WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate facade energy

  1. Behaviour of green facades in Mediterranean Continental climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Rincon, L.; Vila, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain data on the behaviour of green facades in buildings as a passive system for energy savings in dry Mediterranean Continental climate a long-term work has been performed. This paper presents the first results of two actions developed during 2009. First, the growth of four different climbing plants as well as their ability to provide shadow was studied. Second, monitoring for a year of a real green facade was carried out. The results confirmed the great capacity of green facades to produce shade, reducing the heat on the facade wall of the building. It was also verified that a microclimate between the wall of the building and the green curtain are created, characterized by slightly lower temperatures and higher relative humidity. This means that the green screen acts as a wind barrier and confirms the evapotranspiration effect of the plants. On the other hand, these results did not allow withdrawing conclusions about the insulation effect of green facades.

  2. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  3. Light and energy - solar cells in transparent facades. Final report; Lys og energi - solceller i transparente facader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The overall purpose with the project 'LIGHT AND ENERGY - solar cells in transparent facades' is to demonstrate and disseminate the potentials for the application of light-filtering solar cells as multi-functional components, which meets the architectural objectives while contributing to a good indoor climate, a suitable quality of lighting indoor and at the same time produces electricity. The project was divided into six activities. The first activity 'zooms in' on the light-filtering solar cells on the market today. The following activities gradually 'zoom out' from the solar cell itself to the building component and ends up in the facade and the room behind. This order - which largely reflects the chronological development of the project - is repeated in the final project report to ensure the best possible overview. The characterisation in the different activities has been a combination of technical measurements, simulations, calculations and a thorough architectural evaluation of solar cell component, facade and room for attain an overall, interprofessional evaluation of the solar cell panels. It is important to stress that the basis of the project is the solar cell products available on the market today and In the near future. The possibilities and ideas have been evaluated and documented using mock-ups in 1:1 scale since the individual components have completely other qualities when they are integrated in a facade - the platform of this project. These models in full scale are a possibility to register and experience the character of the light inside out and under different light settings. It has been important to think of the solar cell filter as a part of the architecture instead of a replacement for windows and actively use the light-filtering features as a possibility in new facade designs - a filter which in combination with the completely transparent glass and completely light-blocking materials opens up for new possibilities

  4. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade......, for use in the design phase, is done. The methods used are initially based on thermal building calculations. This analysis shows that a dynamic adaptive facade is the only way in which future office buildings can fulfil the energy regulations. By designing the facade according to the usage...

  5. Numerical investigation of the energy saving potential of a semi-transparent photovoltaic double-skin facade in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jinqing; Curcija, Dragan C.; Lu, Lin; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Yang, Hongxing; Zhang, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive simulation model has been developed to predict the overall energy performance of PV-DSF. • Sensitivity analyses of air gap depths were conducted and the optimal air gap depth was identified. • The overall energy performance and energy saving potential of the PV-DSF was evaluated. • A comparative study was conducted between the PV-DSF and other commonly used window technologies. - Abstract: This paper presents the annual overall energy performance and energy-saving potential of a ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade (PV-DSF) in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate zone. A numerical simulation model based on EnergyPlus was utilized to simulate the PV-DSF overall energy performance, simultaneously taking into account thermal power and daylight. Based on numerical model, sensitivity analyses about air gap width and ventilation modes have been lead in Berkeley (California) with the aim to optimize unit’s structure design and operational strategy of PV-DSF. Via simulation, the overall energy performance including thermal, power and daylighting of the optimized PV-DSF was evaluated using the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data. It was found that per unit area of the proposed PV-DSF was able to generate about 65 kW h electricity yearly. If high efficiency cadmium telluride (CdTe) semi-transparent PV modules are adopted, the annual energy output could be even doubled. The PV-DSF studied, also featured good thermal and daylighting performances. The PV-DSF can effectively block solar radiation while still providing considerable daylighting illuminance. Due simply to excellent overall energy performance, a PV-DSF at Berkeley can reduce net electricity use by about 50% compared with other commonly used glazing systems. Efficiency improvements of semi-transparent PV modules would further increase the energy saving potential of a PV-DSF and thus making this technology more promising.

  6. Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the world of today, issues of the relationship between society and nature are becoming more relevant. A process of continuous development of industrial and social activities and the negative interference in the environment cause damage to the unique biosphere. The dynamics of destructive processes necessitates conducting activities in accordance with the fundamental laws of nature. One way of solving these problems is to create a harmonious architectural environment that has minimal impact on the environment of the surrounding countryside. An important factor in the process of "sustainable architecture" formation is the use of the building materials, which are safe for humans and the environment. Special role in this aspect is played by wood possessing unquestionable priority in "sustainable architecture". Wood is a renewable natural material with unique properties. Wastelessness, low thermal conductivity, strength, unique texture, ease of processing and other quality wood help to create cozy and comfortable environment. From the perspective of ecological and energy problems the use of wood in architecture has a special role as the most optimal solution to these issues. In Russia construction of energy efficient buildings is at an early stage of development. To date, the power consumption of the existing residential and public buildings in Russia is on average about three times higher than in technically advanced countries of Scandinavia with similar climatic conditions. At the same time the tendency to steady growth of non-renewable energy resources leads to the need to improve the thermal protection of buildings. The problem of thermal protection of buildings in architecture led to widespread use of ventilated facades. Constructive solution is to install the layer of insulation on the exterior walls and to fasten cladding materials to the frame to form an air gap for air circulation. Finishing materials perform architectural function. The

  7. Energy efficient glazed office buildings with double skin facades in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Bo; Blomsterberg, Aake (WSP Environmental (Sweden)). e-mail: bo.eriksson@wspgroup.se

    2009-07-01

    Many modern office buildings have highly glazed facades. Their energy efficiency and indoor climate are, however, being questioned. Therefore more and more of these buildings are being built with double skin facades, which can provide improvements: A project BESTFACADE, with participants from Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal (France) and Sweden, was therefore funded by the European Commission (IEE) to actively promote well-performing concepts of double skin facades. Included were best practice guidelines, which included the determination of the energy use and thermal comfort by simulations for warm, mild and cold climates. The main conclusion is that the choice of glazing properties such as glazing area, U-value (thermal transmittance) of the glazing and its profiles, g-value (the total solar energy transmittance) of the glazing and type of solar shading are crucial for the energy and indoor climate performance of an office. The choice of control strategies for ventilation of the cavity and operation of solar shading are crucial. The above choices are very dependant on the climate. Choices which are optimal in a cold climate, will not work very well in a warm climate, and vice versa. From an energy and indoor climate point of view a highly glazed office with a double skin facade is often preferred to a single

  8. Sustainable building with closed cavity facades. Top energy efficiency and more daylight; Nachhaltig bauen mit Closed Cavity Fassaden. Hoechste Energieeffizienz und mehr Tageslicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Bernhard

    2012-08-15

    Facades have a key function within the sustainable construction since the energy conservation significantly depends on the building envelope. Beside an enhanced energy efficiency, the Green Building shall offer an improved utilization of day-lighting and comfortable indoor climatic conditions. Here, the innovative Closed Cavity Facade new standards. The former 'Poseidon building' in Frankfurt/Main (Federal Republic of Germany) and the multi-storey building of the Roche company in Basel (Switzerland) are equipped with this facade. The energy costs, operational costs as well as the maintenance costs are reduced sustainably using this closed bivalved facade.

  9. Effect of facade components on energy efficiency in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Takeshi; Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of facade properties for energy efficiency of Tokyo office buildings. • Higher reflectance for opaque parts may slightly reduce energy demand. • Lower window U-value and solar heat gain coefficient are potential solutions. • Decreased heating due to insulation did not always compensate increased cooling. • Fundamental data for adjustment of facade properties of buildings are provided. - Abstract: Properties of facade materials should be considered to determine which of them strongly affect building energy performance, regardless of the building shapes, scales, ideal locations, and building types, and thus may be able to promote energy efficiency in buildings. In this study, the effects of four fundamental facade properties related to the energy efficiency of office buildings in Tokyo, Japan, were investigated with the purpose of reducing the heating and cooling energy demands. Some fundamental design factors such as volume and shape were also considered. It was found that the reduction in both the solar heat gain coefficient and window U-value and increase in the solar reflectance of the opaque parts are promising measures for reducing the energy demand. Conversely, the reduction in the U-value of the opaque parts decreased the heating energy demand, and this was accompanied by an increase in the cooling energy demand in some cases because the total energy demands were predominantly for cooling. The above-mentioned promising measures for reducing building energy demands are thus recommended for use, and an appropriate U-value should be applied to the opaque parts based on careful considerations. This study provides some fundamental ideas to adjust the facade properties of buildings.

  10. LYS OG ENERGI - solceller i transprente facader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Lauritzen, Hanne; Wedel, Signe

    2006-01-01

    For english see below En grundlæggende udfordring ved udvikling af nye typer solceller og anvendelse af disse i en arkitektonisk sammenhæng er, at solcellen oftest vurderes alene som tekniske og specialiserede monofunktionelle lag med fokus på at fungere som bygningens energieffektive hud. Formålet......-value calculation is a relatively small part compared the benefit as a design tool. Thermal simulations have shown a large difference in temperature between the inner and outer glass in the panel. The outer glass can be as hot as 80 oC while the inner glass in a low-energy window/solar cell construction...... are expected to decline more rapidly than conventional solar cells but stabilise at a higher level due to the more complex production. The project was carried out as an actual interdisciplinary cooperation between Danish Building Research Institute (SBi), Danish Technological Institute, VELFAC A/S and Aarhus...

  11. The facade, future of the building; La facade, avenir du batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A.

    2000-07-01

    This article shows the importance that the facade conception will take in the building construction. Currently, the insulation of buildings is such that, in most cases, the heat released by machines, computers, lighting systems, as well as the building occupants is large enough to maintain a pleasant room temperature. Thus, in the future, the facades will manage, in a clever way, the flows of heat, air and light according to the exterior climate and to the human desires, with a high energy efficiency. The facades will become complex multi-function units composed, for example, of glass, solar cells, mechanical opening valves, and so on. The goals are also to reduce the mounting times and the costs. Furthermore, facade manufacturing will use the most ecological materials. For instance, wood is currently under-exploited. The architects will have to recourse to specialists for the facade conception.

  12. Dynamic facades, the smart way of meeting the energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Winther, Frederik Vilbrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based on the exper...... climate conditions. The dynamic façades play an important role in this development as it optimizes the interaction with the external environment in close correlation with the demand from the building and the users.......The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based...

  13. Evaluation of simplified ventilation system with direct air supply through the facade in a school in a cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mysen, M. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Department of Energy and Process Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Schild, P. G.; Hellstrand, V.; Thunshelle, K. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Many educational buildings in industrialised countries have poor indoor climate, according to today's knowledge about the impact of indoor climate on well-being and productivity. Budget restrictions and practical limitations such as lack of space for central air handling units and ventilation ducts, have motivated the application of simplified ventilation systems in some schools, such as taking unconditioned supply air directly from the facade. One such school was recently evaluated in Norway. On cold days, thermal comfort in the classroom deteriorated due to cold down draught from the supply outlet. In addition, moist and fertile conditions for microbiological growth were observed in the air supply ductwork. On the other hand the same pupils are more satisfied with the school and have less sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms during winter than summer. An improved control strategy with a temperature-compensated CO{sub 2} set-point for controlling the air flow is suggested. This could improve thermal comfort and reduce energy use without compromising perceived air quality (PAQ) during cold weather. Furthermore it could improve indoor air quality (IAQ) during warm weather with only a slight increase of energy use. Further evaluation of an improved solution is needed before such a ventilation concept can be recommended in cold climates. (author)

  14. Assessment of the Use of Venetian Blinds as Solar Thermal Collectors in Double Skin Facades in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Velasco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global trend on energy integration and building efficiency is making both researchers and building developers look for technical solutions to use facade surfaces for energy harvesting. In this work, the assessment of the thermal performance of a double-skin facade (DSF with a venetian blind-type of structure used as a solar thermal collector by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD is presented. A Venetian blind collector would allow for heat rejection/energy harvesting and exterior views simultaneously and can be easily integrated into the DSF aesthetical design. For the purposes of this study, the modeled facades (south, west, and east-oriented were set to be located in Barcelona (Spain, where large solar gains are a constant condition throughout the year, and such large semi-transparent envelopes lead to interior over-heating in buildings, even during the winter. For the studied facades, both the reductions in radiative heat gains entering the building and the heat recovery in the Venetian blind collector were evaluated for a yearlong operation.

  15. Multi-functional energy facades. A symbiosis of architecture and power generation; Multifunktionale Energiefassaden. Eine Symbiose aus Architektur und Energiegewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2012-09-15

    Due to the continuously increasing energy prices, resource limitation and increasing environmental pollution the energy-optimized construction as well as sustainable energy supplies take on significance. Already in the preliminary phase of design, for architects, building owners and planners the question of the significance of the building envelope and specifically the facades play an important role in the energy supply.

  16. Design and Performance of Test Cells as an Energy Evaluation Model of Facades in a Mediterranean Building Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis León-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current European energy policies have an influence on the need to rehabilitate the housing stock in order to meet the objectives of the European Union. Most of this housing stock was built without any type of energy regulation in adverse technical and economic conditions and thus is now energetically obsolete. The major rehabilitation effort required must be approached through actions based on previous quantitative energy knowledge of the existing buildings in order to guarantee the efficiency of energy-retrofitted solutions. This assessment can be carried out through monitoring dwellings conditioned by use patterns; through simulation programs, which do not usually offer faithful representations of energy conditions; or by using test cells, which allow us to evaluate a controlled indoor environment without the influence of users. The objective of this paper is to present the design and performance of test cells as an experimental method for vertical facade analysis in order to tackle the problem of retrofitting residential buildings in a Mediterranean climate, taking into account energy and environment. With this equipment, efficiency and energy savings, as well as illumination and interior air quality, can be simultaneously and comprehensively evaluated.

  17. Application of Prefabricated Panels for the Energy Retrofit of Portuguese Residential Buildings Facades: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the potential application of prefabricated panels in energy retrofit of facades in the Portuguese building stock. The fundamentals of this study were part of Annex 50, which was an international ECBCS IEA project, with the purpose of developing an innovative concept of building renovation for the most representative buildings based on prefabricated systems. To analyze the potential application of energy retrofit using prefabricated panels, was important to know the reality of the existing building stock and its morphology. To know the reality of the building stock, an analysis was done based on the existing statistical data and to find the most representative residential buildings, target of the study, three criteria were defined: buildings built before 1990, with 2 to 6 floors and with renovation needs in the exterior envelope.

  18. A study on the effects of double skin facades on the energy management in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.; Ho, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Double skin facades (DSF) are gaining popularity for their ability to reduce solar heat gain in buildings. However, research works on the impact of DSF on the energy management, aerophysics and air conditioning of buildings are still at their infancy. The concept of envelope thermal transfer value (ETTV) has been specifically applied to evaluate the solar radiation gain component through a DSF fenestration system. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of DSF on the solar heat gain, the ETTV and hence the energy management within buildings. A systematic methodology to investigate the effectiveness of DSF in reducing solar heat gain has been presented. Experimental works have been performed to obtain the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) values of a DSF fenestration system. These values are then applied to compare the ETTVs generated from a model building with different DSF configurations, namely, different wall-to-window ratios and varying shading coefficients.

  19. Quantification of ventilated facade efficiency by using computational fluid mechanics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Perez, M.; Lopez Patino, G.; Bengochea Escribano, M. A.; Lopez Jimenez, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    In some countries, summer over-heating is a big problem in a buildings energy balance. Ventilated facades are a useful tool when applied to building design, especially in bio climatic building design. A ventilated facade is a complex, multi-layer structural solution that enables dry installation of the covering elements. The objective of this paper is to quantify the efficiency improvement in the building thermal when this sort of facade is installed. These improvements are due to convection produced in the air gap of the facade. This convection depends on the air movement inside the gap and the heat transmission in this motion. These quantities are mathematically modelled by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques using a commercial code: STAR CCM+. The proposed method allows an assessment of the energy potential of the ventilated facade and its capacity for cooling. (Author) 23 refs.

  20. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  1. Optimal operation of a south double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; De Herde, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Architecture et Climat

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for higher quality office buildings. Occupants and developers of office buildings ask for a healthy and stimulating working environment. Double-skin facades are appropriate when buildings are subject to great external noise and wind loads. A further area of application is in rehabilitation work, when existing facades cannot be renewed, or where this is not desirable. Double-skin facades have a special esthetic of their own, and this can be exploited architecturally to great advantage. However there are still relatively few buildings in which double-skin facades have actually been realized, and there is still too little experience of their behaviour in operation. In this matter, we choose to study a multi-storey double-skin facades behaviour. Simulations were realized with TAS software on the building proposed in the frame of the subtask A of the Task 27 (performance of solar facade components) of the International Energy Agency. Simulations were performed on the chosen building with and without double-skin facades. We decide to study eight types of days; and we analyze the double-skin facade behaviour for various operations. The thermal behaviours of the building with and without double-skin are compared. The study of these eight cases showed the importance of the dynamic use of the double-skin. The operation of this one must be obligatorily related to the climatic conditions as well external as interior and a bad operation of the double-skin could lead to catastrophic results. (author)

  2. The integral facade; Ein fein abgestimmtes Bausystem. Die Integralfassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a facade concept that meets all requirements placed on a modern facade concept. Ecological and economical factors integrated into the integral facade concept are discussed. The facade concept, according to the author, unites various functions such as climate and weather protection, sunshading, daylighting, heating, cooling and airing. The construction of the facade system is discussed in detail and further functions such as the support of night-time cooling are looked at, as are the facade's functions in summer and winter operation.

  3. Double Skin Facades for Office Buildings. Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirazis, Harris

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the concept of Double Skin Facades based on different sources of literature. Although the concept is not new, there is a growing tendency from the architects to put it into practice. Its complexity and adaptability to different climatic conditions increase the need for careful design. Since the construction types can differ from one location to another, it is obvious that the comparison of different literature sources is not always relevant. Since the concept of Double Skin Facades is complicated and its use and function affects different parameters of the building, the literature studied is from different fields. It is clear that the design of the system is crucial for the performance of the building. It is the opinion of the author that the Double Skin Facades can provide both improved indoor climate and reduced use of energy in the same time if designed properly. If the approach is overall and the goals to be achieved are clear, then the mentioned system is flexible enough to meet climatic changes for most types of building use. The classification of the Double Skin Facades is important since the initial approach can influence the design stage. After selecting the type of Double Facade appropriate for the building, it is necessary to define the design and the technical parameters (such as the materials used) that can influence the function and the performance of the system and the physical properties of the cavity. The accuracy of calculations of the facade performance in the design stage will lead to more precise predictions. It is clear that by prioritizing the main goals of the double facade system in different ways, the building design and construction can differ adapting to the performance requirements of the designers, and the needs of the users. The advantages and disadvantages of double skin facades found in different literature sources are mentioned and described. Furthermore, examples of office buildings with

  4. Integral Facade Construction. Towards a new product architecture for curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Curtain wall constructions are one of the most applied facade constructions today. Independently attached to the primary load bearing structure of the building they protect the building’s interior from external climate conditions and allow great design freedom. With continuously rising requirements in terms of energy savings the constructional principle has reached its limits and strategies for improvement are needed. Incrementally evolved over time it is closely related to the architectural design and building processes. Based on literature research and stakeholder interviews the dissertation maps out the traditional and craftsmanship related facade design and construction process currently employed. In a next step, future challenges for facade constructions to cope with a changing market environment are identified. A facade function tree is developed and the theory of product architecture is applied to create a comparative basis for analysing different historical and contemporary facade products and systems. The function tree as well as the analysis clearly show how the fragmented market structures has influenced contemporary facade construction and leads to extremely modular product architectures. Numerous case studies for a new approach are conducted and summarised in several matrices. The case studies show how different modular and integral constructional strategies can respond to the future challenges. The pros and cons of different facade solutions, their potential for innovation and robustness in terms of market conditions are investigated. The dissertation concludes that a greater diversity of fa.ade types with a more integral construction is needed to meet the sometimes conflicting future challenges. If this can be realised, a greater diversity of more integral design and construction processes will evolve simultaneously. The role of the different stakeholders will change and a new way of educating architects or facade specialists

  5. Quantification of ventilated facade efficiency by using computational fluid mechanics techniques; Cuantificacion de la eficiencia de la fachada ceramica ventilada mediante tecnicas de la mecanica de fluidos computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, M.; Lopez Patino, G.; Bengochea Escribano, M. A.; Lopez Jimenez, P. A.

    2011-07-01

    In some countries, summer over-heating is a big problem in a buildings energy balance. Ventilated facades are a useful tool when applied to building design, especially in bio climatic building design. A ventilated facade is a complex, multi-layer structural solution that enables dry installation of the covering elements. The objective of this paper is to quantify the efficiency improvement in the building thermal when this sort of facade is installed. These improvements are due to convection produced in the air gap of the facade. This convection depends on the air movement inside the gap and the heat transmission in this motion. These quantities are mathematically modelled by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques using a commercial code: STAR CCM+. The proposed method allows an assessment of the energy potential of the ventilated facade and its capacity for cooling. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. Passive solar energy recovery in non-transparent facades; Passive solare Energiegewinnung im nicht-transparenten Fassadenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, K.W. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Baukonstruktion und Bauphysik

    1999-10-01

    Evaluation of theoretical and practical studies has shown that non-bearing glass facades of reduced transparency hold a considerable potential for energy recovery. The most important factors governing this process are solar irradiation and inhibition of reflection in the long-wave range. Net energy recovery can be expressed in terms of the decrease of the mean effective heat transmission coefficient. The achievable gains are the smaller the more effective the heat insulating properties of the wall are, i.e. the lower the U-value of the non-transparent wall is. In the case of outer walls with additional heat insulation and a heat transmission coefficient of less than k{sub w} = approx. 0.25 W/ (m-2K) energy recovery is practically negligible, with little scope for improvement through facade orientation. [Deutsch] Die Auswertung der theoretischen und messtechnischen Untersuchungen zeigt, dass mittels einer vorgehaengten, reduziert transparenten Glasfassade betraechtliche Waermegewinne zu erzielen sind. Diese ergeben sich aus der Sonnenzustrahlung sowie der Behinderung langwelliger Waermeabstrahlung. Die Gewinne lassen sich durch eine Abminderung des mittleren effektiven Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten darstellen. Die zu erzielenden Gewinne sind allerdings um so geringer, je besser die sonstige waermeschutztechnische Ausruestung der betreffenden Wand, d.h. je niedriger der k-Wert der nicht-transparenten Wandflaeche ist. Das bedeutet, dass bei Aussenwaenden mit Zusatzdaemmung und einem Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten unterhalb k{sub W}{approx}0,25 W/(m{sup 2}K) der Gewinn nicht mehr nennenswert ist, wobei dann auch die Ausrichtung der Fassade zur Himmelsrichtung das Ergebnis nur noch in geringem Umfang beeinflusst. (orig.)

  7. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  8. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  11. Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; Herde, A. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Architecture et Climat, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    In these last years, a great deal of interest has been devoted to double-skin facades due to the advantages claimed by this technology (in terms of energy saving in the cold season, high-tech image, protection from external noise and wind loads). One of the great characteristics of the double-skin facade is the greenhouse effect. We identify the factors that influence the greenhouse effect. The identified parameters are solar radiation level, orientation and shading devices use, opaque wall/window proportion of the interior facade, wind speed, colour of shading devices and of interior facade, depth of the cavity of the double-skin, glazing type in the interior facade and openings in the double-skin. We analyze the impact of these parameters on the mean air temperature evolution in the cavity. After that analyse, the article answers the question: is greenhouse effect favourable? The answer is moderate according to the double-skin orientation. (author)

  12. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    show that the dynamic façade opposed to the static façade can decrease energy demand for building services by approximately 75 %. The focus is therefore on analyzing the used technologies which concern dynamic U-value, dynamic g-value, thermal energy storage and control strategies for dynamic facades...... through use of thermal building simulation software as well as full-scale experiments. The façade control system, which uses the results from the developed numerical models of the dynamic façade technologies, can lower the energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting as a results of the heat transfer...... across the façade by between 50 % and 88 %. The obtained results from the initial analysis through the developed numerical models to the final analysis show that there are significant energy savings in the design of the dynamic façade. The energy savings need to be further investigated under laboratory...

  13. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  14. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  15. Climate and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The dossier on Climate and Energy encompasses contributions addressing the following topics: Climate research in Germany, perspectives of the energy of the future; Energy-conserving building design, construction and retrofitting; Companies developing ecological awareness and ecological performance; World population, energy consumption and greenhouse gas abatement; On the uncertainty involved in political evaluation of the global climate change; Economic aspects of the carbon dioxide issue; Ozone - polar stratospheres - clouds and ozone hole; Ozone - vertical ozone distribution in the antarctic region; Sudden climate change; Sulfate aerosols and climate change; Symptoms of the global climate change; IKARUS - greenhouse gas abatement strategies; Energy from fossil fuels; Renewable energy sources; Nuclear fusion; Is there a chance for nuclear energy?; Least-cost planning leading to energy-conserving power plants; Pleading for a sustainable energy economy; Why we both love and destroy nature. The concluding two contributions are interviews highlighting two statements: We will persist in our intention to achieve the declared objectives for greenhouse gas abatement, and: We cannot do without nuclear energy. (RHM) [de

  16. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    favored by companies and their employees. To bring the reduction of energy use in these buildings application of suitable tools and methods is necessary to achieve successful design solutions. Earlier work on the topic of DSF modelling was examined from various publications. As a result, the main...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model...... is developed to account for recirculation flow appearance in the DSF cavity. The model is based on a simple mass balance between the boundary layer flow and the main flow in the cavity....

  17. High Performance Building Facade Solutions - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    the US.A collaborative test, monitoring, and reporting protocol was also formulated via the Windows Testbed Facility in collaboration with industry partners, transitioning industry to focus on the importance of expecting measured performance to consistently achieve design performance expectations. The facility enables accurate quantification of energy use, peak demand, and occupant comfort impacts of synergistic facade-lighting-HVAC systems on an apples-to-apples comparative basis and its data can be used to verify results from simulations. Emerging interior and exterior shading technologies were investigated as potential near-term, low-cost solutions with potential broad applicability in both new and retrofit construction. Commercially-available and prototype technologies were developed, tested, and evaluated. Full-scale, monitored field tests were conducted over solstice-to-solstice periods to thoroughly evaluate the technologies, uncover potential risks associated with an unknown, and quantify performance benefits. Exterior shading systems were found to yield net zero energy levels of performance in a sunny climate and significant reductions in summer peak demand. Automated interior shading systems were found to yield significant daylighting and comfort-related benefits.In support of an integrated design process, a PC-based commercial fenestration (COMFEN) software package, based on EnergyPlus, was developed that enables architects and engineers to quickly assess and compare the performance of innovative facade technologies in the early sketch or schematic design phase. This tool is publicly available for free and will continue to improve in terms of features and accuracy. Other work was conducted to develop simulation tools to model the performance of any arbitrary complex fenestration system such as common Venetian blinds, fabric roller shades as well as more exotic innovative facade systems such as optical louver systems.

  18. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades. In this regard, four scenarios with different facade configurations and orientations are evaluated and discussed. The method for the simulations and calculations depends on two main programs: first, IDA ICE program to calculate the energy consumption and evaluate the indoor climate of the building; and second, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2 emissions in the different scenarios.

  19. Architecture, energy and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Architecture has always had to relate to climatic conditions while providing shelter from the sun, the rain, the winds or the cold. This is a main purpose of buildings: To establish an indoor climate different from the outdoor. In the Nordic countries fuels for heating buildings has been a vital...... necessity almost as basic as food and water, and lack of wood has caused illness and migration - scarcity of energy is not a new topic either [Kjærgaard]. The new aspects are that human civilization is in danger of causing severe global climate changes, secondly that we can foresee using up the global non......-renewable reserves of oil, gas and uranium, both aspects capable of pulling the carpet under human civilization itself as we know it. The huge energy consumption especially in the northern hemisphere is closely linked to industrialization, and the response from those aware of energy and climate problems has in some...

  20. Climate saver atomic energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    According to the Schleswig-Holstein Land government nuclear power phaseout is compatible with measures designed to protect world climate. Only efforts aimed at quickly reducing energy demand by means of thermal insulation, energy conservation techniques, cogeneration systems and application of renewable energies are necessary. The Schleswig-Holstein energy concept is given as an example of making possible a worldwide carbon dioxide reduction. (DG) [de

  1. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  2. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  3. Solar Energy Potential Assessment on Rooftops and Facades in Large Built Environments Based on LiDAR Data, Image Processing, and Cloud Computing. Methodological Background, Application, and Validation in Geneva (Solar Cadaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Desthieux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the core methodology for assessing solar radiation and energy production on building rooftops and vertical facades (still rarely considered of the inner-city. This integrated tool is based on the use of LiDAR, 2D and 3D cadastral data. Together with solar radiation and astronomical models, it calculates the global irradiance for a set of points located on roofs, ground, and facades. Although the tool takes simultaneously roofs, ground, and facades, different methods of shadow casting are applied. Shadow casting on rooftops is based on image processing techniques. On the other hand, the assessment on facade involves first to create and interpolate points along the facades and then to implement a point-by-point shadow casting routine. The paper is structured in five parts: (i state of the art on the use of 3D GIS and automated processes in assessing solar radiation in the built environment, (ii overview on the methodological framework used in the paper, (iii detailed presentation of the method proposed for solar modeling and shadow casting, in particular by introducing an innovative approach for modeling the sky view factor (SVF, (iv demonstration of the solar model introduced in this paper through applications in Geneva’s building roofs (solar cadaster and facades, (v validation of the solar model in some Geneva’s spots, focusing especially on two distinct comparisons: solar model versus fisheye catchments on partially inclined surfaces (roof component; solar model versus photovoltaic simulation tool PVSyst on vertical surfaces (facades. Concerning the roof component, validation results emphasize global sensitivity related to the density of light sources on the sky vault to model the SVF. The low dense sky model with 145 light sources gives satisfying results, especially when processing solar cadasters in large urban areas, thus allowing to save computation time. In the case of building facades, introducing weighting factor

  4. Building envelope regulations on thermal comfort in glass facade buildings and energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shu, Shiu-Ya [Department of Architecture, National United University, 1, Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli, 36003 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope regulation on thermal comfort and on the energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control in glass facade buildings. Occurrences and severity of overheating, based on the PMV-PPD model contained in ISO 7730, were used for the thermal comfort assessment. Parametric study simulations for an actual building with a large glass facade were carried out to predict the changes in thermal comfort levels in a space due to different glazing types, depths of overhang and glazing areas, which are the key parameters of the building envelope regulation index, named ENVLOAD, in Taiwan. The result demonstrates that the ENVLOAD has significant effect on thermal comfort. Additionally, comparative simulations between PMV-based comfort control and conventional thermostatic control were performed to investigate the changes in the energy-saving potential of a thermal comfort-controlled space due to changes of its ENVLOAD. The results demonstrate that the energy-saving potential in a PMV-based controlled space increases with low ENVLOAD conditions. (author)

  5. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO 2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO 2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  6. The Application of Biomimicry in Kinetic Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Deyaa Abdul Jalil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry, as a way of thinking to go back to nature for inspiration, has its impact on many contemporary technological achievements. Some of them are used to design and construct kinetic facades in architecture, because of the importance role of facades in reducing sun radiation, that enter the building through using shading systems and components. In light of this, research problem is determined: "Do technologies which are inspired by biomimicry effect shading in kinetic facades through its characteristics in materials and the mechanics. So the research identifies its goal as: "To identify the types of kinetic facades in buildings and their characteristics as materials and shading mechanism associated with the biomimicry. The research explains the basic types of kinetic facades depending on the technology and materials used to provide the possibility of reducing solar radiation that enters the building. It also compares the case studies which have been chosen in their inspiration concept from biological world, which reflect on the system used of protecting against sun and reducing energy consumption as the designer teams suggest. The research concluded that kinetic façade which is depending on smart materials is self-responding and don't need energy to operate, so it is better in reducing consumption of energy.

  7. Energy and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    Climate change, and more specifically the carbon emissions from energy production and use, is one of the more vexing problems facing society today. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just completed its latest assessment on the state of the science of climate change, on the potential consequences related to this change, and on the mitigation steps that could be implemented beginning now, particularly in the energy sector. Few people now doubt that anthropogenic climate change is real or that steps must be taken to deal with it. The World Energy Council has long recognized this serious concern and that in its role as the world's leading international energy organization, it can address the concerns of how to provide adequate energy for human well-being while sustaining our overall quality of life. It has now performed and published 15 reports and working papers on this subject. This report examines what has worked and what is likely to work in the future in this regard and provides policymakers with a practical roadmap to a low-carbon future and the steps needed to achieve it.

  8. Climate-Energy Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary; Gentry, Randall; Zhuang, Jie

    2010-07-01

    The 140-page published proceedings of the workshop include individual articles and PowerPoint slides for all workshop presentations. The proceedings also contain pertinent background information on the China-US Joint Research Center, partnering organizations, and workshop goals and objectives. Overall, the workshop increased the understanding of the impacts of climate change on energy use and renewable energy production as well as the complex relationships among land use, energy production, and ecological restoration. The workshop served as an international platform for scientists and students of different research backgrounds to develop a unified perspective on energy and climate relationships. Such understanding will benefit future cooperation between China and the US in mitigating global climate change. The workshop’s agenda, which is highly interdisciplinary, explored many potential opportunities for international collaboration in ecosystem management, climate modeling, greenhouse gas emissions, and bioenergy sustainability. International research groups have been suggested in the areas of genomes and biotechnology of energy plants, sustainable management of soil and water resources, carbon sequestration, and microbial processes for ecological cycles. The project has attracted considerable attention from institutes beyond the China-US Joint Research Center partners, and several of them (such as Institute of Qing-Tibet Plateau Research, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS) have expressed interest in joining the partnership. In addition, the workshop played a significant role in facilitating establishment of private-public partnerships between government and private bioenergy companies (such as L.R. Shugarts and Associates, Inc.), including seed providers (Blade Energy Crops, Thousand Oaks, CA), pilot demonstration projects at coal-producing cities (e.g., Huaibei, Anhui province, China), and the development of methodology

  9. The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system: Techno-economic analysis in three European climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; Adkins, Deborah; Yang, Tong; Tang, Llewellyn; Zhao, Xudong; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Liu, Chenchen; Luo, Huizhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LHP-STF was evaluated from both technical and economic aspects for three EU climates. • The impact of LHP-STF on the overall building socio-energy performance was explored. • A dedicated business model was developed to study the economic feasibility of LHP-STF. • Three fundamental methods for financial measurement of LHP-STF were analysed. • Four investment options were considered in this business model. - Abstract: Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal

  10. Interactive facades analysis and synthesis of semi-regular facades

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Han; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2013-01-01

    Urban facades regularly contain interesting variations due to allowed deformations of repeated elements (e.g., windows in different open or close positions) posing challenges to state-of-the-art facade analysis algorithms. We propose a semi-automatic framework to recover both repetition patterns of the elements and their individual deformation parameters to produce a factored facade representation. Such a representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Interactive facades analysis and synthesis of semi-regular facades

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2013-05-01

    Urban facades regularly contain interesting variations due to allowed deformations of repeated elements (e.g., windows in different open or close positions) posing challenges to state-of-the-art facade analysis algorithms. We propose a semi-automatic framework to recover both repetition patterns of the elements and their individual deformation parameters to produce a factored facade representation. Such a representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove

    2016-01-01

    including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively......Denmark is participating in IEA EBC Annex 56 “Cost Effective Energy and Carbon Emissions Optimization in Building Renovation”. This paper presents results from the housing complex Traneparken that was chosen as a Danish case for the project. It has undergone a comprehensive energy retrofit......, and thereby the project has demonstrated that the renovation resulted in significant energy savings. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was carried out focusing on the tenants’ overall satisfaction with the retrofitting process and the results of the retrofitting, including e.g. perceived indoor climate...

