.6 km south of the July event on 21 September 2016. These two events are unique in several aspects: their massive volumes (66 and 83 Mm3 respectively), the low slope angles ( 200 km h-1) and their close timing within two months. The only similar event currently documented is the 2002 Kolka Glacier mass flow (Caucasus Mountains). The uncommon occurrence of such large glacier failures suggest that such events require very specific conditions that could be linked to glacier thermal regime, bedrock lithology and morphology, geothermal activity or a particular climate setting. Using field and remote sensing observations, retrospective climate analysis, mass balance and thermo-mechanical modeling of the two glaciers in Tibet, we investigate the processes involved in the twin collapses. It appears that both, mostly cold-based glaciers, started to surge about 7-8 years ago, possibly in response to a long period of positive mass balance (1995-2005) followed by a sustained increase of melt water delivery to the glacier bed in the polythermal lower accumulation zone (1995-2016). Inversion of friction conditions at the base of the glacier constrained by surface elevation change rate for both glaciers shows a zone of very low basal friction progressively migrating downward until the final collapse. We interpret this to be the signature of the presence of high-pressure water dammed at the bed by the glacier's frozen periphery and toe. Large areas of low friction at the bed led to high shear stresses along the frozen side walls as evident in surface ice cracking patterns observed on satellite imagery. This process progressively

  16. GPS Imaging suggests links between climate, magmatism, seismicity, and tectonics in the Sierra Nevada-Long Valley Caldera-Walker Lane system, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Smith, K.

    2017-12-01

    document links between climate, Sierra Nevada uplift rates, response of the magmatic system, and seismicity in the Central Walker Lane, and to explore the physical mechanisms that may be behind these correlations.

  17. Missed epidemics and missing links: international birth cohort trends in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, V; Tschopp, A; Schmid, M; Bopp, M; Gutzwiller, F

    2013-03-01

    Many hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) focus on risk factors occurring early in life. This study examined the variability of birth cohort trends in international MS data by means of age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. The data from 25 countries were taken from the WHO mortality database. Data were encoded according to the International Classification of Diseases and covered slightly varying periods between 1951 and 2009. The APC analyses were based on logit models applied to cohort tables with 5-year age- and period intervals. In most countries, the birth cohort estimates peaked in those born in the first half of the 20th century. In countries from Central and Western Europe, the peak concerned those born before and around 1920. A second group of countries (Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Ireland, Scotland) shared a later peak amongst cohorts born in the 1920s and 1930s. Group 3 included Commonwealth countries, the USA and Norway, with a double or extended peak starting in the 1910s or 1920s, and ending by the 1950s. The fourth group, consisting of Mediterranean countries and Finland, was characterized by a steady increase in the birth cohort estimates until the 1950s. The fifth group with countries from Eastern Europe and Japan showed no particular pattern. Birth cohort trends have influenced the change in MS risk across the 20th century in many Western countries. This silent epidemic points to a most important but unknown latent risk factor in MS. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  18. Affective social ties - missing link in governance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although governance is about interpersonal relationships, it appears that the antecedents and consequences of affective bonds (social ties) in social groups dealing with common-pool resources and public goods have been neglected. The welfare costs of the neglect of such bonds and their dynamic

  19. Explicit constructivism: a missing link in ineffective lectures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, E S

    2010-06-01

    This study tested the possibility that interactive lectures explicitly based on activating learners' prior knowledge and driven by a series of logical questions might enhance the effectiveness of lectures. A class of 54 students doing the respiratory system course in the second year of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program in my university was randomized to two groups to receive one of two types of lectures, "typical" lectures (n = 28, 18 women and 10 men) or "constructivist" lectures (n = 26, 19 women and 7 men), on the same topic: the regulation of respiration. Student pretest scores in the two groups were comparable (P > 0.1). Students that received the constructivist lectures did much better in the posttest conducted immediately after the lectures (6.8 +/- 3.4 for constructivist lectures vs. 4.2 +/- 2.3 for typical lectures, means +/- SD, P = 0.004). Although both types of lectures were well received, students that received the constructivist lectures appeared to have been more satisfied with their learning experience. However, on a posttest conducted 4 mo later, scores obtained by students in the two groups were not any different (6.9 +/- 3 for constructivist lectures vs. 6.9 +/- 3.7 for typical lectures, P = 0.94). This study adds to the increasing body of evidence that there is a case for the use of interactive lectures that make the construction of knowledge and understanding explicit, easy, and enjoyable to learners.

  20. An Agile Systems Engineering Process: The Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    has a num- ber of standards available such as ISO 12207 , ISO 9001 and the Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI®) [24,25,26]. The CMMI was a...addressing activities throughout the products lifecycle [24]. ISO 12207 “contains processes, activities and tasks that are to be applied during...the acquisition of a system that contains software” [26]. A limitation identified within ISO 12207 is that it does not specify details on how to

  1. spiritually sensitive social work: a missing link in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    to research on spirituality and social work. Similarly ... BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Though ..... the ethical principle of client self-determination and support for diversity .... (2005) Handbook of psychology of religion and spirituality. New.

  2. Meso-level analysis, the missing link in energy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is essential for human societies. Energy systems, though, are also associated with several adverse environmental effects. So far societies have been unable to successfully change their energy systems in a way that addresses environmental and health concerns. Lack of policy consensus often resulted in so-called 'stop-go' policies, which were identified as some of the most important barriers regarding successful energy transitions. The lack of policy consensus and coherent long-term strategies may result from a lack of knowledge of energy systems' meso-level dynamics. The meso-level involves the dynamic behaviour of the individual system elements and the coupling of individual technologies, resulting in interdependencies and regimes. Energy systems are at the meso-level characterised by two typical aspects, i.e. dynamics driven by interactions between actors, and heterogeneous characteristics of actors. These aspects give rise to the ineffectiveness of traditional energy policies, which is illustrated with examples from the transport sector and household electricity consumption. We found that analysis of energy systems at the meso-level helps to better understand energy systems. To resolve persistent policy issues, the traditional 'one size fits all' energy policies are not sufficient. In order to tackle the difficult issues, 'redesign of system organisation', 'target group approach', or 'target group induced system re-orientation' are needed

  3. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Michael; Heinen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources are not available "as such". Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of…

  4. Finding the Missing Link to a Successful Philippine Counterinsurgency Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    a balik- baril (surrender of firearms) program which provided money in exchange for guns, livelihood projects and amnesty for the rebel returnees...reconciliation also involved negotiations with the insurgents, the release of political prisoners, and the balik- baril (surrender of firearms) program - money for

  5. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  6. The missing link between maintenance contracts and flexible asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Viskari, Sari; Kärri, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows how additional value can be created in maintenance collaboration through integrating the features of flexible asset management into maintenance contracts. We expand the traditional typology of maintenance contracts and introduce a new contract type, flexible asset management contracts. Also value sharing in the new contract type is discussed. Our logic for sharing the value is based on reaching for win-win situations in industrial maintenance collaboration. Finally, we present...

  7. The Missing Link in the Philosophy of Enlightenment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The paper examines the opening of state reasoning towards public deliberation during the Enlightenment. Since the Enlightenment, a number of standards for public reasoning have been settled. These concerned the constitution of reasoning, freedom of speech and print, toleration, justice and othe...

  8. Small molecules: the missing link in the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stuart L

    2005-07-01

    Small molecules have critical roles at all levels of biological complexity and yet remain orphans of the central dogma. Chemical biologists, working with small molecules, expand our understanding of these central elements of life.

  9. Nanodosimetry: The missing link between radiobiology and radiation physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettelbeck, H.; Rabus, H.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been assumed that the initiation of radiation induced damage to biological cells is dominated by inelastic interactions occurring at the location of the DNA or within its vicinity. The subcellular distribution of such interactions therefore plays a key role in the biological effectiveness of ionising radiation, where appropriate definitions of concepts such as radiation quality, which cannot be described by macroscopic quantities like absorbed dose, demand a study of particle track structure on the nanometre scale. This has presented an ongoing challenge in the metrology of ionising radiation to either supplement or replace the concept of absorbed dose with another quantity that accounts for the particle track structure within radiosensitive biological targets. A potential means for characterising radiation quality in this way may be that of nanodosimetry, a concept based on the frequency distribution of ionisation cluster sizes induced by single ionising particles interacting in nanometric volumes. This work gives a brief overview of nanodosimetric concepts and recent developments in the field of nanodosimetry.

  10. Physical integrity: the missing link in biological monitoring and TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Brenda; Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Perry, Jim

    2009-12-01

    The Clean Water Act mandates that the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of our nation's waters be maintained and restored. Physical integrity has often been defined as physical habitat integrity, and as such, data collected during biological monitoring programs focus primarily on habitat quality. However, we argue that channel stability is a more appropriate measure of physical integrity and that channel stability is a foundational element of physical habitat integrity in low-gradient alluvial streams. We highlight assessment tools that could supplement stream assessments and the Total Maximum Daily Load stressor identification process: field surveys of bankfull cross-sections; longitudinal thalweg profiles; particle size distribution; and regionally calibrated, visual, stream stability assessments. Benefits of measuring channel stability include a more informed selection of reference or best attainable stream condition for an Index of Biotic Integrity, establishment of a baseline for monitoring changes in present and future condition, and indication of channel stability for investigations of chemical and biological impairments associated with sediment discontinuity and loss of habitat quality.

  11. Social Capital as the Missing Link in Community Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found that social capital could facilitate the community development planning .... view of social capital as networks, relationships and norms that help citizens to ..... noted: I helped in weeding around the site for the school, market and chief ...

  12. Social Capital as the Missing Link in Community Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning officers and two Principal Community Development Officers from the Municipal ... approaches have focused on the development of physical, natural, financial, and ..... The chief has not been able to successfully accomplish anything.

  13. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rull, V.

    2014-01-01

    Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia), which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a...

  14. Missing the link: urban stormwater quality and resident behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the linkages between what they do on the land and impacts on urban rivers. The findings suggest ... the impact of poorly-treated wastewater being discharged into urban river ..... discharge, water quality, ecological conditions) that is balanced.

  15. Missing Links--User Needs vs. Producers' Offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Sarah

    There are a variety of reasons which prevent users from making the most of information products. The practitioner must keep current with the myriad of information sources available and try to stay aware of changes in coverage. This paper categorizes the types of data in a large financial institution as follows: press sources, mergers and…

  16. Safety in surgery: is selection the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paice, Alistair G; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2010-09-01

    Health care providers comprise an example of a "high risk organization." Safety failings within these organizations have the potential to cause significant public harm. Significant safety improvements in other high risk organizations such as the aviation industry have led to the concept of a high reliability organization (HRO)--a high risk organization that has enjoyed a prolonged safety record. A strong organizational culture is common to all successful HROs, encompassing powerful systems of selection and training. Aircrew selection processes provide a good example of this and are examined in detail in this article using the Royal Air Force process as an example. If the lessons of successful HROs are to be applied to health care organizations, candidate selection to specialties such as surgery must become more objective and robust. Other HROs can provide valuable lessons in how this may be approached.

  17. Indian Astronomy: The Missing Link in Eurocentric History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shirin; Sharma, Deva

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive history of Astronomy should show in reasonable chronological order, the contributions from wherever they arise in the world, once they are reliably documented. However, the authors note that consistently, the extremely rich contributions from Ancient Indian scholars like Aryabatha and Bhramagupta are omitted in Eurocentric…

  18. Single lens to lens duplication: The missing link

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Rupal; Jethani, Jitendra; Saluja, Praveen; Bharti, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lens include a wide range from lens coloboma to primary aphakia and doubling of lens. There have been few case reports of double lens; the etiology suggested is metaplastic changes in the surface ectoderm that leads to formation of two lens vesicles and hence resulting in double lens. We report a case with bilobed lens, which raises the possibility of explaining the etiology of double lens.

  19. Health instruction in Nigerian schools: what are the missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunya, Oladele Simeon; Oseni, Saheed Babajide; Oyelami, Oyeku Akibu; Adegbenro, Caleb; Akani, Nwadiuto

    2014-01-01

    School health instruction (SHI) is the instructional aspects of school health programme. It provides information on key health issues to school children who are in their formative years. A cross sectional descriptive study of all the primary schools in a focal Local Government Area in Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the implementation of SHI with regards to the contents, methods of delivery and teachers preparation for health teaching using an evaluation checklist for SHI. There were more female pupils enrolled in the study area compared to their male counterparts with a male to female ratio of 0.9:1.0 and only 3.0% of the teachers had In-service training on health related issues in the previous five years preceding the study. 79.4% of the teachers had the recommended qualification to work in the schools. Teachings on emotional health, communicable diseases and safety education were sparingly given by 1.6%, 4.7% and 56% schools respectively. Only three (4.7%) schools (all private) had health instruction given by designated health education staff. No school gave health instruction at least thrice a week as recommended. Compliance with the implementation of SHI was very poor in the study area.

  20. Teaching Cross-Cultural Psychology: Providing the Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushner, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of materials designed to facilitate the teaching of cross-cultural psychology to students who are internationally and interculturally naive. The materials consist of 100 cross-cultural incidents contained in 18 essays. Two incidents are described and evaluative evidence is presented.…

  1. Management: The Missing Link to Army Leadership Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flemming, Lee

    2003-01-01

    .... There are numerous applications for management in today's Army to include the developing Operational Career Fields, budget and procurement management, garrison activities, logistics sustainment, and acquisitions...

  2. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources are not available “as such”. Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of independent stakeholders that jointly provide (meta- information also beyond its boundaries. Mechanisms of open informational ecosystems are described and how they contribute to the delivery of educational resources and to opening education. The paper describes the case of the German Bildungsserver that aims at establishing a federated network of providers of open and closed educational resources. It points out that the design of (inter-national informational ecosystems has a major influence on the future of open educational resources in education.