  13. The Italian National Guidelines for the fire safety of facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Mazziotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the facades' design buildings where once only focused on architectural or aesthetic purposes (in addition, of course, of whether protective issues. Nowadays, thanks to the technological development of the construction works and the use of new types of materials, the facades' design should also address fire safety related aspects. In Europe and especially in Italy – where the types of building façades are built with windows of small surface and natural stone coverings – the green building/sustainability movement has resulted in the development of new concepts in facade or curtain wall design that intended to enhance the energy efficiency of building façades. These new building surfaces are covered by extensive panelling fitted with insulating materials or by wide glass surfaces, capable of carry out the most diverse purposes including, just to name a few: energy reduction, climate comfort, recovery of electricity through photovoltaic panels that convert sunlight into electricity, large space for advertising purpose. One of the main fire safety goal for a building design is to restrict the vertical fire spread so that the smoke and flames are limited to the fire origin floor. The new building façade and curtain wall topologies could overwhelms concerns for fire safety, therefore the Italian National fire service has released a Fire Code Guideline in order to address the fire safety design for an high rise building façade. This paper aims to show the guideline contents and the related fire safety façades concerns.

  14. A General Evaluation on Double Skin Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İNAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the literature of double-skin facade systems over the last decade, and, with the help of tables and graphics, investigates their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, a detailed comparison is made between double skin façade systems. The results of the study show that the greatest advantage (95% of double skin facade systems is their provision of natural ventilation. Other advantages are highlighted according to their percentage as follows: An increase in interaction between user and environment because of the high proportion of transparency, support of heat and sound insulation, reduction in heat transmission and solar heat gain coefficient, an increase in thermal comfort, allowance of solar control elements between the two facade spaces, and protection of these elements from external environment conditions. The most commonly accepted disadvantage (72% is overheating in the air space of the two facades. Other disadvantages are highlighted according to their percentage as follows: Problems related to a decrease in the amount of daylight entering the building, high investment costs, additional maintenance and repair costs, fire, and acoustic problems. In our country, architectural design decisions related to overheating must be taken so as to provide a positive contribution to energy performance and the applicability of these systems.

  15. Simulation-based method to determine climatic energy strategies of an adaptable building retrofit façade system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, I. Guedi; Ochoa, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of the European residential stock were built with limited consideration for energy efficiency, yet its refurbishment can help reach national energy reduction goals, decreasing environmental impact. Short-term retrofits with reduced interference to inhabitants can be achieved by upgrading facades with elements that enhance energy efficiency and user comfort. The European Union-funded Meefs Retrofitting (Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System) project aims to develop an adaptable mass-produced facade system for energy improvement in existing residential buildings throughout the continent. This article presents a simplified methodology to identify preferred strategies and combinations for the early design stages of such system. This was derived from studying weather characteristics of European regions and outlining climatic energy-saving strategies based on human thermal comfort. Strategies were matched with conceptual technologies like glazing, shading and insulation. The typical building stock was characterized from statistics of previous European projects. Six improvements and combinations were modelled using a simulation model, identifying and ranking preferred configurations. The methodology is summarized in a synoptic scheme identifying the energy rankings of each improvement and combination for the studied climates and façade orientations. - Highlights: • First results of EU project for new energy efficient façade retrofit system. • System consists of prefabricated elements with multiple options for flexibility. • Modular strategies were determined that adapt to different climates. • Technologies matching the strategies were identified. • Presents a method for use and application in different climates across Europe

  16. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K.

    2017-01-01

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted...

  17. Climate sensitivity of marine energy

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gareth; Wallace, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Marine energy has a significant role to play in lowering carbon emissions within the energy sector. Paradoxically, it may be susceptible to changes in climate that will result from rising carbon emissions. Wind patterns are expected to change and this will alter wave regimes. Despite a lack of definite proof of a link to global warming, wind and wave conditions have been changing over the past few decades. Changes in the wind and wave climate will affect offshore wind and wave energy conversi...

  18. Energy Revolution Against Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy revolution is taking place in the world with objective to mitigate consequences of evident climate change, caused mostly by emissions of the greenhouse gases from combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). The principal elements of the energy revolution are decrease in energy consumption by increase in energy efficiency and substitution of fossil fuels by renewable energies, supported by 'clean' fossil fuels and nuclear energy. (author)

  19. Energies-climate review (Panorama energies-climate) - issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubet, Cecile; Beriot, Nicolas; Daurian, Aurelien; Vieillefosse, Alice; Ducastelle, Julien; Le Guen, Solenn; Strang, Axel; Courtois, Sophie; Brender, Pierre; Guibert, Olivier de; Croquette, Gilles; Simiu, Diane; Venturini, Isabelle; Hesske, Philip; Oriol, Louise; Louati, Sami; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Defays, Julien; Balian, Armelle; Guichaoua, Sabine; Isoard, Vivien; Lamy, Jean-michel; Pelce, Frederic; Fondeville, Louis; Baumont, Thierry; Triquet, Olivier; Mouloudi, Fadwa; Quintaine, Thierry; Reizine, Stanislas; Pertuiset, Thomas; Caron, Antoine; Blanchard, Sidonie; Timsit, Isabelle; Lewis, Florian; Ducouret, Melanie; Leclercq, Martine; Derville, Isabelle; Grenon, Georgina; Thomas, Julien; Oeser, Christian; Thouin, Catherine; Dumiot, Jacques-Emmanuel; Rondeau, Claudine; Menager, Yann; Barber, Nicolas; Weill, Jonathan; Furois, Timothee; Thomines, Marie; Brunet-Lecomte, Helene; Boutot, Romary; Strang, Axel; Giraud, Jean; Thomas, Julien; Oeser, Christian; Perrette, Lionel; Breda, Willy; Panetier, Vincent; Miraval, Bruno; Delaugerre, Frederique; Leinekugel Le Cocq, Thibaut; Lemaire, Yves; Thabet, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    This issue first analyses what is at stake with energy transition: struggle against climate change, management of energy demand and promotion of energy efficiency, struggle against energy poverty, development of technologies for tomorrow's energy system. It discusses France's position within its European and international environment: European energy-climate objectives, world context of oil and gas markets, European electricity markets, imports and exports, energy bill. It presents and analyses the situation of the oil and gas sector in France: hydrocarbon exploration and production in France, refining activities, substitution fuels, oil infrastructures, oil product retailing, and gas infrastructures. It then presents the French electric system (electricity production, electricity transport and distribution grids and networks, electric system safety) and the industrial sectors involved in de-carbonated energy production: biomass, wind energy, sea energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, photovoltaic and thermodynamic solar energy. It addresses the industrial sectors involved in a better use of energy: dynamic control of smart energy systems (smart grids, hydrogen, energy storage), CO 2 capture and storage, de-carbonated vehicle and its ecosystem. The last part addresses oil product prices, gas prices, electricity prices, the energy tax system, and the arrangements and costs of the support to renewable energy production

  20. Nuclear energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy is one of the essential motives for social and economic development of the humanity. Nuclear energy is a feasible option to stand up to a larger demand of energy, and it is playing, and will continue playing in the future, a decisive role in the debate about climate change and sustainable development, and in the efforts to reduce the CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  1. Climate sensitivity of marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.P.; Wallace, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Marine energy has a significant role to play in lowering carbon emissions within the energy sector. Paradoxically, it may be susceptible to changes in climate that will result from rising carbon emissions. Wind patterns are expected to change and this will alter wave regimes. Despite a lack of definite proof of a link to global warming, wind and wave conditions have been changing over the past few decades. Changes in the wind and wave climate will affect offshore wind and wave energy conversion: where the resource is constrained, production and economic performance may suffer; alternatively, stormier climates may create survival issues. Here, a relatively simple sensitivity study is used to quantify how changes in mean wind speed - as a proxy for wider climate change - influence wind and wave energy production and economics. (author)

  2. Automation of innovative facade systems with integrated technical building equipment under consideration of comfort aspects; Automatisierung innovativer Fassadensysteme mit integrierter technischer Gebaeudeausruestung unter Beruecksichtigung von Behaglichkeitsaspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasert, Anita; Becker, Martin [Hochschule Biberach (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Energiesysteme (IGE)

    2012-07-01

    Facades are not only a shell of the protected habitats and a boundary between the indoor climate and the environment of buildings. Facades also convert from previously passive elements to active building systems which perform various functions of the room conditioning (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and so on). The associated increased demands on the system integration into facades require new solutions for the planning, implementation and operation of these innovative systems. Within the intelligent handling of increasing complexity, superior automation strategies have to be developed by means of facade automation. These automation strategies have to match the individual functions with each other, and to ensure a building sector comprehensive functionality. Furthermore, another criterion for the design of integrated facade systems is the consideration of the user's feeling with respect to comfort as well as the user's control and user's acceptance. In line with the research project AUTiFAS (= Automation of innovative facade systems), different automation strategies of the facades and room automation are considered on the basis of metrological investigations and simulation analyses. For this purpose, an innovative facade element with a decentralized ventilation unit and an integrated sunshade had to be integrated into a test room initially. The functionality and the constructional tightness of the total test stand had to be verified and matched to the requirements of the tests. With the objective to develop a standardized description of the control and regulation functions of the building sector comprehensive automation strategies, an automation library was developed based on standard structures and forms of representation using a test facade as an example. The standards DIN EN 15232, IEC 61131 as well as the guidelines VDI 3813 and VDI 3814 provide the fundamentals. The developed automation strategies form the basis for the development of

  3. Evaluating sustainable architectural solutions such as multi-angled facades in specific urban contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    A multi-angled facade system may be defined as the use of two or more different orientations of glazing in each façade. With the appropriate window properties and solar shading control systems such facades may improve the energy efficiency and the indoor climates of buildings. The system potentia...... urban contexts to further the implementation of sustainable solutions in ways that may architecturally improve the local environment....... systems in specific urban contexts and analyses its architectural relations to other surrounding buildings and how this is perceived. A qualitative research/ phenomenological method is applied to provide a deeper understanding of implementing this facade system on an existing building, and to investigate...... specific urban contexts, all in Copenhagen: A dense and traditional part of the city; A dense and modern part; And a less dense area with modern, detached buildings. The aim of the paper is to structure and qualify discussions about and architectural evaluations of the use of multi-angled façades in given...

  4. Opinion, energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The author comments the evolution of the results of various opinion surveys on energy in France and more particularly the high support for electricity production from renewable energies, the acceptance of the financial burden associated to energy, the fact that nuclear energy has more benefits than pitfalls but is still considered as a hazardous activity, the fact that consumers are aware of environmental risks for the planet but still have an incomplete knowledge of the energy sector and new technologies

  5. Development and construction of a thermoelectric active facade module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marıa Ibanez-Puy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the current challenges for the European building sector, building design has diverged into two alternative directions: active technologies and passive design strategies. In the last few years, advanced and responsive building envelope components have represented a promising answer to these challenges. This paper presents the design and construction process of a project that aims to design, build and control the energy performance of an industrial-scale modular active ventilated facade prototype with a new Themoelectric Peltier System (TPS. The TPS is a thermoelectric HVAC heat pump system designed to be located in the building envelope and providing a high comfort level. Trying to optimize the energy performance of the traditional ventilated opaque facade, and make more efficient the energy performance of the TPS, the concept of adaptability has been applied to ventilated opaque facades. The essential research theme is to control the natural phenomena that take place inside the ventilated air cavity of the facade: taking advantage when heat dissipation is needed, and avoiding it when heat losses are not welcome. In order to quantify the previous statements, some facade prototypes are being built in Pamplona (Spain and their energy performance is going to be analyzed during a year.  

  6. Impact of wind-driven rain on historic brick wall buildings in a moderately cold and humid climate: Numerical analyses of mould growth risk, indoor climate and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masaru, Abuku; Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an onset to whole building hygrothermal modelling in which the interaction between interior and exterior climates via building enclosures is simulated under a moderately cold and humid climate. The focus is particularly on the impact of wind-driven rain (WDR) oil the hygrothermal...... response, mould growth at interior wall surfaces, indoor climate and energy consumption. First the WDR load oil the facades of a 4 m x 4 m x 10 m tower is determined. Then the hygrothermal behaviour of the brick walls is analysed oil a horizontal slice through the tower. The simulations demonstrate...

  7. Multifunctional media facades; Multifunktionale Medienfassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehling, K.; Hackner, M. [Lichtvision GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays glass facades characterise the urban appearance. They provide high transparency and make daylighting easily possible. The systems to minimise the negative effects of sunlight can be used for projecting medial contents onto the facade at night. The pictures become visible on the material for sun and glare protection respectively, as the material spreads the light from the projector. Thus there are new possibilities for the effects of architecture at night. The facade dominated by the materials glass, stone and steel at daytime changes via medial projection at night to a shining object. The medial contents come to the fore. The user has always the possibility to adjust these contents, e.g. for Christmas. Also he can show advertisement, logos or art. Media facades allow branding and can improve the image. So the building attracts attention by differing from others. One sample of media facades will be at the Museum for Modern and Contemporary Art in Bozen/Italy. The east and west facade of the building are transparent. Turnable white laminated glass fins allow sun protection and daylighting at daytime. At night they are used as a huge screen by turning the fins to vertical position. Video art is projected by beamers located in the building. (orig.)

  8. Energy and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Angela Ines

    2000-01-01

    Human intervention in the carbon cycle has become a relevant concern in recent times. Global warming is a phenomenon due to the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG-s) carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons, believed to be irreversible. CO 2 is the most important GHG its contribution to the radioactive forcing of climate is estimated in about 70%. Changes in the global concentration of these gases depend on the level of emissions as a by-product of economic activities, the natural assimilative capacity of the global ecosystem, and the abatement activities. The paper include the Colombian situation

  9. Climate and Offshore Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-30

    SECuRITY CL.ASSIPIcaTIoN OF, TIns PA@elm VaeVa CLMATE ANID OFFSHORE ENERGY RESOUACES A distinguished group of government officials, scientists, engineers...about the mech- anisms of climatic systems, and gaining a better understanding of the impact of climatic change on human resources.* He continued by...atmospheric constit- uents, but he particularly emphasized " changes " in C02. He suggested that the atmospheric conditions may be better now than they were half

  10. Nuclear energy - the future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, Eric Sir

    2000-01-01

    In June 1999, a report entitled Nuclear Energy-The Future Climate was published and was the result of a collaboration between the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. The report was the work of a group of nine people, made up of scientists, engineers and an economist, whose purpose was to attempt a new and objective look at the total energy scene and specifically the future role of nuclear energy. This paper discusses the findings of that report. (author)

  11. Climate change and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Climate and weather events affect energy demand in most economic sectors. Linear relationships exist between consumption and heating degree days, and peak electricity demand increases significantly during heat waves. The relative magnitudes of demand changes for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario are tabulated, illustrating heating degree days and cooling degree days for 5 Prairie locations. Irrigation, water management, crop seeding and harvesting and weed control are examples of climate-dependent agricultural activities involving significant energy use. The variability of summer season liquid fuel use in the agricultural sector in the Prairie provinces from 1984-1989 shows a relationship between agricultural energy use and regional climate fluctuations. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Climate Leadership webinar on Integrating Energy and Climate Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergan, a multi-specialty healthcare company and pharmaceutical manufacturer, discusses how it manages climate and energy risks, how these areas are linked, and how energy and climate management strategies pervade critical business decisions.

  13. Energy and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada Lo Giudice, G.; Asdrubali, F.; Rossi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Are described the policies for emission reduction taken at the international level with particular reference to the European Union. Are presented recent data on greenhouse gas emissions in the EU and the link between energy production and greenhouse gases, the environmental impact of major power systems related to economic data [it

  14. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  15. Better, faster and cheaper energy facades for transformation of multi-storey blocks built between 1960 and 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    an innovative process. The aim is to inspire clients and consultants to think smart through optimizing the planning and design process as well as the building process. Through this way of thinking we can secure a better, cheaper and faster energy renovation of the existing building stock. The project is under...... scale projects have been driven by the housing association AL2bolig, Tilst, Denmark. Author was part of the architectural discussion through planning process and the evaluation of the first frame competition. The methods used are: - participation through the development process - comparable research...

  16. Renewable energy and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Quaschning, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This dazzling introductory textbook encompasses the full range of today's important renewable energy technologies. Solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy receive balanced treatment with one exciting and informative chapter devoted to each. As well as a complete overview of these state-of-the-art technologies, the chapters provide: clear analysis on their development potentials; an evaluation of the economic aspects involved; concrete guidance for practical implementation; how to reduce your own energy waste. If we do not act now to stop climate change, the cons.

  17. Methodology of CO{sub 2} emission evaluation in the life cycle of office building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborianski, Vanessa Montoro; Prado, Racine T.A., E-mail: racine.prado@poli.usp.br

    2012-02-15

    The construction industry is one of the greatest sources of pollution because of the high level of energy consumption during its life cycle. In addition to using energy while constructing a building, several systems also use power while the building is operating, especially the air-conditioning system. Energy consumption for this system is related, among other issues, to external air temperature and the required internal temperature of the building. The facades are elements which present the highest level of ambient heat transfer from the outside to the inside of tall buildings. Thus, the type of facade has an influence on energy consumption during the building life cycle and, consequently, contributes to buildings' CO{sub 2} emissions, because these emissions are directly connected to energy consumption. Therefore, the aim is to help develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. The results, based on the parameters used in this study, show that facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle, followed by brick facades covered with compound aluminum panels or ACM (Aluminum Composite Material), facades using structural glazing and reflective glass and brick facades with plaster coating. On the other hand, the typology of facade that emits less CO{sub 2} is brickwork and mortar because its thermal barrier is better than structural glazing facade and materials used to produce this facade are better than brickwork and ACM. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to verify the accuracy of the results attained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This methodology is based in LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use an uncertainty analysis to verify the accuracy of the results

  18. Energetic efficient and esthetic. Increasing market segment for an integration of PV modules in building facades; Energetisch effizient und aesthetisch. Steigendes Marktsegment fuer Integration von PV-Modulen in Gebaeudefassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2012-02-15

    The GIVP facade systems provide a good combination of energy efficient land utilisation with aesthetic demands at the same time. Facade-integrated photovoltaic modules facilitate a power generation and a reduction of CO{sub 2} pollutions. Furthermore, the facade investment partially can be refinanced by the reimbursement under the Renewable Energy Law (EEG).

  19. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-02-19

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  20. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan; Schwarz, Michael; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input's structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  1. FACADES OF RUSSIA: THE STATE OF THE MARKET AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlook of the facades market in its most important segments: translucent facades, hinged ventilated facades, plaster facades with insulation, fire safety of facades, has become the subject of the discussion on The Second Congress of the Facades Market Facades of Russia+ 2015, which took place in September 2015. The Congress was attended by the leading experts of the facades market from sectoral institutions, higher education institutions, oversight bodies, leaders of manufacturers of facade materials and installation companies from different regions of Russia, from the near and far abroad

  2. Energy policy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ducroux, R.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are released in the air each year from the burning of fossil fuels. The problem of these massive emissions of CO 2 and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. While enhancing natural carbon sinks (reforestation, soils conservation, etc...) can only buy tune for the next decades, energy savings, CO 2 capture/storage and the development of non-fossil energy sources (hydropower, nuclear, wind power,...) can be highly beneficial. In order to secure future energy needs while stabilizing the CO 2 atmospheric concentration around 550 ppm, the ratio of the CO 2 emitted per unit of energy produced must decrease from 2.6 t CO 2 /toe to 0.5-1.1 t CO 2 /toe by 2100. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, this will require a vast increase in the supply of carbon-free power. Among these energy sources, hydropower and nuclear energy (operated under western safety and environmental standards) are the most readily available sources capable of supplying vast amount of energy at a competitive price. Wind power is also to be encouraged, as it is expected to approach the competitiveness threshold soon. The French example, where fossil fuel CO 2 emissions were cut by 27% in a matter of a few years (1979-1986) despite increasing energy consumption, suggests that implementing CO 2 stabilization is technically feasible at a competitive price

  3. Climate changes and energy safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Lucena, Andre Frossard Pereira de; Souza, Raquel Rodrigues de; Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Costa, Isabella Vaz Leal da; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Cunha, Sergio Henrique F. da

    2008-01-01

    The possible effects of climate changes on the supply and demand of energy in the country are analyzed. The goal is to evaluate how the Brazilian energy system planned for 2030 would face the climate new conditions projected for the period of 2071 a 2100. The study also points out energy policy measurements which can be adopted to relief the negative impacts

  4. Biomass Energy | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Biomass Energy Biomass from local sources can be key to a campus climate action plan biomass may fit into your campus climate action plan. Campus Options Considerations Sample Project Related biomass fuels for energy does not add to the net amount of carbon in the atmosphere. This is because the

  5. Energy policies and climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.

    1994-01-01

    One year after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, an assessment is made of what progress is being made towards sustainability. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on climate change has provided the expert background for action to protect the climate. It lists some of the measured and noticed first signs of climate change as identified by the German Bundestag Enquete Commission, and mentions the effects of climatically induced catastrophes on the world's insurance industry and the fact that the Third World is likely to suffer most from climatic change. A Greenpeace report advocates the phasing out of fossil fuels and of nuclear power as a way to combat climatic change. The article reviews developments relevant to protecting the climate worldwide and specifically in the Netherlands, incorporating Greenpeace's views on these

  6. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  7. Energy markets and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Innovations mechanisms on energy markets are discussed, in particular valorization of energy products which invokes decarbonization of energy recourses. The valorization, meaning higher value of energy products, is expressed as electrification and entry of modern renewable energy based on

  8. Resolution on the program energy-climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  9. PRACTICING FACADE RENOVATION OF DANISH BUILDINGS BUILT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    Practising building facade renovation in Denmark, both from the technical and aesthetic points of view, raises many questions that are presented in this paper. These questions are answered and discussed through interviews conducted with seven architectural firms that are involved with façade...... the interviewees. These questions focused on technical, aesthetic, functional, economic and environmental aspects. The results of the interviews show that there are many problems facing these buildings, for example, energy efficiency, durability and indoor climate problems. The process of treating these problems...... on in the interviews. The interviews with the architectural firms were able to answer the questions regarding the building owners’ concerns and showed the way the architectural firms either reacted to these concerns to provide concepts and strategies like external re-insulation, or followed a specific process...

  10. Energy, climate change and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simioni, M.; Stevens, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    There is now very little debate that the earth's climate is changing, and the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence. Many causes have been postulated and speculation about the eventual outcomes abounds. Whatever eventuates, society will have to adapt to a new and changing climate

  11. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  12. Modeling of facade leaching in urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Del Giudice, D.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Building facades are protected from microbial attack by incorporation of biocides within them. Flow over facades leaches these biocides and transports them to the urban environment. A parsimonious water quantity/quality model applicable for engineered urban watersheds was developed to compute biocide release from facades and their transport at the urban basin scale. The model couples two lumped submodels applicable at the basin scale, and a local model of biocide leaching at the facade scale. For the facade leaching, an existing model applicable at the individual wall scale was utilized. The two lumped models describe urban hydrodynamics and leachate transport. The integrated model allows prediction of biocide concentrations in urban rivers. It was applied to a 15 km2urban hydrosystem in western Switzerland, the Vuachère river basin, to study three facade biocides (terbutryn, carbendazim, diuron). The water quality simulated by the model matched well most of the pollutographs at the outlet of the Vuachère watershed. The model was then used to estimate possible ecotoxicological impacts of facade leachates. To this end, exceedance probabilities and cumulative pollutant loads from the catchment were estimated. Results showed that the considered biocides rarely exceeded the relevant predicted no-effect concentrations for the riverine system. Despite the heterogeneities and complexity of (engineered) urban catchments, the model application demonstrated that a computationally "light" model can be employed to simulate the hydrograph and pollutograph response within them. It thus allows catchment-scale assessment of the potential ecotoxicological impact of biocides on receiving waters.

  13. Nuclear Energy: Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Paillere, Henri; )

    2015-10-01

    contribution of non-OECD countries. COP 21 offers the opportunity to include nuclear energy firmly in future flexibility mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), or a potential successor in the post-2020 period, thus enabling nuclear full potential to reduce climate-change inducing greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve this objective, however, it is important to understand the current and potential contribution of nuclear power in reducing future greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the appropriate measures that governments can take to address outstanding social, institutional and financial issues so as to ensure the necessary expansion of nuclear generating capacity that will make the 2 deg. scenario a reality

  14. Active energy interaction. In between transparent facade/roof and environment; Actieve energie-interactie. Tussen transparant gevel/dak en omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Quanjel, E. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Faculteit Bouwkunde, unit Building Physics and Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Timmermans, D.; Van Gerve, M. [Brakel Atmos, Uden (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Optimal use of daylight is possible with glass or other transparent material. During the year solar heat can be utilized. How can you design innovative transparent roof/wall concepts and products which add value to daylight, comfort and energy?. [Dutch] Transparante dakconstructies bij gevelaanbouwen of serres bieden veel voordelen voor daglichttoetreding en passieve zonneverwarming. Deze toepassingen nemen daarom toe bij nieuwbouw en renovatie. Maar vooral in de zomer zijn er problemen met oververhitting. Optimalisatie gedurende het gehele jaar is gewenst. Zo ontstaat de meest comfortabele en energiezuinige situatie. Gebruikers eisen duurzame, energiezuinige en comfortabele woningen en kantoren. Hierdoor zijn de afgelopen decennia gebouwen overmatig geisoleerd, waardoor de gebruiker vervreemd is geraakt van zijn natuurlijke omgeving. Goed bouwen met glas of andere transparante materialen maakt optimale benutting van daglicht mogelijk. Ook kan gedurende grote delen van het jaar de zonnewarmte benut worden. Hoe realiseer je een afgestemde ontwerpmethodiek en afwegingsmodel voor innovatieve transparante dak/gevel-concepten en producten die een meerwaarde hebben voor daglicht, comfort en energiegebruik?.

  15. Green paper on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.; Whitmore, J.; Shariff, N.

    2005-11-01

    This green paper was created by the Canadian Environmental Network to initiate a dialogue on climate change and energy issues. Recommendations for energy strategies for Canada beyond 2012 were presented. An overview of recent climate science was presented, as well as various stabilization scenarios needed to prevent further climate change. A review of global energy trends working for and against action to prevent climate change was also provided. It was suggested that the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations can only be achieved when the United States and large developing economies such as China, India and Brazil transform themselves into renewable-energy based economies. Renewable energy and energy efficiency must play a central role in future climate change regimes. It was suggested that nuclear power cannot be considered as an option to reduce GHGs due to its high cost, and on-going public concerns over long-term waste disposal, fuel-cycle health and safety. A viable global framework for stabilizing GHG concentrations built on the current regimes of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol was recommended. It was suggested that richer industrialized nations must take the lead by pursuing absolute reductions and providing assistance to developing nations for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. It was recommended that developing nations should contribute to global mitigation efforts by pursuing low-carbon intensity development paths, and that effective climate change policies must address the economic barriers faced by developing nations. Other recommendations included a regulatory regime for major energy producers and users incorporating progressively lower GHG emission targets; the elimination of all subsidies for the fossil fuel and nuclear fuel-cycle and power industries; the adoption of a national renewable energy strategy; the implementation of a national energy conservation and efficiency

  16. File 'Energy-climate actions in Sweden'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In a first part, this publication briefly presents some basic data and information on Sweden (geography, population, economy, administrative organisation, powers of local authorities, local finances), the Swedish 'energy profile' (consumption, intensity, imports and exports), greenhouse gas emissions (total and per sector), and the energy-climate strategy (impacts of climate change, national climatic strategy, national measures, action framework for local authorities). The second part addresses one of these action frameworks, the Klimatkommunernas network. It describes this network, its objectives, and possibilities for communities to join it. It describes its activities: information, publication of a strategic document of climate-energy actions for municipalities, examples of projects. The third part presents experiments performed by different local communities (Kristianstad, Vaexjoe, Malmoe, and Lund). For each of them are presented: the energy strategy (objectives, strategy, adaptation, energy-climate follow-up, application and actual measures), and some specific measures. These specific examples can be integrated systems based on biogas and biomass, a zero fossil fuel objective with the use of renewable energies for heat and cold production, for electricity production and to improve energy efficiency, to promote green fuels in transports, to reduce the impact of transports on climate, a sustainable town planning, environmental management. Some features are then highlighted in the adopted approach for these examples: a systemic, collaborative, participative and communicative approach

  17. No energy security without climate security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, M.

    2006-06-01

    WWF urges the G8 nations to embark on a serious global 'Climate and Energy Security Plan' akin in dimension to the Marshall plan after the Second World War. The plan would aim at dramatically augmenting energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources within the next five years

  18. Evaluating Economic and Environmental Aspects of Using Solar Panels on Multi-Angled Facades of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade...... unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades......, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2...

  19. Action strategy paper : climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This strategy paper considers how the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) might incorporate goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, prepare for climate change impacts on transportation systems, and reduce energy with in the GO TO ...

  20. Sensitivity of wave energy to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gareth; Wallace, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Wave energy will have a key role in meeting renewable energy targets en route to a low carbon economy. However, in common with other renewables, it may be sensitive to changes in climate resulting from rising carbon emissions. Changes in wind patterns are widely anticipated and this will ultimately alter wave regimes. Indeed, evidence indicates that wave heights have been changing over the last 40 years, although there is no proven link to global warming. Changes in the wave climate will impa...

  1. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  2. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graça Carvalho, Maria da

    2012-01-01

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  3. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part B - General refurbishment concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, S.; Pulakka, S.; Toratti, T. [and others

    2012-11-01

    This report is the second part of the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). The following list shows the sustainability assessment criteria defined by the SUSREF project. These are Durability; Impact on energy demand for heating; Impact on energy demand for cooling; Impact on renewable energy use potential; Impact on daylight; Environmental impact of manufacture and maintenance; Indoor air quality and acoustics; Structural stability; Fire safety; Aesthetic quality; Effect on cultural heritage; Life cycle costs; Need for care and maintenance; Disturbance to the tenants and to the site; Buildability. This report presents sustainability assessment results of general refurbishment concepts and gives recommendations on the basis of the results. The report covers the following refurbishment cases - External insulation - Internal insulation - Cavity wall insulation - Replacement Insulation during renovation.

  4. Facade Proposals for Urban Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Fond , Antoine; Berger , Marie-Odile; Simon , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a novel object proposals method specific to building facades. We define new image cues that measure typical facadecharacteristics such as semantic, symmetry and repetitions. They are combined to generate a few facade candidates in urban environments fast. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art object proposals techniques for this task on the 1000 images of the Zurich Building Database. We demonstrate the interest of this procedure for augment...

  5. Daylight and solar control in buildings. General evaluation and optimization of a new angle selective glazing facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontini, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost 40% of the overall energy consumption in Europe. For the future energy scenarios, the building envelope, especially the facades, becomes really important as it provides the necessary area for the installation of PV modules or solar collectors to produce energy, using renewable energy sources. A new multifunctional building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) glazed facade for this application is presented here. The new angle-selective see through facade combines four important tasks in one element: solar control, glare protection, visual contact and electricity generation. Mathematical analysis and complex simulations with the software Radiance are performed to optimize the geometry and to assess the visual impact and optical properties of the new window. In order to evaluate the impact of the new facade in building spaces a new method for modelling the total solar energy transmittance, in building energy simulations software, for complex glazing facades is presented. The new black-box-model (BBM) is implemented into ESP-r software and is validated. The BBM is used to assess the impact of modelling accurately the g-value of complex facade within building simulation. It is shown that the new method can significantly increase the accuracy of heating/cooling loads and room temperatures. (orig.)

  6. Climate change policy is an energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.; Lightfoot, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    In an important respect the climate change (global warming) problem is an energy problem. Any policy aimed at substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require large amounts of carbon free energy as substitutes for fossil fuels. No conceivable rates of improvement in energy efficiency and/or changes in lifestyles will obviate the need for vast amounts of carbon free energy if GHG emissions are to be reduced and the atmospheric concentration of carbon eventually stabilized. Where will such large amounts of carbon free energy come from? The renewable energies (solar, wind, biomass) are dilute and enormously land-using. Their potential contribution is seemingly limited in a world in which competing demands for land for food production, living space, leisure activities, ecological preserve, and natural resource production are increasing. Nuclear energy is controversial (fission) or problematic (fusion). Fuel cells require hydrogen which must be produced using some other form of energy. Tapping the earth's mantle with its vast amount of geothermal energy may be a future possibility. The present limitations of existing alternatives to fossil fuels suggest climate change policy should focus to a greater extent on what 'can' be done, rather than the present emphasis on what 'should' be done. Once refocused, the aim of climate policy should be to spur a decades long search for and development of new carbon free energy sources and technologies capable of displacing fossil fuels and of eventually meeting the world's baseload energy requirements. (author)

  7. Climatic change and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2000-08-01

    The data presented in the different chapters lead to show that nuclear energy ids not a sustainable energy sources for the following reasons: investments in nuclear energy account financing that lacks to energy efficiency programmes. The nuclear programmes have negative effects such the need of great electric network, the need of highly qualified personnel, the freezing of innovation in the fields of supply and demand, development of small performing units. The countries resort to nuclear energy are among the biggest carbon dioxide emitters, because big size nuclear power plants lead to stimulate electric power consumption instead of inducing its rational use. Nuclear energy produces only electric power then a part of needs concerns heat (or cold) and when it is taken into account nuclear energy loses its advantages to the profit of cogeneration installations. Finally nuclear energy is a dangerous energy source, difficult to control as the accident occurring at Tokai MURA showed it in 1998. The problem of radioactive wastes is not still solved and the nuclear proliferation constitutes one of the most important threat at the international level. (N.C.)

  8. Approaching climate-adaptive facades with foldings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack-Nielsen, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    envelopes based on folding principles such as origami. Three major aspects cover the project’s interest in this topic: Shape, kinetics and the application of new multi-functional materials form the interdisciplinary framework of this research. Shape// Initially small paper sketch models demonstrate folding...

  9. Climate warming and perception of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Drawing from a set of surveys, the aim of the present paper is to identify elements concerning the representations of climate change, the relation of which with daily energy use is not always clear. More precisely, in the field of energy consumption, several surveys allow a more precise vision of the interest for renewable energies and of the relationship between nuclear energy and society. The annual surveys carried out for more than ten years by ADEME (environment and energy mastering agency) allow a diachronic view of the evolution of climate change perception and of political events which have influenced it. The interpretation of the results points out the sensitivity of climate change perception to events, and particularly to political hazards. The renewable energies mirage has tended to fade with the numerous current debates. The adhesion of French public opinion to nuclear energy remains significant as, even after the Fukushima accident, a majority of individuals investigated are in favor of this still contested source of energy, including by people with high scientific literacy. Nevertheless, the energy issue, and particularly when it comes to nuclear energy, has become strongly politicized. (author)

  10. Challenges to a climate stabilizing energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.; Dilmaghani, M.; Baksi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The paper surveys the major challenges to stabilizing the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Climate change, and policies to deal with it, is viewed as an energy problem. The energy problem stems from the fact that no combination of carbon-free energies is currently capable of displacing fossil fuels as the main sources of the world's base load energy requirements. The paper provides rough estimates of the amount of carbon-free energy required to stabilize climate, the potential contribution of 'conventional' carbon-free energies, the contribution of renewable energies, and the size of an 'advanced energy technology gap'. The findings indicate that stabilizing CO 2 concentration will require a long-term commitment to research, develop, and eventually deploy new energy sources and technologies including hydrogen. The paper suggests that the role of technology is what makes stabilizing CO 2 concentration economically feasible. In this respect energy technology and economics are complementary, with advances in the former requiring something more than a reliance on market-based instruments, such as carbon taxes and emission permits. The analysis has implications for the credibility of commitments to target climate change-related factors such as CO 2 emissions.(author)

  11. Challenges to a climate stabilizing energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Chris; Baksi, Soham; Dilmaghani, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    The paper surveys the major challenges to stabilizing the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Climate change, and policies to deal with it, is viewed as an energy problem. The energy problem stems from the fact that no combination of carbon-free energies is currently capable of displacing fossil fuels as the main sources of the world's base load energy requirements. The paper provides rough estimates of the amount of carbon-free energy required to stabilize climate, the potential contribution of 'conventional' carbon-free energies, the contribution of renewable energies, and the size of an 'advanced energy technology gap'. The findings indicate that stabilizing CO 2 concentration will require a long-term commitment to research, develop, and eventually deploy new energy sources and technologies including hydrogen. The paper suggests that the role of technology is what makes stabilizing CO 2 concentration economically feasible. In this respect energy technology and economics are complementary, with advances in the former requiring something more than a reliance on market-based instruments, such as carbon taxes and emission permits. The analysis has implications for the credibility of commitments to target climate change-related factors such as CO 2 emissions

  12. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slingerland, S.; Van den Heuvel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  13. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Van den Heuvel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  14. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  15. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  16. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  17. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  18. Energy and Climate Change (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    The world needs urgently to develop a coherent and practical approach to reducing greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions. Energy professionals from across the world have been examining climate change policies to see what works in promoting sustainable development. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently confirmed that the evidence for global warming is unequivocal and the Stern Report has argued that early action to combat climate change makes economic sense. However, existing efforts are clearly insufficient - most countries with targets under Kyoto Protocol are not on track to meeting them and many countries do not have Kyoto targets. As a result, ghg emissions are still rising and are forecast to go on doing so for decades to come. The problem is not a lack of policies to deal with climate change - some thousands of policies have been introduced, both by countries within the Kyoto system and those outside, and the effort is under way to develop a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Yet so far those policies are not proving adequate to the scale of the problem. There is a pressing need to understand why they are failing and to implement measures that are more effective in reducing emissions, particularly from the energy sector, which accounts for around two thirds of total ghg emissions. The WEC has therefore undertaken a Study of Energy and Climate Change, drawing on the collective experience and resources of energy professionals worldwide. It has looked in detail at the impact of existing climate change measures and how effective they have been in promoting sustainable development, using the criteria of the three A's - accessibility (to affordable energy); acceptability (of the energy sources used, particularly in environmental terms); and availability (how secure and reliable are those sources?). It is important to remember that sustainable development is not only about the environment - policies which fail to contribute to economic and social

  19. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Harvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently.  To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world.  As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design,

  20. Resolution on the program energy-climate; Resolution sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  1. Diagonally arranged louvers in integrated facade systems - effects on the interior lighting environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Misawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building facades play an important role in creating the urban landscape and they can be used effectively to reduce energy usage and environmental impacts, while also incorporating structural seismic-resistant elements in the building perimeter zone. To address these opportunities, the authors propose an integrated facade concept which satisfies architectural facade and environmental design requirements. In Europe, remarkable facade engineering developments have taken place over the last two decades resulting in elegant facades and a reduction in environmental impact; however modifications are needed in Japan to take account of the different seismic and environmental situations. To satisfy these requirements, this paper proposes the use of a diagonally disposed louver system. Diagonally arranged louvers have the potential to provide both seismic resistance and environment adaptation. In many cases, louvers have been designed but not installed due to concerns relating to restricted external sight lines and low levels of natural lighting in the building interior. To overcome these problems, full-scale diagonally arranged louver mock-ups were created to evaluate illumination levels, the quality of the internal daylight environment and external appearance. Interior illumination levels resulting from a series of mock-up experiments were evaluated and correlated with results from a daylight analysis tool.

  2. The future of energy and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The talk will review some of the basic facts about the history and present status of the use of energy and its climatic consequences. It is clear that the world will have to change its way of energy production, the sooner the better. Because of the difficulty of storing electric energy, by far the best energy source for the future is thermal solar from the deserts, with overnight thermal storage. I will give some description of the present status of the technologies involved and end up with a pilot project for Europe and North Africa.

  3. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  4. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  5. Thermotropic layers for glazing of windows, facades and solar collectors. Final report; Thermotrope Systeme fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, E.; Gerst, M.; Nitz, P. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Grochal, P.; Raicu, A. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany); Blessing, R.; Wilson, H.R. [INTERPANE Entwicklungs- und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Lauenfoerde (Germany); Wittwer, V.; Fuchs, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Increased use of solar energy is needed to save heating energy. In the German climate, however, passive use of solar energy with windows and facades in summer is also accompanied by the risk of overheating the living areas. Simple, automatically regulating systems to protect against overheating are not commercially available at present. The project, `Thermotropic Layers for Glazing of Windows, Facades and Solar Collectors`, aimed to develop thermotropic shading systems for windows, facades and solar collectors. Thermotropic hydrogels and polymer blends were developed, large-area samples produced and characterised under practice-relevant conditions. Building simulations proved that with the help of the polymer systems developed, heating costs can be saved by passive use of solar energy. The knowledge gained has not yet resulted in a commercially marketable product. Processing of large-area products and lifetime testing could not be brought to completion within the project duration. The project partners have thus lodged an application for funding by BMBF (German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) to continue the work. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Heizkostenersparnis ist der verstaerkte Einsatz von Sonnenenergie notwendig. In unserem Klima birgt die passive Nutzung von Sonnenenergie ueber Fenster und Fassaden im Sommer aber die Gefahr der Ueberhitzung der Wohnraeume. Einfache, selbstregelnde Systeme als Ueberhitzungsschutz sind zur Zeit am Markt nicht erhaeltlich. Das Projekt `Thermotrope Schichten fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren` hatte die Entwicklung von thermotropen Abschattungssystemen fuer Fenster, Fassaden und Sonnenkollektoren zum Ziel. Es wurden thermotrope Hydrogele und Polymerblends entwickelt, flaechige Muster hergestellt und in anwendungsnahen Pruefungen charakterisiert. Gebaeudesimulationen erbrachten den Nachweis, dass mit den entwickelten Polymersystemen eine Heizkostenersparnis durch passive

  6. Data Set for Emperical Validation of Double Skin Facade Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years the attention to the double skin facade (DSF) concept has greatly increased. Nevertheless, the application of the concept depends on whether a reliable model for simulation of the DSF performance will be developed or pointed out. This is, however, not possible to do, until...... the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 34 Annex 43. This paper describes the full-scale outdoor experimental test facility ‘the Cube', where the experiments were conducted, the experimental set-up and the measurements procedure for the data sets. The empirical data is composed for the key-functioning modes...

  7. Building energy efficiency in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Tsang, C.L.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter - in China using DOE-2.1E. The primary aim was to investigate the thermal and energy performance of office buildings with centralised heating, ventilation and air conditioning plants in the major climatic zones in China. The computed results were analysed in three aspects - heating load, cooling load and the corresponding building energy consumption. The building peak monthly heating load varied from 142 MW h (1033 MW h cooling) in Hong Kong to 447 MW h (832 MW h cooling) in Harbin. It was also found that passive solar designs could have large energy savings potential in the severe cold and cold climates. In Harbin, the window solar component helped lower the annual building heating load by 650 MW h. Internal loads (lighting and office equipment) and part load operations of fans and pumps also played a significant role in the overall building energy efficiency. This paper presents the work, its findings and energy efficiency implications

  8. Solar energy, architecture and climate in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, J.

    1983-01-01

    In Colombia, the climatological conditions are such that with a possible serious appropriate technology to use the solar energy in the cities when the electricity rationing increases, for the illumination, the refrigeration, the electricity production, the heating, etc. The use of the solar energy is also been worth to look for a better adaptation between climate and architecture. In this sense, the article exposes some of the existent possibilities of application of the solar energy for the comfort of the habitat, possibilities of high efficiency and low cost that can be easily applicable in Colombia

  9. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  10. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  11. Rainwater runoff from building facades : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Derome, D.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Rainwater runoff from building facades is a complex process governed by a wide range of urban, building, material and meteorological parameters. Given this complexity and the wide range of influencing parameters, it is not surprising that despite research efforts spanning over almost a century,

  12. Designing of zero energy office buildings in hot arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gwad, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    The designing of office buildings by using large glass areas to have a transparent building is an attractive approach in the modern office building architecture. This attitude increases the energy demand for cooling specially in the hot arid region which has long sun duration time, while the use of small glazing areas increases the energy demand for lighting. The use of uncontrolled natural ventilation increases the rate of hot ambient air flow which increases the building energy demand for cooling. At the same time, the use of mechanical ventilation to control the air change rate may increase the energy demand for fans. Some ideas such as low energy design concept are introduced for improving the building energy performance and different rating systems have been developed such as LEED, BREEAM and DGNB for evaluating building energy performance system. One of the new ideas for decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels and improving the use of renewable energy is the net zero-energy building concept in which the building generates enough renewable energy on site to equal or exceed its annual energy use. This work depends on using the potentials of mixing different energy strategies such as hybrid ventilation strategy, passive night cooling, passive chilled ceiling side by side with the integrating of photovoltaic modules into the building facade to produce energy and enrich the architectural aesthetics and finally reaching the Net Zero Energy Building. There are different definitions for zero energy buildings, however in this work the use of building-integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) to provide the building with its annual energy needs is adopted, in order to reach to a Grid-Connected Net-Zero Energy Office Building in the hot arid desert zone represented by Cairo, Egypt. (orig.)

  13. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Steyn, Wynand JvdM; Harvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  14. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering; Steyn, Wynand JvdM [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Harvey, John (ed.) [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  15. Energy and climate: the essential world cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    Considering the double challenge of energy supply for economic development and of greenhouse gas emission management to struggle against climate change, the author identifies what can be done at different levels: between governments and households (in terms of energy costs, public transport development, information and education), between governments and firms (in terms of standards, network leakage reductions, intellectual property on new technologies), and between governments. He identifies the related objectives for the European Union, the United States of America, Japan, Russia, China, India, Brazil, the Middle-East, and Sub-Saharan Africa

  16. The new energy challenges: climate, economy, geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.; Aoun, M.C.; Campaner, N.; Cruciani, M.; Geoffron, P.; Gubaidullin, A.; Hristova, I.; Keppler, J.H.; Lautier, D.; Mandil, C.; Meritet, S.; Ouedraogo, N.; Rouhier, S.; Salaun, F.; Simon, Y.; Zaleski, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Oil, coal and natural gas, three polluting and non-renewable energies, supply more than 80% of the World daily energy consumption. Today, the scientific community has acknowledged the responsibility of this consumption on the global warming which may have dramatic impacts on physical, economical, social and political equilibria of our planet. Climate has become a public resource which belongs to everybody, the management of which should be done collectively and prospectively. However, the nation-states defend their wealth, their immediate interest without globalization and long-term outlook. This book treats of the new energy challenges under their regional and global aspects. This allows to better understand the dynamics of a multipolar world. Each region of the world has its own specificity, its capital of natural resources, its history, its own level of economic development, and its vulnerability with respect to climate change. For hundreds of million people, priority is given to the economic growth and wealth generation, but such a priority is synonymous of rise of the energy consumption and increase of greenhouse gas emissions. This opposition between 'more energy' and 'less emissions' is source of new economical and geopolitical tensions. Only a reinforcement of the world governance can solve these contradictions by the affirmation of a solidarity between populations, and for the first time, between generations. (J.S.)

  17. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  18. Distributed Energy Planning for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    At various levels of government across the United States and globally climate resilient solutions are being adopted and implemented. Solutions vary based on predicted hazards, community context, priorities, complexity, and available resources. Lessons are being learned through the implementation process, which can be replicated regardless of level or type of government entity carrying out the resiliency planning. Through a number of analyses and technical support across the world, NREL has learned key lessons related to resilience planning associated with power generation and water distribution. Distributed energy generation is a large factor in building resilience with clean energy technologies and solutions. The technical and policy solutions associated with distributed energy implementation for resilience fall into a few major categories, including spatial diversification, microgrids, water-energy nexus, policy, and redundancy.

  19. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Mallant, R.K.A.M.; Van der Wart, R.; Muradin-Szweykowska, M.

    1992-06-01

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO 2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  20. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  1. The battle of light - solar cells in glass facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Hansen, Ellen K.; Bjørn, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years, a range of semi-transparent PV panels has appeared on the market. Although these panels inherently produce less energy than their light-blocking counterparts, they are considered an attrac-tive element in low-energy buildings as they can impact on the façade's ability to both...... of the PV panels' light-filtering abilities in a daylight laboratory, ar-chitectural sketches illustrating various façade-compositions with the actual PV panels integrated, a visuali-zation of the most promising sketches by means of mock-ups and finally computer simulations revealing the PV façade's impact...... on the building's net energy consumption. The results and experiences gained in the experimental work are carefully collected and analysed in an in-terdisciplinary context focussing on the full architectural potential of semi-transparent PV panels in glass facades....

  2. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings: Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building- integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring on- site solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high- quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building envelope. The advantage of being able to use the entire solar spectrum for

  3. Moisture Transfer in Ventilated Facade Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olshevskyi Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the phenomenon of moisture transfer in the designs of ventilated facades (VF. The main ways of moisture transfer are defined. The negative factors connected with moisture accumulation and excessive moistening of insulation are given. The physical processes occurring in the gap of the building envelope due to saturation of air with water vapor are described. The dependence of the intensity of the mass transfer on the air velocity in the layer is considered. Much attention is paid to the selection of the optimum design of the facade, namely a system with or without grooved lines. The dependence of velocity and temperature on the width of the ventilated gap is established empirically for the constructions with open and closed grooves. Expediency of a design without grooves to effectively remove moisture is determined.

  4. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  5. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division proceeds, since 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  6. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site (see map). This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  7. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng; Yan, Dongming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  8. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  9. Point Climat no. 26 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans at the heart of the debate on the energy transition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, Cecile; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On the eve of the introduction of the environmental assessment procedure for planning documents, almost all Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans have now been published. This Climate Brief assesses regional climate strategies, which rely on significant commitment from those involved, including citizens by changing their behaviour, companies by improving their energy efficiency and the banking sector through financial support. Identification of these challenges and areas for action will feed into the national debate on energy transition which began last autumn

  10. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies – a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents. -- Highlights: •Climate risks to energy infrastructures adversely impact energy security. •Case studies of a port and a railway show their future climate change vulnerability. •Managing climate-induced risks through preventive adaptation policies

  11. Light and energy and architecture. Potentials in transparent solar cells; Lys og energi og arkitektur. Potentialer i transparente solceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Hilberth, T.R.; Munk, L.

    2008-04-15

    This publication aims to inspire and challenge to: 1) transform energy technology to architectural potentials, 2) introduce visions about daylight's potential into the energy debate, and 3) develop new strategies for interdisciplinary collaboration. In addition to converting solar energy to electricity transparent solar cells can be integrated into glass facades and thereby regulate indoor climate and daylight intake. Furthermore solar cells can contribute new visual dimensions. (BA)

  12. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  13. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  14. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part A - Methods and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkinen, T. (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). (orig.)

  15. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  16. Fuel choice, nuclear energy, climate and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpyth, A.

    2012-01-01

    For the second time since the start of commercial nuclear electricity generation, an accident has the world wondering if uranium will be among the future fuel choices in electricity production. Unfortunate when one considers the low-carbon footprint of this energy option. An accident involving a nuclear power plant, or more appropriately the perceived risks associated with an accident at a nuclear power plant, is but one of the issues that makes the impact assessment process related to nuclear energy projects challenging. Other aspects, including the time scales associated with their siting, licensing, operation and decommissioning, also contribute to the challenge. Strategic environmental assessments for future fuel choices in electricity generation, particularly ones that consider the use of life cycle assessment information, would allow for the effective evaluation of the issues identified above. But more importantly from an impact assessment perspective, provide for a comparative assertion for public disclosure on the environmental impacts of fuel choice. This would provide the public and government decision makers with a more complete view of the role nuclear energy may be able to play in mitigating the climate and carbon impacts of increased electricity production, and place issues of cost, complexity and scale in a more understandable context.

  17. Political motives in climate and energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Dalen, Hanne Marit; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-07-01

    Standard economic theory provides clear guidance on the design of cost-efficient policy in the presence of imperfect markets and externalities. However, observed policies reveal extensive discrepancies between principles and practise. Based on interviews with core politicians from the Norwegian parliament, we investigate causes for the lack of cost efficiency in climate and energy policy. We find that politicians agree with the notion of cost efficiency in principle, but rather than ascribing efficient instruments directed at specific policy goals, they include concerns for industrial and regional development, income distribution and employment in the environmental policy design. Lacking insight in the functioning of economic instruments and perceptions of a non-binding budget constraint also violate the requirements for efficient policy decisions. The findings point to the role of economists and social scientists to communicate the functioning of complex instruments. Improved compensation procedures could help reduce the politicians' incentives to undermine efficiency in order to avoid unwanted distributional effects.(Author)

  18. Use of Daylight and Aesthetic Image of Glass Facades in Contemporary Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roginska-Niesluchowska, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the architecture of contemporary buildings in respect to their aesthetic image created by the use of natural light. Sustainability is regarded as a governing principle of contemporary architecture, where daylighting is an important factor as it affects energy consumption and environmental quality of the space inside a building. Environmental awareness of architecture, however, involves a much wider and more holistic view of design. The quality of sustainable architecture can be considered in its aesthetic and cultural context with regard to landscape, local tradition, and connection to the surrounding world. This approach is associated with the social mission of architecture, i.e. providing appropriate space for living, facilitating social relations and having positive impact on people. The purpose of the research is to study the use of daylight in creating an aesthetic image of contemporary buildings. The author focuses mainly on public buildings largely dedicated to art and culture which satisfy high functional and aesthetic requirements. The paper examines the genesis and current trends in the aesthetic image of modern buildings which use daylight as the main design strategy, focusing on the issues of glass facades. The main attention is given to the shaping of representative public areas which feature the glass facades. The research has been based on a case study, critical review of literature review, observation and synthesis. The study identifies and classifies different approaches to using daylight in these areas and highlights changes in the aesthetics of architecture made of glass, which uses daylight as the main design strategy. These changes are primarily caused by the development and spreading of new glazing materials and the use of digital method of design. The influence of light and its mode depends on glass materials but also on the local conditions of the site, and has a significant impact on the relationship between

  19. Plugging the Energy Efficiency Gap with Climate Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the Green Climate Fund to realise the potential of energy efficiency in developing countries. This report examines the current role of climate finance in funding EE projects and the potential to channel funds to relevant EE projects in developing countries under the new Green Climate Fund (GCF). The objectives of the report are to examine: 1) the share of climate finance currently being channelled to energy efficiency measures, and 2) how the design of climate finance can better facilitate energy efficiency projects. Improving energy efficiency (EE) can deliver a range of benefits such as improved air quality, enhanced economic competitiveness and, at the national scale, a higher degree of energy security. Significant improvements in energy efficiency in developing countries could provide greater opportunity for economic growth while also providing broader access to energy and related services even from limited energy resources. However, several barriers limit the scaling-up of funding of EE projects in developing countries (some are common also to developed countries). The report focuses primarily on public climate finance flows from 'north' to 'south', probing the current use of funds from multi-lateral development banks (MDBs), bi-lateral financial institutions (BFIs) and carbon markets for energy efficiency projects and the design of the future climate financial mechanisms such as the Green Climate Fund to encourage energy efficiency improvements in developing countries.

  20. Numerical study on the thermal performance of a ventilated facade with PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Alvaro de; Navarro, Lidia; Castell, Albert; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    A new type of ventilated facade (VF) with macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM) in its air cavity is presented in this paper. Two identical house-like cubicles located in Puigverd de Lleida (Spain) were monitored during 2012, and in one of them, the VF with PCM was implemented in the south wall. The versatility of the facade allows the system to reduce both heating and cooling loads. During winter, the PCM increases the heat storage capacity of the system exposed to solar radiation and during summer the system can be used as a cold storage unit or as a night free cooling device. From the experimental winter campaign, important net electrical energy savings were registered due to the use of the VF. On the other hand, no net energy savings were achieved during summer due to excessive use of mechanical ventilation. In this paper, an own developed numerical model, based on finite control volume approach, was validated against experimental data and it is used to select the operational schedule of both solidification and melting processes in order to achieve net electrical energy savings. During the mild summer period the system presents a net energy supply of 2.49 MJ/day. This value would be increased by 61.6% if a wooden structure would have been used instead of the current metallic structure. Moreover, the high hysteresis of the PCM limits strongly the potential of the system in supplying cooling during the severe summer period. -- Highlights: • Numerical study of the thermal performance of a ventilated facade with PCM. • The study considers cooling purposes. • Operational schedule and use of fans during solidification of PCM optimization. • Net energy supply of 2.49 MJ/day during mild summer from the ventilated facade. • Storage efficiency would maximize with more mechanical ventilation during less time

  1. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs

  2. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D. [ed.

    2000-07-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs.

  3. Distributed Energy Generation for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry; Hotchkiss, Eliza

    2017-05-24

    Distributed generation can play a critical role in supporting climate adaptation goals. This infographic style poster will showcase the role of distributed generation in achieving a wide range of technical and policy goals and social services associated with climate adaptation.

  4. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life \\-- Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at the age of 81 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth's biosphere.

  5. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life - Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at age 81, in St Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth s biosphere.

  6. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  7. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  8. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  9. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  10. Energy policy design and China’s local climate governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ting, Guan; Delman, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This study probes into climate policy design at city level in China, with Hangzhou’s energy efficiency and renewable energy policies between 2005 and 2014 as a case. The study applies a political action arena approach to accentuate the importance of different normative preferences behind climate...

  11. Evaluation of climate change impacts on energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taseska, Verica; Markovska, Natasa; Callaway, John M.

    2012-01-01

    change and the energy demand in Macedonia. The analyses are conducted using the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation)-Macedonia model, with a focus on energy demand in commercial and residential sectors (mainly for heating and cooling). Three different cases are developed: 1) Base Case, which gives the optimal...... electricity production mix, taking into account country’s development plans (without climate change); 2) Climate Change Damage Case, which introduces the climate changes by adjusting the heating and cooling degree days inputs, consistent with the existing national climate scenarios; and 3) Climate Change...... Adaptation Case, in which the optimal electricity generation mix is determined by allowing for endogenous capacity adjustments in the model. This modeling exercise will identify the changes in the energy demand and in electricity generation mix in the Adaptation Case, as well as climate change damages...

  12. Interactions of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even where CO2 emissions are duly priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals other noteworthy interaction effects of climate policy and renewable policy instruments on the wholesale electricity prices in deregulated markets, which open new areas for future research.

  13. Bringing solutions to big challenges. Energy - climate - technology (ECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The conference contains 45 presentations within the sections integrated policy and strategic perspectives on energy, climate change and technology, energy efficiency with prospects and measures, climate change and challenges for offshore energy and technology, possibilities for technology utilization, nuclear technology developments including some papers on thorium utilization, ethics of energy resource use and climate change, challenges and possibilities for the Western Norway and sustainability and security in an ECT-context. Some economic aspects are discussed as well. 16 of the 45 papers have been indexed for the database (tk)

  14. Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high

  15. Energy and climate policy in Europe; Energie- und Klimapolitik in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This is a publication of the Baden-Wuerttemberg state center of political education (Landeszentrale fuer Politische Bildung Baden-Wuerttemberg) on energy policy and climate policy in Europe. It discusses the following aspects: Assured supply of energy and climate policy - incompatible goals? Climate policy and energy policy in a global system; Legitimation of the EU by successful energy policy and climate policy; Emission trading: Selling of indulgences or successful instrument? Energy policy in Europe after 1945; From a beacon of hope to a phase-out model? The future of nuclear power; The future of renewable energy sources in Europe. (orig./RHM)

  16. Feature Evaluation for Building Facade Images - AN Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.

    2012-08-01

    The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

  17. Grenelle de l'Environnement: the climate-energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the main principles of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' environmental policy (integration of cost for climate and biodiversity in large project choices) and discussed the articulation with international and European challenges (international negotiations, EU ETS, adjustment taxes), this report presents and discusses the different commitments, objectives, demands and adopted measures in different sectors: buildings, transports, energy management, development of renewable energies, climate-energy contribution, agriculture, regions and urban planning

  18. Climatic threat, energy crisis, and illusions of a nuclear revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    While considering the example of the French nuclear reactor fleet, and while indicating various data concerning energy savings, CO 2 emissions, energy consumption in France and in other European countries, and also the occurrence of incidents in nuclear plants, this publication discusses the context of a climatic crisis, energy crisis, and of a possible nuclear revival boosted by the decreasing use of fossil energies to comply with the objective of reduction of greenhouse gases. It discusses the relationship a nuclear revival would have with climate change, with energy safety and with energy transition

  19. Energy security and climate change : a Canadian primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonick, C.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the reality of climate change and peak oil, and emphasizes the need to make the transition from carbon energies to renewable energies. The book is a compilation of 18 leading authorities' work on energy use and its impact on the environment. Various solutions and sustainable alternatives to carbon energy are proposed. The book links fossil fuels, including oil sands, as a major cause of climate change. The book also addresses other topical issues, such as the nuclear revival, the U.S. energy act and electricity, carbon trading, and energy security in Canada. The authors emphasize the need to act in a proactive way to ensure a sustainable future. refs.

  20. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  1. Saving and gaining energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview with Dirk U. Hindrichs from the Schueco International KG company, differences between ecological and economical points of view in general are discussed, as is the world's energy consumption and the visions held by the Schueco company in this respect. The importance of building facades, windows and photovoltaics for his business is discussed, as are solar thermal systems for the production of heat and cold. Further, energy-efficiency and examples of buildings realised internationally are discussed and co-operation with important players in the climate protection area is noted. Hindrichs' opinion, that pro-active actions must be taken by entrepreneurs, is noted.

  2. A framework for designing complex media facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Ebsen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Spatial, low-resolution media facades integrated into buildings pose specific design challenges. We provide a conceptual framework for addressing how content for a media façade may be designed taking into account the specific qualities of the display of media façade interfaces: scale, shape, pixel...... configuration, pixel shape, and light quality. We address how these qualities of the interface may be investigated using a repertoire of design tools in different modalities ranging form physical models over mixed reality models to virtual representations. As the main case we present and discuss five design...... tools used in the design of the media façade of a 300 metres long low-resolution curvilinear media façade part of the Danish pavilion at the Expo 2010 in Shanghai....

  3. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  4. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies - a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.......5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co......-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters...

  5. Changing Climate in the MENA Means Changing Energy Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fenech

    2015-12-01

    by the 2050s (2041-2070.These preliminary results should assist the MENA Region in planning its energy needs and its needs forrenewable energy through increasing the understanding of how climate has impacted the region in thepast, and how climate will impact in the future. 

  6. The Home of FIFA in Zurich - Precision in sport and facade; Hauptsitz der FIFA (Home of FIFA), Zuerich. Praezision in Sport und Fassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated article describes the new headquarters of the International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA). The headquarters, named 'the home of FIFA', is a zero-emission building complemented by a full-size football field, a training field and a beach-soccer field. Its modern architecture features a hanging glass sheath as part of a double-facade concept. The article takes a look at the concept behind this six-floor building, four of which are actually below ground. Air-conditioning and other building technical services are described and, in particular, details are given on the construction of the building's aluminium and glass facades. Insulation values and the climatic conditions to which the facades are exposed are discussed. Illustrations of constructional details are given.

  7. The Haute-Normandie Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This regional public and planning document (SRCAE) first proposes a regional diagnosis in terms of energetic situation, climatic situation, air quality situation, building condition (in terms of energy), transports (characteristics of regional transport, of person and goods transport), industries and enterprises (important role of oil and chemical activities, low level of renewable and recovery energies), agriculture and forest, renewable energies (biomass and wastes, wind energy, solar photovoltaic, hydroelectricity, renewable heat production), and territory vulnerability in front of climate change. The second part states objectives and orientations: definition of scenarios, and of sector-based objectives (in the building, transport, agricultural, and industrial sectors, in the development of renewable energies, and in terms of adaptation to climate change). Synthetic approaches are then stated in relationship with different challenges related to sustainable behaviours and consumption, promotion of professions related to energy transition, diffusion of good practices in the fields of energy efficiency and emission reduction, sustainable land development, promotion of environmental mutations for the regional economy, innovation to face climate and energy challenges, development of renewable energies, anticipation of the adaptation to climate change, and SRCAE follow-up and assessment. Sheets of definitions of objectives are given for each sector. A synthetic version of this study is provided

  8. The 21st century population-energy-climate nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Glenn A.; Warner, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    World population is projected to reach 10.9 billion by 2100, yet nearly one-fifth of the world's current 7.2 billion live without access to electricity. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to <2 °C. Here we quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios, finding that renewable energy production (9% in 2014) must comprise 87–94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a <2 °C warming scenario, but not until 2054 in an unconstrained energy use scenario. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the <2 °C goal can be met. Focus should be placed on expanding renewable energy as quickly as possible in order to limit warming to 2.5–3 °C. - Highlights: •World population growth, energy scarcity, and climate are interrelated issues. •Non-renewable energy sources are projected to peak around mid-century. •Renewable energy must provide 50+% of total energy by 2028 to maintain <2 °C warming goal. •Renewable energy must provide 87+% of total energy by 2100 regardless of climate concerns.

  9. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  10. Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-01-01

    In view of population growth, industrialization and urbanization which provoked increasing energy demand there has been an increasing interest in developing new technologies that use various renewable energy sources and have less environmental impact, such as solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Solar energy is one of the energy resources with a wide geographical distribution. Nowadays, its contribution to the world's energy supply is very small, but it is considered an important long term option which will satisfy, together with conventional energy sources, the future energy needs of the world. The main objective of this work is to report the actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context. This is to improve the dissemination of information on the application of climate knowledge and data, especially by national meteorological services, with the purpose to improve the planning, design and operation of solar energy systems, as well as facilitate their more widespread use

  11. Moving toward Collective Impact in Climate Change Literacy: The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Gold, Anne U.; Niepold, Frank; McCaffrey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, various climate change education efforts have been launched, including federally (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, etc.) and privately funded projects. In addition, climate literacy and energy literacy frameworks have been developed and…

  12. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems at the central plant and then evaluate potential renewable energy sources and systems. Central Plant Begin by evaluating energy efficiency at the central plant through: Fuel Sources Heat Pumps and Combined

  13. Urban climate and energy demand interaction in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilova, E. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Demchenko, P. F.

    2017-11-01

    The regional and urban climate change in Northern Eurasia is one of the main challenges for sustainable development of human habitats situated in boreal and temperate areas. The half of primary energy is spent for space heating even under quite a mild European climate. Implementation of the district heating in urban areas is currently seen as one of the key conditions of sustainable development. The clear understanding of main problems of the urban climateenergy demand interaction is crucial for both small towns and megacities. The specific features of the urban energy systems in Finland, Russia and China under the changing climate conditions were studied. Regional manifestations of the climate change were examined. The climate projections were established for urban regions of the Northern Eurasia. It was shown that the climate warming is likely to continue intensively there. History and actual development trends were discussed for the urban district heating systems in Russia, China and Finland. Common challenges linked with the climate change have been identified for the considered areas. Adaptation possibilities were discussed taking into account climate-energy interactions.

  14. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management

  15. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  16. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  17. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  18. Effective climate-energy solutions, escape routes and peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective in the absence of serious environmental regulation. This holds, among others, for direct support of clean energy, voluntary energy conservation, technical standards on a limited set of products, unilateral stringent carbon pricing, and awaiting peak oil as a climate strategy. All of these suffer from “escape routes” that indirectly increase CO 2 emissions and thus make the original strategy ineffective. On the other hand, environmental regulation alone may lead to a myopia-bias, stimulating early dominance of cost-effective technologies and a focus on incremental innovations associated with such technologies rather than on radical innovations. Although adopting a partial viewpoint keeps the analysis simple, we urgently need a more inclusive systems perspective on climate solutions. This will allow the formulation of an effective climate policy package that addresses the various escape routes. - Highlights: ► Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective because of escape routes. ► In this context the relationship between peak oil and climate policy receives attention. ► Environmental regulation alone creates myopia-bias, the resolution of which requires technology-specific policies. ► To formulate an effective climate policy package an inclusive systems perspective is needed.

  19. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  20. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  1. The E U Climate-Energy Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clini, C.; Angeloni, M.