  3. Sustainability Performance and CSR Disclosure: The Missing Link

    OpenAIRE

    Siyuan Seth Li; Marie-Claude Boudreau; Mark Huber; Richard T. Watson

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability disclosure is a topic of great interest among academics and practitioners. As a key means of disclosing an organization’s sustainability information, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) report is adopted by most organizations nowadays. It also becomes an important information source for stakeholders. However, there is a concern that many stakeholders perceive CSR reports are reflections of the sustainability performance of organizations. This misunderstanding could lead...

  4. Quality assurance versus QP(4)--the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, S A

    1989-01-01

    First, quality is not easy. Second, basic process understanding, simplification and continuous improvement are equally difficult. We are vertically organized, yet our basic processes are horizontal with cross-functional boundaries. This recognition is the key to continued quality progress. Third, quality cascading is a key concept for progress. It is the most important factor in convincing the work force that we are serious about quality. Last, the concept of ownership is the most powerful force at work in our quality programs. Quality is not a destination, but a never-ending journey. We need to do things better today than yesterday. We need to be constantly on the lookout for ways to correct problems, prevent problems, and make improvements. Even when the customers' needs have been completely and precisely met, a better, more efficient approach may be possible. We need to take a broader view of the role that quality can play in achieving organizational and individual goals. We need to recognize that quality needn't cost more, yet it will improve customer satisfaction. Furthermore, quality involves more dimensions than just product or service; it applies to internal as well as external customers. We must recognize that everything the organization does has a quality component, and that everyone has a responsibility for quality. Accepting a new definition--and a new priority--for quality is essential, but not enough. For quality to become "the way we do business" in our organizations requires a break-through in action. We have to break out of established ways of thinking and acting. We have to learn new behaviors, and we need the skills to mandate and practice them.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Dunne, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Kuris, Armand M.; Marcogliese, David J.; Martinez, Neo D.; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mordecai, Eerin A.; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.

  6. The missing link in early follicular lymphoma development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tellier et al report on extremely rare t(14;18)-positive cells within reactive lymph nodes of normal individuals. They convincingly show that these cells preferentially reside as nonproliferating cells in germinal centers.

  7. Emotional Intelligence in Language Instruction in Oman: The Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika; Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2016-01-01

    The field of English Language Teaching (ELT) has long sought to identify traits of good language learners, in an effort to teach these traits to less successful language learners (Rubin, 1975). Emotional Intelligence has recently come to the forefront of research on language learning and teaching, and is now increasingly recognized as an important…

  8. The missing link to patient engagement in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Annarumma, Carmela; Adinolfi, Paola; Musella, Marco

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changing patterns of users' behavior in the health care service system. Although patient engagement and health services' co-production are understood as essential ingredients in the recipe for sustainable health systems, some determinants to patient involvement are still widely neglected by both policy makers and health care professionals. Among others, inadequate health literacy performs as a significant barrier to patient empowerment. Design/methodology/approach A survey aimed at objectively measuring health literacy-related skills was administered to a random sample of 600 Italian patients. The Italian version of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) was used to assess the ability of the respondents to deal with written health information. Moreover, the respondents were asked to self-report their ability to navigate the health system. It was presumed that inadequate health literacy as measured by the NVS is related with impaired self-reported functional, interactive, and critical health-related competencies, paving the way for the inability and the unwillingness of patients to be involved in the health care provision. Findings About half of the sample showed inadequate health literacy. However, poor NVS scores were only slightly associated with limited self-reported functional, interactive, and critical health-related competencies. In general, patients with inadequate health-related skills were not likely to be engaged in the provision of health services. Elderly, people suffering from financial deprivation and less educated individuals were found to be at special risk of living with limited health literacy. Practical implications Limited health literacy is a common and relevant issue among people dealing with the health care service system. The impaired ability to collect, process, and use health information produces barriers to patient engagement and prevents the evolution of patients' behavior toward health care co-production. Originality/value Health literacy is a widely overlooked issue in the Italian national health system. This paper contributes in shedding light on the determinants and effects of health literacy of Italian hospital patients. Besides, some insights on the validity of the methodological tools typically used to assess health-related skills are provided.

  9. Providing the Missing Link: the Exposure Science Ontology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although knowledge-discovery tools are new to the exposure science community, these tools are critical for leveraging exposure information to design health studies and interpret results for improved public health decisions. Standardized ontologies define relationships, allow for automated reasoning, and facilitate meta-analyses. ExO will facilitate development of biologically relevant exposure metrics, design of in vitro toxicity tests, and incorporation of information on susceptibility and background exposures for risk assessment. In this approach, there are multiple levels of organization, from the global environment down through ecosystems, communities, indoor spaces, populations, organisms, tissues, and cells. We anticipate that the exposure science and environmental health community will adopt and contribute to this work, as wide acceptance is key to integration and federated searching of exposure data to support environmental and public health research. In particular, we anticipate acceptance of the concept that exposure science provides the spatial/temporal narrative about the intensity (concentration) of a stressor at the boundary between two systems: one functioning as an “environment” (stressor) and one functioning as a target (receptor). An agreed-upon exposure ontology with clear definitions and relationships should help to facilitate decision-making, study design and prioritization of research initiatives by enhancing the capacity for data colle

  10. Socioscientific Issues and the Affective Domain: Scientific Literacy's Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.

    The promotion of scientific literacy has become an important goal for science education, and the ability to negotiate socioscientific issues is at least one aspect of scientific literacy. This paper focuses on how the moral dimensions of socioscientific issues influence decision-making regarding these issues. Morality is examined from multiple…

  11. The Missing Link in the Philosophy of Enlightenment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    and the thoughts constituting the public reasoning in the leading court of justice during the early Enlightenment, the Paris parlements. The yearly speeches from 1693 – 1715 as well as the philosophy of law, from 1727, by the royal attorney and later chancellor Henri-François d’Aguesseau (1668 – 1751) are subject...

  12. Peripheralisation: The Missing Link in Dealing with Demographic Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Leibert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic change is an uneven spatial process in Germany. Depopulation and ageing have become pressing issues in most rural regions. In connection with low population densities and the financial difficulties of municipalities and service providers in rural regions, these demographic trends have led to a discussion about the future provision of services of general interest and – more broadly – the postulate of equal living conditions which was for a long time the basic principle of spatial development in Germany. In this paper, we argue that the peripheralisation approach is a helpful tool to better understand how interaction of out-migration, dependence, disconnection and stigmatisation shape the future of rural regions. We also discuss the impact of peripheralisation on the development and implementation of adaptation strategies. Based on the 3R-model (retrenchment, repositioning, reorganisation, we argue that adaptation strategies can reinforce (retrenchment peripheralisation processes, but also serve as groundwork for the formulation of policies aiming at de-peripheralisation.

  13. MRSA decolonization failure—are biofilms the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Günther

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Device-associated infections due to biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been recently associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and decolonization measures. The goal of our study was to evaluate the extent to which the formation of biofilms influenced the efficacy of topical decolonization agents or disinfectants such as mupirocin (MUP, octenidine (OCT, chlorhexidine (CHG, polyhexanide (POL, and chloroxylenol (CLO. Methods Bacterial killing in biofilms by the disinfectants and MUP was determined as the reduction [%] in metabolic activity determined by a biofilm viability assay that uses kinetic analysis of metabolic activity. The test substances were diluted in water with standardized hardness (WSH at 25 °C at the standard concentration as well as half the standard concentration to demonstrate the dilution effects in a practical setting. The tested concentrations were: CHG 1%, 2%; OCT 0.1%, 0.05%; PH 0.04%, 0.02%; and CLO 0.12%, 0.24%. A test organism suspension, 1 mL containing ~1 × 109 bacterial cells/mL, and 1 mL of sterile WSH were mixed and incubated for six different exposure times (15 s, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 min after the test substance was added. Additionally, the bactericidal effects of all substances were tested on planktonic bacteria and measured as the log10 reduction. Results The disinfectants OCT and CHG showed good efficacy in inhibiting MRSA in biofilms with reduction rates of 94 ± 1% and 91 ± 1%, respectively. POL, on the other hand, had a maximum efficacy of only 81 ± 7%. Compared to the tested disinfectants, MUP showed a significantly lower efficacy with <20% inhibition (p < .05. Bactericidal effects were the greatest for CHG (log10 reduction of 9.0, followed by OCT (7.7, POL (5.1, and CLO (6.8. MUP, however, showed a very low bactericidal effect of only 2.1. Even when the exposure time was increased to 24 h, 2% MUP did not show sufficient bactericidal effect. Conclusions Our data provide evidence that OCT and CHG are effective components for disinfection of MRSA-biofilms. On the other hand, exposure to MUP at the standard concentrations in topical preparations did not effectively inhibit MRSA-biofilms and also did not show adequate bactericidal effects. Combining an MUP-based decolonization regimen with a disinfectant such as OCT or CHG could decrease decolonization failure.

  14. Atom sharp needles, the missing link in microneedle drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2008-01-01

    The skin barrier function is a major challenge for delivery of drugs via the skin. Located in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC) consists of dead cells embedded in lipid regions, only 10-20 microm thick, tough but flexible and elastic. Hyperdermic needles penetrate the skin

  15. Circadian Biology and Sleep: Missing Links in Obesity and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    large-scale N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen using a wide range of nervous system and behavioral phenotypes, we have identified new...physiology. In addition to storing energy in the form of triglycerides, WAT is now known to act as an active endocrine tissue via the synthesis and

  16. Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will test the hypothesis that social cohesion is a critical factor in ... to community members, and ethnographic social network analysis, to help map ... to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  17. The origin and function of mirror neurons: the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingnau, Angelika; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-04-01

    We argue, by analogy to the neural organization of the object recognition system, that demonstration of modulation of mirror neurons by associative learning does not imply absence of genetic adaptation. Innate connectivity defines the types of processes mirror neurons can participate in while allowing for extensive local plasticity. However, the proper function of these neurons remains to be worked out.

  18. The Missing Link in Housing Sector Reforms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde Otubu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a fundamental product for every human being irrespective of financial standing. World acclaimed American psychologist, Abraham Maslow ranked shelter as second only to food in his hierarchy of human needs. Despite the importance of housing to the socio-economic development of man and the nation, housing problems have remained endemic throughout the world. In today’s world, some 100 million persons are homeless and more than a billion are inadequately housed. In 2002 housing deficit in Nigeria was put at about 8 million units. Latest statistics indicate that Nigeria requires a whopping 700,000 housing units annually for the next 15 years. The question is why this state of affairs? Why the perennial and unending problems of housing shortages, forced evictions and slum development? The paper examined these issues in Nigeria in order to advance the future prospect of the sector. The paper identified that whilst reforms were been made to all other subsector of the housing industry, land reform necessary to fast track the process was left unattended to by the government. The paper thus advocated for a robust reform of the current land management system in order to impact positively on the housing reform agenda in Nigeria.

  19. What is a missing link among wireless persistent surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    The next generation surveillance system will equip with versatile sensor devices and information focus capable of conducting regular and irregular surveillance and security environments worldwide. The community of the persistent surveillance must invest the limited energy and money effectively into researching enabling technologies such as nanotechnology, wireless networks, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to develop persistent surveillance applications for the future. Wireless sensor networks can be used by the military for a number of purposes such as monitoring militant activity in remote areas and force protection. Being equipped with appropriate sensors these networks can enable detection of enemy movement, identification of enemy force and analysis of their movement and progress. Among these sensor network technologies, covert communication is one of the challenging tasks in the persistent surveillance because it is highly demanded to provide secured sensor nodes and linkage for fear of deliberate sabotage. Due to the matured VLSI/DSP technologies, affordable COTS of UWB technology with noise-like direct sequence (DS) time-domain pulses is a potential solution to support low probability of intercept and low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) data communication and transmission. This paper will describe a number of technical challenges in wireless persistent surveillance development include covert communication, network control and routing, collaborating signal and information processing, and etc. The paper concludes by presenting Hermitian Wavelets to enhance SNR in support of secured communication.

  20. Named entity extraction and disambiguation: the missing link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Named entity extraction (NEE) and disambiguation (NED) are two areas of research that are well covered in literature. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. Although these topics are highly dependent, almost no existing works

  1. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review, we dissect the role of T-cell therapeutics in the new era of cancer immunotherapy, appraise the value of CAR T-cells in the context of solid tumors, and discuss why the BiTE platform may rescue several of the apparent deficits and shortcomings of competing immunotherapies to support its widespread clinical application.

  2. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia, which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a conceptual perspective and provides examples of the contributions of palaeoecology to the study of ecology–evolution interactions. It also admonishes researchers about the threats of overlooking palaeoecology. Specifically, this paper argues that the neglect of palaeoecology may result in the loss of empirical support for ecology and its interactions with evolution as DNA-based phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies become more and more prevalent. The main concepts discussed are the time continuum, the notion of ecological palaeoecology and the empirical nature of palaeoecology in the face of more hypothetical approaches. More practically speaking, several examples are provided that highlight the utility of ecological palaeoecology for understanding a variety of processes, including ecological succession, community– environment equilibria, community assembly, biotic responses to environmental change, speciation and extinction, and biodiversity conservation. The ecology–evolution interface is analysed using two processes in which these disciplines interact intensively: ecological succession and long-range migration. This work concludes that both ecological palaeoecology (including ancient DNA records and DNA-based phylogenetics and phylogeography are needed to better understand the biosphere ecologically and the processes occurring at the ecology–evolution interface.La paleoecología es más que una disciplina ambiental, ya que proporciona las evidencias empíricas necesarias para verificar hipótesis ecológicas y contribuye a una mejor comprensión de la interfase ecología-evolución. El ámbito temporal de la paleoecología es la dimensión denominada Q-time (siglos a milenios, que parece ser la más adecuada para examinar las interacciones ecología-evolución. Este artículo discute el problema desde una perspectiva conceptual y proporciona ejemplos de la contribución de la paleoecología al estudio de dichas interacciones, además de advertir de las posibles consecuencias de ignorar esta disciplina. En concreto, se propone que una infravaloración de la paleoecología podría llevar a la pérdida de soporte empírico para la ecología y sus interacciones con la evolución. Los principales conceptos discutidos son el continuum temporal, la noción de paleoecología ecológica y la naturaleza empírica de la paleoecología, frente a enfoques más hipotéticos como las filogenias moleculares. En un sentido más práctico, se muestran ejemplos que enfatizan la utilidad de la paleoecología ecológica para la comprensión de procesos como la sucesión ecológica, el equilibrio comunidad-ambiente, el ensamblaje de comunidades, las respuestas bióticas a los cambios ambientales, eventos de especiación y extinción, o la conservación de la biodiversidad. La interfase ecología-evolución se analiza mediante dos procesos en los que estas disciplinas interactúan intensamente: La sucesión ecológica y la migración a gran escala. Se concluye que tanto la paleoecología ecológica (incluyendo los registros de ADN fósil como la filogenia y filogeografía de ADN son necesarias para un mejor conocimiento ecológico de la biosfera y de los procesos que tienen lugar en la interfase ecología-evolución.