    2009-01-01

    Among the climate measures approved by the European Parliament last December, particular attention deserve the agreement on the E U CO 2 Emission Trading Scheme (Ets), as well as the Effort-Sharing Decision, ensuring that Member States contribute to the E U objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in non- Ets sectors. [it

  2. Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

  3. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  4. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  5. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  6. Climate and Southern Africa's Water-Energy-Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, D.; Osborn, T.; Dorling, S.; Ringler, C.; Lankford, B.; Dalin, C.; Thurlow, J.; Zhu, T.; Deryng, D.; Landman, W.; Archer van Garderen, E.; Krueger, T.; Lebek, K.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous challenges coalesce to make Southern Africa emblematic of the connections between climate and the water-energy-food nexus. Rainfall and river flows in the region show high levels of variability across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Physical and socioeconomic exposure to climate variability and change is high, for example, the contribution of electricity produced from hydroelectric sources is over 30% in Madagascar and Zimbabwe and almost 100% in the DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, and Zambia. The region's economy is closely linked with that of the rest of the African continent and climate-sensitive food products are an important item of trade. Southern Africa's population is concentrated in regions exposed to high levels of hydro-meteorological variability, and will increase rapidly over the next four decades. The capacity to manage the effects of climate variability tends, however, to be low. Moreover, with climate change annual precipitation levels, soil moisture and runoff are likely to decrease and rising temperatures will increase evaporative demand. Despite high levels of hydro-meteorological variability, the sectoral and cross-sectoral water-energy-food linkages with climate in Southern Africa have not been considered in detail. Lack of data and questionable reliability are compounded by complex dynamic relationships. We review the role of climate in Southern Africa's nexus, complemented by empirical analysis of national level data on climate, water resources, crop and energy production, and economic activity. Our aim is to examine the role of climate variability as a driver of production fluctuations in the nexus, and to improve understanding of the magnitude and temporal dimensions of their interactions. We first consider national level exposure of food, water and energy production to climate in aggregate economic terms and then examine the linkages between interannual and multi-year climate variability and economic activity, focusing on food and

  7. Shading Performance on Terraced House Facades in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmad Sanusi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates shading performance on house facades of selected three terraced houses in Putrajaya, Malaysia as the case studies. Terraced house type is selected for the case study because it is the most popular house type built in this country to house an increase of the urban population. Its total number built in urban area increases from 27% of the total dwellings in 1980 to 40% in 1990, and to slightly more than 60 per cent in 2000. The Case Study A, B, and C are atypical style of terraced house facade designs built in Putrajaya. These postmodern designs exhibit a range of complex geometric elements blending of colonial and traditional elements with colorful styles on the house facade. In this study, the time at which the sun path perpendicular to the house facade will be used to gain the results of shading performances when the house facades have their maximum exposure to the direct sunlight. The house facade was divided into two main parts which are opaque and glazing surface elements. The amount of shading area on the opaque and glazing surface was simulated using the SunTool program. In conclusion, the Case Study C had the highest average percentage of the shading area, which is 64.43%, followed by the Case Study A 60.41% and Case Study B 56.29%. These results showed that the facade designs had excellent horizontal shading elements with roof overhangs for high angle sunlight but they had weak vertical shading elements due to a lack of considerations of louvered elements to block low angle sunlight.

  8. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1996-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  9. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  10. Climate change impacts on wind energy resources in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Kjellstroem, E.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental human need. Heat, light and transport for individuals combined with the needs of industry have created a demand for energy which for the last 100-200 years has been met largely through consumption of fossil fuels leading to altered atmospheric composition and modification of the global climate. These effects will be realised on local scales affecting not just temperature and precipitation but also wind, radiation and other parameters. Annual mean wind speeds and wind energy density over northern Europe were significantly higher at the end of twentieth century than during the middle portion of that century, with the majority of the change being focused on the winter season. To address questions regarding possible future wind climates we employ dynamical and empirical downscaling techniques that seek to take coarse resolution output from General Circulation Models (GCM), run to provide scenarios of future climate, and develop higher resolution regional wind climates. Analyses of the wind climate during the historical record indicate that both the dynamical approach and the empirical approach are capable of generating accurate, robust and quantitative assessments of the wind climate and energy density in northern Europe, and hence that they may be of great utility to those seeking financing for, or risk management of, wind farms in the face of climate uncertainty. The synthesis of application of these downscaling tools to climate projections for northern Europe is that there is no evidence of major changes in the wind energy resource. However, more research is required to quantify the uncertainties in developing these projections and to reduce those uncertainties. Further work should also be conducted to assess the validity of these downscaling approaches in other geographical locations. (BA)

  11. Climate and energy targets of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, H.; Veenendaal, P.

    2007-01-01

    Attention is paid to two important parts of the targets for climate and energy which were determined by the European Council in March 2007 for the year 2020: (1) the impact of the emission reduction target and the correlations with the sustainable development targets; and (2) the obstacles for the European Union on the way to thar 20% renewable energy target [nl

  12. Report on broad reconsiderations. Part 1. Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. This report addresses six policy variants. [nl

  13. Nuclear energy, the climate and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main concern of Pugwash, with very good reason, is nuclear disarmament, but a negative attitude towards nuclear energy is not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  14. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  15. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B.; Keegan, P. [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  16. Reduction of Climate Gases by Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, N.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide cannot be depolluted in practice. However, there are two areas where measures can be taken to avoid CO 2 emissions: 1. Energy-efficiency. 2. Use of sustainable energy sources in energy production. It is characteristic that many measures which are good for the environment are also good from the point of view of cost efficiency, preparedness and employment. This is tru, for instance, of the greater use of biofuels instead of fossil fuels, collective heating systems as opposed to individual ones and economy measures - especially more efficient use of electricity. It is a question of thinking of the system as a whole. Methane is another factor which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Methane emissions can also be avoided, or reduced, by system-thinking. System-thinking is, for instance, not ro deposit combustible waste but to use it as an energy source. And why not produce electricity by using methane from existing landfill sites. Electrical energy is the most useful form of energy. Therefore, electricity should not, as a principal rule, be used for heating, or as process energy. The fact that energy-efficiency and emission of greenhouse gases are interrelated is shown in the following two examples. 1. Only about 25% of the energy content in extracted coal will reach the consumers as electricity when the production takes place in an ordinary, coal-fires condensing power station. 2. When district heating (room-heating and hot water) is produced in a modern heat-production plant by flue-gas condensation, about 90% of the energy is utilised for heating purposes. To obtain an overall picture of the amount of energy used for a purpose, e.g. heating or electricity, you must view the entire process from extraction to final use. Such a picture can show the energy efficiency and what losses arise. Efficiency measures can reduce the energy bill. They can also reduce pollution, greenhouse gases among other things. Examples will be given in this paper of energy

  17. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Olivier [GERAD and Department of Management Sciences, HEC Montreal, Montreal (Qc) (Canada); Edwards, Neil R. [Earth and Environmental Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Knutti, Reto [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stocker, Thomas F. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. (author)

  18. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  19. Nuclear Energy's Role in Mitigating Climate Change and Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Energy experts expect energy demand to rise dramatically in the 21st century, especially in developing countries, where today, over one billion people have no access to modern energy services. Meeting global energy demand will require a 75% expansion in primary energy supply by 2050. If no steps are taken to reduce emissions, the energy-related CO 2 emissions would nearly double in the same period. The increased levels of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere could raise average global temperatures 3 o C or more above pre-industrial levels, which may trigger the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, which the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change seeks to prevent.

  20. Indoor climate in renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  1. Economy-Energy-Climate Interaction. The Model Wiagem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemfert, C.

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an integrated economy-energy-climate model WIAGEM (World Integrated Assessment General Equilibrium Model) which incorporates economic, energetic and climatic modules in an integrated assessment approach. In order to evaluate market and non-market costs and benefits of climate change WIAGEM combines an economic approach with a special focus on the international energy market and integrates climate interrelations by temperature changes and sea level variations. WIAGEM bases on 25 world regions which are aggregated to 11 trading regions and 14 sectors within each region. The representation of the economic relations is based on an intertemporal general equilibrium approach and contains the international markets for oil, coal and gas. The model incorporates all greenhouse gases (GHG) which influence the potential global temperature, the sea level variation and the assessed probable impacts in terms of costs and benefits of climate change. Market and non market damages are evaluated due to the damage costs approaches of Tol (2001). Additionally, this model includes net changes in GHG emissions from sources and removals by sinks resulting from land use change and forest activities. This paper describes the model structure in detail and outlines some general results, especially the impacts of climate change. As a result, climate change impacts do matter within the next 50 years, developing regions face high economic losses in terms of welfare and GDP losses. The inclusion of sinks and other GHG changes results significantly

  2. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  3. Nuclear energy and climate change; Energia nuclear y cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, A.

    2002-07-01

    Energy is one of the essential motives for social and economic development of the humanity. Nuclear energy is a feasible option to stand up to a larger demand of energy, and it is playing, and will continue playing in the future, a decisive role in the debate about climate change and sustainable development, and in the efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions. (Author)

  4. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Baek, Youngsun

    2010-01-01

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO 2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  5. Energy and climate. A vision of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Hans; Hosemann, Gerhard; Riedle, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This book contains five lectures from the symposium of 8 November 2012. The topics and speakers were: 1. The energy turnaround in Germany - Chances and risks (DIETHARD MAGER); 2. The power supply from renewable sources and their constraints (GERHARD HEROLD); 3. What really contributes CO 2 to global warming? (HERMANN HARDE); 4. Sun and greenhouse gas - causes of climate change (FRITZ VAHRENHOLT); 5. The hydrocarbon-cycle management - secure energy and resource supply from renewable energy sources (DOMINIK ROHRMUS). [de

  6. Risk benefits of climate-friendly energy supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the central goals of sustainable development is the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This is needed in order to prevent the anticipated climate change, and the potentially serious consequences for human beings and the environment. Energy supply systems constitute the dominant contributors to GHG emissions. This paper examines three illustrative emission scenarios for world-wide energy supply in the 21 st Century. These scenarios, including the associated GHG and major pollutant emissions, were chosen from a set established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using the emissions as a starting point, and based on recent findings concerning the impact on the environment and the financial costs resulting from global climate change on the one hand, and regional air pollution on the other hand, the present work provides estimates of the scenario-dependent, world-wide cumulative damage. The fossil-intensive reference scenario leads to overall damages which correspond to very substantial losses in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and which widely exceed the damages caused by the scenarios reflecting climate-friendly policies. Generally, the somewhat speculative estimates of the GHG-specific damages are much less significant than damages to human health and the environment caused by the major air pollutants. This means that the secondary benefits of climate-friendly, energy-supply options, i.e. those which avoid the impacts due to air pollution, alone justify strategies protecting the climate. (author)

  7. Climate change adaptation in the Canadian energy sector : workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This workshop on climate change adaptation in the Canadian energy sector was conducted in order to develop a climate change work plan for the Council of Energy Ministers (CEM) as well as to develop awareness and dialogue within Canada's energy sector. Industry members and government officials identified findings from recent assessment reports on climate change adaptation and discussed ways in which the international oil and gas industry is currently adapting its operations and technologies to ensure continuing safety and risk mitigation. The use of hydrological models to forecast the potential impacts of climate change was discussed, and the drivers of climate change adaptation were reviewed. A total of 26 topics were identified, 13 of which were prioritized for group discussions based on their impact and urgency. The following 5 topics were finally identified as top priority topics: (1) climate change adaptation science, (2) co-ordinated local, provincial, national, and international policies, (3) information sharing and knowledge transfer, (4) aging infrastructure and increasing demand, and (5) market mechanisms for adaptation. Four presentations were given during the initial portion of the workshop. 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  9. Renewable Energy Deployment as Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scientific evidence of climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions which causes ozone layer depletion is becoming increasingly obvious and clear. Findings revealed that energy from the fossil fuel is the major source of greenhouse emission which destroys the environment and makes it unhealthy for living beings. In Nigeria, conventional energy (oil and gas with gas flaring has the highest percentage of 52% and liquid fuel of 32% of carbon dioxide (CO2 respectively. This sector contributes revenue of over 70% to Nigeria’s economy and generates an average total 21.8% of greenhouse gas emission. In Nigeria, there is a much more potential for share renewables with 15.4% of total energy production and 8.6 % of energy consumption. In reality with global environmental concern, Nigeria’s carbon dioxide emissions have increased with energy production and consumption. The Integrated Renewable Energy Master Plan of 2008 projects a 26.7% renewable energy contribution to the Nigeria’s energy use and this is expected to reduce CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions at 38% by2025. Nigeria has not been playing significant role by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper highlights Nigeria’s climate change situation and penetration requirements for various renewable energy deployments as mitigating instrument for climate change towards healthy and productive environment.

  10. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the ongoing process of liberalisation, Dutch municipal energy policy is undergoing significant changes. The probable privatisation of energy companies, the change from what used to be 'their' local energy company to what will become an energy company, results in a need for local administrations to build up energy knowledge, end-use information and financial resources that 'their' energy companies used to share but, because of operating in a competitive market, are now more reluctant to do so. On the other hand offers privatisation and the selling of shares the possibility for some local governments to collect a significant sum of money which can be addressed to energy policy. This process of growing responsibility of local administrations for their own energy policy coincides with the structural change of the nature of the energy supply in the Netherlands. The change towards a more decentralised energy supply results in more energy systems (e.g. PV and wind) coming under the influence of local regulations. Municipal governments will have to act more like actors in a complex policy network, playing different roles at different times in different situations, often stimulating and regulating at the same time. The growing popularity of platforms like energy agencies, bringing together parties like the local government, energy companies and commercial- and housing associations are examples hereof. In this report, another new role for local governments resulting from the liberalisation process is highlighted: the role of energy consumer. It is estimated that the aggregated electricity demand resulting from activities under direct municipal responsibility (e.g. municipal dwellings, traffic lights, public lighting) amounts to a fairly large share of the market. Due to the public interests vested in the local administrations, it is expected that an important part of this demand is demand for green electricity. Also, local governments can use the energy markets to act

  11. Potential energy consumption reduction of automotive climate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Filip; Uddheim, Åsa; Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Twenty-on energy saving measures for vehicle interior climate were evaluated. • Few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. • The operation of the system in intermediate conditions determines the energy use. • Required heating/cooling of passenger compartment had small effect on energy use. - Abstract: In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increased attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. One area which affect the fuel consumption is climate control systems. Twenty-one energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using simulation. Evaluated properties were heat flow into the passenger compartment, electrical and mechanical work. The simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, air-handling unit, Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A real-world representative test cycle, which included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions, was used for evaluation. In general, few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. The measures with most potential were increased blower efficiency with a reduction of 46% of the electrical work and increased AC-system disengage temperature with a reduction of 27% of the mechanical work. These results show that the operation of the climate control system had a large effect on the energy use, especially compared to the required heating and cooling of the passenger compartment. As a result energy saving measures need to address how heating and cooling is generated before reducing the heat flow into the passenger compartment.

  12. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Facade Reconstruction with Generalized 2.5d Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Demantke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructing fine facade geometry from MMS lidar data remains a challenge: In addition to being inherently sparse, the point cloud provided by a single street point of view is necessarily incomplete. We propose a simple framework to estimate the facade surface with a deformable 2.5d grid. Computations are performed in a "sensor-oriented" coordinate system that maximizes consistency with the data. the algorithm allows to retrieve the facade geometry without priori knowledge. It can thus be automatically applied to a large amount of data in spite of the variability of encountered architectural forms. The 2.5d image structure of the output makes it compatible with storage and real-time constraints of immersive navigation.

  14. APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN FACADE REDESIGN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEJIĆ Petar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is a computer technology where the perception of the user is enhanced by the seamless blending between real environment and computer-generated virtual objects coexisting in the same space. When it comes to a redesign of the existing facades, it is necessary to create a visual presentation of the proposed changes. For this reason, contemporary architectural approach assumes creating a digital 3D model of the newly designed facade. Since the façade redesign is a real world change, the AR can be used for newly designed facade project presentation. In this paper a case study of the AR application for façade redesign presentation of a single family house located in Babušnica (Serbia is presented.

  15. FEATURE EVALUATION FOR BUILDING FACADE IMAGES – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

  16. Beyond information and utility: Transforming public spaces with media facades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick Tobias; Zöllner, Christian; Hoffmann, Thilo; Piatza, Sebastian; Hornecker, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Media facades (often characterized as a building's digital skin) are public displays that substitute dynamic details and information for usually static structures. SMSlingshot is a media facade system at the confluence of art, architecture, and technology design in the context of urban human-computer interaction. It represents a participative approach to public displays that enlivens public spaces and fosters civic and social dialogue as an alternative to advertising and service-oriented information displays. Observations from SMSlingshot's implementation at festival exhibitions provide insight into the roles of scale, distance, and the spatial situation of media facade contexts. The lessons learned apply to most public-display situations and will be useful for designers and developers of this new medium in urban spaces.

  17. High-rise build renovation - Colouring a high-rise building's facade; Renovation des Hochhauses Schoppi Spreitenbach. Farbigkeit einer Hochhausfassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at the renovation of the 70-metres high, high-rise apartment building that forms an integral part of a large shopping centre in Spreitenbach, Switzerland. The buildings and their infrastructure, realised in 1970, were in need of renovation. The facade elements no longer met energy requirements and the shopping mall was to be extended to meet modern shopping needs. The article deals with the technical and aesthetic requirements placed on the facades. The colour concept for the venetian blinds integrated into the windows, which includes the use of 20 different shades of colour, is described. A total of 3,200 blinds are fitted. The removal of the old window elements and the fitting of the new facade elements is described and discussed.

  18. Climate, air and energy - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled international objectives (Kyoto protocol), European objectives (directives related to energy efficiency and renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes) and French national (plans, laws) and sector-based objectives (for buildings, transports, agriculture, renewable energies, industry, office building and local communities, air quality), this publication presents and comments numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding energy consumptions and intensities (primary and final energy), greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, emissions of pollutants and air quality in France and in European countries, but also the implementation of various plans and tools (Agenda 21 for example), the creation of specific public bodies, jobs and markets related to renewable energies in France. The other chapters propose detailed data related to energy consumption or production, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on for different sectors: housing, tertiary sector, transport, industry, agriculture and forest, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, individuals

  19. Report of a Policy Forum: Weather, Climate, and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-07-01

    The report of a policy forum on Weather, Climate, and Energy presents findings and recommendations that, if implemented, could position the energy sector, the providers of weather and climate science and services, and energy consumers to mange more cooperatively and effectively the production, distribution, and consumption of electrical power and fossil fuels. Recent U.S. experience with a series of energy shortages encouraged the AMS Atmospheric Policy Program to join with the University of Oklahoma in the development of a forum to address the issues connected with responding to those shortages. Nearly 100 representatives from the public, private, and academic portions of the energy production sector, the meteorological community, political and corporate leaders, weather risk management analysts, and policy makers met on October 16-17, 2001 to discuss these policy issues.

  20. The 2030 framework for climate and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woersdoerfer, Mechthild [Directorate-General for Energy European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    In the light of experiences and lessons learnt from current energy and climate policies and the changing economic and energy market context, the Commission proposed a new framework for climate and energy policies for the period until 2030 on which the European Council reached an agreement on October 24, 2014. The framework is structured around four headline targets: a binding EU level target for domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40 % compared to 1990 levels; a binding EU level target for the share of renewable energy of at least 27 %; an indicative EU level target for energy efficiency improvements of at least 27 % and an objective for electricity interconnections of 15 % in 2030.

  1. The 2030 framework for climate and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woersdoerfer, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    In the light of experiences and lessons learnt from current energy and climate policies and the changing economic and energy market context, the Commission proposed a new framework for climate and energy policies for the period until 2030 on which the European Council reached an agreement on October 24, 2014. The framework is structured around four headline targets: a binding EU level target for domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40 % compared to 1990 levels; a binding EU level target for the share of renewable energy of at least 27 %; an indicative EU level target for energy efficiency improvements of at least 27 % and an objective for electricity interconnections of 15 % in 2030.

  2. Simultaneous calculation and assessment of facade performances; Gelijktijdig berekenen en beoordelen van gevelprestaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, A.B.M.; Rutten, P.G.S.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Aarts, M.P.J.; Loonen, R.C.G.M. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    What is the added value of simultaneous calculation of performance indicators in terms of visual comfort, thermal comfort and related use of energy with regard to design of a building facade? This and other related questions are answered on the basis of research aimed at an area with office functions [Dutch] Wat is de meerwaarde van het 'gelijktijdig' in een model berekenen van prestatieindicatoren in termen van visueel comfort, thermisch comfort en bijbehorend energiegebruik in relatie tot het gevelontwerp? In dit artikel worden deze en andere daaraan verwante vragen beantwoord op basis van onderzoek dat gericht is op een ruimte met kantoorfunctie.

  3. The energy report - Energy-climate preservation - 100% Renewable energy by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Stephan; Denruyter, Jean-Philippe; Jeffries, Barney; Gibbons, Owen; Hendrix, Ellen; Hiller, Martin; McLellan, Richard; Pols, Donald; Allott, Keith; Anderson, Jason; Baker, Bryn; Battle, Jessica; Blom, Esther; Caught, Kellie; Clough, Kirsty; Chatterjee, Keya; Duveau, Thomas; Elliott, Wendy; Emfel, Magnus; Englum, Lynn; Fabbri, Mariangiola; Geneen, Bart; Gray, Ian; Gritsevich, Inna; Van de Gronden, Johan; Guerraoui, May; Hart, Piers; Hartmann, Joerg; Hofstetter, Patrick; Holland, Richard; Hou, Yanli; Ibrahim, Nora; Kaszewski, Andrea; Kiianmaa, Sampsa; Kokorin, Alexey; Lifeng, Li; Lockley, Pete; Maassen, Paul; Masako, Yosuke; McLaughlin, David; Mathe, Laszlo; McLellan, Elisabeth; Von Mirbach, Martin; Ogorzalek, Kevin; Orr, Stuart; Perrin, Mireille; Pollard, Duncan; Randriambola, Voahirana; Rast, Georg; Roberntz, Peter; Senga, Rafael; Sinha, Shirish; Steindlegger, Gerald; Taylor, Rod; Valencia, Ivan; Vitali, Arianna; Willstedt, Heikki; Woul, Mattias de; Worthington, Richard; Yamagishi, Naoyuki; Boufflers, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Olivier; Marsily, Anne de; Graaf, Reinier de; Baird, Laura; Merkeley, Tanner; D'Amico, Federico; Christensen, Vilhelm; McPhee, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    WWF has a vision of a world that is powered by 100 per cent renewable energy sources by the middle of this century. Unless we make this transition, the world is most unlikely to avoid predicted escalating impacts of climate change. But is it possible to achieve 100 per cent renewable energy supplies for everyone on the planet by 2050? WWF called upon the expertise of respected energy consultancy Ecofys to provide an answer to this question. In response, Ecofys has produced a bold and ambitious scenario - which demonstrates that it is technically possible to achieve almost 100 per cent renewable energy sources within the next four decades. The Ecofys scenario raises a number of significant issues and challenges. The Energy Report investigates the most critically important political, economic, environmental and social choices and challenges, and encourages their further debate. How are we going to provide for all of the world's future needs, on energy, food, fibre, water and others, without running into such huge issues as: conflicting demands on land/water availability and use; rising, and in some cases, unsustainable consumption of commodities; nuclear waste; and regionally appropriate and adequate energy mixes? The world needs to seriously consider what will be required to transition to a sustainable energy future, and to find solutions to the dilemmas raised in this report. Answering these challenges - the solutions to the energy needs of current and future generations is one of the most important, challenging and urgent political tasks ahead

  4. Opinion survey on energy and climate in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    This issue comments the results of a survey on the opinion of French people on the reality of climate change (for the whole population and with respect to age), on the opinion of French people on nuclear energy (in relationship with the opinion on climate change, globally in terms of benefit or drawback with evolution of the opinion since 1994), on the feeling of having suffered from the cold during the winter of 2012-2013, on the dwelling temperature in winter, and on the opinion on energy price

  5. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  6. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroztegui, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior

  7. Analysis of multi-functional ventilated facades. An European joule project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M; Perez Segarra, C.D; A Oliva; Aceves, O; Sen F [Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The name Multi-Functional Ventilated Facade (MFVF) has been used in the project as a generic name to refer to a facade characterized by an inner ventilated air layer along with the incorporation of some additional technological elements. The elements here studied have been the following: the use of phase change materials (PCM) in the opaque walls to provide thermal inertia, the use of transparent insulation (TI) to reduce the connective losses in the semi-transparent areas and, finally the incorporation of photovoltaic cells (PV) at the skin of the building to provide electrical power. The flux air developed in the channel provides not only an additional thermal resistance but a heat flux which can be driven outdoors or indoors conveniently according to the buildings energetic load. Different MFVF prototypes adapted to the different European climates have been experimentally tested in cabin test cells under real outdoor conditions and for long time periods. Also, an specific computing code has been adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of this kind of facades. The code has been partially validated with the experimental information provided by the prototypes. Finally, the code is been used to optimize the main design variables of these facades. [Spanish] El nombre de fachadas ventiladas multi-funcionales (MFVF) ha sido usado en el proyecto como un nombre generico para referirse a una fachada caracterizada por una capa interior ventilada con aire juntamente con la incorporacion de algunos elementos tecnologicos adicionales. Los elementos aqui estudiados han sido los siguientes: el uso de materiales de cambio de fase (PCM) en las paredes opacas para proporcionar inercia termica, el uso de aislamiento transparente (TI) para reducir las perdidas conectivas en las areas semitransparentes, y finalmente la incorporacion de celdas fotovoltaica (PV) y el recubrimiento del edificio para proporcionar energia electrica. El flujo del aire desarrollado en el canal proporciona

  8. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Olivier; Edwards, Neil R.; Knutti, Reto; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. - Research Highlights: → Preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction. → This could be achieved through strong changes in the energy mix. → Similar results would apply to any climate system tipping points.

  9. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  10. The Value of Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Managing Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Weiss, Edith

    1982-04-01

    Research and interviews with officials of the United States energy industry and a systems analysis of decision making in a natural gas utility lead to the conclusion that seasonal climate forecasts would only have limited value in fine tuning the management of energy supply, even if the forecasts were more reliable and detailed than at present.On the other hand, reliable forecasts could be useful to state and local governments both as a signal to adopt long-term measures to increase the efficiency of energy use and to initiate short-term measures to reduce energy demand in anticipation of a weather-induced energy crisis.To be useful for these purposes, state governments would need better data on energy demand patterns and available energy supplies, staff competent to interpret climate forecasts, and greater incentive to conserve. The use of seasonal climate forecasts is not likely to be constrained by fear of legal action by those claiming to be injured by a possible incorrect forecast.

  11. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  12. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  13. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  14. NGO and industry perspectives on energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlighted the clear contradiction between projected business as usual energy development in Canada and its climate change commitments. It was cautioned that these contradictions can only be resolved by actively incorporating climate change considerations into energy policies and by making efforts to promote energy efficiency and investment in renewable energy technologies. Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol seem to be inconsistent with the ongoing policy of exporting greater amounts of oil and gas to the United States. In the short-term, the author advocates the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and supports the debate on how the cost of meeting greenhouse gas commitments should be distributed, and how they can be minimized

  15. A Strategy for American Power: Energy, Climate and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    For example, Greg Mankiw , Harvard economist and former chair of President Bush’s Council of Economic Advisors, has proposed phasing in a $1 per...International Energy Barrier By Amy Myers Jaffe 77 Chapter V: Overcoming the Economic Barriers to Climate Change and Energy Security By Jason Furman (lead...Hamilton Project. He previously served in the Clinton administration and at the Council of Economic Advisers, the National Economic Council, and the World

  16. From Climate Change Awareness to Energy Efficient Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Niamir, Leila; Filatova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and predicting how climate will change, and whether and how a transition to low-carbon economies will develop over the next century is of vital importance. Nowadays there is high competition between countries to achieve a low-carbon economy. They are examining different ways e.g. different energy efficient technologies and low-carbon energy sources, however they believe that human choices and behavioural change has a crucial impact, which is many times discussed in the literatur...

  17. Integrated energy and climate program without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, W.

    2007-01-01

    Under the German EU Council presidency, the European Union adopted an ambitious climate protection program in spring this year which has consequences for the entire energy sector. A fair system of burden sharing is currently being sought on the level of the European Union. However, the German federal government does not wait for that agreement to be reached, but has added to the clearcut EU plans in order to achieve more climate protection. At the closed meeting of the federal cabinet in Meseberg on August 23-24, 2007, the key points of an integrated energy and climate program were adopted. The unprecedented set of measures comprises 30 points. In many cases, legal measures are required for implementation, which implies a heavy workload facing the federal government and parliament. A major step forward is seen in the federal government's intention to preserve the international competitiveness of the producing sector and energy-intensive industries also under changed framework conditions. The imperative guiding principle must be that care should take precedence over speed. European or worldwide solutions must be found for all measures, be it energy efficiency or climate protection, and all countries must be involved because, otherwise, specific measures taken by individual states will be ineffective. (orig.)

  18. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  19. Coping with climate change and China's wind energy sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of today's climate change. To address this problem, the world is in an era of new round energy transformation, and the existing energy structure is being reformed. In this paper, according to the Chinese government's action plan for coping with climate change, the China's wind energy sustainable development goals and development route are discussed, and the countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. Wind energy is currently a kind of important renewable energy with matured technology which can be scale-up developed and put into commercial application, and in this transformation, wind energy will play a key role with other non-fossil energy sources. The development and utilization of wind energy is a systematic project, which needs to be solved from the aspects of policy, technology and management. At present, China is in the stage of transferring from “large wind power country” to “strong wind power country”, opportunities and challenges coexist, and the advantages of China's socialist system could be fully used, which can concentrate power to do big things and make contribution in the process of realizing global energy transformation.

  20. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiankun; Yu Zhiwei; Zhang Da

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  1. Climate and southern Africa's water-energy-food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; van Garderen, Emma Archer; Deryng, Delphine; Dorling, Steve; Krueger, Tobias; Landman, Willem; Lankford, Bruce; Lebek, Karen; Osborn, Tim; Ringler, Claudia; Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; Dalin, Carole

    2015-09-01

    In southern Africa, the connections between climate and the water-energy-food nexus are strong. Physical and socioeconomic exposure to climate is high in many areas and in crucial economic sectors. Spatial interdependence is also high, driven, for example, by the regional extent of many climate anomalies and river basins and aquifers that span national boundaries. There is now strong evidence of the effects of individual climate anomalies, but associations between national rainfall and gross domestic product and crop production remain relatively weak. The majority of climate models project decreases in annual precipitation for southern Africa, typically by as much as 20% by the 2080s. Impact models suggest these changes would propagate into reduced water availability and crop yields. Recognition of spatial and sectoral interdependencies should inform policies, institutions and investments for enhancing water, energy and food security. Three key political and economic instruments could be strengthened for this purpose: the Southern African Development Community, the Southern African Power Pool and trade of agricultural products amounting to significant transfers of embedded water.

  2. 'Pivotal politics' in US energy and climate legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodvin, Tora

    2010-01-01

    In the 110th Congress (2007-2008) legislation related to climate change was introduced at a faster pace than in any previous Congress, yet it did not result in a corresponding increase in enacted climate-related laws. A pertinent example of the political infeasibility of climate policy change in the 110th Congress is the case of tax credit extensions for production of renewable energy. While this issue in itself was uncontroversial, the extensions were only adopted in the 11th hour, after innumerable failed attempts. With an analytical point of departure in Krehbiel's theory of pivotal politics, this paper seeks to identify pivotal legislators in the case of the tax credit extensions and discusses how changes in the composition of pivotal legislators in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) may impact the prospects of moving climate legislation more generally. The analysis indicates that a majority of the legislative pivots in the case of tax credit extensions were Republican senators representing coal-producing states. In the case of climate change, however, the regional dimension is likely to be more significant for Democratic voting behaviour. Thus, the opportunity space for climate legislation in the 111th Congress remains narrow even with a reinforced Democratic majority in Congress.

  3. Automated mapping of building facades by machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Facades of buildings contain various types of objects which have to be recorded for information systems. The article describes a solution for this task focussing on automated classification by means of machine learning techniques. Stereo pairs of oblique images are used to derive 3D point clouds...

  4. Moisture damage with magnesium oxide boards in Danish facade structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium oxide boards have been widely used on facades in Denmark during 2010-2015. However, the magnesium salts absorb humidity from the ambient, and they begin to leak salty water, which is highly corrosive, and leads to moisture and mould problems in wooden members of the structures. Mg...

  5. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  6. Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demosthenous

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers.

  7. Hydrogen from nuclear energy and the impact on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Poehnell, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    The two major candidates for hydrogen production include nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. However, hydrogen produced by steam reforming of natural gas offers little advantage in total cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over hybrid internal combustion engine (ICE) technology. Only nuclear power offers the possibility of cutting GHG emissions significantly and to economically provide electricity for traditional applications and by producing hydrogen for its widespread use in the transportation sector. Using nuclear energy to produce hydrogen for transportation fuel, doubles or triples nuclear's capacity to reduce GHG emissions. An analysis at the Atomic Energy of Canada shows that a combination of hydrogen fuel and nuclear energy can stabilize GHG emissions and climate change for a wide range of the latest scenarios presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The technology for replacing hydrocarbon fuels with non-polluting hydrogen exists with nuclear power, electrolysis and fuel cells, using electric power grids for distribution. It was emphasized that a move toward total emissions-free transportation will be a move towards solving the negative effects of climate change. This paper illustrated the trends between global economic and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Low carbon dioxide emission energy alternatives were discussed along with the sources of hydrogen and the full cycle assessment results in reduced emissions. It was shown that deploying 20 CANDU NPPs (of 690 MW (e) net each) would fuel 13 million vehicles with the effect of levelling of carbon dioxide emissions from transportation between 2020 to 2030. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  9. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  10. Energy policy in China: implications for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZhongXiang Zhang [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    This is the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy. It evaluates the economics of climate change and provides national, cost-effective policies for climate change. The book consists of three main parts, firstly, an analysis of the Chinese energy system to increase awareness of the implications of this sector for China`s future carbon dioxide emissions, secondly, a macroeconomic analysis of carbon dioxide emissions limits using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and finally, a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model.

  11. Energy Climate Change - Challenges and Prospects of the EU Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, P.; Bosnjakovic, B.; Frankovic, B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the main challenges and prospects of EU policy in the field of energy and climate change, without going into technical details, but establishes the main themes of sustainability: economy, environment and new jobs. It describes the foundations and the objectives of the current EU energy policy, and the reasons why the current approach to reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is disappointing. Also, the question is whether EU will achieve the renewable energy goals for the year 2020. The security of energy supply and availability is also considered, especially in view of high dependence on import energy in the today fragmented market. For the way forward to mid-century, the targets to year 2030 are of critical importance. Also, the paper gives an overview of the state of renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions in Croatia.(author)

  12. Energy Assurance: Essential Energy Technologies for Climate Protection and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Fulkerson, William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gaddis, Abigail [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Mason, Thom [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Zucker, Alexander [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    We present and apply a new method for analyzing the significance of advanced technology for achieving two important national energy goals: climate protection and energy security. Quantitative metrics for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 and oil independence in 2030 are specified, and the impacts of 11 sets of energy technologies are analyzed using a model that employs the Kaya identity and incorporates the uncertainty of technological breakthroughs. The goals examined are a 50% to 80% reduction in CO2 emissions from energy use by 2050 and increased domestic hydrocarbon fuels supply and decreased demand that sum to 11 mmbd by 2030. The latter is intended to insure that the economic costs of oil dependence are not more than 1% of U.S. GDP with 95% probability by 2030. Perhaps the most important implication of the analysis is that meeting both energy goals requires a high probability of success (much greater than even odds) for all 11 technologies. Two technologies appear to be indispensable for accomplishment of both goals: carbon capture and storage, and advanced fossil liquid fuels. For reducing CO2 by more than 50% by 2050, biomass energy and electric drive (fuel cell or battery powered) vehicles also appear to be necessary. Every one of the 11 technologies has a powerful influence on the probability of achieving national energy goals. From the perspective of technology policy, conflict between the CO2 mitigation and energy security is negligible. These general results appear to be robust to a wide range of technology impact estimates; they are substantially unchanged by a Monte Carlo simulation that allows the impacts of technologies to vary by 20%.

  13. Climate-smart technologies. Integrating renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Mannke, Franziska; Schulte, Veronika [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences; Mohee, Romeela; Surroop, Dinesh (eds.) [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Explores the links between climate change and technologies. Relates to the links between renewable energy and climate change. Documents and promotes a collection of experiences from island nations. Has a strong international focus and value to developing countries. The book addresses the perceived need for a publication with looks at both, climate smart technologies and the integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses. Based on a set of papers submitted as part of the fifth on-line climate conference (CLIMATE 2012) and a major conference on renewable energy on island States held in Mauritius in 2012, the book provides a wealth of information on climate change strategies and the role of smart technologies. The book has been produced in the context of the project ''Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network'' (DIREKT), funded by the ACP Science and Technology Programme, an EU programme for cooperation between the European Union and the ACP region.

  14. PROPOSALS REGARDING CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY FOR 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA POPESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate policies are fundamental for the future of our planet, while a truly European energy policy is a key factor for our competitiveness.It`s mandatory a new European energy policy which must accept the real energetic motivations regarding sustainability and greenhouse gas, security of supply and dependence on imports, competitiveness and efficient functioning of the internal energy market. An ambitious target of 40% reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases for 2030 is the cornerstone of the most efficient in terms of cost on our path towards a low-carbon dioxide. And at least 27% target for renewable energy is an important signal to investors to provide stability, boost green jobs and support security of supply. Using renewable energy sources (wind, solar and photovoltaic, biomass and biofuels, geothermal and heat pumps undeniably contributes to limiting climate change. In addition, it helps to secure energy supplies and to create and increase employment in Europe, thanks to increasing local energy production and consumption.

  15. From macroeconomics of energy-climate policies to the convergence between climate and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    After a brief presentation of her research curriculum, an indication of her various publications and contributions to conferences, the author presents her expertise works and her participation to national and international projects such as: Fairness in the post-2030 climatic regime, Towards an energetic autonomy in island and isolated territories, scenarios under a carbon constraint, comparative analysis of tools of implementation of multilateral agreements on the environment, mechanism for a clean development and domestic measures, Deep De-carbonation Pathway Project or DDPP, EncilowCarb engaging civil society in low carbon scenarios, climate and development or how to re-conciliate environmental constraints and national development policies, Developmental additionnality of the Clean Development Mechanism and public aid to development. In the next part, she proposes an overview of her research works by distinguishing two directions: a macro-economic analysis of climate policies integrating second raw elements (Imaclim-R France), and strategies of struggle against climate change integrated into development policies. In a third part, she discusses research perspectives regarding energy transition and natural resources, mankind in the energy transition, and the citizen (scenarios, democracy and energy transition) [fr

  16. Climate, energy and emissions trading in the EU and DK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    European Union member states are facing two serious challenges: human-induced climatic changes and oil shortage. Evidence that human-induced global heating is threatening the climatic balance is piling up and the conflicts over the last oil resources are becoming critical. The European Union has neither large oil resources nor foreign-political or military power to conquer additional oil resources. The EU Commission's awareness of these facts is influencing the EU energy and climate policy. Recently EU launched the directive on carbon dioxide emissions trading within certain energy-heavy sectors. The greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive requires a national ceiling on the allocation of CO 2 quotas for the heavy industry and energy sectors, thus adapting the quantity of quotas to the Kyoto requirements. This requirement can be quite extensive for the sectors affected by the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive, if national governments choose to abstain from political intervention in order to reduce release of greenhouse gases in sectors outside the emissions trading, e.g. agriculture, transportation, households, and smaller industry and service. Lack of action in these sectors will require the governments to impose either large burdens or use of national Joint Implementation and Clean Development agreements on the heavy industry and energy sectors outside national borders, thus conflicting with the Kyoto Protocol. (BA)

  17. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  18. A Unique Climate and Energy Policy - Key Problems and Possible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses problems of independent application of climate and energy policy. In order to accomplish the goals from The Paris Climate Agreement, an agreement about the goals and measures for climate preservation from 2015, a unique climate and energy policy is suggested, as well as the measures for the implementation of it. To achieve no CO2 and GHG emissions in the energy sector, to have it be completely market based, energy efficient and technologically approved, a unique climate and energy policy is a necessary option and the only viable option to accomplish previously agreed climate goals.(author).

  19. Numerical analysis of passive strategies for energy retrofit of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate: thermal mass and natural ventilation combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcerano Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of coupling natural ventilation and thermal storage systems to improve hygrothermal comfort and reduce energy consumption during summer season in an existing building in the Mediterranean. It aims at bridging the knowledge gap between designers, researchers and building scientists, fostering a multidisciplinary approach and promoting numerical simulation of the energy performance of buildings within architectural professional practice. The study analyses the interaction between six natural ventilation systems (single sided ventilation through facade openings; cross ventilation through facade openings, inlet wind tower, thermal chimney, evaporative cool tower, earth pipes and with two thermal storage typology (heavy and medium-light within four strategic Italian location (Rome, Naples, Messina and Catania. For each interaction we perform a numerical dynamic simulation of indoor comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption during the summer period, on a reference building model corresponding to the most common Italian typology. Results show that the use of the chosen systems ensures significant reductions of discomfort hours and energy consumption in all configurations. The study also highlights the high efficiency of non invasive systems (single-sided and cross ventilation with automatic control present discomfort hours reduction and energy consumption reduction above 68% for all combinations and the significant influence of the daily thermal range value on the performance of systems without air pre-treatment.

  20. Facading in transcultural interactions: examples from pediatric cancer care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergert, Pernilla

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the study were to generate a grounded theory explaining the latent pattern of behavior in transcultural care interactions in the context of pediatric cancer care and to unify previously performed studies. The basic tenets of classic grounded theory were applied on a theoretical sample of data from previous studies that included 5 focus group interviews with health care professionals (n = 35) and individual interviews with nurses (n = 12) and foreign-born parents (n = 11). Facading emerged as the core category and is the act of showing an outer appearance that will influence other people's interpretations. In transcultural interactions, facading might be misinterpreted related to different obstacles. Examples are given of different facades explored in pediatric cancer care including strength facading. Facading is a strategy aiming to protect oneself and others emotionally in care and includes: emotional facading and facading-sensitive issues. This grounded theory could help make health care professionals aware of different meanings of facading across cultures in health care. Also, awareness is needed of different views on emotional facading and facading-sensitive issues to provide a congruent care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Climate impacts on the cost of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Mallory E.; Smith, Matthew K.; Parsekian, Ara W.; Boyuk, Dmitriy S.; McGrath, Jenna K.; Yates, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) estimates are widely utilized by decision makers to predict the long-term cost and benefits of solar PV installations, but fail to consider local climate, which impacts PV panel lifetime and performance. Specific types of solar PV panels are known to respond to climate factors differently. Mono-, poly-, and amorphous-silicon (Si) PV technologies are known to exhibit varying degradation rates and instantaneous power losses as a function of operating temperature, humidity, thermal cycling, and panel soiling. We formulate an extended LCOE calculation, which considers PV module performance and lifespan as a function of local climate. The LCOE is then calculated for crystalline and amorphous Si PV technologies across several climates. Finally, we assess the impact of various policy incentives on reducing the firm's cost of solar deployment when controlling for climate. This assessment is the first to quantify tradeoffs between technologies, geographies, and policies in a unified manner. Results suggest crystalline Si solar panels as the most promising candidate for commercial-scale PV systems due to their low degradation rates compared to amorphous technologies. Across technologies, we note the strong ability of investment subsidies in removing uncertainty and reducing the LCOE, compared to production incentives. - Highlights: •We integrate local climate into the Levelized Cost of photovoltaic technology. •Climate dictates panel degradation rates and the impact of temperature on efficiency. •We compare LCOE under policy scenarios for three technologies in four U. S. states. •Degradation is highly variable, increasing costs by shortening panel life in many regions. •Incentives targeting investment are most effective at reducing solar deployment costs.

  2. Nuclear power and post-2012 energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Daniel; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2008-01-01

    At present there is no binding agreement (at a global level) to address the risk of anthropogenic climate change after 2012. Disagreements abound with respect to a post-2012 climate change agreement, on issues such as economic development, policy criteria, environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, equity, dynamic flexibility, complementarity, enforceability and so on. One such disagreement is whether or not nuclear power should play a role in a post-2012 climate change agreement. This qualitative analysis explores the conditions under which nuclear power could contribute to addressing climate change in post-2012 architectures. It reveals that - given the right framework conditions - some architectures, like 'cap and trade' regimes or 'policies and measures' can improve the competitiveness of nuclear power plants, while others are unlikely to provide incentives for nuclear energy development in the short to medium term, such as adaptation and technology cooperation. Overall, the study concludes that post-2012 climate change policy should aim at providing policy flexibility without compromising technology flexibility. For example, the provision of long-term commitment periods has the potential to enable better investments in existing low-carbon technologies but stifle the policy flexibility that political decision makers are often keen to retain so that they can respond more quickly to new scientific evidence or advances in clean technology development

  3. Sustainable energy development and climate change in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Ren; Lei Zeng; Dadi Zhou

    2005-07-01

    This article analyses the national circumstances and major factors underpinning China's energy demand and supply, energy-related emissions, and consequently China's sustainable development. These factors include the huge, still growing, and aging population, rapid economic growth, ongoing industrialization and urbanization, environmental and health concerns at local, regional and global level. Against such background analysis, the article explores the potential and constraints of non-fossil fuel, fuel-switching to natural gas, economy restructuring and clean coal technology in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ensuring energy supply in China. The authors reiterate the importance of improving energy efficiency in China and discuss how to integrate renewable energy into rural development. The article concludes with an in-depth discussion about redefining development goals, the equity issue in climate change process, and the linkage with sustainable development. (author)

  4. Sustainable energy development and climate change in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, X.; Zeng, L.; Zhou, D.D. [UNFCCC Secretariat, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This article analyses the national circumstances and major factors underpinning China's energy demand and supply, energy-related emissions, and consequently China's sustainable development. These factors include the huge, still growing, and aging population, rapid economic growth, ongoing industrialization and urbanization, environmental and health concerns at local, regional and global level. Against such background analysis, the article explores the potential and constraints of non-fossil fuel, fuel-switching to natural gas, economy restructuring and clean coal technology in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ensuring energy supply in China. The authors reiterate the importance of improving energy efficiency in China and discuss how to integrate renewable energy into rural development. The article concludes with an in-depth discussion about redefining development goals, the equity issue in climate change process, and the linkage with sustainable development.

  5. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  6. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  7. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  8. Sustainable development, energy and climate. Exploring synergies and tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.

    2006-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Development, Energy and Climate Project that has been managed by the UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The project is a partnership between the UNEP Risoe Centre and centers of excellence in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa. The focus of this report is on the energy sector mitigation assessments that have been carried out in the countries. In addition to this work, the project has also included adaptation focused case studies that explore climate change impacts on the energy sector and infrastructure. The report includes a short introduction to the project and its approach and summaries of the six country studies. This is followed by an assessment of cross country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. Furthermore, energy access and affordability for households are considered as major social aspects of energy provision. The country study results that are included in this report are a short summary of some of the main findings and do not provide all details of the work that has been undertaken. Some of the countries in particular those with fast growing economies and energy sectors such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa have conducted general scenario analysis of the energy sector and explored some policies in more depth, while the country studies for Bangladesh and Senegal where the energy sector is less developed have focused more on specific issues related to energy access and the electricity sector. (au)

  9. Sustainable development, energy and climate. Exploring synergies and tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K; Garg, A [eds.

    2006-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Development, Energy and Climate Project that has been managed by the UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The project is a partnership between the UNEP Risoe Centre and centers of excellence in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa. The focus of this report is on the energy sector mitigation assessments that have been carried out in the countries. In addition to this work, the project has also included adaptation focused case studies that explore climate change impacts on the energy sector and infrastructure. The report includes a short introduction to the project and its approach and summaries of the six country studies. This is followed by an assessment of cross country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. Furthermore, energy access and affordability for households are considered as major social aspects of energy provision. The country study results that are included in this report are a short summary of some of the main findings and do not provide all details of the work that has been undertaken. Some of the countries in particular those with fast growing economies and energy sectors such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa have conducted general scenario analysis of the energy sector and explored some policies in more depth, while the country studies for Bangladesh and Senegal where the energy sector is less developed have focused more on specific issues related to energy access and the electricity sector. (au)

  10. The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Agoston, Peter; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar; Nemet, Gregory; Pietzcker, Robert C.

    2017-09-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth assessment report emphasizes the importance of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage for achieving climate goals, but it does not identify solar energy as a strategically important technology option. That is surprising given the strong growth, large resource, and low environmental footprint of photovoltaics (PV). Here we explore how models have consistently underestimated PV deployment and identify the reasons for underlying bias in models. Our analysis reveals that rapid technological learning and technology-specific policy support were crucial to PV deployment in the past, but that future success will depend on adequate financing instruments and the management of system integration. We propose that with coordinated advances in multiple components of the energy system, PV could supply 30-50% of electricity in competitive markets.

  11. Experts' conference on the Climate and Energy Contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This document first proposes the White Paper prepared for the experts' conference. After a presentation of the Emission Trading System (ETS), this paper highlights the benefit of the introduction of economical instruments rather than regulatory instruments to promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It underlines the distinction between the proposed 'climate-energy contribution' (or carbon tax) and the Cambridge tax. Then, it describes how to implement such a contribution, i.e. how to define its base, and how to relate it with existing taxes. Some graphs compare the tax rates on fuels, gas and domestic oil in European countries. The paper then defines what the field of application of the contribution could be, how to make this contribution more efficient, and what could be its economical consequences. Then, the document proposes the text of Michel Rocard's intervention on the stakes of conference on this climate-energy contribution

  12. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Monkelbaan, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We have arrived at a critical juncture when it comes to understanding the numerous ways in which trade interacts with climate change and energy (trade-climate-energy nexus). Trade remains crucial for the sustainable development of the world's greatest trading nation: China. After clarifying the linkages within the trade, climate change and energy nexus, this article delves into China's specific needs and interests related to trade, climate change and energy. Then it explores the ways in which...

  13. The European framework for energy and climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    European energy and climate change policy rests on two main pillars: the internal energy market (IEM), and the climate change package (CCP). The IEM aimed at third party access and unbundling, neglecting the physical infrastructure and the basis for asset valuations and hence the harmonisation of network charges. The Commission plans to complete the IEM by 2014—almost a quarter of a century after embarking on the policy. Yet even if all the IEM directives are implemented, the EU will remain far from a single competitive market. The CCP was grounded on short term targets (the 2020-20-20 programme) on the assumption that fossil fuel prices would rise, making renewables competitive, and hence yielding a competitive advantage to the EU. The EUETS was intended to lead the way to a global trading system and an international agreement at Copenhagen. The EU has reduced the production of carbon emissions, but only as a result of de-industrialisation and slow growth, and at the expense of rising carbon consumption. Renewables have not led to green growth, but rather to a further eroding of competitiveness. The EUETS price has collapsed. In order for the EU to put the IEM and the CCP back on track, both need to be radically reconsidered. The IEM requires a refocusing on physical infrastructure, common accounting rules and an EU-wide approach to capacity markets and renewables trading. The CCP requires a refocusing on carbon consumption, on limiting the dash-for-coal, and on future rather than current renewables. - Highlights: • The design of the internal energy market. • The design of the climate change package. • The interaction between the internal energy market and the climate change package. • Required reforms

  14. Energy Use and Indoor Climate in Two Schools Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    . The 7 buildings are being energy renovated and monitored with support from the EU-CONCERTO initiative as part of the project “Cost-effective Low-energy Advanced Sustainable So1utions – Class1”. The buildings are very different and therefore the energy renovations to take place will also vary from...... insulation of piping and improved control (Building Energy Management Systems – BEMS). This paper presents preliminary results of analysis and monitoring of energy use and indoor climate in the two public schools before and after deep energy renovation....

  15. Fuelling the climate crisis : the continental energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.; Scott, G.; Hocking, D.; Marchildon, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper emphasized the need for the Canadian government to address the issue of climate change. It was argued that the political will in Canada to address global warming is subordinate to the expansion of fossil fuel production and exports. Canadians are highly dependent upon the services that these carbon-based fuels provide. However, these fossil fuels are significant contributors to local air pollution and the biggest contributor to global climate change. It was argued that conservation and other sources, such as renewable energy sources, are equally technically feasible and economically available. The paper criticized the fact that while world markets for renewables are expanding, Canada's energy future is being developed by the fossil fuel industry in collaboration with U.S. political leaders, energy regulators and policy makers, and that industry and government are ignoring the obvious contradiction between the science of climate change and the policy of fossil fuel expansion. The Canadian government encourages the development of fossil fuel supply and production through subsidies and incentive programs for exploration and development along with deregulation of the oil and natural gas markets. This paper demonstrated that under current market trends, the planned growth in Canadian fossil fuel production and use will raise emissions 44 per cent above the Kyoto target by 2010. New tar sands expansion projects, increased natural gas production to meet U.S. demand and new coal-fired electricity generation will add 63.5 megatonnes of greenhouse gas emissions to Canada's projected annual total. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Complementarity among climate related energy sources: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Raynaud, Damien; Borga, Marco; Vautard, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power are important contributors to the transitions to a low-carbon economy. Past studies, mainly based on solar and wind powers, showed that the power from such energy sources fluctuates in time and space following their driving climatic variables. However, when combining different energy sources together, their intermittent feature is smoothed, resulting to lower time variability of the produced power and to lower storage capacity required for balancing. In this study, we consider solar, wind and hydro energy sources in a 100% renewable Europe using a set of 12 regions following two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine wind and solar irradiance data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Vautard et al., 2014), temperature data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) and runoff from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC, 1999) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 30 years. The use of this set of 12 regions across Europe allows integrating knowledge about time and space variability for each different energy sources. We then assess the optimal share of each energy sources, aiming to decrease the time variability of the regional energy balance at different time scales as well as the energy storage required for balancing within each region. We also evaluate how energy transport among regions contributes for smoothing out both the energy balance and the storage requirement. The strengths of this study are i) to handle with run-of-the-river hydro power in addition to wind and solar energy sources and ii) to carry out this analysis

  17. Quantifying environmental performance of Jali screen facades for contemporary buildings in Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Ayesha

    Jali screens are traditional window treatments in vernacular buildings throughout South Asia and the Middle East. Contemporary builders are starting to incorporate Jali screens as decorative facade elements; however, architects and scholars have largely ignored the impact of Jali screens on overall building energy and day-lighting performance. This research evaluates the effect of Jali screens, across a range of perforation ratios, on energy utilization and day-lighting quality in contemporary office buildings. The data collection and analysis is through fieldwork in Lahore, Pakistan, as well as through computational energy modeling. Results demonstrate that Jali screens have a promising positive impact on cooling loads and may improve visual comfort. The findings suggest a holistic perspective combining traditional architecture and performance enhancement by architects and designers.

  18. An Empirical Validation of Building Simulation Software for Modelling of Double-Skin Facade (DSF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Felsmann, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    buildings, but their accuracy might be limited in cases with DSFs because of the complexity of the heat and mass transfer processes within the DSF. To address this problem, an empirical validation of building models with DSF, performed with various building simulation tools (ESP-r, IDA ICE 3.0, VA114......Double-skin facade (DSF) buildings are being built as an attractive, innovative and energy efficient solution. Nowadays, several design tools are used for assessment of thermal and energy performance of DSF buildings. Existing design tools are well-suited for performance assessment of conventional......, TRNSYS-TUD and BSim) was carried out in the framework of IEA SHC Task 34 /ECBCS Annex 43 "Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools". The experimental data for the validation was gathered in a full-scale outdoor test facility. The empirical data sets comprise the key-functioning modes...

  19. Tendances Carbone no. 82 'A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies: CDC Climat Research's answer'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: To establish a climate and energy policy in the EU in 2030, CDC Climat Research addresses three main recommendations to the European Commission: (1) Establish a binding, single and ambitious CO 2 emission reduction target of at least 40% in 2030. (2) Put the EU ETS as the central and non-residual instrument aimed at promoting cost-effective reductions in Europe and other parts of the world. (3) Define a stable, predictable and flexible climate regulation to limit carbon leakage and encourage innovation. Key drivers of the European carbon price this month: - The European Parliament has adopted Back-loading: 1.85 billion EUAs will be sold at auction between now and 2015 instead of 2.75 billion; - Phase 2 compliance: a surplus of 1,742 million tonnes (excluding the aviation sector) including auctions. - Energy Efficiency Directive: 22 of the 27 Member States have forwarded indicative targets for 2020 to the European Commission; these targets will be assessed in early 2014

  20. Climate Policy in Terms of Open Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and approach to the climate policy impact analysis on the development of energy sector. The analysis included the goals for CO2 emission reduction until 2050, by sectors and in total, with reference to last 5-10 years. The analysis of energy market development in terms of CO2 emission reduction is given, and also the analysis of the final consumption for Croatia in period until 2050. The analysis of measures, of the manner in which the measures are carried out and of the potential of measures for CO2 emission reduction is presented. Estimations of economic and financial indicators for measurement implementation are given. Technological, energy, economic, organizational and institutional limitations are specifically analysed as part of objectives realisation of CO2 emission reduction, as is the risk of measurement implementation. The important parts of CO2 emission reduction policy are: technological development, expectations and possible risks of not achieving the set objectives. The important assumption of CO2 emission reduction objective realisation is institutional organisation of creation of energy policy and measurement implementation, in which the important measure is the forming of Ministry of energy, environment protection and climate change. At the end, recommendations are given, based on the performed analysis. (author).

  1. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanski Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food production needs to increase by 70%, mostly through yield increases, to feed the world in 2050. Increases in productivity achieved in the past are attributed in part to the significant use of fossil fuels. Energy use in agriculture is therefore also expected to rise in the future, further contributing to greenhouse emissions. At the same time, more than two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating. Both types of energy use have detrimental impacts on the climate and natural resources. Continuing on this path is not an option as it will put additional pressure on the already stressed natural resource base and local livelihoods, while climate change is further reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems and smallholder farmers. Ecosystem approaches that combine both food and energy production, such as agroforestry or integrated crop–livestock–biogas systems, could substantially mitigate these risks while providing both food and energy to rural and urban populations. Information and understanding on how to change course through the implementation of the practices outlined in this paper are urgently needed. Yet the scientific basis of such integrated systems, which is essential to inform decision-makers and to secure policy support, is still relatively scarce. The author therefore argues that new assessment methodologies based on a systems-oriented analysis are needed for analyzing these complex, multidisciplinary and large-scale phenomena.

  2. Twenty-second report. Energy - the changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, Tom

    2000-06-01

    This comprehensive report examines the global context in Part 1 with chapters on the radical challenge; the causes and effects of climate change; possible preventive measures; and prospects for an effective global response. Part II focuses on the United Kingdom's response with chapters on the UK's present situation and policies; reducing energy use in the manufacturing industry, commercial and public services, households, and transport sectors; alternatives to fossil fuels such as renewable sources; patterns of energy supply and use; possible UK energy balances in the year 2050; and the adoption of a long-term strategy. Key recommendations are given, and illustrative energy balances for the UK in 2050, and technical issues relating to carbon resources and removal are discussed in the appendices

  3. Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

  4. The 2030 EU Climate and Energy Package: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    It is not surprising that in difficult economic times a long-term issue like climate policy has slipped down the agenda. However, Europe still has fundamental challenges to face in this regard. The IPCC's 5. assessment report underscored again the urgency of action on climate change. Europe will need to prepare its position for the crucial 2015 climate change negotiations hosted by France. Moreover, Europe's energy sector is in dire need of long-term orientations. Europe's fuel bill is a significant weight on its economy; the weight of evidence suggests that Europe will not replicate the US shale gas revolution. It is also important not to exaggerate the importance of the US shale revolution for competitiveness and economic performance. Europe will need to develop its own collective, competitive solutions. In comparison with 2008, there is significant divergence in Member States' vision for the 2030 climate and energy package. Some want renewables targets, others don't. Neither the Commission nor Member States are yet ready to address energy efficiency in the new package. And so on. This article conducts three thought experiments, thinking through three radically different designs for the 2030 package. These are a CO 2 only package, an innovation package, or a subsidiarity package. These reflections lead to the conclusion that a combination of elements is needed. Firstly, carbon pricing via the EU ETS should remain a central pillar, and be reinforced. Secondly, technology deployment objectives remain necessary: the key question should be what kind of targets and how to negotiate them, not whether. Finally, there is a need to build flexibility into the new package, in order to take into account the diversity of Member States' circumstances and preferences. (authors)

  5. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.

    2017-01-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem un-impactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness—belief that one’s actions cannot affect climate change—can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change effic...

  6. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  7. US views on climate change and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    The US approach to both nuclear energy and climate change can be summarized in two words: risk management. Unpacking the layers of risk management, however, requires understanding the characteristics of the US electricity market and the influences that federal and state governments have on that market. The fi rst set of issues to understand is that electric utilities in the USA are relatively risk averse, increasingly subject to competition, acutely aware of their accountability to stock investors and relatively lacking in the large capital needed to build nuclear power plants. Chief executive officers (CEOs) of utilities know that their companies' long term financial futures ride on the decisions that they make today about what types of power plants to build because of the plants' decades long lifetimes. John Rowe, CEO of Exelon, the US based utility with the largest number of nuclear reactors, expressed this point directly: 'cost is fundamental'. Many other CEOs are receptive to countering climate change, but not at the risk of hurting the US economy. This is the prevailing perception among many US business leaders. In contrast, some experts have argued that on balance such efforts could help the economy and would mitigate catastrophic climate change effects. The bottom line is that the USA can choose to pay in the near term or delay longer - with potentially graver consequences - to address climate change

  8. Climate classifications and building energy use implications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Kevin K.W.; Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Joseph C.; Yang, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Cluster analysis of summer and winter discomfort in terms of heat and cold stresses based on 102-year (1901-2002) weather data in China was conducted. Five bioclimate zones were identified. These were compared with the corresponding thermal and solar zoning classifications. Bio-I and Bio-II tended to locate largely within severe cold and cold climates in the north with excellent solar availability (annual clearness index K t generally exceeding 0.5). Bio-III and Bio-IV covered mostly the hot summer and cold winter and mild climate zones. Despite the relatively low K t in winter, passive solar heating should be able to meet a significant proportion of the heating requirements. Bio-V covered the hot summer and warmer winter region, where heat stress and hence cooling requirement dominated. Decreasing trends in the zone-average annual cumulative cold stress during the 102-year period were observed for all five zones. There was, however, no distinct pattern for the heat stress and the changes tended to be more subtle. These indicate that climate change during the 20 th century affected winter discomfort (especially in colder climates in the north) more than the summer discomfort. This could have significant implications for energy use in buildings if such trends persist. (author)

  9. Interlocal collaboration on energy efficiency, sustainability and climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Hsien

    Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.

  10. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2°C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  11. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map (Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2 °C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  12. Research of the Fire Resistance оf Translucent and Composite Facade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedryshkin Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at researching fire resistance of a prototype facade system “Technocom” (type Alucobond A2. Experimental and theoretical research of fire hazard facade system is carried out. The objectives of the study are to determine compliance with the applicable front of special technical requirements. The status of problem reducing fire hazard facade system is reviewed. The method developed by compensatory measures is applied.

  13. New facade concepts ranging from statics to dynamics; Neue Fassadenkonzepte. Von der Statik zur Dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 9 of the anthology about building control new facade concepts are presented, including new facade technologies, conductivity of new facade concepts and combination of new technologies. The whole complex ranging from statics to dynamics is explained. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 9 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control stellt neue Fassadenkonzepte vor: Neue Fassadentechnologien, Leitfunktionen neuer Fassadenkonzepte, Kombination neuer Technologien. In diesem Zusammenhang wird der gesamte Komplex von der Statik bis zur Dynamik behandelt. (BWI)

  14. Chimney Effect Assessment of the Double-skin Facade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-zhu; LI Peng; CHOW Tin-tai; REN Jian-xing; WANG Wen-huan

    2009-01-01

    The mathematic model of heat transfer through ventihted double glazing was verified with themeasured data,which were from a test chamber equipped with glass face temperature,solar radiation,ambient temperature,and wind speed measurement facility.Mter the model validation,the double-skin facade assess-ment was carried out through simulation with ESP-r software integrating thermal simulation and air low net work module.The air flow situation in the air gap was analyzed on the basis of the hourly air velocity simulation data within typical winter week,summer week,spring week and autumn week.The differences of chimney ef-fect in different seasons were discussed,and the thermal loads resulted from the ventilated and unventihted dou-ble skin facade were presented.

  15. State-of-the-Art Climate Predictions for Energy Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube

    2015-04-01

    Climate predictions tailored to the energy sector represent the cutting edge in climate sciences to forecast wind power generation. At seasonal time scales, current energy practices use a deterministic approach based on retrospective climatology, but climate predictions have recently been shown to provide additional value. For this reason, probabilistic climate predictions of near surface winds can allow end users to take calculated, precautionary action with a potential cost savings to their operations. As every variable predicted in a coupled model forecast system, the prediction of wind speed is affected by biases. To overcome this, two different techniques for the post-processing of ensemble forecasts are considered: a simple bias correction and a calibration method. The former is based on the assumption that the reference and predicted distributions are well approximated by a normal distribution. The latter is a calibration technique which inflates the model variance, and the inflation of the ensemble is required in order to obtain a reliable outcome. Both methods use the "one-year out" cross-validated mode, and they provide corrected forecasts with improved statistical properties. The impact of these bias corrections on the quality of the ECMWF S4 predictions of near surface wind speed during winter is explored. To offer a comprehensive picture of the post-processing effect on the forecast quality of the system, it is necessary to use several scoring measures: rank histograms, reliability diagrams and skill maps. These tools are essential to assess different aspects of the forecasts, and to observe changes in their properties when the two methods are applied. This study reveals that the different techniques to correct the predictions produce a statistically consistent ensemble. However, the operations performed on the forecasts decrease their skill which correspond to an increase in the uncertainty. Therefore, even though the bias correction is fundamental

  16. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  17. Bridging Climate Change Resilience and Mitigation in the Electricity Sector Through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Emerging Climate Change and Development Topics for Energy Sector Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bilello, Daniel E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Reliable, safe, and secure electricity is essential for economic and social development and a necessary input for many sectors of the economy. However, electricity generation and associated processes make up a significant portion of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to climate change. Furthermore, electricity systems are vulnerable to climate change impacts - both short-term events and changes over the longer term. This vulnerability presents both near-term and chronic challenges in providing reliable, affordable, equitable, and sustainable energy services. Within this context, developing countries face a number of challenges in the energy sector, including the need to reliably meet growing electricity demand, lessen dependence on imported fuels, expand energy access, and improve stressed infrastructure for fuel supply and electricity transmission. Energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) technical solutions described in this paper can bridge action across climate change mitigation and resilience through reducing GHG emissions and supporting electric power sector adaptation to increasing climate risk. Integrated planning approaches, also highlighted in this paper, play an integral role in bringing together mitigation and resilience action under broader frameworks. Through supporting EE and RE deployment and integrated planning approaches, unique to specific national and local circumstances, countries can design and implement policies, strategies, and sectoral plans that unite development priorities, climate change mitigation, and resilience.

  18. The new energy challenges: climate, economy, geopolitics; Les nouveaux defis de l'energie: climat, economie, geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.M. [Paris-Dauphine Univ., 75 - Paris (France); Aoun, M.C.; Campaner, N.; Cruciani, M.; Geoffron, P.; Gubaidullin, A.; Hristova, I.; Keppler, J.H.; Lautier, D.; Mandil, C.; Meritet, S.; Ouedraogo, N.; Rouhier, S.; Salaun, F.; Simon, Y.; Zaleski, C.P

    2009-07-01

    Oil, coal and natural gas, three polluting and non-renewable energies, supply more than 80% of the World daily energy consumption. Today, the scientific community has acknowledged the responsibility of this consumption on the global warming which may have dramatic impacts on physical, economical, social and political equilibria of our planet. Climate has become a public resource which belongs to everybody, the management of which should be done collectively and prospectively. However, the nation-states defend their wealth, their immediate interest without globalization and long-term outlook. This book treats of the new energy challenges under their regional and global aspects. This allows to better understand the dynamics of a multipolar world. Each region of the world has its own specificity, its capital of natural resources, its history, its own level of economic development, and its vulnerability with respect to climate change. For hundreds of million people, priority is given to the economic growth and wealth generation, but such a priority is synonymous of rise of the energy consumption and increase of greenhouse gas emissions. This opposition between 'more energy' and 'less emissions' is source of new economical and geopolitical tensions. Only a reinforcement of the world governance can solve these contradictions by the affirmation of a solidarity between populations, and for the first time, between generations. (J.S.)