  3. The missing link : bridging the gap between science and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biology is faced with an implementation crisis. This crisis is the result of a “knowledge-doing” or “assessment-planning” gap. One reason for this is that there is a discrepancy between systematic classical scientific assessments or surveys, and actual implementation in the field. This

  4. Linking Student Achievement and Teacher Science Content Knowledge about Climate Change: Ensuring the Nations 3 Million Teachers Understand the Science through an Electronic Professional Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Byers, A.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific complexities of global climate change, with wide-ranging economic and social significance, create an intellectual challenge that mandates greater public understanding of climate change research and the concurrent ability to make informed decisions. The critical need for an engaged, science literate public has been repeatedly emphasized by multi-disciplinary entities like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Academies (Rising Above the Gathering Storm report), and the interagency group responsible for the recently updated Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. There is a clear need for an American public that is climate literate and for K-12 teachers confident in teaching relevant science content. A key goal in the creation of a climate literate society is to enhance teachers’ knowledge of global climate change through a national, scalable, and sustainable professional development system, using compelling climate science data and resources to stimulate inquiry-based student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will explore innovative e-learning technologies to address the limitations of one-time, face-to-face workshops, thereby adding significant sustainability and scalability. The resources developed will help teachers sift through the vast volume of global climate change information and provide research-based, high-quality science content and pedagogical information to help teachers effectively teach their students about the complex issues surrounding global climate change. The Learning Center is NSTA's e-professional development portal to help the nations teachers and informal educators learn about the scientific complexities of global climate change through research-based techniques and is proven to significantly improve teacher science content knowledge.

  5. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  6. Projecting regional climate and cropland changes using a linked biogeophysical-socioeconomic modeling framework: 1. Model description and an equilibrium application over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Ahmed, Kazi Farzan; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy; Ji, Zhenming

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural land use alters regional climate through modifying the surface mass, energy, and momentum fluxes; climate influences agricultural land use through their impact on crop yields. These interactions are not well understood and have not been adequately considered in climate projections. This study tackles the critical linkages within the coupled natural-human system of West Africa in a changing climate based on an equilibrium application of a modeling framework that asynchronously couples models of regional climate, crop yield, multimarket agricultural economics, and cropland expansion. Using this regional modeling framework driven with two global climate models, we assess the contributions of land use change (LUC) and greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentration changes to regional climate changes and assess the contribution of climate change and socioeconomic factors to agricultural land use changes. For future cropland expansion in West Africa, our results suggest that socioeconomic development would be the dominant driver in the east (where current cropland coverage is already high) and climate changes would be the primary driver in the west (where future yield drop is severe). For future climate, it is found that agricultural expansion would cause a dry signal in the west and a wet signal in the east downwind, with an east-west contrast similar to the GHG-induced changes. Over a substantial portion of West Africa, the strength of the LUC-induced climate signals is comparable to the GHG-induced changes. Uncertainties originating from the driving global models are small; human decision making related to land use and international trade is a major source of uncertainty.

  7. Droid X The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Get the most from your Droid X right away with this entertaining Missing Manual. Veteran tech author Preston Gralla offers a guided tour of every feature, with lots of expert tips and tricks along the way. You'll learn how to use calling and texting features, take and share photos, enjoy streaming music and video, and much more. Packed with full-color illustrations, this engaging book covers everything from getting started to advanced features and troubleshooting. Unleash the power of Motorola's hot new device with Droid X: The Missing Manual. Get organized. Import your contacts and sync wit

  8. Motorola Xoom The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Motorola Xoom is the first tablet to rival the iPad, and no wonder with all of the great features packed into this device. But learning how to use everything can be tricky-and Xoom doesn't come with a printed guide. That's where this Missing Manual comes in. Gadget expert Preston Gralla helps you master your Xoom with step-by-step instructions and clear explanations. As with all Missing Manuals, this book offers refreshing, jargon-free prose and informative illustrations. Use your Xoom as an e-book reader, music player, camcorder, and phoneKeep in touch with email, video and text chat, and so

  9. Climate Change, Agriculture and Migration: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Falco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a selective review of the classical economics-based literature on climate change and migration, focusing on the extent to which agriculture might be considered a key mediating channel linking climate change to migration. Overall, climate change is expected to have large and negative effects on the global economy. These effects are even more evident whenever the economic sector considered is the agricultural one, particularly in developing countries. Hence, migration can be viewed as a specific form of adaptation implemented by individuals and households, enabling them to cope, among other things, with weather-induced risk. We show that the importance of agriculture emerges from both plenty of micro-level country studies and relatively few macro-level analyses using cross-sectional data over longer time periods. Thus, policy actions targeted to sustainable agriculture and rural development can both help tackle the challenges posed by climate change and create opportunities in the face of growing migration issues. However, we also stress that much of the current evidence is based on statistical associations that have nothing to do with causal inferences. This calls for the use of a more structural approach and more sophisticated research designs, enabling the researchers to better discriminate among different mechanisms concurrently at work. In addition, further research should be addressed to the role played by food security, a complex dimension largely missing in the current debates on climate change and migration.

  10. Did you miss the eclipse?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Not wanting to miss a moment of the beautiful celestial dance that played out on Friday, 20 March, Jens Roder of CERN’s PH group took to the Jura mountains, where he got several shots of the event. Here are a selection of his photos, which he was kind enough to share with the Bulletin and its readers.  

  11. Missing Boxes in Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Weibrecht Kristensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is an event that obviously happens every year. Every year however it also causes severe problems for the companies involved in the industry in form of missing containers throughout the chain but in particular in the European Hinterland. Illustrated on the symptoms of the Chin...

  12. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  13. Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

  14. Does It Matter if Preschool Children and Mothers Discuss Positive vs. Negative Events during Reminiscing? Links with Mother-Reported Attachment, Family Emotional Climate, and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differential relations between mother-child reminiscing about a positive emotional event vs. a negative emotional event and attachment security, family climate, and young children's socioemotional development. Fifty preschool children (M age = 50.69 months, SD = 4.64) and their mothers completed two…

  15. The 50 million missing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2002-09-01

    The epidemic of gender selection is ravaging countries like India & China. Approximately fifty million women are "missing" in the Indian population. Generally three principle causes are given: female infanticide, better food and health care for boys and maternal death at childbirth. Prenatal sex determination and the abortion of female fetuses threatens to skew the sex ratio to new highs. Estimates of the number of female fetuses being destroyed every year in India vary from two million to five million. This review from India attempts to summarize all the currently available methods of sex selection and also highlights the current medical practice regards the subject in south-east Asia.

  16. Measurement of Missing Tranverse Energy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This note discusses the overall ATLAS detector performance for the reconstruction of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss. Two reconstruction algorithms are discussed and their performance is evaluated for a variety of simulated physics processes which probe different topologies and different total transverse energy regimes. In addition, effects of fake ETmiss, resulting from instrumental effects and from false reconstructions are investigated. Finally, studies with first data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100 pb-1, are suggested which can be used to assess and calibrate the ETmiss performance at the startup of data taking.

  17. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

    contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... or equivalently noise elimination and for data analysis. However for small sets of high dimensional data, the log-likelihood estimator for the covariance matrix is often far from convergence, and therefore reliable models must be obtained by use of prior information. We propose a natural and intrinsic...

  18. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  19. Are there missing convective currents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is revealed in this letter that as far as distribution functions obtained from gyrokinetic equations are concerned, the standard formulae to evaluate currents in plasmas are not applicable due to the fact that those distribution functions are given in a moving coordinate frame and the moving is essentially related to perturbed fields. With heuristic and analytic approaches, appropriate formulae are obtained to evaluate several types of currents in plasmas of which some have been missing in previous approaches. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  20. What We’re Missing

    OpenAIRE

    Camille R. Whitney; Jing Liu

    2017-01-01

    For schools and teachers to help students develop knowledge and skills, students need to show up to class. Yet absenteeism is prevalent, especially in secondary schools. This study uses a rich data set tracking class attendance by day for over 50,000 middle and high school students from an urban district in academic years 2007–2008 through 2012–2013. Our results extend and modify the extant findings on absenteeism that have been based almost exclusively on full-day absenteeism, missing class-...

  1. The impact of 'missed care' on the professional socialisation of nursing students: A qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Bernard; Crane, Julie

    2018-04-07

    Missed care is a recently described concept that is subject to an increasing amount of international nursing research. The impact of missed care is associated with poorer patient outcomes (mortality and morbidity) and poorer levels of patient satisfaction with the services provided by the hospital. Missed care has also been linked to decreased staff satisfaction and increased intention to leave. Overall disaffection amongst registered nurses has also been reported. Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of behaviours within cultural norms, and it has been suggested that students enter a period of professional socialisation during their programme. Whilst it has been proposed that students may absorb the characteristics of those around them, to date, no empirical studies have reported the impact of missed care on student nurses. The aim of this project is to explore the impact of missed care on the professional socialisation of student nurses. A qualitative study was undertaken in one higher education institute in UK with final year pre-registration nursing degree (adult field) students. Focus group interviews, utilizing a broad topic guide, were used to collect data which was analysed using thematic analysis. Student nurses were aware that some planned care is missed and these findings resonated with those identified in the literature. In addition to illuminating aspects of professional socialisation, analysis yielded five themes with regards to missed care: awareness, rationale, impact, strategies to avoid and influence of missed care on career aspiration. Student nurses exposed to missed care appear to accept this as part of their professional socialisation. With regards to professional socialisation, student nurses developed a pragmatic acceptance that care would be missed and that this could happen in any environment. As such they did not see missed care as influencing their career aspirations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk communication, public engagement, and climate change: a role for emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the potential role that emotions might play in enticing a lifestyle that diminishes climate change. Climate change is an important challenge for society. There is a growing consensus that climate change is due to our behavior, but few people are willing to significantly adapt their lifestyle. Empirical studies show that people lack a sense of urgency: they experience climate change as a problem that affects people in distant places and in a far future. Several scholars have claimed that emotions might be a necessary tool in communication about climate change. This article sketches a theoretical framework that supports this hypothesis, drawing on insights from the ethics of risk and the philosophy of emotions. It has been shown by various scholars that emotions are important determinants in risk perception. However, emotions are generally considered to be irrational states and are hence excluded from communication and political decision making about risky technologies and climate change, or they are used instrumentally to create support for a position. However, the literature on the ethics of risk shows that the dominant, technocratic approach to risk misses the normative-ethical dimension that is inherent to decisions about acceptable risk. Emotion research shows that emotions are necessary for practical and moral decision making. These insights can be applied to communication about climate change. Emotions are necessary for understanding the moral impact of the risks of climate change, and they also paradigmatically provide for motivation. Emotions might be the missing link in effective communication about climate change. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Missing mass of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The first evidence for missing mass or dark matter comes from the 30's. On one hand, Oort noted that in the solar neighbourhood the mass of the stars (inferred from count numbers) cannot account for their observed velocities. On the other hand, observation on the sky of various galaxy condensations like the Coma cluster let suppose that they are actual bound systems and not only statistical fluctuations. However, with such an assumption, Zwicky concluded that the velocity dispersion of galaxies in Coma required 100 times more mass than contained in galaxies. Since this period, refined observations, analyses and a reevaluation of the cosmic distance scale reduced this factor but the problem is still present. It is particularly striking for spiral galaxies where systematic observations of rotation curves lead to infer the presence of spherical massive halos. These dynamical evidences form the first missing mass problem. The second one appears with the development of Great Unified Theories for which the natural laboratory is the very early Universe. A consequence of these theories is that our Universe could be closed by exotic particles which interact only gravitationally [fr

  4. Human used upper montane ecosystem in the Horton Plains, central Sri Lanka - a link to Lateglacial and early Holocene climate and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premathilake, Rathnasiri

    2012-09-01

    This study utilizes radiocarbon-dated pollen, spores, Sphagnum spp. macrofossils and total organic carbon proxies to examine variability of past climate, environment and human activity in montane rainforest, grassland and wetland of the Horton Plains (HP), central Sri Lanka since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The LGM is largely characterized by grasslands and xerophytic herbs dominated open habitats. Arid-LGM punctuated climatic ameliorations, which took place in short episodes. Humans appear to have reached the HP ecosystem after 18,000 cal yrs BP occasionally. The first Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) induced changes in South West Monsoon (SWM) rains occurred at low latitudes between 16,200 and 15,900 cal yrs BP suggesting an onset of monsoon rains. After this event, monsoon rains weakened for several millennia except the period 13,700-13,000 cal yrs BP, but human activity seems to have continued with biomass burning and clearances by slash and burn. Very large size grass pollen grains, which are morphologically similar to pollen from closer forms of Oryza nivara, were found after 13,800 cal yrs BP. Early Holocene extreme and abrupt climate changes seem to have promoted the forms of O. nivara populations in association with humans. New data from the HP would therefore be most interesting to investigate the dispersal and use of domesticated rice in South Asia.