  19. Impact, absorption and evaporation of raindrops on building facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuku, Masaru; Janssen, Hans; Poesen, Jean

    2009-01-01

    . Finally, the experimental and numerical data were used in a more precise three-dimensional simulation of impact, absorption and evaporation of random and discrete wind-driven raindrops. This was compared With the common one-dimensional simulation of absorption and evaporation at the facade considering...... a continuous uniform rain load as boundary condition, and significant differences between the two approaches were observed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri, E-mail: guri.bang@cicero.uio.n [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  1. Energy security and climate change concerns. Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress - the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo. (author)

  2. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  3. Balancing energy, development and climate priorities in India. Current trends and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.R.; Garg, A.; Dhar, S.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-09-01

    This report gives a short introduction to the project: Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing countries. Furthermore, the report analyses Indian energy, development and climate change, followed by an assessment of cross-country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. The focus is on the energy sector policies that mainstream climate interests within development choices. (BA)

  4. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  5. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    through the building envelope in the winter due to the pressure difference, strong winds and low water ratio in the outdoor air. The Arctic is also defined by different conditions such as building techniques and availability of the materials and energy supply. The passive house uses the basic idea......The Arctic is climatically very different from a temperate climate. In the Arctic regions, the ambient temperature reaches extreme values and it has a direct large impact on the heat loss through the building envelope and it creates problems with the foundation due to the permafrost. The solar...... influence the infiltration heat loss through the building envelope. The wind patterns have large influences on the local microclimate around the building and create the snowdrift and problems with thawing, icing and possible condensation in the building envelope. The humidity in the interior is driven out...

  6. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades: Degradation Kinetics in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K; Storgaard, Morten S; Sanderson, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-04-04

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L -1 biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms. The results show that some biocides are degraded rapidly in soil (e.g., isothiazolinones: T 1/2 soils; thus, rainfall events control how often new input to the soil occurs. Time intervals between rainfall events in Northern Europe are shorter than degradation half-lives even for many rapidly degraded biocides. Consequently, residues of some biocides are likely to be continuously present due to repeated input and most biocides can be considered as "pseudo-persistent"-contaminants in this context. This was verified by (sub)urban soil screening, where concentrations of up to 0.1 μg g -1 were detected for parent compounds as well as terbutryn degradation products in soils below biocide treated facades.

  7. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for taking action is not commensurate with the potential in the sector or the urgency with which measures need to be taken to deal with climate change. The current global energy (efficiency) governance framework is diffuse. This paper submits that there are four substantive reasons why global governance should play a complementary role in promoting energy efficiency worldwide. Furthermore, given that market mechanisms are unable to rapidly mobilize energy efficiency projects and that there are no clear vested interests in this field which involves a large number of actors, there is need for a dedicated agency to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency options presented by IPCC, the current energy efficiency governance structure at global level, and efforts taken at supranational and national levels, and makes suggestions for a governance framework.

  8. The resilience of Australian wind energy to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason P.; Kay, Merlinde; Prasad, Abhnil; Pitman, Andy

    2018-02-01

    The Paris Agreement limits global average temperature rise to 2 °C and commits to pursuing efforts in limiting warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. This will require rapid reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and the eventual decarbonisation of the global economy. Wind energy is an established technology to help achieve emissions reductions, with a cumulative global installed capacity of ~486 GW (2016). Focusing on Australia, we assess the future economic viability of wind energy using a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution regional climate simulations forced by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) output. We examine both near future (around 2030) and far future (around 2070) changes. Extractable wind power changes vary across the continent, though the most spatially coherent change is a small but significant decrease across southern regions. The cost of future wind energy generation, measured via the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE), increases negligibly in the future in regions with significant existing installed capacity. Technological developments in wind energy generation more than compensate for projected small reductions in wind, decreasing the LCOE by around 30%. These developments ensure viability for existing wind farms, and enhance the economic viability of proposed wind farms in Western Australian and Tasmania. Wind energy is therefore a resilient source of electricity over most of Australia and technological innovation entering the market will open new regions for energy production in the future.

  9. Numerical investigation on thermal performance and correlations of double skin facade with buoyancy-driven airflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Alexandra; Zhai, Zhiqiang [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, UCB 428, ECOT 441, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews the primary parameters for a double skin facade (DSF) design. The research presents an integrated and iterative modeling process for analyzing the thermal performance of DSF cavities with buoyancy-driven airflow by using a building energy simulation program (BESP) along with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package. A typical DSF cavity model has been established and simulated. The model and the modeling process have been calibrated and validated against the experimental data. The validated model was used to develop correlations that can be implemented in a BESP, allowing users to take advantage of the accuracy gained from CFD simulations without the required computation time. Correlations were developed for airflow rate through cavity, average and peak cavity air temperature, cavity air pressure, and interior convection coefficient. The correlations are valuable for 'back of the envelope' calculation and for examining accuracy of zonal-model-based energy and airflow simulation programs. (author)

  10. Indoor climate quality after renovation for improved energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Løck, Sebastian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for approximately 40 % of the Danish energy consumption. As every year less than 1 % of the building stock is rebuild after demolition of old buildings, improved energy efficiency of existing buildings are in focus. In the late seventies to mid-eighties unwise...... performance. The indoor quality classifications show minor improvements. By using design tools beyond the simple legal requirements, the rental dwelling marked is a far step ahead of most retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings and houses. The fear of indoor climate degradation from retrofitted energy saving...... measures may be countered by the use of modern design tools and attention to inner moisture membranes and needs for renovation of ventilation systems....

  11. Solutions-based climate change education for K-Gray: Renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Through the National Science Foundation-funded MADE CLEAR (www.madeclear.org) climate change education project's Informal Climate Change Education (ICCE) Community, funds were received to collaboratively train teachers, informal educators, students, and university docents in climate change basics and solutions, specifically renewable energy and energy efficiency. In all, 10 docents, 50 classroom teachers, over 600 K-16 students, and several hundred science-interested citizens participated in programs and workshops lasting between one and seven hours. Using commercially available kits and other DIY projects, program participants used science content and engineering to develop models of wind turbines, wind mills, solar cells, solar cookers, solar stills, and wind-powered cars. Using thermal imaging cameras, Kill-a-Watt meters, "Carbon Food Print" kit, "Energy Matters" kit, and other tools, program participants learned about energy efficiency as not only a global climate change mitigation strategy, but also a way to save money. ICCE Community members and external partners, such as local electric cooperative personnel, university researchers, and state-sponsored energy efficiency program personnel, provided content presentations, discussions, and hands-on activities to program participants.

  12. Etude Climat no. 36 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans: a tool for guiding the energy and climate transition in French regions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Charentenay, Jeremie; Leseur, Alexia; Bordier, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The Regional Climate-Air-Energy Plan (SRCAE - Schema Regional Climat-Air-Energie) was introduced by the Grenelle II legislation. The Plans are co-authored by the State through its decentralised services and the 'Conseil Regionaux' (regional councils) with the objective to guide climate and energy policy in the 26 French regions through to 2020 and 2050. Starting from an assessment of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the SRCAE establishes energy transition scenarios based on the sectoral and structural guidelines that constitute the principal framework of the regional strategy. This report offers a detailed analysis of the strategies chosen by the various Regions for a successful transition to low-carbon energy sources, via the study of eleven SRCAEs that were opened to public consultation before the end of July 2012 (Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Bourgogne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Ile-de-France, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardie and Rhone-Alpes regions). The wide range of methodologies used by the Regions, both to draw up their inventories of GHG emissions and for their scenarios, means that a quantitative comparison between regions or against the national objectives is not possible. Nevertheless, the report establishes a typology of regions and identifies policies that are common to all regions and those chosen in response to local characteristics. Certain guidelines could be applied by other regions of the same type, or could feed into discussions at national level. The report also indicates that the SRCAEs go beyond the competencies of the Regions, highlighting the role of local, national and European decision-making in the success of a regional energy transition. Particular attention was paid to the building and transport sectors, often identified as having the largest potential for reducing

  13. Climate change impacts on chosen activities from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The present work, results of a study carried out about the possible impact of climate change on the energy sector in the province Camaguey are shown. First of all, the main activities in companies, utilities, and farms related to the most significant energy consumption were chosen in order to model corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. Impacts were determined taking into account differences between present and future consumptions for each kind of energy. In developed countries, this kind of work is done using well-known empirical-statistical models, which usually require a lot of data at a nation-wide scale, but to attempt it in an undeveloped country demands the use of specific methodology, which in this case was non-existent and required us to create it. This resulted in a carefully posed question since we had to take into consideration that the spatial scale is only that of a province, and so it was necessary, above all, to study specific characteristics of provincial fuel consumption. We used the Magic-Scengen system and SRES scenarios, and outputs of general circulation models like HadCM2 to obtain values of chosen climatic variables for use in energy consumption regression models, previously developed for each kind of activity in the corresponding companies, firm, and facilities included in the present research. It made possible to estimate energy consumption in each activity at the selected time periods centered at 2020, 2050, and 2080. The study shows that impact could rise the consumption by 2,5% of the present energy level in this territory

  14. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  15. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

    2013-02-01

    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  16. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with

  17. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030. WETO 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a set of clear key assumptions on economic activity, population and hydrocarbon resources, WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries.It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. Three of the key results of this work are: (1) in a Reference scenario, i.e.if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system; (2) the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS; and (3) as the largest growing energy demand and CO2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. The analysis of long-term scenarios and a particular attention to the energy world context, is an important element for efficient energy, technology and environment policies towards a sustainable world

  18. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  19. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  20. Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Hoss, F.; Welle, P.; Larkin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Science, Technology, and Math (STEM) fields are responsible for more than half of our sustained economic expansion, and over the past 25 years the science and engineering workforce has remained at over 5% of all U.S. jobs. However, America lags behind other nations when it comes to STEM education; globally, American students rank 23th in math and 31st in science. While our youngest students show an interest in STEM subjects, roughly 40% of college students planning to major in STEM switch to other subjects. Women and minorities, 50% and 43% of school-age children, are disproportionally underrepresented in STEM fields (25% and 15%, respectively). Studies show that improved teacher curriculum combined with annual student-centered learning summer programs can promote and sustain student interest in STEM fields. Many STEM fields appear superficially simple, and yet can be truly complex and controversial topics. Carnegie Mellon University's Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making focuses on two such STEM fields: climate and energy. In 2011, we created SUCCEED: the Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making. SUCCEED consisted of two pilot programs: a 2-day workshop for K-12 teacher professional development and a free 5-day summer school targeted at an age gap in the university's outreach, students entering 10th grade. In addition to teaching lessons climate, energy, and environment, the program aimed to highlight different STEM careers so students could better understand the breadth of choices available. SUCCEED, repeated in 2012, was wildly successful. A pre/post test demonstrated a significant increase in understanding of STEM topics. Furthermore, SUCCEED raised excitement for STEM; teachers were enthusiastic about accurate student-centered learning plans and students wanted to know more. To grow these efforts, an additional component has been added to the SUCCEED 2013 effort: online publicly available curricula. Using the curricula form

  1. Japan's Energy and Climate Policy: Towards Dispelling the Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie; Mathieu, Carole

    2015-05-01

    Four years after the Great East Japan Earthquake and a few months before the opening of the Paris Climate Conference, Japan is about to clarify its energy and climate policy. Already in spring 2014, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe released the 4. Strategic Energy Plan, drawing the first lessons for the post-Fukushima era. The zero-nuclear scenario was abandoned, although it was established that dependence on nuclear should be as low as possible. Later in 2014, two expert panels were requested to work on quantitative targets for 2030, both in terms of future split between sources for power generation and in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction. The Cabinet's final decisions are expected for June 2015. The draft proposals are already known and suggest that Japan is determined to find a proper balance between system stability, energy security and cost control objectives on the one hand, and the need to reduce domestic GHG emissions on the other hand. Because this task is highly challenging, the government's proposals are unlikely to gain unanimous support, neither domestically nor from the international community. Taking into account the March 2015 decision to decommission five reactors, Japan now has 43 operable nuclear power plants with a capacity of 40.47 GW. Should all of them come back online, their total capacity would be sufficient to meet the draft 2030 target (20-22% share of electricity production), provided that electricity consumption does not rise significantly and that the lifetime of the nuclear plants is extended to 60 years. Although the approved restart of some nuclear units is a milestone for Japan's nuclear industry and energy mix, there are still uncertainties around the scale and timing of the restart, in particular because of the local opposition. Japan aims at increasing the share of renewable electricity production, which is set to reach 22-24% in 2030. Such target does not seem particularly ambitious, knowing that the

  2. The effects of climate change on heating energy consumption of office buildings in different climate zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchao; Li, Mingcai; Cao, Jingfu; Li, Ji; Xiong, Mingming; Feng, Xiaomei; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-06-01

    Climate plays an important role in heating energy consumption owing to the direct relationship between space heating and changes in meteorological conditions. To quantify the impact, the Transient System Simulation Program software was used to simulate the heating loads of office buildings in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, representing three major climate zones (i.e., severe cold, cold, and hot summer and cold winter climate zones) in China during 1961-2010. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to determine the key climatic parameters influencing heating energy consumption. The results showed that dry bulb temperature (DBT) is the dominant climatic parameter affecting building heating loads in all three climate zones across China during the heating period at daily, monthly, and yearly scales (R 2 ≥ 0.86). With the continuous warming climate in winter over the past 50 years, heating loads decreased by 14.2, 7.2, and 7.1 W/m2 in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, respectively, indicating that the decreasing rate is more apparent in severe cold climate zone. When the DBT increases by 1 °C, the heating loads decrease by 253.1 W/m2 in Harbin, 177.2 W/m2 in Tianjin, and 126.4 W/m2 in Shanghai. These results suggest that the heating energy consumption can be well predicted by the regression models at different temporal scales in different climate conditions owing to the high determination coefficients. In addition, a greater decrease in heating energy consumption in northern severe cold and cold climate zones may efficiently promote the energy saving in these areas with high energy consumption for heating. Particularly, the likely future increase in temperatures should be considered in improving building energy efficiency.

  3. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  4. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  5. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M.; Kirshen, P.; Horwitz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand

  6. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M. [Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD (United States); Kirshen, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Anderson Hall, Medford, MA (United States); Horwitz, J. [Climatological Database Consultant, Binary Systems Software, Newton, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand.

  7. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  8. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  9. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  10. ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. NUCLEAR, PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEA Ciprian-Beniamin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s needless to say that nuclear is a hot subject. It arouses public imagination, suspicion, and fear. It has always animated scientists’ minds and souls and after they discovered how to manipulate the atom, the public conscience has become aware of its dangers and its merits. Present paper aims to present why it is important to regard with optimism and trust the science of atoms, not without loosing our critical view concerning the risks inherently connected to it. Nuclear arms are a reality, but climate change is another. Mankind is facing both. It cannot ignore one of them without assuming greater risks in the future. In this context, nuclear can be regarded with hope and audacity. Its expansion, both in countries where it already is employed, and into newcomers (where it could be implemented, can bring benefits such as: reducing energy dependence on foreign interests placed under the umbrella of oil and gas producers, or transporters; rising energy security in a world where access to cheap and reliable energy would become more problematic; greater success in fighting climate changes and global warming through energy generated in a more environmentally friendly manner. Furthermore, over the energy aspect of peaceful nuclear energy, there is another economic and technological benefit: nuclear researches could be involved simultaneously in electricity generation, heat production, agricultural and industrial rising’s potential, water desalinization and providing in arid areas, and application in medical researches and treatment. But nuclear has its weak points: it is connected to military researches and programs, while offering the needed technical ground for UN Security Council permanent members to have and maintain prestige in international politics; it looms over mankind, as a menace which hunts our conscience after Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Its minuses have to do with international context, too: if we connect the highest level in

  11. Towards a reliable design of facade and roof elements against wind loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Wit, M.S. de

    2004-01-01

    The most vulnerable parts of buildings with respect to wind loading are facades and roofs. Current standards on wind loading provide data to determine design loads for the elements in facades and roofs. These data are available for a limited number of simple building shapes. Up to now there is no

  12. CFD model of air movement in ventilated facade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of ventilated facade. Ventilated facades are normal facade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin) facade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin facades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated facade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated facades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated facade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  13. Installation of ventilated facades without scaffolding in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedina, Lyubov; Muchkina, Arina; Labutin, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    This article consider the use of polystyrene concrete blocks during assembling enclosing structure of ventilated facades in high-rise monolithic housing construction. Comparing with traditional technology devices hinged ventilated facade the main advantage of the proposed design is an exception of using scaffold, that leads to a cheapening of the enclosing structure. Proposed solutions are confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.

  14. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  15. Combining climate and energy policies: synergies or antagonism? Modeling interactions with energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar; Bibas, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the already present Climate and Energy package, the European Union (EU) plans to include a binding target to reduce energy consumption. We analyze the rationales the EU invokes to justify such an overlapping and develop a minimal common framework to study interactions arising from the combination of instruments reducing emissions, promoting renewable energy (RE) production and reducing energy demand through energy efficiency (EE) investments. We find that although all instruments tend to reduce GHG emissions and although a price on carbon tends also to give the right incentives for RE and EE, the combination of more than one instrument leads to significant antagonisms regarding major objectives of the policy package. The model allows to show in a single framework and to quantify the antagonistic effects of the joint promotion of RE and EE. We also show and quantify the effects of this joint promotion on ETS permit price, on wholesale market price and on energy production levels. (authors)

  16. Climatic change and energy use: a northern perspective on climatic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, G A; Allsopp, T

    1981-01-01

    Although the effects of carbon dioxide, particularly those over the long term, can be stated at this time only in terms of generalized probabilities, the nature of the consequences and their relative permanence qualify the carbon dioxide question as a matter demanding urgent attention. A major hazard exists in that the effects are not immediately visible and this may obscure the urgency of developing predictive understanding in time to take countervailing measures. The most relevant question to be addressed is how would mankind be affected by anthropogenically induced warming. Since northern warming would tend to enhance biomass productivity and facilitate movement and diminish energy demands for heating, the regional consequences are perceived as mainly beneficial. This same conclusion cannot be reached for all regions of the globe, and a sense of responsibility toward the global community must be maintained in their evaluation. This paper discusses climate and society, the northern environment, agriculture, fisheries, water resources, energy, transportation, and land use.

  17. Climate Change Taxes and Energy Efficiency in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, S.; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J.; Jacoby, H.; Ellerman, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 Japan proposed a Climate Change Tax to reduce its CO2 emissions to the level required by the Kyoto Protocol. If implemented, the tax would be levied on fossil fuel use and the revenue distributed to encourage the purchase of energy efficient equipment. Analysis using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model shows that this policy is unlikely to bring Japan into compliance with its Kyoto target unless the subsidy encourages improvement in energy intensity well beyond Japan's recent historical experience. Similar demand-management programs in the US, where there has been extensive experience, have not been nearly as effective as they would need to be to achieve energy efficiency goals of the proposal. The Tax proposal also calls for limits on international emission trading. We find that this limit substantially affects costs of compliance. The welfare loss with full emissions trading is 1/6 that when Japan meets its target though domestic actions only, the carbon price is lower, and there is a smaller loss of energy-intensive exports. Japan can achieve substantial savings from emissions trading even under cases where, for example, the full amount of the Russian allowance is not available in international markets

  18. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030 - WETO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries. It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. The document highlights three key topics. First, in a Reference scenario, i.e. if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO 2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system. Secondly, the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS. Lastly, as the largest growing energy demand and CO 2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluating solar irradiance over facades in high building cities, based on LiDAR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rubio, A.; Sanz-Adan, F.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Martínez, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for evaluating solar irradiance over façades in building cities with mutual shading. • It calculates irradiance curves in all building façades, using LiDAR and irradiance information. • Solar irradiation maps of the city buildings are really important for urban planning. • It allows to selection BIPV elements depending of the irradiation in each façade point. • The model can be extrapolated to all the building envelope. - Abstract: Arranging a solar irradiation map of the buildings of a city is a valuable tool for sustainable urban planning in regard to non-carbonized criteria in important applications. Such applications may include: selection of materials for the building envelope and insulation according to the irradiation received at each point; monitoring the installation of photovoltaic systems to ensure that they are located in the optimal irradiance zones; or building restoration to improve the energy efficiency and electric generation. The proposed method enables to estimate the incidence of the solar irradiance as well as to visualize the effect it produces in every region of the buildings that compose the urban area of a city. The process includes the use of Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) information along with 5-min horizontal irradiance data. This developed algorithm has been verified through being applied to different building envelopes distributed in different geographical areas. The results demonstrate a satisfied performance which makes that the methodology can be extrapolated to any city where the LiDAR Data and irradiance information are available, permitting an accurate analysis of the solar irradiance over the building envelopes. The algorithm succeeds in obtaining a map of solar radiation captured by the envelope of any urban building that estimates the photovoltaic power generation depending on the geographic location and on the influence of shading caused by adjacent buildings. The provided

  20. Guide to protect climate. Saving energy and cost, protecting climate; Der Klima-Knigge. Energie sparen, Kosten senken, Klima schuetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesshammer, Rainer

    2008-07-01

    As a climate protector you mustn't seat in the darkness. The author shows by much humour and esprit how simple it is to save energy. Who is willing to persue his every day tips, must not miss comfort and lowers even carbon dioxide emission. This is good for the environment and fills up the own purse. (orig./GL) [German] Als Klimaschuetzer braucht man nicht im Dunkeln zu sitzen. Mit viel Humor und Esprit zeigt Griesshammer, wie einfach Energie sparen sein kann. Wer seine Alltagstipps befolgt, muss auf keinen Komfort verzichten und mindert trotzdem den CO2-Ausstoss. Das nutzt der Umwelt und fuellt den eigenen Geldbeutel auf. (orig./GL)

  1. Porte de Gascogne region - Energy-climate profile. Study of the potential in renewable energy and in energy management in five communes of the Porte de Gascogne region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the studied territory, a recall of challenges related to climate change, a discussion of the role of Climate-Air-Energy Regional Schemes (SRCAE), this study reports an analysis of the territory vulnerability to climate change under different aspects (climate, biodiversity, water, agriculture, built environment, soil erosion, others). It draws the energy-climate profile of the region in terms of energy consumption and of vulnerability. These issues are then addressed per sector (housing, tertiary, agriculture, industry, transports, wastes, good consumption, tourism). Energy production is analysed (renewable energies, solar thermal, photovoltaic, wood, biomass, biogas, geothermal, combustion, bio-fuel). Scenarios are defined for energy saving, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy production, and carbon storage. An action plan is then defined. A second document reports studies of energy consumption, heritage, possibilities of development of renewable energies, and possibilities of development of positive energy building in the case of five communes (Fleurance, Gimont, Lectoure, Saint-Clar, and Samatan)

  2. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  3. Energy and climate protection management, the key to higher energy efficiency in communities; Energie- und Klimaschutzmanagement. Der Schluessel zu mehr Energieeffizienz in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The brochure explains the dena energy and climate protection management concepts and presents tools for long-term reduction of energy consumption in communities. It presents valuable information for better organization of internal processes in community administrations and for the management of energy efficiency measures. The dena energy and climate protection management concept is developed in cooperation with model communities of different sizes since 2010. All interested communities can use this brochure as a guide for initiating effective climate protection measures.

  4. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-07-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO{sub 2} emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project.

  5. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO 2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  6. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  7. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  8. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  9. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  10. UN Convention on Climate Change: effects on Australia's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian government's interim planning target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions calls for a larger cut in emissions than is implied by the commitments contained in the recently completed United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The commitments in the Convention also leave considerable scope for how fast and by how much emissions are to be reduced. The aim in this article is to present an analysis of the effects on the Australian energy sector of stabilising carbon dioxide emissions at various levels and by various dates consistent with the commitments in the Convention, and to compare these effects with those of meeting the Australian government's current interim target. The major analytical tool used is MENSA, a multiperiod linear program-mining model of the Australian energy sector, The stabilisation targets are modelled to involve a gradual reduction in the amount of coal used for electricity generation from 1995 onwards, but coal continues to be the major source of base load electricity over the entire period to 2020. By contrast, modelling of the government's interim target indicates that coal would have to be almost completely phased out as a fuel for electricity generation by 2005. Analysis using the MENSA linear programming model of the Australian energy system also indicates that the total discounted cost of meeting such targets would be between $4.7 billion and $9.0 billion, compared with $41.2 billion for the government's interim target. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Effects of sunshades and daylighting systems on room climate in the new building of the Baden-Wuerttemberg office for listed buildings in Esslingen; Auswirkungen von Sonnenschutz/Tageslichtsystemen auf das Raumklima beim Neubau Landesdenkmalamt Esslingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, H.J. [GN Bauphysik, Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Visual and thermal comfort have a crucial influence on the well-being of the users. With conventional sun protective systems the simultaneous implementation of both requirements is hardly to be carried out. By means of retroflecting sun protective systems type RETROLux Therm can be achieved an optimal daylight illuminating and at the same time a minimization of the summer energy entry. There is for the angles of incidence conditions in the summer months total energy transmission factors (g-value) of 0.10 to expect with simultaneous visual communication with the environment. The sun protective effect is therefore comparable with a conventional external blind system, which exhibits however a substantially limited external outlook. Newest test certificates of the RetroLux Therm lamellas show that in connection with highly reflecting lamella surfaces total energy transmission factors under g=0.10 can be achieved. By thermal simulation calculations it could be proved that with the planned facade conception on basis of the retroreflection no disadvantages are to be expected regarding room climate and operating cost in relation to a conventional facade system with external blinds. The planned facade conception forms thereby together with the building-technical conception of the construction unit activation and the multi-functionally used edge strip a conclusive primary energetically favorable energy concept. (orig.)

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on the built environment: ASHRAE climate zones, building codes and national energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the Problem: ASHRAE releases updates to 90.1 “Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings” every three years resulting in a 3.7%-17.3% increase in energy efficiency for buildings with each release. This is adopted by or informs building codes in nations across the globe, is the National Standard for the US, and individual states elect which release year of the standard they will enforce. These codes are built upon Standard 169 “Climatic Data for Building Design Standards,” the latest 2017 release of which defines climate zones based on 8, 118 weather stations throughout the world and data from the past 8-25 years. This data may not be indicative of the weather that new buildings built today, will see during their upcoming 30-120 year lifespan. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Using more modern, high-resolution datasets from climate satellites, IPCC climate models (PCM and HadGCM), high performance computing resources (Titan) and new capabilities for clustering and optimization the authors briefly analyzed different methods for redefining climate zones. Using bottom-up analysis of multiple meteorological variables which were the subject matter, experts selected as being important to energy consumption, rather than the heating/cooling degree days currently used. Findings: We analyzed the accuracy of redefined climate zones, compared to current climate zones and how the climate zones moved under different climate change scenarios, and quantified the accuracy of these methods on a local level, at a national scale for the US. Conclusion & Significance: There is likely to be a significant annual, national energy and cost (billions USD) savings that could be realized by adjusting climate zones to take into account anticipated trends or scenarios in regional weather patterns.

  13. Climate change and energy policies in Shanghai: A multilevel governance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesch-Huidobro, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel governance is a useful framework to understand how resources, tasks and power are distributed for decision making. • Shifts in national climate and energy policy mandate local governments to develop climate change and energy policies. • Local governments have greater autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals. • Climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in China’s response to climate change and energy security, studies undertaken at the subnational level are rare. In the context of the multilevel governance paradigm, this article examines the governance of climate change and energy policy in Shanghai, a rapidly growing Chinese megacity highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the energy and carbon intensity of Shanghai’s economy have fallen significantly since China launched its economic reforms, overall carbon emissions in the municipality continue to rise. Through examining the Shanghai case, this article argues that Chinese subnational climate mitigation policy is dominated by hierarchical governance arrangements. Nevertheless, shifts in national climate and energy policy since 2007 have mandated provincial-level governments, including Shanghai, to develop their own climate and energy policies while offering greater local autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals: is this attributable to a decentred form of multilevel governance? The article concludes that Shanghai’s climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance whereby policies are ‘downloaded’ from the central government. Perspectives for other cities and insights for policymakers are discussed.

  14. Review of models on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyant, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum recently has initiated a global climate change project. The purpose of the project is to summarize the work which has already been done on this topic and to evaluate the quality of the work. Several critical issues arise in any effort to make credible estimates of the cost of greenhouse control strategies. First, a worldwide modeling framework must be developed because carbon emissions from particular regions affect the global atmosphere. Because the data available on developing countries is quite poor at present, future efforts should focus on new data collection and modeling efforts in these regions. Second, all the major greenhouse gases - CO 2 , CFCs, methane and N 2 O - and not just carbon dioxide must be considered in future analyses. It is the overall concentration of all these different greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that ultimately will lead to global climate change. Third, an effective means for analyzing the various greenhouse gas control strategies must be developed. In order to successfully carry out the final task, a method must be developed which integrates a top-down macro-economic approach with a bottom-up process engineering approach. When implementing the macro-economic approach, one must choose plausible ranges for future economic and population growth rates. The reason for this is that even small changes in these driving factors can have huge impacts on emissions projections over the 100 or more year time frames required to address the greenhouse gas problem. The implementation of the process engineering approach requires: an accurate characterization of the costs, performance and availability of current and likely future technologies; an assessment of the likely barriers to technology transfer of both existing and new technologies, particularly from the developed to the developing countries; and an evaluation of the impact of energy prices and greenhouse gas policies on new technological development

  15. Mexican energy and climate change policies in a North American context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    A review of Mexican energy and climate change policies was presented with reference to the implications for Mexico regarding energy supply, security and climate change policies. Mexico's development and energy indicators are considerably behind those of Canada and the United States, but its greenhouse gas emissions are also low in comparison. Mexican energy consumption and gross domestic product levels per capita are far below those of the United States and Canada. Although Mexico, a signatory of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is not obligated to commit itself to any target greenhouse gas emissions, it has implemented an active climate change policy that promotes energy efficiency, fuel substitution, development of alternative energy sources, forest conservation and reforestation, and climate change research. The author concluded that in addition to constitutional reform, a fully integrated North American energy market would need physical connections for electricity and natural gas. 4 figs

  16. Phase Two European Energy Policy Project. European energy and climate policy - Time for something new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, European energy and climate change policy has moved centre stage. The annexation of Crimea and the destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have raised tensions with Russia to levels not seen since the Cold War. The EU has responded with an energy security plan, and sanctions. Developments elsewhere have further complicated matters. In the Middle East, the rapid advances of ISIS (now called the Islamic State), the internal conflicts in Libya, the war in Gaza, and the continuing negotiations with Iran on nuclear matters suggest that early optimism about the 'Arab Spring' was at best misplaced, and chronic instability has returned. In the US, the energy revolution continues to change the geopolitics of oil and gas, with the early skepticism about the scale of the changes and the shift towards North American energy independence giving way to recognition that the changes are permanent and profound - for both global energy markets and Europe. The full implications of the end of the commodity super-cycle are both profound for European energy policy and very poorly understood. Commodity prices have tumbled, with oil prices falling below $80 a barrel. On climate change, there is almost certainly not going to be a continuation of the Kyoto style international framework after the Paris conference in December 2015. Chinese emissions per head have now exceeded those of the Europeans, and it is at last being recognized that the climate change problem is one in which China, not the EU, is centre stage. China has announced that it does not intend to cap its carbon emissions until after 2030, by which time they may peak anyway - from a very much higher base after another decade and a half of increases. The Paris conference will see a series of 'pledges' and 'commitments' very much on the pattern of the Copenhagen Accord, not the credible, enforceable legally binding measures that had been proposed at the Durban Conference of the Parties in 2011

  17. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Monkelbaan

    2014-12-01

    As a way forward, different approaches towards the governance of trade and climate change will be highlighted. Besides discussing the specific aspects of Chinese participation in global trade and climate change governance, this paper aims at offering broader insights into the nexus between trade, energy and climate governance in China.

  18. Communication on climate, energy, natural gas and forests as a problem for energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Danish energy planning has since its inception in the end of the 1970s been politically controversial, which led to language problems of communicating on alternatives (natural gas, nuclear energy). But previously alternative scenarios were in the 1990s successfully transformed into law...... that it can happen on the ground of wrong premises (on CO2 neutrality e.g.) that a shift say from natural gas to wood combustion can be interpreted as a solution to climate problems, whereas this in reality aggravates them. Not the least because forests because of continuously high emissions of CO2...

  19. Climate-conscious architecture. Design and wind testing method for climates in change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuismanen, K.

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop practical tools with which it is possible to improve the environment, micro-climate and energy economy of buildings and plans in different climate zones, and take the climate change into account. The parts of the study are: State of art study into existing know-how about climate and planning. Study of the effects of climate change on the built environment. Development of simple micro-climate, nature and built environment analysis methods. Defining the criteria of an acceptable micro-climatic environment. Development of the wind test blower. Presenting ways to interpret test results and draw conclusions. Development of planning and design guidelines for different climate zones. An important part of the research is the development of the CASE wind test instrument, different wind simulation techniques, and the methods of observing the results. Bioclimatic planning and architectural design guidelines for different climate zones are produced. The analyse tools developed give a qualitative overall view, which can be deepened towards a quantitative analyse with wind testing measurements and roughness calculations. No mechanical rules are suggested, but complementary viewpoints and practices introduced to a normal planning process as well as improvement of consultative knowledge. The 'method' is that there is no strict mechanical method, but a deeper understanding of bioclimatic matters. Climate-conscious planning with the developed CASE method, make it possible to design a better micro-climate for new or old built-up areas. Winds can be used in to ventilate exhaust fumes and other pollutants, which improves the quality of air and the healthiness of the urban environment. The analyses and scale-model tests make it possible to shield cold windy areas and to diminish the cooling effect of wind on facades. According to studies in Scandinavian countries this will bring energy savings of 5-15 per cent. The method can

  20. Energy exporters and climate change. Potential economic impacts of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, R.C.N.

    1997-06-01

    This review paper has been written on a commission by the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) in London and is part of a project to investigate the possible impact of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on energy markets and therefore on countries exporting oil, gas and coal. The aim of the project conducted by RIIA is to achieve a better understanding of the role of energy exporters in international climate change negotiations on the road towards the second Conference of Parties in Kyoto at the end of 1997 and the underlying national strategies. All four 'economy'-oriented global model studies reviewed in this paper indicate that CO2-reduction policies would cause wide differences in welfare effects across regions. It appears that energy-exporting countries would suffer the greatest welfare losses. Although several policy instruments can be implemented to achieve CO2-emission reductions, only carbon taxes are considered in the models. The model results show that if world level CO2 emissions are approximately stabilized at their 1990 levels, the cumulative losses in GDP of energy exporters generally range between 3% and 12% by 2010. It should be strongly emphasized that the sign and magnitude of the economic impact of CO2 policy on energy exporters depend critically on how the policy instrument is designed. In the case of a carbon tax the following factors are crucial: (1) the choice between a consumption and a production tax, (2) whether it is based on a global or unilateral agreement, (3) the mode of revenue redistribution among countries and (4) whether emission trading is allowed. 27 refs

  1. A New Look at Building Facades as Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Sung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Like the hard surfaces of streets and sidewalks in an urban environment, the vertical and horizontal surface area on the outside of urban buildings contributes to the constant heating of large cities around the world. However, little is done to design this surface to benefit the public sphere. Instead, the facade of a building performs either as a component that focuses only on the quality of comfort for interior occupants, while ignoring effects on the exterior of the building, or as an identifiable aesthetic for the building's owners. This essay proposes the rethinking of the building facade as a steward of outdoor pedestrian welfare, and the conception of public health as an added function of the building envelope−a concept that may fall into the jurisdiction of public works. If the huge total surface area of a city's buildings is thought of as part of the city's infrastructure, then its public contribution may not only make outdoor areas comfortable, clean, and enjoyable, but also help to alleviate the bigger problem of rising temperatures in cities.

  2. Contemporary facades of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev: Videoecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the actual problems concerning the current state of the facades on apartment buildings in residential districts in Kiev - videoecology. The main purpose of the article is to determine the degree of visual aggressiveness of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev. It also investigates the problem of finding the optimal criteria for creating an ecologically healthy and friendly inhabited environment in the capital city of Ukraine. The modern visual environment in the capital is contaminated, not only because of the increasing numbers of promotional billboards, but also because of the contemporary architecture of high-rise buildings such as office buildings, apartment buildings. Their composition is usually based on a simple description of a rhythm. There are also repetitions of the end parts of buildings in “lowercase” buildings, which are high-rise buildings that alternate with nine or identical apartment groups. It creates a sense of oppressive monotony and leads to psychological and visual fatigue, especially when these repetitions are the only pattern the eye perceives. In the article a theoretical block of ecological-aesthetic criteria is defined, which must be met by the modern architecture facades of multistorey residential houses in Kiev.

  3. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  4. Energy and climate. A vision of the future; Energie und Klima. Ein Blick in die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Hans; Hosemann, Gerhard; Riedle, Klaus (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This book contains five lectures from the symposium of 8 November 2012. The topics and speakers were: 1. The energy turnaround in Germany - Chances and risks (DIETHARD MAGER); 2. The power supply from renewable sources and their constraints (GERHARD HEROLD); 3. What really contributes CO{sub 2} to global warming? (HERMANN HARDE); 4. Sun and greenhouse gas - causes of climate change (FRITZ VAHRENHOLT); 5. The hydrocarbon-cycle management - secure energy and resource supply from renewable energy sources (DOMINIK ROHRMUS). [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt fuenf Vortraege aus dem Symposium vom 8. November 2012. Die Themen und Referenten waren: 1. Die Energiewende in Deutschland - Chancen und Risiken (DIETHARD MAGER); 2. Die Stromversorgung aus regenerativen Quellen und ihre Zwaenge (GERHARD HEROLD); 3. Was traegt CO{sub 2} wirklich zur globalen Erwaermung bei? (HERMANN HARDE); 4. Sonne und Treibhausgase - Ursachen des Klimawandels (FRITZ VAHRENHOLT); 5. Die Kohlenwasserstoff-Kreislaufwirtschaft - sichere Energie- und Ressourcenversorgung mittels erneuerbarer Energien (DOMINIK ROHRMUS).

  5. Energy and climate, strong determinants of the 21. century; Energie et climat, determinants forts du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, D.

    2003-04-01

    This paper reprints the talk given on April 10, 2003 at the prospective meeting of the French Senate, by D. Dron, the president of the French inter-ministry mission for the greenhouse effect. In her talk, the author recalls the results obtained by the inter-governmental group for climate studies (GIEC) about the historical changes of the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere, the expected global warming during the coming century, and the impact on ecosystems, ice sheets, coral reefs, oceans level etc.. Then, she analyzes the evolution of fossil fuel consumptions (demand, industry, accommodations, transports) and stresses on the urgency of stabilizing the emissions of greenhouse gases by the use of more energy-efficient and alternate technologies. (J.S.)

  6. The acoustic performance of double-skin facades: A design support tool for architects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batungbakal, Aireen

    This study assesses and validates the influence of measuring sound in the urban environment and the influence of glass facade components in reducing sound transmission to the indoor environment. Among the most reported issues affecting workspaces, increased awareness to minimize noise led building designers to reconsider the design of building envelopes and its site environment. Outdoor sound conditions, such as traffic noise, challenge designers to accurately estimate the capability of glass facades in acquiring an appropriate indoor sound quality. Indicating the density of the urban environment, field-tests acquired existing sound levels in areas of high commercial development, employment, and traffic activity, establishing a baseline for sound levels common in urban work areas. Composed from the direct sound transmission loss of glass facades simulated through INSUL, a sound insulation software, data is utilized as an informative tool correlating the response of glass facade components towards existing outdoor sound levels of a project site in order to achieve desired indoor sound levels. This study progresses to link the disconnection in validating the acoustic performance of glass facades early in a project's design, from conditioned settings such as field-testing and simulations to project completion. Results obtained from the study's facade simulations and facade comparison supports that acoustic comfort is not limited to a singular solution, but multiple design options responsive to its environment.

  7. Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in China. Current status and the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kejun Jiang; Xiulian Hu; Xianli Zhu; Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.; Qiang Liu

    2007-09-01

    This report is the China Country Report of the project: Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies. Under this project four country studies have been carried out, on China, India, Brazil, and South Africa respectively. The focus of this report is on the energy sector policies that mainstream climate interests within development choices. The report gives a short introduction to the project and its approach, followed by analyses of Chinese energy, development and climate change and an assessment of cross-country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. (BA)

  8. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  9. STREAMED VERTICAL RECTANGLE DETECTION IN TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANS FOR FACADE DATABASE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Demantké

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and accurate facade database would be a major asset in applications such as localization of autonomous vehicles, registration and fine building modeling. Mobile mapping devices now provide the data required to create such a database, but efficient methods should be designed in order to tackle the enormous amount of data collected by such means (a million point per second for hours of acquisition. Another important limitation is the presence of numerous objects in urban scenes of many different types. This paper proposes a method that overcomes these two issues: – The facade detection algorithm is streamed: the data is processed in the order it was acquired. More precisely, the input data is split into overlapping blocks which are analysed in turn to extract facade parts. Close overlapping parts are then merged in order to recover the full facade rectangle. – The geometry of the neighborhood of each point is analysed to define a probability that the point belongs to a vertical planar patch. This probability is then injected in a RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC algorithm both in the sampling step and in the hypothesis validation, in order to favour the most reliable candidates. This ensures much more robustness against outliers during the facade detection. This way, the main vertical rectangles are detected without any prior knowledge about the data. The only assumptions are that the facades are roughly planar and vertical. The method has been successfully tested on a large dataset in Paris. The facades are detected despite the presence of trees occluding large areas of some facades. The robustness and accuracy of the detected facade rectangles makes them useful for localization applications and for registration of other scans of the same city or of entire city models.

  10. A hierarchical methodology for urban facade parsing from TLS point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqiang; Zhang, Liqiang; Mathiopoulos, P. Takis; Liu, Fangyu; Zhang, Liang; Li, Shuaipeng; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The effective and automated parsing of building facades from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds of urban environments is an important research topic in the GIS and remote sensing fields. It is also challenging because of the complexity and great variety of the available 3D building facade layouts as well as the noise and data missing of the input TLS point clouds. In this paper, we introduce a novel methodology for the accurate and computationally efficient parsing of urban building facades from TLS point clouds. The main novelty of the proposed methodology is that it is a systematic and hierarchical approach that considers, in an adaptive way, the semantic and underlying structures of the urban facades for segmentation and subsequent accurate modeling. Firstly, the available input point cloud is decomposed into depth planes based on a data-driven method; such layer decomposition enables similarity detection in each depth plane layer. Secondly, the labeling of the facade elements is performed using the SVM classifier in combination with our proposed BieS-ScSPM algorithm. The labeling outcome is then augmented with weak architectural knowledge. Thirdly, least-squares fitted normalized gray accumulative curves are applied to detect regular structures, and a binarization dilation extraction algorithm is used to partition facade elements. A dynamic line-by-line division is further applied to extract the boundaries of the elements. The 3D geometrical façade models are then reconstructed by optimizing facade elements across depth plane layers. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed method using several TLS facade datasets. Qualitative and quantitative performance comparisons with several other state-of-the-art methods dealing with the same facade parsing problem have demonstrated its superiority in performance and its effectiveness in improving segmentation accuracy.

  11. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  12. ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Dale, Larry; Larsen, Peter; Fitts, Gary; Koy, Kevin; Lewis, Sarah; Lucena, Andre

    2011-06-22

    This report outlines the results of a study of the impact of climate change on the energy infrastructure of California and the San Francisco Bay region, including impacts on power plant generation; transmission line and substation capacity during heat spells; wildfires near transmission lines; sea level encroachment upon power plants, substations, and natural gas facilities; and peak electrical demand. Some end-of-century impacts were projected:Expected warming will decrease gas-fired generator efficiency. The maximum statewide coincident loss is projected at 10.3 gigawatts (with current power plant infrastructure and population), an increase of 6.2 percent over current temperature-induced losses. By the end of the century, electricity demand for almost all summer days is expected to exceed the current ninetieth percentile per-capita peak load. As much as 21 percent growth is expected in ninetieth percentile peak demand (per-capita, exclusive of population growth). When generator losses are included in the demand, the ninetieth percentile peaks may increase up to 25 percent. As the climate warms, California's peak supply capacity will need to grow faster than the population.Substation capacity is projected to decrease an average of 2.7 percent. A 5C (9F) air temperature increase (the average increase predicted for hot days in August) will diminish the capacity of a fully-loaded transmission line by an average of 7.5 percent.The potential exposure of transmission lines to wildfire is expected to increase with time. We have identified some lines whose probability of exposure to fire are expected to increase by as much as 40 percent. Up to 25 coastal power plants and 86 substations are at risk of flooding (or partial flooding) due to sea level rise.

  13. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  14. The Moving Target of Climate Mitigation: Examples from the Energy Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2016-12-01

    In response to the concerns of climate change-induced impacts on human health, environmental integrity, and the secure operation of resource supply infrastructures, strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of major societal sectors have been in development. In the energy sector, these strategies are based in low carbon primary energy deployment, increased energy efficiency, and implementing complementary technologies for operational resilience. While these strategies are aimed at climate mitigation, a degree of climate change-induced impacts will occur by the time of their deployment, and many of these impacts can compromise the effectiveness of these climate mitigation strategies. In order to develop climate mitigation strategies that will achieve their GHG reduction and other goals, the impact that climate change-induced conditions can have on different components of climate mitigation strategies must be understood. This presentation will highlight three examples of how climate change-induced conditions affect components of climate mitigation strategies in California: through impacts on 1) hydropower generation, 2) renewable potential for geothermal and solar thermal resources to form part of the renewable resource portfolio, and 3) the magnitudes and shapes of the electric load demand that must be met sustainably. These studies are part of a larger, overarching project to understand how climate change impacts the energy system and how to develop a sustainable energy infrastructure that is resilient against these impacts.

  15. Modelling the effects of climate change on the energy system-A case study of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljom, Pernille; Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Haugen, Jan Erik; Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John; Jarlset, Thore

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to identify the effects of climate change on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. Changes in the future wind- and hydro-power resource potential, and changes in the heating and cooling demand are analysed to map the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change is evaluated with an energy system model, the MARKAL Norway model, to analyse the future cost optimal energy system. Ten climate experiments, based on five different global models and six emission scenarios, are used to cover the range of possible future climate scenarios and of these three experiments are used for detailed analyses. This study indicate that in Norway, climate change will reduce the heating demand, increase the cooling demand, have a limited impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro-power potential. The reduction of heating demand will be significantly higher than the increase of cooling demand, and thus the possible total direct consequence of climate change will be reduced energy system costs and lower electricity production costs. The investments in offshore wind and tidal power will be reduced and electric based vehicles will be profitable earlier. - Highlights: → Climate change will make an impact on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050. → An impact is lower Norwegian electricity production costs and increased electricity export. → Climate change gives earlier profitable investments in electric based vehicles. → Climate change reduces investments in offshore wind and tidal power.

  16. A discrete-continuous choice model of climate change impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.N.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper estimates a discrete-continuous fuel choice model in order to explore climate impacts on the energy sector. The model is estimated on a national data set of firms and households. The results reveal that actors switch from oil in cold climates to electricity and natural gas in warm climates and that fuel-specific expenditures follow a U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. The model implies that warming will increase American energy expenditures, reflecting a sizable welfare damage

  17. Monitoring Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Energy Imbalance for Climate Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Chambers, Lin H.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large climate feedback uncertainties limit the prediction accuracy of the Earth s future climate with an increased CO2 atmosphere. One potential to reduce the feedback uncertainties using satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative energy imbalance is explored. Instead of solving the initial condition problem in previous energy balance analysis, current study focuses on the boundary condition problem with further considerations on climate system memory and deep ocean heat transport, which is more applicable for the climate. Along with surface temperature measurements of the present climate, the climate feedbacks are obtained based on the constraints of the TOA radiation imbalance. Comparing to the feedback factor of 3.3 W/sq m/K of the neutral climate system, the estimated feedback factor for the current climate system ranges from -1.3 to -1.0 W/sq m/K with an uncertainty of +/-0.26 W/sq m/K. That is, a positive climate feedback is found because of the measured TOA net radiative heating (0.85 W/sq m) to the climate system. The uncertainty is caused by the uncertainties in the climate memory length. The estimated time constant of the climate is large (70 to approx. 120 years), implying that the climate is not in an equilibrium state under the increasing CO2 forcing in the last century.

  18. The evolution of Chinese policies and governance structures on environment, energy and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsang, S.; Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although a successor to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has not materialised yet, the 2009 Copenhagen meeting underlined the importance of China in international debates on climate and energy. This is not only based on China’s current climate emissions, but also on its expected energy use and economic

  19. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  20. North American energy relationships : clean energy and climate action : a North American collaboration : draft paper for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper discussed energy and climate policies and programs aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in North America. The aim of the study was to determine how energy production and use will impact policy responses to climate change and the development of clean energy technologies. Energy sectors in Canada, the United States and Mexico were outlined, and the relationships between the different countries and their energy systems were discussed. Energy policy drivers and infrastructure in each of the 3 countries were also discussed. The influence of energy security on energy trading, clean energy technology, and climate change policy was also investigated in order to identify barriers to future cooperation between the countries. Emerging areas of cooperation were outlined. Potential climate policy scenarios were reviewed, and the implications of a more highly integrated North American energy and climate policy were discussed. The study indicated that increased linkages between the Canadian and United States systems are likely in the future. 62 refs., 11 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Energy and climate. Opportunities, threats, myths; Energie und Klima. Chancen, Risiken, Mythen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedecke, Horst-Joachim

    2013-05-01

    Germany reinvents itself with the energy policy turnaround as well as climate protection. In doing so, Germany holds a special position worldwide. The transformation of the electric power supply by wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, biomass conversion plants and avoidance of CO{sub 2} have already been set up. What formerly employed the competent engineers, is interesting the entire society against the backdrop of current political decisions - since the electricity costs increase and a previously saved power supply are increasingly being questioned. The current energy policy turnaround and climate protection measures can only be sensible if there are benefits for the nature conservation, the security of supply with electrical power and the cost. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on the opportunities, threats, advantages and disadvantages of the German route. The competitiveness of our country, the security against power outages, the tax burden, the cost of energy and finally the environment are at stake. The upcoming problems can not be solved by political wishful thinking but only with solid technology, economy and environmental protection.

  2. Climate energy policy. How a great irritation makes the themes climate and energy inseperably; Klimergiepolitik. Wie eine grosse Verwirrung die Themen Klima und Energie unzertrennlich macht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Meinhard

    2012-07-01

    The focus of the book under consideration is the equalization of the politically and economically closely interconnected issues carbon, climate and energy. Since the Neolithic Age, more carbon was released worldwide by clearing of forests than by consumption of fossil energy sources. In the good old time, nearly 15% of the bread cereals is fed to horses. The perfect energy source was found by means of the upcoming petroleum industry. Already the First World War was decided by petroleum. The Second World War anyway. Also thereafter, two oil crises and two Gulf Wars kept us in suspense. Petroleum is there sufficiently, but it becomes expensive increasingly. Instead of working on the reduction of energy costs such as in the year 1979, not our appetite but the exhaust gases are pilloried. Thereby the report of the International Panel on Climate Change contains a lot of technical faults. Its content is technically motivated and became an end in itself in the meantime. At the end, it is no longer about carbon dioxide but about 'coal'. This is because, behind all pseudo-science there is a sophisticated system which annually collects 100 billion dollar worldwide and distributes this fair beyond the impoverished nations of this world.

  3. Climate-responsive design : A framework for an energy concept design-decision support tool for architects using principles of climate-responsive design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looman, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In climate-responsive design the building becomes an intermediary in its own energy housekeeping, forming a link between the harvest of climate resources and low-energy provision of comfort. Essential here is the employment of climate-responsive building elements; structural and architectural

  4. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  5. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, Gupta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankar, Harihar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joshi, Sunjoy [INDIA

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  6. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion

  7. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  8. Interactions of White Certificates for energy efficiency and other energy and climate policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.

    2010-01-01

    The EU and its member states are developing their own policies targeting at energy supply, energy demand and environmental goals that are indirectly linked to energy use. As these policies are implemented in an already policy crowded environment, interactions of these instruments take place, which can be complementary competitive or self exclusive. As a starting point, we test White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement in the end-use sectors. Our main research questions are: (1) to provide a general explanatory framework for analyzing energy and climate policy interactions by employing suitable methods, and (2) to evaluate these methods and draw conclusions for policy makers when introducing White Certificates with other policy instruments stressing the critical condition that affect their performance. A core lesson is that when evaluating ex-ante instruments, a variety of economic and technological methods must be applied. Based on these methods, several endogenous and exogenous conditions affect the performance of White Certificates schemes with other policy instruments. Due to the innovative character of White Certificates and the uncertainty of hidden costs embedded into it, ex-ante evaluations should focus not only on the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, but on several other criteria which express the political acceptability and socioeconomic effects. We argue finally that White Certificates can make effective use of market forces and can assist in overcoming market barriers towards energy efficiency, and we expect that under certain preconditions, it can be integrated with other policy instruments and allows to achieve cost effectively multiple environmental objectives.

  9. Energy climate study. Energy assessment, Greenhouse gas emission assessment, Analysis of vulnerability to climate change, Courses of mitigation and adaptation actions. Full report + Appendices + Restitution of the Energy-Climate Study, September 17, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After a brief presentation of Le Mans region, a presentation of the study (context, scope, methodology), and a recall of challenges related to energy and to climate, this study reports a situational analysis and a discussion of development perspectives for energy production on the concerned territory, an assessment of energy consumptions and of greenhouse gas emissions by the different sectors, and a study of territory vulnerability to climate change (methodology, territory characteristics, climate scenarios, vulnerability assessment). It discusses lessons learned from energy and greenhouse gas emission assessments (social-economic stakes, territory strengths and weaknesses, perspectives for action). It discusses the implementation of these issues within a territorial planning document, and the perspective of elaboration of a territorial climate energy plan. An appendix reports an assessment of the potential of development of the different renewable energies (hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic and thermal, wind, wood, methanization, and other processes like waste valorisation, geothermal, and heat networks). Another appendix reports the precise assessment of greenhouse gas emissions on the territory. The next appendix proposes detailed descriptions of scenarios for the implementation of the issue of greenhouse gas emissions within the territorial planning document. The last appendix contains Power Point presentations of the study

  10. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  11. Fire performance of multi-storey wooden facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit A.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two series of full scale fire tests of wooden facades according to the Swedish test SP Fire 105 are presented, one series for different shares of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window and another series for fire retardant treated, FRT, wood. The results are compared with data from the Single Burning Item test and the cone calorimeter. For FRT wood, the need for verification of the weather durability of the treatment is stressed and a new European technical specification CEN/TS 15912 presented. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid fire spread in the cavities is underlined and the possibilities of fire safety design with sprinklers is briefly presented.

  12. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  13. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse L; Tannenbaum, Melanie B

    2017-03-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem unimpactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness-belief that one's actions cannot affect climate change-can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change efficacy predicted both moralization of energy use and energy conservation intentions beyond individual belief in climate change. In Studies 2 and 3, participants read information about climate change that varied in efficacy message, that is, whether individual actions (e.g., using less water, turning down heat) make a difference in the environment. Participants who read that their behavior made no meaningful impact reported weaker moralization and intentions (Study 2), and reported more energy consumption 1 week later (Study 3). Moreover, effects on intentions and actions were mediated by changes in moralization. We discuss ways to improve climate change messages to foster environmental efficacy and moralization of personal energy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Li

    Full Text Available Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382. The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  15. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  16. Integrating climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making - Key challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  17. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-01-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  18. (Un)certainty in climate change impacts on global energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; De Cian, E.; Sue Wing, I.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have an influence on the energy sector, especially on energy demand. For many locations, this change in energy demand is a balance between increase of demand for space cooling and a decrease of space heating demand. We perform a large-scale uncertainty analysis to characterize climate change risk on energy consumption as driven by climate and socioeconomic uncertainty. We combine a dynamic econometric model1 with multiple realizations of temperature projections from all 21 CMIP5 models (from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections2) under moderate (RCP4.5) and vigorous (RCP8.5) warming. Global spatial population projections for five SSPs are combined with GDP projections to construct scenarios for future energy demand driven by socioeconomic change. Between the climate models, we find a median global increase in climate-related energy demand of around 24% by 2050 under RCP8.5 with an interquartile range of 18-38%. Most climate models agree on increases in energy demand of more than 25% or 50% in tropical regions, the Southern USA and Southern China (see Figure). With respect to socioeconomic scenarios, we find wide variations between the SSPs for the number of people in low-income countries who are exposed to increases in energy demand. Figure attached: Number of models that agree on total climate-related energy consumption to increase or decrease by more than 0, 10, 25 or 50% by 2050 under RCP8.5 and SSP5 as result of the CMIP5 ensemble of temperature projections. References1. De Cian, E. & Sue Wing, I. Global Energy Demand in a Warming Climate. (FEEM, 2016). 2. Thrasher, B., Maurer, E. P., McKellar, C. & Duffy, P. B. Technical Note: Bias correcting climate model simulated daily temperature extremes with quantile mapping. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16, 3309-3314 (2012).

  19. A climate responsive urban design tool: a platform to improve energy efficiency in a dry hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dallal, Norhan; Visser, Florentine

    2017-09-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, new urban developments should address the climatic conditions to improve outdoor comfort and to reduce the energy consumption of buildings. This article describes a design tool that supports climate responsive design for a dry hot climate. The approach takes the climate as an initiator for the conceptual urban form with a more energy-efficient urban morphology. The methodology relates the different passive strategies suitable for major climate conditions in MENA region (dry-hot) to design parameters that create the urban form. This parametric design approach is the basis for a tool that generates conceptual climate responsive urban forms so as to assist the urban designer early in the design process. Various conceptual scenarios, generated by a computational model, are the results of the proposed platform. A practical application of the approach is conducted on a New Urban Community in Aswan (Egypt), showing the economic feasibility of the resulting urban form and morphology, and the proposed tool.

  20. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  1. Nuclear energy - A label for the financial sector: 'Energy transition and climate'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This publication states the opinion of the SFEN (the French Society of Nuclear Energy) about the project proposed by the French Ministry of Ecology for the creation of a label named 'Energy transition and climate' for the financial sector. Such a label aims at mobilising a part of savings for the benefit of energy and ecology transition, and at bringing the French ecological expertise at the European level. In this document, the SFEN expresses its surprise that labels will not be awarded to activities related to the nuclear sector whereas, as it is herein commented and outlined, nuclear energy is a low-carbon energy, and meets environmental and social requirements associated with the label (preservation of air quality, optimisation of the water resource by nuclear plants, strict regulation and controls of releases made by nuclear installations, management of the uranium resource, measures of protection of biodiversity about nuclear sites, exemplary governance and dialogue on environmental and social issues with the public)

  2. Old Wine in New Bottles? Does Climate Policy Determine Bilateral Development Aid for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Michaelowa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSince the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 bilateral and multilateral donors have stressed that development assistance has increasingly been oriented towards climate-friendly interventions. With respect to energy aid, this should lead to a substantial increase in projects related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given a new database of hundreds of thousands of bilateral development assistance projects, we can assess whether such a reorientation has indeed taken place. We find that, contrary to expectations, the share of bilaterally-funded renewable energy and energy efficiency projects did not increase over the period from 1980 to 2008. This share fluctuated greatly, following the price of oil, peaking with the second oil crisis of the early 1980s. The impacts of global climate policy treaties are minor or inexistent. ‘Traditional’ renewable energies such as hydro and geothermal declined, while “new” renewables showed two peaks in the early 1980s and late 1990s. Differences between donor countries are huge. Several countries, including climate sceptics such as the US and Australia, but also the UK and Switzerland, saw a consistent decline. The self-proclaimed climate pioneers such as Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden show peaks related to both the oil crises and international climate policy. Only in Austria, Denmark, Finland and Spain can ‘new’ climate mitigation development assistance be found.

  3. To struggle against poverty and climate changes. The role of renewable energies and of energy efficiency in Africa. Recommendations of the Climate and Development Network, November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akambi, Is Deen; Diouf, Aissatou; Kogbe, Joseph Yaovi L.; Mazounie, Alix; Ndour, Abdou; Thomas, Jean-Philippe; Zakara, Mamane

    2014-11-01

    After a presentation of the Climate and Development Network and of its annual workshop, this report addresses the challenges of a development of a sustainable access to energy for all in Africa. While outlining the current situation which is characterized by a difficult access to energy, evoking the current reserves in fossil energies, and outlining the high and unexploited potential of renewable energies in Africa (in terms of energy production, energy efficiency and social and economic development), the report proposes an overview of local projects in various African countries which are based on renewable energies and on energy savings. They are notably based on a sustainable use of biomass, on cooking practices, on the use of hybrid (solar and diesel) systems, and on the use of methanization. Key principles and recommendations are formulated to achieve access to renewable energies and energy efficiency for all in Africa

  4. Optimization of annual energy demand in office buildings under the influence of climate change in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Bellido, Carlos; Pérez-Fargallo, Alexis; Pulido-Arcas, Jesús A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies about climate change have emerged in recent years because of their potential impact on many activities of human life, amongst which, the building sector is no exception. Changes in climate conditions have a direct influence on the external conditions for buildings and, thus, on their energy demand. In this context, computer aided simulation provides handy tools that help in assessing this impact. This paper investigates climate data for future scenarios and the effect on energy demand in office buildings in Chile. This data has been generated in the 9 climatic zones that are representative of the main inhabited areas, for the years 2020, 2050 and 2080. Predictions have been produced for the acknowledged A2 ‘medium-high’ Greenhouse Gases emissions GHG scenario, pursuant the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The effect of climate change on the energy demand for office buildings is optimized by implementing the calculation procedure of ISO-13790:2008, based on iterations of its envelope and form. As a result, this research clarifies how future climate scenarios will affect the energy demand for different types of office buildings in Chile, and how their shape and enclosure can be optimized. - Highlights: • Forecast of 9 Chilean climate zones under Greenhouse Gases Scenario A2. • Influence of envelope and form on future energy demand in office buildings. • Multiple iterations on Form Ratio (FR) and Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR). • Optimization in early stages of design considering global warming.

  5. Final report: The effect of climate change on the Norwegian Energy System towards 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Meir, M.; Haugen, J.E.; Jarlseth, T.

    2010-08-15

    The climate impact on the renewable resources, end use demand, and on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050 is identified. Climate change will reduce the heat demand, increase the cooling demand, result in no impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro power potential. The total impact is reduced energy system costs, and lower Norwegian electricity prices. The net electricity export will increase, and national investments in new renewable power production like offshore wind- , tidal- and wave power will decrease due to climate change. Additionally, the electricity consumption in the residential and in the commercial sector will decrease, and climate change will lead to an earlier profitable implementation of electric based vehicles in Norway. Despite great uncertainties in the future climate, various future emission scenarios are compatible regarding the Norwegian climate impact, although the magnitude of the impact varies. (Author)

  6. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  7. Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae

  8. Point Climat no. 18 'Energy efficiency, renewable energy and CO2 allowances in Europe: a need for coordination'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Following the adoption in 2009 of the directives for modifying the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and for promoting renewable energies, the Energy Efficiency Directive has been endorsed by the European Parliament on 11 September 2012. It will be the third major European policy that encourages reductions in CO 2 emissions, either directly or indirectly. At a time when the European Commission is reflecting on long-term reforms to the EU ETS, the magnitude of emission reductions that will be generated by other policies calls for the systematisation of assessment of climate and energy policies in order to maintain an sufficient CO 2 price to incentive mitigation action

  9. Climate change and sustainable energy: actions and transition to a lower carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will address climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy in general and the importance of sustainable energy in such initiatives. The talk has two main parts. In the first part, the presenter discuss why non-fossil fuel energy options, which are diverse and range from renewables through to nuclear energy, are needed to help humanity combat climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy. Such energy options reduce or eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases and thus often form the basis of sustainable energy solutions. Nonetheless, carbon dioxide capture and sequestration may allow fossil fuels to be less carbon emitting. Sustainable energy options are not sufficient for avoiding climate change, in that they are not necessarily readily utilizable in their natural forms. Hydrogen energy systems are needed to facilitate the use of non-fossil fuels by allowing them to be converted to two main classes of energy carriers: hydrogen and select hydrogen-derived fuels and electricity. As hydrogen is not an energy resource, but rather is an energy carrier that must be produced, it complements non-fossil energy sources, which often need to be converted into more convenient forms. In addition, high efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from all energy options, including non-fossil fuel ones, in terms of climate change and other factors. Efficiency improvements efforts have many dimensions, including energy conservation, improved energy management, fuel substitution, better matching of energy carriers and energy demands, and more efficiency utilization of both energy quantity and quality. The latter two concepts are best considered via the use of exergy analysis, an advanced thermodynamic tool. In the second part of the presentation, actions to address climate change more generally and to help society transition to a lower carbon economy are described. The role of sustainable energy in this

  10. Use of RCM simulations to assess the impact of climate change on wind energy availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential impact of climate change on the feasibility and predictability of renewable energy sources including wind energy. This report presents an application and evaluation of physical (dynamical) downscaling toolsfor examining the impact of climate change...... on near-surface flow and hence wind energy density across northern Europe. It is shown that: - Simulated wind fields using the Rossby Centre coupled Regional Climate Model (RCM) (RCAO) during the control period(1961-1990) exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in in situ observations...... and reanalysis data products. - The differences between near-surface wind speed and direction calculated for the control run (January 1, 1961 – December 30, 1990)based on boundary conditions derived from two Global Climate Models (GCM): HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 are comparable to changes in the climate change...

  11. Draft legislation aimed at creating a climate-energy contribution - Nr 1317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas, Eva; Rugy, Francois de; Pompili, Barbara; Baupin, Denis; Auroi, Danielle; Alauzet, Eric; Abeille, Laurence; Allain, Brigitte; Attard, Isabelle; Bonneton, Michele; Cavard, Christophe; Coronado, Sergio; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Mamere, Noel; Massonneau, Veronique; Molac, Paul; Pompili, Barbara; Roumegas, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    After having discussed the motivations of this draft legislation (necessary energy saving, drawbacks of radioactive wastes, climate change and energy crisis), this document presents a set of articles which respectively address the following topics: indication of energy consumptions (including nuclear electricity) submitted to the climate-energy contribution, indication of energetic product dealers who pay this contribution, determination of the contribution by the Parliament, pay-back to households of the contribution paid by households, creation of 'energy transition cheques', information of the consumer on his contribution

  12. Pays-de-la-Loire regional climate air energy scheme - The commitment for energy transition and climate in Pays-de-la-Loire. Environmental assessment report - Pays-de-la-Loire regional climate air energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galliard de Lavernee, Christian; Auxiette, Jacques; Potier, Valerie; Viroulaud, Lionel; Ganne, Maryse; Guevel, Vanina; Pineau, Christophe; Bretaud, Jean-Francois; Bertaud, Geraldine; Garnier, Patrick; Durr, Fabien; Bertron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    After a discussion of the strategic dimension of the regional climate air energy scheme (SRCAE), a first document proposes a synthetic presentation of the regional diagnosis in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and renewable energy production. It discusses how to contribute to national objectives related to these issues, and gives a synthetic table of orientations. It indicates and comments areas of action for energy sobriety and efficiency and for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the different sectors (agriculture, building, industry, transport and land development), for the development of renewable energies (wood-energy, methanization, wind energy, geothermal and aero-thermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar thermal and solar photovoltaic energy), for a good air quality, and for a compliance with a strategy of adaptation to climate change. A leaflet proposes a synthetic presentation of these issues (strategic orientations, regional diagnosis, and scenario by 2020). A document contains the opinion of the Environmental Authority on this scheme project. An environmental assessment report proposes a non-technical summary, a discussion of motivation for the acceptance of the SRCAE regarding objectives related to the protection of the environment, a discussion of the initial situation and perspectives of evolution of the environment, an analysis of possible noticeable effects of the SRCAE implementation, an assessment of impacts of Natura 2000, a brief discussion of measures envisaged to avoid, reduce or compensate harmful consequences of the SRCAE, and a presentation of the environmental assessment method

  13. Climate and Energy-Water-Land System Interactions Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, Richard; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Frumhoff, Peter; Lowry, Thomas; Middleton, Richard; Pate, Ron; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Arnold, J. G.; Averyt, Kristen; Janetos, Anthony C.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Rice, Jennie S.; Rose, Steven K.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides a framework to characterize and understand the important elements of climate and energy-water-land (EWL) system interactions. It identifies many of the important issues, discusses our understanding of those issues, and presents a long-term research program research needs to address the priority scientific challenges and gaps in our understanding. Much of the discussion is organized around two discrete case studies with the broad themes of (1) extreme events and (2) regional intercomparisons. These case studies help demonstrate unique ways in which energy-water-land interactions can occur and be influenced by climate.

  14. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Aashish [Kitware, Inc.

    2017-10-17

    Seven Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, Universities, and Kitware, undertook a coordinated effort to build an Earth system modeling capability tailored to meet the climate change research strategic objectives of the DOE Office of Science, as well as the broader climate change application needs of other DOE programs.