  5. Ethical concerns and contributions in response to climate change and the links to well-being: a study of university students in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zoghbi, Mona Betour; El Ansari, Walid

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the concerns and contributions of university students in response to the ethical dimensions of climate change, and the implications for their well-being. The study focused on university students as leaders of future society while facing complex environmental and socio-economic challenges. A total of 8 focus groups (FG) were conducted (66 participants from over 10 different universities across The Netherlands). In addition, 9 in-depth interviews with Dutch university students from different academic backgrounds, and 16 interviews with Dutch key informants in the environment, youth and public health fields were undertaken. The first author also attended (as participant-observer) three major events themed around youth and environmental issues across different regions in The Netherlands. University students in the Netherlands are mostly concerned about the increasing social and economic inequalities between the global North and South, and the implications for impoverished and uneducated communities. Participants raised concerns over the transfer of materialistic value systems and unsustainable practices from developed to developing countries. The participants' main contributions in response to climate change were largely driven by feelings of guilt and responsibility, an ecological worldview, and desire to play a positive role in society. Establishing formal youth platforms across academic, civic and political institutions could provide legitimate and empowering opportunities for university students to participate in consultations and debates of future environmental policies and development strategies. Such platforms could enhance the agency and well-being of university students for addressing their concerns over existing climate inequalities and other ethical dilemmas.

  6. Understanding and simulating the link between African easterly waves and Atlantic tropical cyclones using a regional climate model: the role of domain size and lateral boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Louis-Philippe [MISU, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CRCMD Network, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jones, Colin G. [Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Center, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Using a suite of lateral boundary conditions, we investigate the impact of domain size and boundary conditions on the Atlantic tropical cyclone and african easterly Wave activity simulated by a regional climate model. Irrespective of boundary conditions, simulations closest to observed climatology are obtained using a domain covering both the entire tropical Atlantic and northern African region. There is a clear degradation when the high-resolution model domain is diminished to cover only part of the African continent or only the tropical Atlantic. This is found to be the result of biases in the boundary data, which for the smaller domains, have a large impact on TC activity. In this series of simulations, the large-scale Atlantic atmospheric environment appears to be the primary control on simulated TC activity. Weaker wave activity is usually accompanied by a shift in cyclogenesis location, from the MDR to the subtropics. All ERA40-driven integrations manage to capture the observed interannual variability and to reproduce most of the upward trend in tropical cyclone activity observed during that period. When driven by low-resolution global climate model (GCM) integrations, the regional climate model captures interannual variability (albeit with lower correlation coefficients) only if tropical cyclones form in sufficient numbers in the main development region. However, all GCM-driven integrations fail to capture the upward trend in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. In most integrations, variations in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity appear uncorrelated with variations in African easterly wave activity. (orig.)

  7. Restoring method for missing data of spatial structural stress monitoring based on correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeyu; Luo, Yaozhi

    2017-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of spatial structures is of great importance for the full understanding of their performance and safety. The missing part of the monitoring data link will affect the data analysis and safety assessment of the structure. Based on the long-term monitoring data of the steel structure of the Hangzhou Olympic Center Stadium, the correlation between the stress change of the measuring points is studied, and an interpolation method of the missing stress data is proposed. Stress data of correlated measuring points are selected in the 3 months of the season when missing data is required for fitting correlation. Data of daytime and nighttime are fitted separately for interpolation. For a simple linear regression when single point's correlation coefficient is 0.9 or more, the average error of interpolation is about 5%. For multiple linear regression, the interpolation accuracy is not significantly increased after the number of correlated points is more than 6. Stress baseline value of construction step should be calculated before interpolating missing data in the construction stage, and the average error is within 10%. The interpolation error of continuous missing data is slightly larger than that of the discrete missing data. The data missing rate of this method should better not exceed 30%. Finally, a measuring point's missing monitoring data is restored to verify the validity of the method.

  8. Climate Leadership webinar on Integrating Energy and Climate Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergan, a multi-specialty healthcare company and pharmaceutical manufacturer, discusses how it manages climate and energy risks, how these areas are linked, and how energy and climate management strategies pervade critical business decisions.

  9. The History of Miss Jane Pittman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mulvey

    2006-05-01

    South if they allowed that history to be written by plantation owners. In the sixties and the seventies, the pre-Civil War slave narratives, so long dismissed as lies and fictions by white Southern historians, began to be read again, and began to tell African Americans another history. Gaines used the then un-mined resources of the slave narratives to provide structure, themes, characters and incidents for his novel. A comparison of The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman with the Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave Written by Himself, published in 1847, will show how close these links are. But William Wells Brown’s Narrative is only one of at least sixty pre-Civil War slave narratives, and, though it is an exceptionally good one, there is another reason for singling out its author. William Wells Brown was the first African American to publish a novel: Clotel; or the president’s daughter. That appeared in 1853, and up to that date Brown, like Equiano, Douglass, Bibb, Henson, Pennington, and the many others who wrote an account of their life as a slave and their escape from the South had had to contend with the Southern cry that everything the fugitive slaves was saying was lies, and that they did not write their own stories but got white Northerners to write them for them. It was the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852 which showed William Wells Brown (and Frederick Douglass that fiction might serve the abolitionist cause as much as a true narrative faithfully attested.In 1853, with the publication of his novel Clotel, William Wells Brown took African American narrative in a direction that was new and dangerous. In 1971, with the publication of his novel Miss Jane Pittman, Ernest J. Gaines returned African American fiction to its roots, and he did so with a didactic purpose remarkably like that of William Wells Brown. For all that he had been a slave there, Brown seems to have loved the South more than he loved the North

  10. Projecting water yield and ecosystem productivity across the United States by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Kai Duan; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the potential impacts of climatechange on water yield and ecosystem productivity is essential to developing sound watershed restoration plans, andecosystem adaptation and mitigation strategies. This study links an ecohydrological model (Water Supply and StressIndex, WaSSI) with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) using dynamically downscaled...

  11. Revisiting the association between sea surface temperature and the epidemiology of fish poisoning in the South Pacific: reassessing the link between ciguatera and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon E

    2010-10-01

    The most detailed dataset of ciguatera intensity is that produced by the South Pacific Epidemiological and Health Information Service (SPEHIS) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The SPEHIS fish poisoning database has been previously analysed yielding statistically significant correlations between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and ciguatera case numbers in several countries raising concerns this affliction will increase as oceans warm. Mapping of the SPEHIS records and other data hints at ciguatera not only being restricted to warm waters but that the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, a body of water that remains hot throughout much of the year, may inhibit ciguatera prevalence. A qualitative assessment of ciguatera intensity and sea surface temperature (SST) behaviour within the EEZ of selected South Pacific nations supported the notion that ciguatera intensity was highest when SST was between an upper and lower limit. Many more climate and SST indices beyond the SOI are now available, including some that measure the abovementioned phenomenon of oceanic warm pools. Statistically significant, positive and negative cross-correlations were obtained between time series of annual ciguatera case rates from the SPEHIS dataset and the Pacific Warm Pool Index and several ENSO related indices which had been lagged for up to 2 years before the ciguatera time series. This further supports the possibility that when considering the impact of climate change on ciguatera, one has to consider two thresholds, namely waters that remain warm enough for a long enough period can lead to ciguatera and that extended periods where the water remains too hot may depress ciguatera case rates. Such a model would complicate projections of the effects of climate change upon ciguatera beyond that of a simple relationship where increased SST may cause more ciguatera. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change and decline in abundance of brown trout. Is there a link? Results from Switzerland; Klimawandel und Bachforellenrueckgang. Gibt es einen Zusammenhang? Resultate aus der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Basel Univ. (CH). Mensch-Gesellschaft-Umwelt (MGU)

    2009-04-15

    Background, aim, and scope: In response to a 60% decrease in brown trout catch between 1980 and 2000, a Swiss-wide search was initiated to investigate possible causes. The project, named 'Fischnetz' (fishing net), investigated 12 hypotheses. One of those suggested a detrimental effect of global climate change. I report here which parameters changed and what the possible consequences for native brown trout are. Materials and methods: The literature is critically analysed and results are synthesised to show the interactions between different climatic factors and their effects on fish. Results In the last 25 years, an increase in temperature by approximately 1 C was indicated in the rivers of Switzerland. This is associated with an earlier emergence of trout from the gravel. Warming results in an upward shift of the preferred thermal habitats. Furthermore, an increase in the clinical outbreak of the Proliferative Kidney Disease PKD (for which a temperature of 15 C for more than 2-4 weeks is necessary) can be recorded. The precipitation pattern changed and an intensification of high floods in winter results in higher erosion. This can in turn lead to an increased level of fine sediments which may affect health of juvenile brown trout and is assumed to reduce reproduction success. Discussion: The consequences of climate change are discussed in concert with other anthropogenic factors. Storage reservoirs, as well as water withdrawal (and return of heated water, respectively) affect temperature profiles and sediment load. Fragmentation, channelization and straightening of rivers accelerate clogging and restrain fish from upward migration and evacuation to more suitable habitats. Conclusions: With increasing temperatures a downsizing of habitats of cold-water fish species, as well as an increase of diseases which are temperature sensitive, is assumed. Recommendations and perspectives: Mitigation measures which lead to a morphological improvement of river systems

  13. Geological constraints on continental arc activity since 720 Ma: implications for the link between long-term climate variability and episodicity of continental arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Continental arc volcanoes have been suggested to release more CO2 than island arc volcanoes due to decarbonation of wallrock carbonates in the continental upper plate through which the magmas traverse (Lee et al., 2013). Continental arcs may thus play an important role in long-term climate. To test this hypothesis, we compiled geological maps to reconstruct the surface distribution of granitoid plutons and the lengths of ancient continental arcs. These results were then compiled into a GIS framework and incorporated into GPlates plate reconstructions. Our results show an episodic nature of global continental arc activity since 720 Ma. The lengths of continental arcs were at minimums during most of the Cryogenian ( 720-670 Ma), the middle Paleozoic ( 460-300 Ma) and the Cenozoic ( 50-0 Ma). Arc lengths were highest during the Ediacaran ( 640-570 Ma), the early Paleozoic ( 550-430 Ma) and the entire Mesozoic with peaks in the Early Triassic ( 250-240 Ma), Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ( 160-130 Ma), and Late Cretaceous ( 90-65 Ma). The extensive continental arcs in the Ediacaran and early Paleozoic reflect the Pan-African events and circum-Gondwana subduction during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent. The Early Triassic peak is coincident with the final closure of the paleo-Asian oceans and the onset of circum-Pacific subduction associated with the assembly of the Pangea supercontinent. The Jurassic-Cretaceous peaks reflect the extensive continental arcs established in the western Pacific, North and South American Cordillera, coincident with the initial dispersal of the Pangea. Continental arcs are favored during the final assembly and the early-stage dispersal of a supercontinent. Our compilation shows a temporal match between continental arc activity and long-term climate at least since 720 Ma. For example, continental arc activity was reduced during the Cryogenian icehouse event, and enhanced during the Early Paleozoic and Jurassic-Cretaceous greenhouse

  14. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-Fu Wu; Chia-Yung Chang; Shie-Jue Lee

    2015-01-01

    Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, o...

  15. Missing cycles: Effect of climate change on population dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    population dynamics of the larch budmoth – an insect pest which causes massive defoliation of entire larch forests ... hypothesized that global warming has led to the collapse of the cycles ... When temperatures increase after winter, and the.

  16. Missing chaos in global climate change data interpreting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, M.; Dušek, Jiří; Kiselák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, mar (2016), s. 53-59 ISSN 1476-945X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1151; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Stochasticity * Determinism * Entropy * Chaos * Wetland ecosystem * Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2016

  17. HTML5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    HTML5 is more than a markup language-it's a dozen independent web standards all rolled into one. Until now, all it's been missing is a manual. With this thorough, jargon-free guide, you'll learn how to build web apps that include video tools, dynamic drawings, geolocation, offline web apps, drag-and-drop, and many other features. HTML5 is the future of the Web, and with this book you'll reach it quickly. The important stuff you need to know: Structure web pages in a new way. Learn how HTML5 helps make web design tools and search engines work smarter.Add audio and video without plugins. Build

  18. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Li, Haifeng; Waterman, Michael S; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2006-10-12

    Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS) by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS) imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  19. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xianghong

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. Results We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. Conclusion We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  20. Reconstruction of missing daily streamflow data using dynamic regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencaliec, Patricia; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Prieur, Clémentine; Mathevet, Thibault

    2015-12-01

    River discharge is one of the most important quantities in hydrology. It provides fundamental records for water resources management and climate change monitoring. Even very short data-gaps in this information can cause extremely different analysis outputs. Therefore, reconstructing missing data of incomplete data sets is an important step regarding the performance of the environmental models, engineering, and research applications, thus it presents a great challenge. The objective of this paper is to introduce an effective technique for reconstructing missing daily discharge data when one has access to only daily streamflow data. The proposed procedure uses a combination of regression and autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA) called dynamic regression model. This model uses the linear relationship between neighbor and correlated stations and then adjusts the residual term by fitting an ARIMA structure. Application of the model to eight daily streamflow data for the Durance river watershed showed that the model yields reliable estimates for the missing data in the time series. Simulation studies were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the procedure.

  1. Climate and vegetation in a semi-arid savanna: Development of a climate–vegetation response model linking plant metabolic performance to climate and the effects on forage availability for large herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-02-01

    Developing the climate–vegetation response model involved three main components, namely (1 defining indicators of forage availability to herbivores (nitrogen productivity, nitrogen quality, carbon-nutrient quality, (2 identifying herbivore species guilds of similar nutritional requirements with respect to these indicators [bulk feeders with tolerance to fibrous herbage (buffalo, waterbuck, bulk feeders with preference for high nitrogen quality forage (short grass preference grazers: blue wildebeest and zebra and selective feeders where dietary items of relatively high carbon-nutrient quality represented key forage resources (selective grazers: sable antelope, roan antelope, tsessebe, eland] and (3 developing a process model where the expected effects of plant metabolic responses to climate on key forage resources were made explicit. According to the climate–vegetation response model both shorter-term transient temperature acclimation pulses and longer-term shifts in plant metabolic functionality settings were predicted to have occurred in response to temperature trends over the past century. These temperature acclimation responses were expected to have resulted in transient pulses of increased forage availability (increased nitrogen- and carbon-nutrient quality, as well as the progressive long-term decline of the carbon-nutrient quality of forage. Conservation implications: The climate–vegetation response model represents a research framework for further studies contributing towards the enhanced understanding of landscape-scale functioning of savanna systems with reference to the interplay between climate, vegetation and herbivore population dynamics. Gains in such understanding can support sound conservation management.

  2. A Review of Methods for Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, Therese D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews methods for handling missing data in a research study. Model-based methods, such as maximum likelihood using the EM algorithm and multiple imputation, hold more promise than ad hoc methods. Although model-based methods require more specialized computer programs and assumptions about the nature of missing data, these methods are appropriate…

  3. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  4. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  5. Methods to Minimize Zero-Missing Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing use of high-voltage AC cables at transmission levels, phenomena such as current zero-missing start to appear more often in transmission systems. Zero-missing phenomenon can occur when energizing cable lines with shunt reactors. This may considerably delay the opening of the ci...

  6. Climate Action Benefits: Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between human health and climate change and describes what the CIRA Health analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Air Quality, Extreme Temperature, Labor, and Water Quality.

  7. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding. Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model. Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice. Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.

  8. Building a Climate of Change with a link through Transformational Leadership and Corporate Culture: A Management key to a Global Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Llwellyn Flemming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the Caribbean Diaspora have argued that there is no documented evidence of the association between the three fundamental pillars of public sector organization: leadership, performance and culture. This cross-culture leadership concern has evoked a series of research which basic aim is to conceptualize the leadership culture phenomenon. The problem is that there is a high degree of dysfunctional leadership within the public sectors organizations in the Caribbean diaspora and there is limited empirical evidence that can be had to validate the reason for this inadequacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between transformational leadership styles, corporate organizational culture types and performance in sixteen public sectors organizations. The methodology implemented in this research is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X, and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI to collect data. Seventy-five executive directors completed measures of the MLQ 5x leadership traits and culture types. A total of 200 employees from   across sixteen public sector organizations completed the measures on leadership and culture. The responses were scaled and coded to enable the segmentation of the data into dependent and independent variables based on the leadership, performance and culture variables. The study utilized the multiple regression models and correlation statistical analyses to determine the degree of commonality among the components. The results indicate support for the hypotheses link between the traits of transformational leadership and organizational culture with performance being the mediating variable. Exploratory analysis showed that several executive leaders have leadership traits that support culture values. The study concluded that transformational leadership and corporate organizational culture have positive effects on facilitating performance and is best suited in managing change and

  9. Link prediction with node clustering coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.

  10. Precise U-Pb dating of Cenozoic tropical reef carbonates: Linking the evolution of Cenozoic Caribbean reef carbonates to climatic and environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Ducea, M.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Rincon, D.; Machado, A.; Flores, A.; Sial, A.; Pardo, A.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Jaramillo, C.; Zapata, P.; Barrios, L.; Rosero, S.; Bayona, G.; Zapata, V.

    2012-04-01

    Coral reefs are very diverse and productive ecosystems; and have long been the base of the economic activity of several countries along the tropics. Because coral reefs are very sensitive to environmental changes and their adaptation to changing stressing conditions is very slow, the combination of current rapid environmental changes and the additional stresses created by growing human populations (i.e. rapid anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere),plus the economic and coastal development may become a lethal synergy. The ongoing acidification of modern oceans is a major issue of concern because it may have serious consequences for the survival of shelly marine invertebrates as the 21st century progresses. Ocean Acidification (OA) is now being driven by rapid CO2 release to the atmosphere. Although evidences of the devastating effects of oceanic acidification in the marine biota are provided by the decreased rate of coral skeleton production and the reduced ability of algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells, among others, predicting the effects of oceanic acidification on the future oceans (2050-2100) has remained rather difficult because the atmospheric CO2 sequestration by the global oceans occurs in geologic time scales. Important changes in the atmospheric pCO2 and major climatic/environmental events seem to have controlled the evolution of the Cenozoic equatorial-tropical carbonates r1-10. Rapid additions of green house gases to the atmosphere occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene transition and would have promoted several other events of global warming until the early Oligocene (i.e. the Eocene thermal maximum). These periods of high greenhouse gases concentrations would have also resulted on OA, affecting the reef carbonate ecology and tropical carbonate budgets. Relating temporal variations in the Cenozoic reef carbonate structure, ecology and factory is vital to help understanding and predicting the future effects of the

  11. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various policies in health, such as Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, were introduced to enhance integrated service delivery in child healthcare. During clinical practice the researcher observed that integrated services may not be rendered.Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding.Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model.Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice.Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.

  12. Continuous 25-yr aerosol records at coastal Antarctica - I: inter-annual variability of ionic compounds and links to climate indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Rolf; Koenig-Langlo, Gert (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)), e-mail: Rolf.Weller@awi.de; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Elsaesser, Christoph (Institut fur Umweltphysik, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)); Legrand, Michel (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, St Martin d' Heres (France)); Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan (Institut fur Meereskunde, Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    The aerosol climatology at the coastal Antarctic Neumayer Station (NM) was investigated based on continuous, 25-yr long observations of biogenic sulphur components (methanesulfonate and non-sea salt sulphate), sea salt and nitrate. Although significant long-term trends could only be detected for nitrate (-3.6 +- 2.5% per year between 1983 and 1993 and +4.0 +- 3.2% per year from 1993-2007), non-harmonic periodicities between 2 and 5 yr were typical for all species. Dedicated time series analyses revealed that relations to sea ice extent and various circulation indices are weak at best or not significant. In particular, no consistent link between sea ice extent and sea salt loadings was evident suggesting only a rather local relevance of the NM sea salt record. Nevertheless, a higher Southern Annular Mode index tended to entail a lower biogenic sulphur signal. In examining the spatial uniformity of the NM findings we contrasted them to respective 17 yr records from the coastal Dumont d'Urville Station. We found similar long-term trends for nitrate, indicating an Antarctic-wide but not identifiable atmospheric signal, although any significant impact of solar activity or pollution could be ruled out. No inter-site variability on the multiannual scale was evident for the other ionic compounds

  13. Impacts of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nitrification in a cold climate soil are linked to the bacterial ammonia oxidizer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fenliang; Yang, Qianbao; Li, Zhaojun; Wei, Dan; Cui, Xi'an; Liang, Yongchao

    2011-11-01

    The microbiology underpinning soil nitrogen cycling in northeast China remains poorly understood. These agricultural systems are typified by widely contrasting temperature, ranging from -40 to 38°C. In a long-term site in this region, the impacts of mineral and organic fertilizer amendments on potential nitrification rate (PNR) were determined. PNR was found to be suppressed by long-term mineral fertilizer treatment but enhanced by manure treatment. The abundance and structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques. The abundance of AOA was reduced by all fertilizer treatments, while the opposite response was measured for AOB, leading to a six- to 60-fold reduction in AOA/AOB ratio. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation across fertilization treatments, whereas the structure of the AOB community was highly responsive. PNR was correlated with community structure of AOB rather than that of AOA. Variation in the community structure of AOB was linked to soil pH, total carbon, and nitrogen contents induced by different long-term fertilization regimes. The results suggest that manure amendment establishes conditions which select for an AOB community type which recovers mineral fertilizer-suppressed soil nitrification.

  14. Creating Web Sites The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Think you have to be a technical wizard to build a great web site? Think again. For anyone who wants to create an engaging web site--for either personal or business purposes--Creating Web Sites: The Missing Manual demystifies the process and provides tools, techniques, and expert guidance for developing a professional and reliable web presence. Like every Missing Manual, you can count on Creating Web Sites: The Missing Manual to be entertaining and insightful and complete with all the vital information, clear-headed advice, and detailed instructions you need to master the task at hand. Autho

  15. Scalable Tensor Factorizations with Missing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2010-01-01

    of missing data, many important data sets will be discarded or improperly analyzed. Therefore, we need a robust and scalable approach for factorizing multi-way arrays (i.e., tensors) in the presence of missing data. We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP...... is shown to successfully factor tensors with noise and up to 70% missing data. Moreover, our approach is significantly faster than the leading alternative and scales to larger problems. To show the real-world usefulness of CP-WOPT, we illustrate its applicability on a novel EEG (electroencephalogram...

  16. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  17. Tonle Sap Lake Water Storage Change Over 24 Years From Satellite Observation and Its Link With Mekong River Discharge and Climate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Normandin, C.; Blarel, F.; Bourrel, L.; Aumont, M.; Azema, P.; Vu, P. L.; Lubac, B.; Darrozes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Tonle Sap lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is located within the Mekong basin (mainly in Cambodia). It is one of he most productive ecosystem of the world and provide two thirds of Cambodia fish catch. It also plays a unique role on the Mekong basin hydrological cycle: during the monsoon period, the Mekong river partially flows to the lake, whereas during the dry season, the lake flows to the Mekong delta. It is therefore crucial to monitor and take into account this lake to estimate Mekong discharge to the ocean. However, in situ measurements of lake level and river discharge are very sparse (especially during the last decades) and computing lake storage variation from in situ data only is difficult due to the huge annual variation of lake area. That's why, satellite data (nadir radar altimetry and visible imagery) have been used to study its volume variation and its relationship with climate events and Mekong river discharge. Multi-mission altimetry data have been extracted (Topex, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Jason-1, Jason-2, Saral and Jason-3, using CTOH data extraction tools) to derive a lake water level from1993 to 2016, which varies from 3 m to 12 m. Lake area have been computed from MODIS data from 2000 to 2016 and varies from 3,400 km2 to 11,800 km2. These dataset clearly shows a relationship between lake water level and area, which has been used to estimate lake water volume change from 1995 to 2016, with a minimum in 2015 and a maximum in 2011. Lake's droughts and floods can be observed during moderate and strong El Nino/La Nina events, enhanced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Besides, comparison with in situ discharge at the outlet of the Mekong basin (over 1995/2000 time period) shows that lake water level is 20 days time lagged and increases/decreases after Mekong discharge at its outlet. This time lag results of Mekong river partially flowing to the lake. Finally, high correlation between lake level and outlet discharge allows to

  18. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Christy L. van; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Schils, Rene L.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Kuikman, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  19. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  20. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nüchel

    Full Text Available Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  1. The prevention and handling of the missing data

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for ...

  2. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  3. Clustering with Missing Values: No Imputation Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Clustering algorithms can identify groups in large data sets, such as star catalogs and hyperspectral images. In general, clustering methods cannot analyze items that have missing data values. Common solutions either fill in the missing values (imputation) or ignore the missing data (marginalization). Imputed values are treated as just as reliable as the truly observed data, but they are only as good as the assumptions used to create them. In contrast, we present a method for encoding partially observed features as a set of supplemental soft constraints and introduce the KSC algorithm, which incorporates constraints into the clustering process. In experiments on artificial data and data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that soft constraints are an effective way to enable clustering with missing values.

  4. Missed medical appointment among hypertensive and diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Missed medical appointments, Hypertensive, Diabetic outpatients, Medication adherence, ... 12 weeks, at 95 % confidence level and 5 % error margin, 300 hypertensive ... monthly income and health insurance status of respondents ...

  5. Missed Radiation Therapy and Cancer Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who miss radiation therapy sessions during cancer treatment have an increased risk of their disease returning, even if they eventually complete their course of radiation treatment, according to a new study.

  6. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  7. The Links between Childcare and Women's Empowerment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... Childcare and Women's Economic Empowerment. March 8th, 2016 ... Could day care and pre-school be the missing link to ... influence a women's ability to work and earn. .... and gender equality to raise awareness of the problems ... Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs, and Benefits.

  8. Bioinspired Computational Approach to Missing Value Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Edem Agbehadji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Missing data occurs when values of variables in a dataset are not stored. Estimating these missing values is a significant step during the data cleansing phase of a big data management approach. The reason of missing data may be due to nonresponse or omitted entries. If these missing data are not handled properly, this may create inaccurate results during data analysis. Although a traditional method such as maximum likelihood method extrapolates missing values, this paper proposes a bioinspired method based on the behavior of birds, specifically the Kestrel bird. This paper describes the behavior and characteristics of the Kestrel bird, a bioinspired approach, in modeling an algorithm to estimate missing values. The proposed algorithm (KSA was compared with WSAMP, Firefly, and BAT algorithm. The results were evaluated using the mean of absolute error (MAE. A statistical test (Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Friedman test was conducted to test the performance of the algorithms. The results of Wilcoxon test indicate that time does not have a significant effect on the performance, and the quality of estimation between the paired algorithms was significant; the results of Friedman test ranked KSA as the best evolutionary algorithm.

  9. Linking the Modern and Recent Record of Cabo Frio Upwelling with Local Climate and Biogeochemical Processes in Hypersaline Coastal Lagoons, Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Nascimento, G. S.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Belem, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Eglinton, T. I.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    A unique marine and lagoonal system along the coast east of Rio de Janeiro is being investigated to understand the impact of climatic variability on the South Atlantic carbon cycle and biomineralisation processes involved in carbonate precipitation in the hypersaline coastal lagoons. The region is dominated by a semi-arid microclimate attributed to the local coastal upwelling phenomenon near Cabo Frio. The intensity of the upwelling affects the hydrology of the annual water and biogeochemical cycles in the lagoons, as well as biogeochemical signals of environmental change recorded in both onshore and offshore sediments. Preliminary results of δ18O and δD values of water samples collected monthly in Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho from 2011 to 2014 show lower values for waters corresponding to the wet season, reflecting increased input of meteoric water. The higher values for waters collected during the dry season reflect the greater amount of evaporation with increased seasonal aridity. Radiocarbon dating of Holocene marine and lagoonal cores indicates that Mg-carbonate precipitation in the lagoons is associated with high evaporation. Modern field observations for the last 3 years suggest that the amount of carbonate precipitation is correlated with evaporitic conditions associated with the upwelling phenomenon. A calibration study of hydrogen isotopic fractionation in the modern lagoons is underway to define a relationship between δDlipid of suspended particles and δDwater of associated water. This isotopic relationship will be applied to material obtained in cores from the lagoons. Offshore cores will be studied using well-tested paleotemperature proxies to evaluate the intensity of the upwelling during the Holocene. In summary, linking the coastal upwelling with the lagoonal hydrology has the potential to furnish important insights about the relationship between the local climate and paleoceanographic circulation associated with the regional carbon cycle.

  10. Linked Metadata - lightweight semantics for data integration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The "Linked Open Data" cloud (http://linkeddata.org) is currently used to show how the linking of datasets, supported by SPARQL endpoints, is creating a growing set of linked data assets. This linked data space has been growing rapidly, and the last version collected is estimated to have had over 35 billion 'triples.' As impressive as this may sound, there is an inherent flaw in the way the linked data story is conceived. The idea is that all of the data is represented in a linked format (generally RDF) and applications will essentially query this cloud and provide mashup capabilities between the various kinds of data that are found. The view of linking in the cloud is fairly simple -links are provided by either shared URIs or by URIs that are asserted to be owl:sameAs. This view of the linking, which primarily focuses on shared objects and subjects in RDF's subject-predicate-object representation, misses a critical aspect of Semantic Web technology. Given triples such as * A:person1 foaf:knows A:person2 * B:person3 foaf:knows B:person4 * C:person5 foaf:name 'John Doe' this view would not consider them linked (barring other assertions) even though they share a common vocabulary. In fact, we get significant clues that there are commonalities in these data items from the shared namespaces and predicates, even if the traditional 'graph' view of RDF doesn't appear to join on these. Thus, it is the linking of the data descriptions, whether as metadata or other vocabularies, that provides the linking in these cases. This observation is crucial to scientific data integration where the size of the datasets, or even the individual relationships within them, can be quite large. (Note that this is not restricted to scientific data - search engines, social networks, and massive multiuser games also create huge amounts of data.) To convert all the triples into RDF and provide individual links is often unnecessary, and is both time and space intensive. Those looking to do on the

  11. Centennial and Extreme Climate Variability in the Last 1500 Year from the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon (Central America): Successive Droughts and Floods Linked to the Demise of the Mayan Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droxler, A. W.; Agar Cetin, A.; Bentley, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the last 1500 yr precipitation record archived in the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments accumulated in the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon, part of the Yucatan Peninsula eastern continental margin, proximal to the land areas where the Mayan Civilization thrived and then abruptly collapsed. This study is mainly based upon the detailed analyses of cores, BZE-RH-SVC-58 and 68, retrieved in 30 and 19 m of water depth from Elbow Caye Lagoon and English Caye Channel, respectively. The core timeframe is well-constrained by AMS radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera, Quinqueloculina. Carbonate content was determined by carbonate bomb, particle size fractions with a Malvern Master Sizer 2000 particle size analyzer, and element (Ti, Si, K, Fe, Al, Ca, and Sr) counts via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The variations of elements such as Ti and K counts, and Ti/Al in these two cores have recorded, in the past past 1500 years, the weathering rate variations of the adjacent Maya Mountain, defining alternating periods of high precipitation and droughts, linked to large climate fluctuations and extreme events, highly influenced by the ITCZ latitudinal migration. The CE 800-900 century just preceding the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), characterized by unusually low Ti counts and Ti/Al, is interpreted to represent a time of low precipitation and resulting severe droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula, contemporaneous with the Mayan Terminal Classic Collapse. High Ti counts and Ti/Al, although highly variable, during the MCA (CE 900-1350) are interpreted as an unusually warm period characterized by two 100-to-250 years-long intervals of higher precipitation when the number of tropical cyclones peaked. These two intervals of high precipitation during the MCA are separated by a century (CE 1000 -1100) of severe droughts and low tropical storm frequency coinciding with the collapse of Chichen Itza (CE 1040-1100). The Little Ice Age (CE 1350-1850), several centuries

  12. Communities under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....

  13. Slp-76 is a critical determinant of NK cell-mediated recognition of missing-self targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Kristin; Endale, Mehari; Cashman, Siobhan; Fang, Hao; Mattner, Jochen; Hildeman, David; Hoebe, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Absence of MHC class I expression is an important mechanism by which NK cells recognize a variety of target cells, yet the pathways underlying “missing-self” recognition, including the involvement of activating receptors, remain poorly understood. Using ENU mutagenesis in mice, we identified a germline mutant, designated Ace, with a marked defect in NK cell-mediated recognition and elimination of “missing-self” targets. The causative mutation was linked to chromosome 11 and identified as a mi...

  14. The methanol industry's missed opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests

  15. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  16. Breast carcinomas: why are they missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, M; Pojchamarnwiputh, S; Chaiwun, B

    2006-10-01

    Mammography has proven to be an effective modality for the detection of early breast carcinoma. However, 4-34 percent of breast cancers may be missed at mammography. Delayed diagnosis of breast carcinoma results in an unfavourable prognosis. The objective of this study was to determine the causes and characteristics of breast carcinomas missed by mammography at our institution, with the aim of reducing the rate of missed carcinoma. We reviewed the reports of 13,191 mammograms performed over a five-year period. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) were used for the mammographical assessment, and reports were cross-referenced with the histological diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Causes of missed carcinomas were classified. Of 344 patients who had breast carcinoma and had mammograms done prior to surgery, 18 (5.2 percent) failed to be diagnosed by mammography. Of these, five were caused by dense breast parenchyma obscuring the lesions, 11 were due to perception and interpretation errors, and one each from unusual lesion characteristics and poor positioning. Several factors, including dense breast parenchyma obscuring a lesion, perception error, interpretation error, unusual lesion characteristics, and poor technique or positioning, are possible causes of missed breast cancers.

  17. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  18. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Carlos; Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: → Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. → The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. → We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. → The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. → The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  19. Climate Prediction Center - Global Tropical Hazards Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Climate Outlooks Climate & Weather Link El Niño/La Niña MJO Teleconnections AO NAO PNA AAO Blocking Storm Tracks Climate Glossary Outreach About Us Our Mission Who We Are

  20. Missing data imputation: focusing on single imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Complete case analysis is widely used for handling missing data, and it is the default method in many statistical packages. However, this method may introduce bias and some useful information will be omitted from analysis. Therefore, many imputation methods are developed to make gap end. The present article focuses on single imputation. Imputations with mean, median and mode are simple but, like complete case analysis, can introduce bias on mean and deviation. Furthermore, they ignore relationship with other variables. Regression imputation can preserve relationship between missing values and other variables. There are many sophisticated methods exist to handle missing values in longitudinal data. This article focuses primarily on how to implement R code to perform single imputation, while avoiding complex mathematical calculations.

  1. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Fu Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, on the other hand, may alter the original time series. In this study, we propose a novel forecasting method based on least squares support vector machine (LSSVM. We employ the input patterns with the temporal information which is defined as local time index (LTI. Time series data as well as local time indexes are fed to LSSVM for doing forecasting without imputation. We compare the forecasting performance of our method with other imputation methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising and is worth further investigations.

  2. Collateral missing value imputation: a new robust missing value estimation algorithm for microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Muhammad Shoaib B; Gondal, Iqbal; Dooley, Laurence S

    2005-05-15

    Microarray data are used in a range of application areas in biology, although often it contains considerable numbers of missing values. These missing values can significantly affect subsequent statistical analysis and machine learning algorithms so there is a strong motivation to estimate these values as accurately as possible before using these algorithms. While many imputation algorithms have been proposed, more robust techniques need to be developed so that further analysis of biological data can be accurately undertaken. In this paper, an innovative missing value imputation algorithm called collateral missing value estimation (CMVE) is presented which uses multiple covariance-based imputation matrices for the final prediction of missing values. The matrices are computed and optimized using least square regression and linear programming methods. The new CMVE algorithm has been compared with existing estimation techniques including Bayesian principal component analysis imputation (BPCA), least square impute (LSImpute) and K-nearest neighbour (KNN). All these methods were rigorously tested to estimate missing values in three separate non-time series (ovarian cancer based) and one time series (yeast sporulation) dataset. Each method was quantitatively analyzed using the normalized root mean square (NRMS) error measure, covering a wide range of randomly introduced missing value probabilities from 0.01 to 0.2. Experiments were also undertaken on the yeast dataset, which comprised 1.7% actual missing values, to test the hypothesis that CMVE performed better not only for randomly occurring but also for a real distribution of missing values. The results confirmed that CMVE consistently demonstrated superior and robust estimation capability of missing values compared with other methods for both series types of data, for the same order of computational complexity. A concise theoretical framework has also been formulated to validate the improved performance of the CMVE

  3. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  4. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  5. Link Prediction in Social Networks: the State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Baowen; Wu, Yurong; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In social networks, link prediction predicts missing links in current networks and new or dissolution links in future networks, is important for mining and analyzing the evolution of social networks. In the past decade, many works have been done about the link prediction in social networks. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively review, analyze and discuss the state-of-the-art of the link prediction in social networks. A systematical category for link prediction techniques and problems ...

  6. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  7. Missed surgical intensive care unit billing: potential financial impact of 24/7 faculty presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Kimberly M; Bollins, John P; Armen, Scott B; Thomas, Yalaunda M; Steinberg, Steven M; Cook, Charles H

    2009-07-01

    To efficiently capture evaluation and management (E&M) and procedural billing in our surgical intensive care unit (SICU), we have developed an electronic billing system that links to the electronic medical record (EMR). In this system, only notes electronically signed and coded by an attending generate billing charges. We hypothesized that capture of missed billing during nighttime and weekends might be sufficient to subsidize 24/7 in-house attending coverage. A retrospective chart EMR review was performed of the EMRs for all SICU patients during a 2-month period. Note type, date, time, attending signature, and coding were analyzed. Notes without attending signature, diagnosis, or current procedural terminology (CPT) code were considered incomplete and identified as "missed billing." Four hundred and forty-three patients had 465 admissions generating 2,896 notes. Overall, 76% of notes were signed and coded by an attending and billed. Incomplete (not billed) notes represented an overall missed billing opportunity of $159,138 for the 2-month time period (approximately $954,000 annually). Unbilled E&M encounters during weekdays totaled $54,758, whereas unbilled E&M and procedures from weeknights and weekends totaled $88,408 ($44,566 and $43,842, respectively). Missed billing after-hours thus represents approximately $530K annually, extrapolating to approximately $220K in collections from our payer mix. Surprisingly, missed E&M and procedural billing during weekdays totaled $70,730 (approximately $425K billing, approximately $170K collections annually), and typically represented patients seen, but transferred from the SICU before attending documentation was completed. Capture of nighttime and weekend ICU collections alone may be insufficient to add faculty or incentivize in-house coverage, but could certainly complement other in-house derived revenues to such ends. In addition, missed daytime billing in busy modern ICUs can be substantial, and use of an EMR to identify

  8. Linking IMAGE 2 and WORLD SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelauff, G.; Geurts, B.; Gielen, A.; Den Ouden, A.; Alcamo, J.; Gerlagh, R.

    1995-01-01

    The links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios, are presented and discussed. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways. 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  10. On testing the missing at random assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption...

  11. Missing mass from low-luminosity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Results from a deep photometric survey for low-luminosity stars show a turnup to the luminosity function at faint magnitudes, and reopen the possibility that the missing mass in the solar neighbourhood is made up of stars after all. (author)

  12. Dealing with gene expression missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, L P; Menezes, J C

    2006-05-01

    Compared evaluation of different methods is presented for estimating missing values in microarray data: weighted K-nearest neighbours imputation (KNNimpute), regression-based methods such as local least squares imputation (LLSimpute) and partial least squares imputation (PLSimpute) and Bayesian principal component analysis (BPCA). The influence in prediction accuracy of some factors, such as methods' parameters, type of data relationships used in the estimation process (i.e. row-wise, column-wise or both), missing rate and pattern and type of experiment [time series (TS), non-time series (NTS) or mixed (MIX) experiments] is elucidated. Improvements based on the iterative use of data (iterative LLS and PLS imputation--ILLSimpute and IPLSimpute), the need to perform initial imputations (modified PLS and Helland PLS imputation--MPLSimpute and HPLSimpute) and the type of relationships employed (KNNarray, LLSarray, HPLSarray and alternating PLS--APLSimpute) are proposed. Overall, it is shown that data set properties (type of experiment, missing rate and pattern) affect the data similarity structure, therefore influencing the methods' performance. LLSimpute and ILLSimpute are preferable in the presence of data with a stronger similarity structure (TS and MIX experiments), whereas PLS-based methods (MPLSimpute, IPLSimpute and APLSimpute) are preferable when estimating NTS missing data.

  13. Missed opportunities and inappropriately given vaccines reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To quantify missed opportunities for immunisation, document reasons for their occurrence and evaluate the extent of inappropriately given vaccine doses. Design: A cross sectional study of children under two years of age attending health facilities. Setting: Six health facilities predominantly serving the slums of ...

  14. Determinants Of Missed Opportunities For Immunization Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors responsible for the missed opportunities included the attitude of the health worker, prolonged time of waiting to receive vaccine, immunization clashing with other schedules and transportation problem. Respondents' level ofknowledge on immunization and educational background were significantly associated with ...

  15. All hypertopologies are hit-and-miss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somshekhar Naimpally

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We solve a long standing problem by showing that all known hypertopologies are hit-and-miss. Our solution is not merely of theoretical importance. This representation is useful in the study of comparison of the Hausdorff-Bourbaki or H-B uniform topologies and the Wijsman topologies among themselves and with others. Up to now some of these comparisons needed intricate manipulations. The H-B uniform topologies were the subject of intense activity in the 1960's in connection with the Isbell-Smith problem. We show that they are proximally locally finite topologies from which the solution to the above problem follows easily. It is known that the Wijsman topology on the hyperspace is the proximal ball (hit-and-miss topology in”nice” metric spaces including the normed linear spaces. With the introduction of a new far-miss topology we show that the Wijsman topology is hit-and-miss for all metric spaces. From this follows a natural generalization of the Wijsman topology to the hyperspace of any T1 space. Several existing results in the literature are easy consequences of our work.

  16. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Unlock the power of Flash and bring gorgeous animations to life onscreen. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual includes a complete primer on animation, a guided tour of the program's tools and capabilities, lots of new illustrations, and more details on working with video. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced Flash designers will improve their skills.

  17. What's Missing? Anti-Racist Sex Education!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…

  18. How efficient is estimation with missing data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadogan, Seliz; Marchegiani, Letizia; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    percentages (MDP) using a missing completely at random (MCAR) scheme. We compare three MDTs: pairwise deletion (PW), mean imputation (MI) and a maximum likelihood method that we call complete expectation maximization (CEM). We use a synthetic dataset, the Iris dataset and the Pima Indians Diabetes dataset. We...

  19. Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo new methods for dealing with missing values in generalized canonical correlation analysis are introduced. The first approach, which does not require iterations, is a generalization of the Test Equating method available for principal component analysis. In the second approach,

  20. Missed Distal Tracheal Foreign Body in Consecutive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Since invention, bronchoscopy has become the gold standard in the diagnosis and extraction of airway FB.[4]. Foreign bodies may be missed at ... Since the discovery by Gustav Killian,[9] extraction of tracheobronchial FB has been accomplished with rigid bronchoscopy which is still considered as the gold.

  1. Missed isolated volar dislocation of the scaphoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Lise; Larsen, Søren; Jørring, Stig

    2007-01-01

    A patient presented with volar dislocation of the scaphoid, the diagnosis of which had been missed for two weeks. He was treated with open reduction through a combined volar and dorsal approach with decompression of the median nerve, internal fixation, and a cast for eight weeks. One year postope...... postoperatively the functional result was good. A radiograph showed no sign of avascular necrosis....

  2. Missed opportunities for immunisation at Kasungu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work. Some outreach and static clinics still concen- trate their EPI activities on infants and children and largely ignore the mothers who accompany them. Health workers ... sungu District Hospital (KDH) were surveyed. Six. Health Centres ... Table 2 Missed Dpponunities for Immunisation ofEPI Tat'get Gt'Oups at Kmungu ...

  3. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  4. Not Your Daddy's Data Link: Musings on Datalink Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, James

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs about musings on Datalink Communications are presented. Some of the topics include: 1) Keen Eye for a Straight Proposal (Next Gen Data Link); 2) So many datalinks so little funding!!!; 3) Brave New World; 4) Time marches on!; 5) Through the Looking Glass; 6) Dollars & Sense Cooking; 7) Economics 101; 8) The Missing Link(s); 9) Straight Shooting; and 10) All is not lost.

  5. Incomplete Early Childhood Immunization Series and Missing Fourth DTaP Immunizations; Missed Opportunities or Missed Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The successful completion of early childhood immunizations is a proxy for overall quality of early care. Immunization statuses are usually assessed by up-to-date (UTD) rates covering combined series of different immunizations. However, series UTD rates often only bear on which single immunization is missing, rather than the success of all immunizations. In the US, most series UTD rates are limited by missing fourth DTaP-containing immunizations (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis) due at 15 to 18 months of age. Missing 4th DTaP immunizations are associated either with a lack of visits at 15 to 18 months of age, or to visits without immunizations. Typical immunization data however cannot distinguish between these two reasons. This study compared immunization records from the Oregon ALERT IIS with medical encounter records for two-year olds in the Oregon Health Plan. Among those with 3 valid DTaPs by 9 months of age, 31.6% failed to receive a timely 4th DTaP; of those without a 4th DTaP, 42.1% did not have any provider visits from 15 through 18 months of age, while 57.9% had at least one provider visit. Those with a 4th DTaP averaged 2.45 encounters, while those with encounters but without 4th DTaPs averaged 2.23 encounters.

  6. Climate change and amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Corn, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian life histories are exceedingly sensitive to temperature and precipitation, and there is good evidence that recent climate change has already resulted in a shift to breeding earlier in the year for some species. There are also suggestions that the recent increase in the occurrence of El Niño events has caused declines of anurans in Central America and is linked to elevated mortality of amphibian embryos in the northwestern United States. However, evidence linking amphibian declines i...

  7. Preventing treatment errors in radiotherapy by identifying and evaluating near misses and actual incidents

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holmberg, Ola

    2002-06-01

    When preparing radiation treatment, the prescribed dose and irradiation geometry must be translated into physical machine parameters. An error in the calculations or machine settings can negatively affect the intended treatment outcome. Analysing incidents originating in the treatment preparation chain makes it possible to find weak links and prevent treatment errors. The aim of this work is to study the effectiveness of a multilayered error prevention system by analysing both near misses and actual treatment errors.

  8. Congenitally missing mandibular second premolars: clinical options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, Vincent G; Kokich, Vincent O

    2006-10-01

    Congenital absence of mandibular second premolars affects many orthodontic patients. The orthodontist must make the proper decision at the appropriate time regarding management of the edentulous space. These spaces can be closed or left open. If the space will be left open for an eventual restoration, the keys during orthodontic treatment are to create the correct amount of space and to leave the alveolar ridge in an ideal condition for a future restoration. If the space will be closed, the clinician must avoid any detrimental alterations to the occlusion and the facial profile. Some early decisions that the orthodontist makes for a patient whose mandibular second premolars are congenitally missing will affect his or her dental health for a lifetime. Therefore, the correct decision must be made at the appropriate time. In this article, we present and discuss various treatment alternatives for managing orthodontic patients with at least 1 congenitally missing mandibular second premolar.

  9. The case of the missing third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin

    2005-01-01

    How is it that form arises out of chaos? In attempting to deal with this primary question, time and again a "Missing Third" is posited that lies between extremes. The problem of the "Missing Third" can be traced through nearly the entire history of thought. The form it takes, the problems that arise from it, the solutions suggested for resolving it, are each representative of an age. This paper traces the issue from Plato and Parmenides in the 4th--5th centuries, B.C.; to Neoplatonism in the 3rd--5th centuries; to Locke and Descartes in the 17th century; on to Berkeley and Kant in the 18th century; Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; to behaviorism and Gestalt psychology, Jung, early in the 20th century, ethology and cybernetics later in the 20th century, then culminates late in the 20th century, with chaos theory.

  10. iLife '05 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2005-01-01

    The incomparable iLife '05 is the must-have multimedia suite for everyone who owns a Mac--and the envy of everyone who doesn't. iLife '05: The Missing Manual is the definitive iLife '05 book--and what should have come with the suite. There's no better guide to your iLife experience than the #1 bestselling Macintosh author and expert--and Missing Manual series creator--David Pogue. Totally objective and utterly in-the-know, Pogue highlights the newest features, changes, and improvements of iLife '05, covers the capabilities and limitations of each program within the suite, and delivers count

  11. Absence of missing mass in clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the radial-velocity dispersion in clusters of galaxies is considered by using order statistics to reduce the distortions introduced by foreground and background galaxies and by large errors in velocity measurement. For four nearby clusters of galaxies, including the Coma cluster, velocity dispersions are obtained which are approximately four times lower than previously reported values. It is found that more remote galaxies exhibit the same tendency to a reduction in missing mass. A detailed examination of the statistical properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster reveals that the cluster might not actually exist, but may be just a large excess in the number density of bright galaxies, possibly the result of an increase in the visibility of objects in the appropriate directions. It is concluded that the presence of a large amount of missing mass in clusters of galaxies is yet to be proven.

  12. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  13. Photoshop Elements 6 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    With Photoshop Elements 6, the most popular photo-editing program on Earth just keeps getting better. It's perfect for scrapbooking, email-ready slideshows, Web galleries, you name it. But knowing what to do and when is tricky. That's why our Missing Manual is the bestselling book on the topic. This fully revised guide explains not only how the tools and commands work, but when to use them.

  14. Missing level corrections using neutron spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    2009-11-01

    Nuclear level densities are very important for a wide variety of pure and applied neutron physics. Most of the relevant information is obtained from neutron resonance data. The key correction to the raw experimental data is for missing levels. All of the standard correction methods assume that the neutron resonances obey the predictions of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble version of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and utilize comparison with the Porter-Thomas distribution of reduced widths in order to determine the fraction of missing levels. Here we adopt an alternate approach, comparing the neutron data with the predictions of RMT for eigenvalue statistics. Since in RMT the widths and eigenvalues are independent, analysis of the eigenvalues provides an independent analysis of the same data set. We summarize recent work in this area using the nearest neighbour spacing distribution, and we also develop tests that utilize several other eigenvalue statistics to provide additional estimates of the missing fraction of levels. These additional statistics include the key test for long range order - the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic - as well as the thermodynamic energy (that arises from Dyson's Circular Orthogonal Ensemble), the linear correlation coefficient of adjacent spacings (a measure of short range anti-correlation), and a statistic related to the Q statistic defined by Dyson and Mehta in the early 1960s. Developed FORTRAN code is available at http://www-nds.iaea.org/missing-levels/. These tests are applied to the s-wave neutron resonances in n + 238 U and n + 232 Th. The results for 238 U are consistent with each other and raise some issues concerning data purity. For the 232 Th data, all of the tests are in excellent agreement. (author)

  15. iWork '09 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2009-01-01

    With iWork '09: The Missing Manual, you'll quickly learn everything you need to know about Apple's incredible productivity programs, including the Pages word-processor, the Numbers spreadsheet, and the Keynote presentation program that Al Gore and Steve Jobs made famous. This book gives you crystal-clear and jargon-free explanations of iWork's capabilities, advantages, and limitations to help you produce stunning documents and cinema-quality digital presentations in no time.

  16. MISSE 6 Polymer Film Tensile Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Sechkar, Edward; Kline, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) was flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. The polymers selected are those commonly used for spacecraft thermal control and those under consideration for use in spacecraft applications such as sunshields, solar sails, and inflatable and deployable structures. The dog-bone shaped samples of polymers that were flown were exposed on both the side of the MISSE 6 Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that was facing into the ram direction (receiving atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and thermal cycling) and the wake facing side (which was supposed to have experienced predominantly the same environmental effects except for atomic oxygen which was present due to reorientation of the International Space Station). A few of the tensile samples were coated with vapor deposited aluminum on the back and wired to determine the point in the flight when the tensile sample broke as recorded by a change in voltage that was stored on battery powered data loggers for post flight retrieval and analysis. The data returned on the data loggers was not usable. However, post retrieval observation and analysis of the samples was performed. This paper describes the preliminary analysis and observations of the polymers exposed on the MISSE 6 PFTE.

  17. Planned Missing Data Designs in Educational Psychology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemtulla, M.; Hancock, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although missing data are often viewed as a challenge for applied researchers, in fact missing data can be highly beneficial. Specifically, when the amount of missing data on specific variables is carefully controlled, a balance can be struck between statistical power and research costs. This

  18. Towards demand-side solutions for mitigating climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Roy, Joyashree; Lamb, William F.; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Dalkmann, Holger; Edelenbosch, Oreane Y.; Geels, Frank W.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hepburn, Cameron; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Khosla, Radhika; Mattauch, Linus; Minx, Jan C.; Ramakrishnan, Anjali; Rao, Narasimha D.; Steinberger, Julia K.; Tavoni, Massimo; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Weber, Elke U.

    2018-04-01

    Research on climate change mitigation tends to focus on supply-side technology solutions. A better understanding of demand-side solutions is missing. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to identify demand-side climate solutions, investigate their mitigation potential, detail policy measures and assess their implications for well-being.

  19. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  20. Missing value imputation for epistatic MAPs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2010-04-20

    Abstract Background Epistatic miniarray profiling (E-MAPs) is a high-throughput approach capable of quantifying aggravating or alleviating genetic interactions between gene pairs. The datasets resulting from E-MAP experiments typically take the form of a symmetric pairwise matrix of interaction scores. These datasets have a significant number of missing values - up to 35% - that can reduce the effectiveness of some data analysis techniques and prevent the use of others. An effective method for imputing interactions would therefore increase the types of possible analysis, as well as increase the potential to identify novel functional interactions between gene pairs. Several methods have been developed to handle missing values in microarray data, but it is unclear how applicable these methods are to E-MAP data because of their pairwise nature and the significantly larger number of missing values. Here we evaluate four alternative imputation strategies, three local (Nearest neighbor-based) and one global (PCA-based), that have been modified to work with symmetric pairwise data. Results We identify different categories for the missing data based on their underlying cause, and show that values from the largest category can be imputed effectively. We compare local and global imputation approaches across a variety of distinct E-MAP datasets, showing that both are competitive and preferable to filling in with zeros. In addition we show that these methods are effective in an E-MAP from a different species, suggesting that pairwise imputation techniques will be increasingly useful as analogous epistasis mapping techniques are developed in different species. We show that strongly alleviating interactions are significantly more difficult to predict than strongly aggravating interactions. Finally we show that imputed interactions, generated using nearest neighbor methods, are enriched for annotations in the same manner as measured interactions. Therefore our method potentially

  1. The Network Completion Problem: Inferring Missing Nodes and Edges in Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Leskovec, J

    2011-11-14

    Network structures, such as social networks, web graphs and networks from systems biology, play important roles in many areas of science and our everyday lives. In order to study the networks one needs to first collect reliable large scale network data. While the social and information networks have become ubiquitous, the challenge of collecting complete network data still persists. Many times the collected network data is incomplete with nodes and edges missing. Commonly, only a part of the network can be observed and we would like to infer the unobserved part of the network. We address this issue by studying the Network Completion Problem: Given a network with missing nodes and edges, can we complete the missing part? We cast the problem in the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework where we use the observed part of the network to fit a model of network structure, and then we estimate the missing part of the network using the model, re-estimate the parameters and so on. We combine the EM with the Kronecker graphs model and design a scalable Metropolized Gibbs sampling approach that allows for the estimation of the model parameters as well as the inference about missing nodes and edges of the network. Experiments on synthetic and several real-world networks show that our approach can effectively recover the network even when about half of the nodes in the network are missing. Our algorithm outperforms not only classical link-prediction approaches but also the state of the art Stochastic block modeling approach. Furthermore, our algorithm easily scales to networks with tens of thousands of nodes.

  2. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  3. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  4. Climate change and amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian life histories are exceedingly sensitive to temperature and precipitation, and there is good evidence that recent climate change has already resulted in a shift to breeding earlier in the year for some species. There are also suggestions that the recent increase in the occurrence of El Niño events has caused declines of anurans in Central America and is linked to elevated mortality of amphibian embryos in the northwestern United States. However, evidence linking amphibian declines in Central America to climate relies solely on correlations, and the mechanisms underlying the declines are not understood. Connections between embryo mortality and declines in abundance have not been demonstrated. Analyses of existing data have generally failed to find a link between climate and amphibian declines. It is likely, however, that future climate change will cause further declines of some amphibian species. Reduced soil moisture could reduce prey species and eliminate habitat. Reduced snowfall and increased summer evaporation could have dramatic effects on the duration or occurrence of seasonal wetlands, which are primary habitat for many species of amphibians. Climate change may be a relatively minor cause of current amphibian declines, but it may be the biggest future challenge to the persistence of many species

  5. Climate change and amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corn, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian life histories are exceedingly sensitive to temperature and precipitation, and there is good evidence that recent climate change has already resulted in a shift to breeding earlier in the year for some species. There are also suggestions that the recent increase in the occurrence of El Niño events has caused declines of anurans in Central America and is linked to elevated mortality of amphibian embryos in the northwestern United States. However, evidence linking amphibian declines in Central America to climate relies solely on correlations, and the mechanisms underlying the declines are not understood. Connections between embryo mortality and declines in abundance have not been demonstrated. Analyses of existing data have generally failed to find a link between climate and amphibian declines. It is likely, however, that future climate change will cause further declines of some amphibian species. Reduced soil moisture could reduce prey species and eliminate habitat. Reduced snowfall and increased summer evaporation could have dramatic effects on the duration or occurrence of seasonal wetlands, which are primary habitat for many species of amphibians. Climate change may be a relatively minor cause of current amphibian declines, but it may be the biggest future challenge to the persistence of many species

  6. Sonification of Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katharina; Visda, Goudarzi

    2013-04-01

    Sonification is the acoustic analogue of data visualization and takes advantage of human perceptual and cognitive capabilities. The amount of data being processed today is steadily increasing, and both scientists and society need new ways to understand scientific data and their implications. Sonification is especially suited to the preliminary exploration of complex, dynamic, and multidimensional data sets, as can be found in climate science. In the research project SysSon (https://sysson.kug.ac.at/), we apply a systematic approach to design sonifications to climate data. In collaboration with the Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (http://www.wegcenter.at/) we assessed the metaphors climate scientists use and their typical workflows, and chose data sets where sonification has high potential revealing new phenomena. This background will be used to develop an audio interface which is directly linked to the visualization interfaces for data analysis the scientists use today. The protoype will be evaluated according to its functionality, intuitivity for climate scientists, and aesthetic criteria. In the current stage of the project, conceptual links between climate science and sound have been elaborated and first sonification designs have been developed. The research is mainly carried out at the Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics (http://iem.kug.ac.at/), which has extensive experience in interactive sonification with multidimensional data sets.

  7. Link prediction via generalized coupled tensor factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermiş, Beyza; Evrim, Acar Ataman; Taylan Cemgil, A.

    2012-01-01

    and higher-order tensors. We propose to use an approach based on probabilistic interpretation of tensor factorisation models, i.e., Generalised Coupled Tensor Factorisation, which can simultaneously fit a large class of tensor models to higher-order tensors/matrices with com- mon latent factors using...... different loss functions. Numerical experiments demonstrate that joint analysis of data from multiple sources via coupled factorisation improves the link prediction performance and the selection of right loss function and tensor model is crucial for accurately predicting missing links....

  8. Connecting today's climates to future climate analogs to facilitate movement of species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Caitlin E; McRae, Brad H; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Carroll, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few researchers have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. We identified key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species' movement across western North America. Using historical climate data sets and future climate projections, we mapped potential species' movement routes that link current climate conditions to analogous climate conditions in the future (i.e., future climate analogs) with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory. In addition to tracing shifting climates, the approach accounted for landscape permeability and empirically derived species' dispersal capabilities. We compared connectivity maps generated with our climate-change-informed approach with maps of connectivity based solely on the degree of human modification of the landscape. Including future climate projections in connectivity models substantially shifted and constrained priority areas for movement to a smaller proportion of the landscape than when climate projections were not considered. Potential movement, measured as current flow, decreased in all ecoregions when climate projections were included, particularly when dispersal was limited, which made climate analogs inaccessible. Many areas emerged as important for connectivity only when climate change was modeled in 2 time steps rather than in a single time step. Our results illustrate that movement routes needed to track changing climatic conditions may differ from those that connect present-day landscapes. Incorporating future climate projections into connectivity modeling is an important step toward facilitating successful species movement and population persistence in a changing climate. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN CATALOGS WITH MISSING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2013-01-01

    We present an automatic classification method for astronomical catalogs with missing data. We use Bayesian networks and a probabilistic graphical model that allows us to perform inference to predict missing values given observed data and dependency relationships between variables. To learn a Bayesian network from incomplete data, we use an iterative algorithm that utilizes sampling methods and expectation maximization to estimate the distributions and probabilistic dependencies of variables from data with missing values. To test our model, we use three catalogs with missing data (SAGE, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UBVI) and one complete catalog (MACHO). We examine how classification accuracy changes when information from missing data catalogs is included, how our method compares to traditional missing data approaches, and at what computational cost. Integrating these catalogs with missing data, we find that classification of variable objects improves by a few percent and by 15% for quasar detection while keeping the computational cost the same

  10. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN CATALOGS WITH MISSING DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichara, Karim [Computer Science Department, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Protopapas, Pavlos [Institute for Applied Computational Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present an automatic classification method for astronomical catalogs with missing data. We use Bayesian networks and a probabilistic graphical model that allows us to perform inference to predict missing values given observed data and dependency relationships between variables. To learn a Bayesian network from incomplete data, we use an iterative algorithm that utilizes sampling methods and expectation maximization to estimate the distributions and probabilistic dependencies of variables from data with missing values. To test our model, we use three catalogs with missing data (SAGE, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UBVI) and one complete catalog (MACHO). We examine how classification accuracy changes when information from missing data catalogs is included, how our method compares to traditional missing data approaches, and at what computational cost. Integrating these catalogs with missing data, we find that classification of variable objects improves by a few percent and by 15% for quasar detection while keeping the computational cost the same.

  11. Missing value imputation: with application to handwriting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2015-01-01

    Missing values make pattern analysis difficult, particularly with limited available data. In longitudinal research, missing values accumulate, thereby aggravating the problem. Here we consider how to deal with temporal data with missing values in handwriting analysis. In the task of studying development of individuality of handwriting, we encountered the fact that feature values are missing for several individuals at several time instances. Six algorithms, i.e., random imputation, mean imputation, most likely independent value imputation, and three methods based on Bayesian network (static Bayesian network, parameter EM, and structural EM), are compared with children's handwriting data. We evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the algorithms under different ratios of missing data and missing values, and useful conclusions are given. Specifically, static Bayesian network is used for our data which contain around 5% missing data to provide adequate accuracy and low computational cost.

  12. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  13. Are We Really Missing Small Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    One long-standing astrophysical puzzle is that of so-called missing dwarf galaxies: the number of small dwarf galaxies that we observe is far fewer than that predicted by theory. New simulations, however, suggest that perhaps theres no mystery after all.Missing DwarfsDark-matter cosmological simulations predict many small galaxy halos for every large halo that forms. [The Via Lactea project]Models of a lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) universe predict the distribution of galaxy halo sizes throughout the universe, suggesting there should be many more small galaxies than large ones. In what has become known as the missing dwarf problem, however, we find that while we observe the expected numbers of galaxies at the larger end of the scale, we dont see nearly enough small galaxies to match the predictions.Are these galaxies actually missing? Are our predictions wrong? Or are the galaxies there and were just not spotting them? A recent study led by Alyson Brooks (Rutgers University) uses new simulations to explore whatscausing the difference between theory and observation.The fraction of detectable halos as a function of velocity, according to the authors simulations. Below 35 km/s, the detectability of the galaxies drops precipitously. [Brooks et al. 2017]Simulating Galactic VelocitiesBecause we cant weigh a galaxy directly, one proxy used for galaxy mass is its circular velocity; the more massive a galaxy, the faster gas and stars rotate around its center. The discrepancy between models and observations lies in whats known as the galaxy velocity function, which describes the number density of galaxies for a given circular velocity. While theory and observations agree for galaxies with circular velocities above 100 km/s, theory predicts far more dwarfs below this velocity than we observe.To investigate this problem, Brooks and collaborators ran a series of cosmological simulations based on our understanding of a CDM universe. Instead of exploring the result using only

  14. Life on thin ice: Insights from Uummannaq, Greenland for connecting climate science with Arctic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Cordier, Mateo; Huctin, Jean-Michel; Zhu, Zhiwei; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    What are the links between mainstream climate science and local community knowledge? This study takes the example of Greenland, considered one of the regions most impacted by climate change, and Inuit people, characterized as being highly adaptive to environmental change, to explore this question. The study is based on 10 years of anthropological participatory research in Uummannaq, Northwest Greenland, along with two fieldwork periods in October 2014 and April 2015, and a quantitative bibliometric analysis of the international literature on sea ice - a central subject of concern identified by Uummannaq community members during the fieldwork periods. Community members' perceptions of currently available scientific climate knowledge were also collected during the fieldwork. This was done to determine if community members consider available scientific knowledge salient and if it covers issues they consider relevant. The bibliometric analysis of the sea ice literature provided additional insight into the degree to which scientific knowledge about climate change provides information relevant for the community. Our results contribute to the ongoing debate on the missing connections between community worldviews, cultural values, livelihood needs, interests and climate science. Our results show that more scientific research efforts should consider local-level needs in order to produce local-scale knowledge that is more salient, credible and legitimate for communities experiencing climate change. In Uummannaq, as in many Inuit communities with similar conditions, more research should be done on sea ice thickness in winter and in areas through which local populations travel. This paper supports the growing evidence that whenever possible, climate change research should focus on environmental features that matter to communities, at temporal and spatial scales relevant to them, in order to foster community adaptations to change. We recommend such research be connected to and

  15. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Qin

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  16. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Melvin, Thomas M; Fan, Zexin; Zhao, Yan; Briffa, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  17. iPod the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2008-01-01

    With the tiny Shuffle, the Nano, the Classic, or the Touch, Apple's gotten the world hooked on portable music, pictures, videos -- and the iPod. One thing they haven't delivered is an easy guide for getting the most from this sleek entertainment center. iPod: The Missing Manual, 7th Edition gives you a no-nonsense view of the latest iPod line, with crystal-clear explanations, easy-to-follow color graphics, and guidance on the most useful things your iPod can do.

  18. Switching to the Mac The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Is Windows giving you pause? Ready to make the leap to the Mac instead? There has never been a better time to switch from Windows to Mac, and this incomparable guide will help you make a smooth transition. New York Times columnist and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue gets you past three challenges: transferring your stuff, assembling Mac programs so you can do what you did with Windows, and learning your way around Mac OS X. Learning to use a Mac is not a piece of cake, but once you do, the rewards are oh-so-much better. No viruses, worms, or spyware. No questionable firewalls, inefficien

  19. Dreamweaver CS55 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    McFarland, David

    2011-01-01

    Dreamweaver is the tool most widely used for designing and managing professional-looking websites, but it's a complex program. That's where Dreamweaver CS5.5: The Missing Manual comes in. With its jargon-free explanations, 13 hands-on tutorials, and savvy advice from Dreamweaver expert Dave McFarland, you'll master this versatile program with ease. Get A to Z guidance. Go from building your first web page to creating interactive, database-driven sites.Build skills as you learn. Apply your knowledge through tutorials and downloadable practice files.Create a state-of-the-art website. Use powerf

  20. Handling missing data in ranked set sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Bouza-Herrera, Carlos N

    2013-01-01

    The existence of missing observations is a very important aspect to be considered in the application of survey sampling, for example. In human populations they may be caused by a refusal of some interviewees to give the true value for the variable of interest. Traditionally, simple random sampling is used to select samples. Most statistical models are supported by the use of samples selected by means of this design. In recent decades, an alternative design has started being used, which, in many cases, shows an improvement in terms of accuracy compared with traditional sampling. It is called R