  15. Model Diagnostics for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, four academic institutions, one company, and the National Centre for Atmospheric Research combined forces in a project called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) with the goal to speed Earth system model development for climate and energy. Over the planned 10-year span, the project will conduct simulations and modeling on DOE's most powerful high-performance computing systems at Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Berkeley Leadership Compute Facilities. A key component of the ACME project is the development of an interactive test bed for the advanced Earth system model. Its execution infrastructure will accelerate model development and testing cycles. The ACME Workflow Group is leading the efforts to automate labor-intensive tasks, provide intelligent support for complex tasks and reduce duplication of effort through collaboration support. As part of this new workflow environment, we have created a diagnostic, metric, and intercomparison Python framework, called UVCMetrics, to aid in the testing-to-production execution of the ACME model. The framework exploits similarities among different diagnostics to compactly support diagnosis of new models. It presently focuses on atmosphere and land but is designed to support ocean and sea ice model components as well. This framework is built on top of the existing open-source software framework known as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Because of its flexible framework design, scientists and modelers now can generate thousands of possible diagnostic outputs. These diagnostics can compare model runs, compare model vs. observation, or simply verify a model is physically realistic. Additional diagnostics are easily integrated into the framework, and our users have already added several. Diagnostics can be generated, viewed, and manipulated from the UV-CDAT graphical user interface, Python command line scripts and programs

  16. Energy Choices and Climate Change: A New Interactive Feature on Windows to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Russell, R. M.; Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Foster, S. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new, self-paced online module to foster understanding of how choices made about energy production and energy use affect greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The module, entitled “Energy Choices and Climate Change” is available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an extensive educational Web site used by over 20 million people each year. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change, emphasizing the climate implications of the choices we make. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” allows users to explore two different scenarios through which they make decisions about energy production or use. In the “Ruler of the World” scenario, the user is given the authority to make decisions about the mix of energy sources that will be used worldwide with the aim of reducing emissions while meeting global energy demand and monitoring costs and societal implications. In “The Joules Family” scenario, the user makes decisions about how to change the way a hypothetical family of four uses energy at home and for transportation with the aim of reducing the family’s carbon emissions and fossil fuel use while keeping costs less than long-term savings. While this module is intended for a general public audience, an associated teacher’s guide provides support for secondary educators using the module with students. Windows to the Universe is a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Funding for the Energy Choices and Climate Change online module was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  17. Influence of Geographic Factors on the Life Cycle Climate Change Impacts of Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, M. O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool to measure the cradle-to-grave climate change impacts of the sustainable energy systems that are planned to replace conventional fossil energy-based systems. The recent inclusion of geographic specificity in bioenergy LCAs has shown that the relative sustainability of these energy sources is often dependent on geographic factors, such as the climate change impact of changing the land cover and local resource availability. However, this development has not yet been implemented to most LCAs of energy systems that do not have biological feedstocks, such as wind, water, and solar-based energy systems. For example, the tidal velocity where tidal rotors are installed can significantly alter the life cycle climate change impacts of electricity generated using the same technology in different locations. For LCAs of solar updraft towers, the albedo change impacts arising from changing the reflectivity of the land that would be converted can be of the same magnitude as other life cycle process climate change impacts. Improvements to determining the life cycle climate change impacts of renewable energy technologies can be made by utilizing GIS and satellite data and by conducting site-specific analyses. This practice can enhance our understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of technologies that are aimed to reduce the impacts of our current energy systems, and it can improve the siting of new systems to optimize a reduction in climate change impacts.

  18. Abstract Collection of 25th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: A Unique Energy and Climate Policy in Open Energy Market - A Year After COP 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Croatian Energy Association was founded and became a member of the World Energy Council (WEC), a total of 25 Forums were organised, with subjects of utter importance for the energy sector. Experts and the public were familiarized with problems, trends, visions and experiences from different countries through papers and presentations presented on those forums, which were also an outlook to the future. The subjects of the forums already held were as following: 1992, Croatian Energy During and After the War; 1993, New Technologies and Energy Management; 1994, Problems of the Energy Sector Transition; 1995, Prices and Tariff Policy in the Energy Industry; 1996, Expectations in the Energy Consumption until 2020; 1997, Goals, Methodology and Experiences of Regional Planning as a part of a National Energy Sector; 1998, Future of the Energy Industry After the Kyoto Protocol; 1999, Energy Market and Energy Efficiency in the Transition Countries; 2000, Restructure, Privatisation and Market Change of Linked Energy Systems; 2001, Liberalisation and Privatisation of the Energy Sector in Transition Countries and in the European Union - Experiences and Perspective; 2002, Regulation Problem on the Energy Services Market; 2003, Energy Consumers in the Open Market Conditions; 2004, Long-term Planning and Supply Security in the Open Market Conditions; 2005, Energy Perspectives Today and Tomorrow - WORLD EUROPE CROATIA; 2006, Energy Perspectives to 2050 - WORLD EUROPE CROATIA; 2007, Energy Future in the Light of Conditions and Integration Processes in Europe; 2008, Europe, Region and Croatia in 2030; 2009, Quo Vadis Energy in the Period of Climate Change; 2010, Energy Future - Vision Until 2050; 2011, Third package and other energy directives - What they do and do not bring, and what we can expect in the future; 2012, Reducing CO2 Emissions by 80 percent by 2050 - Reality or Utopia; 2013, How to Accomplish Goals of Reducing CO2 Emissions by 2050; 2014, How to Define and

  19. Energy and economic savings using geothermal heat pumps in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Biagio; Coppola, Gaetano; Raucci, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical study on 20 years Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) operation is achieved. • Increase in ground temperature due to GSHP can occur during 20 years operation. • Economical and GHG savings using GSHP show divergent trends for different climates. - Abstract: A technical and economic feasibility study is performed on residential buildings, heated and cooled by geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) equipped with energy piles. The analysis is carried out for two different climate locations and building energy needs, which have been evaluated following the current European standard ISO 13790. The energy pile system performance coupled with the GHP has been numerically calculated by using the PILESIM2 software over 20 years of operation. The Primary Energy Saving (PES) indices were calculated comparing the actual GHPs systems with traditional cooling and heating systems, together with their sensitivity to thermal and cooling loads for two different climate locations. Also, economic savings and greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction have been calculated resulting from the GHPs use. The results show that in mild climates, where the GHPs are mainly used as HP, the annual average temperature of the ground around the energy piles can increase up to about 10 °C after many years of operation, whereas in cold climates the increase is nearly negligible. Thus, the economical profit of GHPs is more difficult to achieve in mild climates than in cold ones. Conversely, GHG emission reduction is found to be larger in mild climates than in cold ones

  20. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes(1,2) have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades(3,4). However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors(5,6), which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change.

  1. Computing and Systems Applied in Support of Coordinated Energy, Environmental, and Climate Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk focuses on how Dr. Loughlin is applying Computing and Systems models, tools and methods to more fully understand the linkages among energy systems, environmental quality, and climate change. Dr. Loughlin will highlight recent and ongoing research activities, including: ...

  2. Energy use and overheating risk of Swedish multi-storey residential buildings under different climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the extent to which different climate scenarios influence overheating risk, energy use and peak loads for space conditioning of district heated multi-storey buildings in Sweden are explored. Furthermore, the effectiveness of different overheating control measures and the implications of different electricity supply options for space cooling and ventilation are investigated. The analysis is based on buildings with different architectural and energy efficiency configurations including a prefab concrete-frame, a massive timber-frame and a light timber-frame building. Thermal performance of the buildings under low and high Representative Concentration Pathway climate scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 are analysed and compared to that under historical climate of 1961–1990 and recent climate of 1996–2005. The study is based on a bottom-up methodology and includes detailed hour-by-hour energy balance and systems analyses. The results show significant changes in the buildings’ thermal performance under the future climate scenarios, relative to the historical and recent climates. Heating demand decreased significantly while cooling demand and overheating risk increased considerably with the future climate scenarios, for all buildings. In contrast to the cooling demand, the relative changes in heating demand of the buildings under the future climate scenarios are somewhat similar. The changes in the space conditioning demands and overheating risk vary for the buildings. Overheating risk was found to be slightly higher for the massive-frame building and slightly lower for the light-frame building. - Highlights: • We analysed thermal performance of buildings under different climate scenarios. • Our analysis is based on historical, recent and projected future climate datasets. • The buildings' thermal performance changed notably under future climate scenarios. • The extent of the changes is influenced by the buildings' energy efficiency

  3. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  4. Do Kenya's climate change mitigation ambitions necessitate large-scale renewable energy deployment and dedicated low-carbon energy policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalla Longa, F.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper Kenya's climate change mitigation ambitions are analysed from an energy system perspective, with a focus on the role of renewable and other low-carbon energy technologies. At COP-21 in 2015 in Paris, Kenya has committed to a `nationally determined contribution' of reducing domestic

  5. Point Climat no. 23 'The new European Energy Efficiency Directive: France is on track'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On October 4 2012, the European Union adopted a new Directive in order to help reach the common target of a 20% improvement in energy efficiency in 2020. At a time when a major national debate on energy transition is set to take place in France, this new directive will need to be taken into account when defining future energy policy. The measures specified in the European Directive, which focus on buildings and energy suppliers, will enable part of France's goal to be met. The transposition of the Directive into French law will result in the setting of a national target for 2020, and will primarily reinforce an existing requirement that applies to energy suppliers, as well as adding measures aimed at informing energy consumers

  6. Global climate change: a synopsis of current activities in the Office of Fossil Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; Kane, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy investigation and monitoring of several aspects of global climate change as it relates to fossil fuels. The paper consists of the overheads from the presentation. The topics of this paper include greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, scientific uncertainties, legislation and protocols, mitigation strategies and policies, energy and economic impacts, and the role of clean coal technologies and fossil fuels in global climate change

  7. Analysis and Monitoring of Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate in a School Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    kindergartens/institutions -- that will undergo deep energy renovation over the next fewyears.The seven buildings are being energy-renovated and monitored with support from the European Union- CONCERTO initiative as part of the project titled Cost-Effective Low-Energy Advanced Sustainable Solutions -- Class1...... ventilation systems with heat recovery, low-energy lighting, water-saving measures, improved insulation of piping, and improved control using building energy management systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the analysis and monitoring of energy consumption and indoor climate in one public school...

  8. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Künniger, Tina; Hischier, Roland; Cervellati, Dario; Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products

  9. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapié, Ingrid [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Künniger, Tina [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Applied Wood Materials Laboratory (Switzerland); Hischier, Roland [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Cervellati, Dario [GFC Chimica S.r.l (Italy); Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.som@empa.ch [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products.

  10. Innovative facades with photovoltaics; Innovative Fassaden mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicker, U. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Having grown at a rate of 15% since the middle of the 1980s the photovoltaic market today commands an annual module production of more than 100 MW{sub p}. In Germany altogether 10,000 PV systems with a total power output of 10 MW{sub p} were newly installed in 1997 alone. In 1990 the market was boosted by the heavily subsidised 1000 roofs programme, under which in the end more than 2,000 systems were installed on the roofs of mostly one-family houses. With power ratings ranging from 1 to 5 kW these decentral plants require roof surface areas between 10 and 50 m-2. On average they generate 800 kWh of electricity per kW of installed power. According to a number of studies carried out in the early 1990s the total surface area on buildings available for photovoltaics amounts to an enormous potential of 1,000 km-2, which is equivalent to an electricity generating potential of 130 TWh (100 TWh on roofs and 30 TWh on facades), or 25% of Germany`s total electricity demand. The degree to which this potential will be realised in the long term will notably depend on whether convincing architectural solutions are found for integrating photovoltaic plants in roofs and facades. [Deutsch] Der Photovoltaikmarkt waechst weltweit seit Mitte der 80er Jahre um durchschnittlich 15% und liegt heute bei einer Jahresmodulproduktion ueber 100 MW{sub p}. In Deutschland wurden alleine 1997 etwa 10.000 PV-Systeme mit einer Gesamtleistung von 10 MW{sub p} installiert. Die Marktentwicklung wurde 1990 mit dem stark subventionierten 1000-Daecher Programm angestossen, in welchem schliesslich mehr als 2000 Systeme meist auf Daechern von Einfamilienhaeusern installiert wurden. Diese dezentralen Anlagen mit Leistungen zwischen 1 und 5 kW erfordern Dachflaechen zwischen 10 und 50 m{sup 2} und erzeugen im Schnitt 800 kWh Strom pro kW installierter Leistung. Das verfuegbare Flaechenpotential von Gebaeuden wurde Anfang der 90er Jahre in einer Reihe von Studien ermittelt und stellt mit etwa 1000 km{sup 2

  11. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gross

    turn, will provide some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location.

  12. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Magar, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location.

  13. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Magar, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    provide some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location. PMID:27788208

  14. Intelligent Facades in Buildings Facades of local Office Buildings - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Qaraghuli Anwar Subhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the functional performance and requirements on the environmental, ecological, social and aesthetical aspects, it became a necessity to develop another options of building that would be more efficient in the provision of those requirements, so a new generation have appeared called “Smart Buildings” or “Intelligent Buildings” with their sophisticated parts and various details, one of those essential parts is the “Intelligent Façade” for it’s being the essential and primary defensive line for the building against the environmental and climatic variations.This research focused on presenting the most clearly and comprehensive perception of the intelligent façades, in a manner that serves the ability of the designer to apply them in his designs or while developing an existing façades in local (Iraqi office buildings.To achieve such goal, it has been a necessity to adopt a descriptive and analytical Method for the previous knowledge and take a sequential researching steps, the first step was to build a comprehensive theoretical framework by defining the intelligent façade. Down to abstracting three main vocabularies of the theoretical framework represented by: integrated intelligent façade design, intelligent façade techniques, and effective response.The next research steps focused on applying the vocabularies of the theoretical framework on the elected local office buildings that have been adopted the matter of intelligent façades in one of their forms, and then analyze/discuss the results of the applicable study, to be able to draw the final conclusions, and by this the research presented a determined recommendations.

  15. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-05

    This study was intended to validate actual performance of three ZERHs in the Northeast to energy models created in REM/Rate v14.5 (one of the certified software programs used to generate a HERS Index) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) v2.3 E+ (a more sophisticated hourly energy simulation software). This report details the validation methods used to analyze energy consumption at each home.

  16. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  17. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...... Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals...

  18. Positive energy in the climate. Breda, a CO2 neutral city in 2044 [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    This vision statement describes how the Dutch municipality of Breda has set itself the target of becoming a CO2 neutral city by 2044. This statement addresses themes such as sustainable government, sustainable energy production, clean and efficient mobility, energy efficient built environment, sustainable (agricultural) businesses and climate proof environment. With this vision statement Breda joins the climate agreement between the Dutch government and the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG). Breda is one of the many municipalities that comply with the climate agreement. [nl

  19. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  20. High-resolution integration of water, energy, and climate models to assess electricity grid vulnerabilities to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Macknick, J.; Tidwell, V. C.; Zagona, E. A.; Magee, T. M.; Bennett, K.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector depends on large amounts of water for hydropower generation and cooling thermoelectric power plants. Variability in water quantity and temperature due to climate change could reduce the performance and reliability of individual power plants and of the electric grid as a system. While studies have modeled water usage in power systems planning, few have linked grid operations with physical water constraints or with climate-induced changes in water resources to capture the role of the energy-water nexus in power systems flexibility and adequacy. In addition, many hydrologic and hydropower models have a limited representation of power sector water demands and grid interaction opportunities of demand response and ancillary services. A multi-model framework was developed to integrate and harmonize electricity, water, and climate models, allowing for high-resolution simulation of the spatial, temporal, and physical dynamics of these interacting systems. The San Juan River basin in the Southwestern U.S., which contains thermoelectric power plants, hydropower facilities, and multiple non-energy water demands, was chosen as a case study. Downscaled data from three global climate models and predicted regional water demand changes were implemented in the simulations. The Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model was used to project inflows, ambient air temperature, and humidity in the San Juan River Basin. Resulting river operations, water deliveries, water shortage sharing agreements, new water demands, and hydroelectricity generation at the basin-scale were estimated with RiverWare. The impacts of water availability and temperature on electric grid dispatch, curtailment, cooling water usage, and electricity generation cost were modeled in PLEXOS. Lack of water availability resulting from climate, new water demands, and shortage sharing agreements will require thermoelectric generators to drastically decrease power production, as much as 50

  1. Climate information for the wind energy industry in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmanti, Sandro; Davis, Melanie; Schmidt, Peter; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    According to the World Wind Energy Association the total wind generation capacity worldwide has come close to cover 3% of the world's electricity demand in 2011. Thanks to the enormous resource potential and the relatively low costs of construction and maintenance of wind power plants, the wind energy sector will remain one of the most attractive renewable energy investment options. Studies reveal that climate variability and change pose a new challenge to the entire renewable energy sector, and in particular for wind energy. Stakeholders in the wind energy sector mainly use, if available, site-specific historical climate information to assess wind resources at a given project site. So far, this is the only source of information that investors (e.g., banks) are keen to accept for decisions concerning the financing of wind energy projects. However, one possible wind energy risk at the seasonal scale is the volatility of earnings from year to year investment. The most significant risk is therefore that not enough units of energy (or megawatt hours) can be generated from the project to capture energy sales to pay down debt in any given quarter or year. On the longer time scale the risk is that a project's energy yields fall short of their estimated levels, resulting in revenues that consistently come in below their projection, over the life of the project. The nature of the risk exposure determines considerable interest in wind scenarios, as a potential component of both the planning and operational phase of a renewable energy project. Fundamentally, by using climate projections, the assumption of stationary wind regimes can be compared to other scenarios where large scale changes in atmospheric circulation patterns may affect local wind regimes. In the framework of CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project, climate experts are exploring the potential of seasonal to decadal climate forecast techniques (time-frame 2012-2040) and regional climate scenarios (time horizon 2040+) over the

  2. Multifunctional facades - design optimisation with CAD; Multifunktionale Fassaden - Effektive Auslegung durch CAD-Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viotto, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Anlagen- und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The energetically optimal design of PV facades requires the consideration of many technical conditions (different elevations/orientations of modules; shading possibility; high and different module temperatures). It also requires the interface with architecture, civil and electrical engineering. To support this planning process, the software program PV-CAD was developed which rapidly calculates energy yield under conditions of inhomogeneous irradiance, shading, thermal behaviour of modules and electrical layout. PV-CAD is compatible with other civil and electrical engineering CAD programs and incorporates extensive databases (weather data; modules and inverter types). (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer optimalen Energieertrag sind zahlreiche technische Randbedingungen bei der Auslegung einer Photovoltaik (PV)-Fassade zu beruecksichtigen (unterschiedliche Ausrichtungen/Neigungen der Module; moegliche Teilabschattung; hoehere und unterschiedliche Betriebstemperaturen). Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Fassade erfordern die Abstimmung zwischen Architektur, Bauwesen und Elektrotechnik. Zur Unterstuetzung der Planer wurde das Programm PV-CAD entwickelt, das den Energieertrag unter Beruecksichtigung von inhomogener Einstrahlung und Abschattung, Temperaturverhalten der Fassadenmodule sowie unterschiedlichen elektrischen Anlagenkonzepten schnell ermittelt; es fuegt sich nahtlos in CAD-Arbeitsumgebungen ein. (orig.)

  3. Industrial waste utilization in the panels production for high buildings facade and socle facing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkalova, Irina; Torlova, Anastasiya; Pikalov, Evgeniy; Selivanov, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    The research presents comprehensive utilization of such industrial waste as galvanic sludge, broken window glass as functional additives for producing ceramics for facade and socle paneling in high-rise construction. The basic charge component is low-plasticity clay, which does not allow producing high-quality products if used without any functional additives. The application of the mentioned above components broadens the resource base, reduces production cost and the mass of the products in comparison with the currently used facing ceramics. The decrease of product mass helps to reduce the load on the basement and to use ceramic material in high-rise construction more effectively. Additional advantage of the developed composition is the reducing of production energy intensity due to comparatively low pressing pressure and firing temperature thus reducing the overall production cost. The research demonstrates the experimental results of determining density, compressive strength, water absorption, porosity and frost resistance of the produced ceramic material. These characteristics prove that the material can be applied for high buildings outdoor paneling. Additional research results prove ecologic safety of the produced ceramic material.

  4. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  5. Old Wine in New Bottles? Does Climate Policy Determine Bilateral Development Aid for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Michaelowa; Katharina Michaelowa

    2011-01-01

    Published by Palgrave Macmillan Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 bilateral and multilateral donors have stressed that development assistance has increasingly been oriented towards climate-friendly interventions. With respect to energy aid, this should lead to a substantial increase in projects related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given a new database of hundreds of thousands of bilateral development assistance projects, we can asse...

  6. Energy regulations require strickter enforcement as response to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Itard, L.C.M.; Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Since a few years the attention for building regulatory systems and enforcement procedures is growing. Various developments in society, politics and the construction industry have influenced changes in the systems of building control in the last 20 years. The influence of climate change and the

  7. From Climate Change Awareness to Energy Efficient Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamir, Leila; Filatova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and predicting how climate will change, and whether and how a transition to low-carbon economies will develop over the next century is of vital importance. Nowadays there is high competition between countries to achieve a low-carbon economy. They are examining different ways e.g.

  8. Point Climat no. 27 'Unlocking private investments in energy efficiency through carbon finance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: According to the latest IEA World Energy Outlook, energy efficiency is a 'key option' in transition to a low-carbon economy. A decade of experience with the CDM and JI demonstrates that carbon finance can be used as an effective tool to unlock private investments in energy efficiency. Capital investments in offset projects may significantly exceed the expected carbon revenues resulting in an average weighted leverage ratio of 4:1 and 9:1 for the CDM and JI respectively, which is comparable to other international financial instruments. So far carbon finance has been used mostly for large-scale industrial energy efficiency projects in advanced developing countries and economies in transition, although it is increasingly suited to tap into scattered household energy efficiency projects

  9. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V

    2017-05-15

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  10. a Range Based Method for Complex Facade Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, A.; Fregonese, L.; Taffurelli, L.

    2011-09-01

    3d modelling of Architectural Heritage does not follow a very well-defined way, but it goes through different algorithms and digital form according to the shape complexity of the object, to the main goal of the representation and to the starting data. Even if the process starts from the same data, such as a pointcloud acquired by laser scanner, there are different possibilities to realize a digital model. In particular we can choose between two different attitudes: the mesh and the solid model. In the first case the complexity of architecture is represented by a dense net of triangular surfaces which approximates the real surface of the object. In the other -opposite- case the 3d digital model can be realized by the use of simple geometrical shapes, by the use of sweeping algorithm and the Boolean operations. Obviously these two models are not the same and each one is characterized by some peculiarities concerning the way of modelling (the choice of a particular triangulation algorithm or the quasi-automatic modelling by known shapes) and the final results (a more detailed and complex mesh versus an approximate and more simple solid model). Usually the expected final representation and the possibility of publishing lead to one way or the other. In this paper we want to suggest a semiautomatic process to build 3d digital models of the facades of complex architecture to be used for example in city models or in other large scale representations. This way of modelling guarantees also to obtain small files to be published on the web or to be transmitted. The modelling procedure starts from laser scanner data which can be processed in the well known way. Usually more than one scan is necessary to describe a complex architecture and to avoid some shadows on the facades. These have to be registered in a single reference system by the use of targets which are surveyed by topography and then to be filtered in order to obtain a well controlled and homogeneous point cloud of

  11. A RANGE BASED METHOD FOR COMPLEX FACADE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3d modelling of Architectural Heritage does not follow a very well-defined way, but it goes through different algorithms and digital form according to the shape complexity of the object, to the main goal of the representation and to the starting data. Even if the process starts from the same data, such as a pointcloud acquired by laser scanner, there are different possibilities to realize a digital model. In particular we can choose between two different attitudes: the mesh and the solid model. In the first case the complexity of architecture is represented by a dense net of triangular surfaces which approximates the real surface of the object. In the other -opposite- case the 3d digital model can be realized by the use of simple geometrical shapes, by the use of sweeping algorithm and the Boolean operations. Obviously these two models are not the same and each one is characterized by some peculiarities concerning the way of modelling (the choice of a particular triangulation algorithm or the quasi-automatic modelling by known shapes and the final results (a more detailed and complex mesh versus an approximate and more simple solid model. Usually the expected final representation and the possibility of publishing lead to one way or the other. In this paper we want to suggest a semiautomatic process to build 3d digital models of the facades of complex architecture to be used for example in city models or in other large scale representations. This way of modelling guarantees also to obtain small files to be published on the web or to be transmitted. The modelling procedure starts from laser scanner data which can be processed in the well known way. Usually more than one scan is necessary to describe a complex architecture and to avoid some shadows on the facades. These have to be registered in a single reference system by the use of targets which are surveyed by topography and then to be filtered in order to obtain a well controlled and

  12. An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-06-15

    Drawing from work on governance, this article explores four programs and policies that respond in some way to the challenges induced by climate change and modern energy use. Relying primarily on original data collected from research interviews and field research in seven countries along with four case studies, the article notes that polycentric approaches - those that mix scales (such as local/national or national/global), mechanisms (such as subsidies, tax credits, and mandates), and actors (such as government regulators, business stakeholders, and members of civil society) - can foster equity, inclusivity, information, accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability that result in the resolution of climate and energy related problems. After explaining its case selection and research methods, defining climate and energy governance, and conceptualizing polycentrism, the study explores cases related to electricity supply in Denmark, ethanol production in Brazil, small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh, and off-grid energy use in China. It concludes by highlighting how polycentrism may enhance effective climate and energy governance, but that further research is needed to fully substantiate that claim. - Highlights: > Polycentric governance systems mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. > Polycentric systems can foster equity, inclusivity, and information. > They can also promote accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability. > Polycentrism thus has much promise in climate and energy related problems.

  13. Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, Camille; Bahn, Olivier; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies. - Highlights: • We perform a SWOT analysis of the Canadian energy and climate policies. • We analyse policy coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. • We show that a lack of coordination leads to a weak coherence among policies. • The absence of cooperation results in additional costs for Canada

  14. An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from work on governance, this article explores four programs and policies that respond in some way to the challenges induced by climate change and modern energy use. Relying primarily on original data collected from research interviews and field research in seven countries along with four case studies, the article notes that polycentric approaches - those that mix scales (such as local/national or national/global), mechanisms (such as subsidies, tax credits, and mandates), and actors (such as government regulators, business stakeholders, and members of civil society) - can foster equity, inclusivity, information, accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability that result in the resolution of climate and energy related problems. After explaining its case selection and research methods, defining climate and energy governance, and conceptualizing polycentrism, the study explores cases related to electricity supply in Denmark, ethanol production in Brazil, small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh, and off-grid energy use in China. It concludes by highlighting how polycentrism may enhance effective climate and energy governance, but that further research is needed to fully substantiate that claim. - Highlights: → Polycentric governance systems mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. → Polycentric systems can foster equity, inclusivity, and information. → They can also promote accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability. → Polycentrism thus has much promise in climate and energy related problems.

  15. A New Wave of European Climate and Energy Policy: Towards a 2030 Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Gina

    2013-06-11

    Against a complex, challenging, and often contradictory background, the EU is currently trying to decide what kind of climate and energy regime it wants and needs in the post-2020 period. Should it replicate the formula of the 2008 Climate and Energy Package to 2030 and beyond? Or are there other pathways that may prove more effective or politically palatable? The European Commission has recently published a consultation paper on a 2030 climate and energy framework and enormous efforts are being expended in Brussels and across the Member States as stakeholders work to shape to terms of the debate. This policy brief attempts to provide an understanding of the current debates and to illuminate the key challenges in designing a new wave of European climate policy. It first sets out the current EU energy and climate framework and discusses progress made to date, before going on to outline a range of key challenges in the design of a 2030 framework. This is the fourth in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by experts in the field of climate, energy, agriculture and water.

  16. Climate change, energy and sustainability: lessons from the Toronto-Niagara region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely recognized in the discourse on global environmental change that anthropogenic activities, and particularly the combustion of fossil fuels, are having a discernible impact on the earth's climate. Concern over a looming environmental crisis has led to an international response, initially with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, followed by the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Much of the national debate on climate change has focused predominantly on the technological options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and more directly on the costs associated with taking mitigation actions. However this focus has come at the expense of not fully considering other dimensions of climate change, specifically the costs associated with climate change impacts and effects, the costs of adaptation actions, and the co-benefits for environment and health that could result from GHG plus related emission reductions. This is perhaps most apparent in the discourse on climate change and energy, especially in regards to electricity generation, where there is greater attention directed at the implications of climate change policies rather than the actual impacts and effects arising from climate change. In this paper it is argued that the issue of climate change and energy needs to be examined within a broader conceptual framework. Situating climate change and electricity generation within this broader context is essential in developing a sustainable energy system. The paper is organized into four sections. In section one, the conceptual framework is described, highlighting the importance of considering all dimensions of climate change (vulnerability, co-benefits and costs) in developing a sustainable energy system. Section two focuses more directly upon the relationship between climate change impacts and the energy sector, specifically in terms of generation (nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel, and alternatives), distribution and transmission

  17. Energy demand of the German and Dutch residential building stock under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olonscheck, Mady; Holsten, Anne; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In order to mitigate climate change, extraordinary measures are necessary in the future. The building sector, in particular, offers considerable potential for transformation to lower energy demand. On a national level, however, successful and far-reaching measures will likely be taken only if reliable estimates regarding future energy demand from different scenarios are available. The energy demand for space heating and cooling is determined by a combination of behavioral, climatic, constructional, and demographic factors. For two countries, namely Germany and the Netherlands, we analyze the combined effect of future climate and building stock changes as well as renovation measures on the future energy demand for room conditioning of residential buildings until 2060. We show how much the heating energy demand will decrease in the future and answer the question of whether the energy decrease will be exceeded by an increase in cooling energy demand. Based on a sensitivity analysis, we determine those influencing factors with the largest impact on the future energy demand from the building stock. Both countries have national targets regarding the reduction of the energy demand for the future. We provide relevant information concerning the annual renovation rates that are necessary to reach these targets. Retrofitting buildings is a win-win option as it not only helps to mitigate climate change and to lower the dependency on fossil fuels but also transforms the buildings stock into one that is better equipped for extreme temperatures that may occur more frequently with climate change. For the Netherlands, the study concentrates not only on the national, but also the provincial level, which should facilitate directed policy measures. Moreover, the analysis is done on a monthly basis in order to ascertain a deeper understanding of the future seasonal energy demand changes. Our approach constitutes an important first step towards deeper insights into the internal dynamics

  18. Fire exposed facades: Numerical modelling of the LEPIR2 testing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dréan Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LEPIR2 testing facility is aimed to evaluate the fire behaviour of construction solutions implemented on facade according with the experimental evaluation required by the French Technical Specification 249 (IT249 of the safety regulation. It aims to limit the risks of fire spreading by facades to upper levels. This facility involves a wood crib fire in the lower compartment of a full scale two levels high structure. Flames are coming outside from the compartment through windows openings and develop in front of the facade. Computational fluids dynamics simulations are carried out with the FDS code (Fire Dynamics Simulator for two full-scale experiments performed by Efectis France laboratory. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of numerical model to reproduce quantitative results in terms of gas temperatures and heat flux on the tested facade for further evaluation of fire performances of an insulation solution. When experimental results are compared with numerical calculations, good agreement is found out for every quantities and each test. The proposed models for wood cribs and geometry give correct thermal loads and flames shape near the tested facade.

  19. Costless Platform for High Resolution Stereoscopic Images of a High Gothic Facade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héno, R.; Chandelier, L.; Schelstraete, D.

    2012-07-01

    In October 2011, the PPMD specialized master's degree students (Photogrammetry, Positionning and Deformation Measurement) of the French ENSG (IGN's School of Geomatics, the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques) were asked to come and survey the main facade of the cathedral of Amiens, which is very complex as far as size and decoration are concerned. Although it was first planned to use a lift truck for the image survey, budget considerations and taste for experimentation led the project to other perspectives: images shot from the ground level with a long focal camera will be combined to complementary images shot from what higher galleries are available on the main facade with a wide angle camera fixed on a horizontal 2.5 meter long pole. This heteroclite image survey is being processed by the PPMD master's degree students during this academic year. Among other type of products, 3D point clouds will be calculated on specific parts of the facade with both sources of images. If the proposed device and methodology to get full image coverage of the main facade happen to be fruitful, the image acquisition phase will be completed later by another team. This article focuses on the production of 3D point clouds with wide angle images on the rose of the main facade.

  20. COSTLESS PLATFORM FOR HIGH RESOLUTION STEREOSCOPIC IMAGES OF A HIGH GOTHIC FACADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Héno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, the PPMD specialized master's degree students (Photogrammetry, Positionning and Deformation Measurement of the French ENSG (IGN’s School of Geomatics, the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques were asked to come and survey the main facade of the cathedral of Amiens, which is very complex as far as size and decoration are concerned. Although it was first planned to use a lift truck for the image survey, budget considerations and taste for experimentation led the project to other perspectives: images shot from the ground level with a long focal camera will be combined to complementary images shot from what higher galleries are available on the main facade with a wide angle camera fixed on a horizontal 2.5 meter long pole. This heteroclite image survey is being processed by the PPMD master's degree students during this academic year. Among other type of products, 3D point clouds will be calculated on specific parts of the facade with both sources of images. If the proposed device and methodology to get full image coverage of the main facade happen to be fruitful, the image acquisition phase will be completed later by another team. This article focuses on the production of 3D point clouds with wide angle images on the rose of the main facade.

  1. A climate for collaboration. Analysis of US and EU lessons and opportunities in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, A.; McLaren, J.; De Coninck, H.C.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    This paper aims to improve mutual understanding between the EU and US with regard to climate change and energy policy, suggesting specific opportunities for transatlantic cooperation in this area. A background on the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as they relate to climate policy sets the context. This is followed by an overview of how cap and trade, renewable energy, and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US. Some observations and lessons learnt within each of these areas are highlighted. Building on these insights, recommendations are made regarding the carbon market, possibilities for new technologies to bridge the valley of death, and best practices and standards.

  2. Financial impacts of UK's energy and climate change policies on commercial and industrial businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Chye Peng; Toper, Bruce; Gambhir, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a detailed case study assessment of two business sites in the UK, to understand the policy drivers of increases to their energy costs and energy bills, considering all current UK energy and climate change policies. We compare our findings to more generalised, theoretical calculations of the policy cost impact on energy costs and bills – we have found no other studies as comprehensive as ours in terms of policy coverage. We find that for one site the government has over-estimated the likely energy savings due to energy efficiency options. Such differences in estimates should be taken into account when considering the efficacy of climate change policies on future energy savings. The overall impact of energy and climate change policies on costs will be of the order 0.4% of total business costs by 2020. This provides an important metric for the near-term cost of mitigation to meet longer-term climate change goals. - Highlights: •Cumulative impacts of policies on energy prices and bills were studied. •Projected bills for one site are higher than those projected by the UK government. •Results of existing theoretical studies may not be fully representative. •Impact of policies is not considered significant with respect to competitiveness.

  3. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  4. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  5. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  6. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  7. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  8. Unraveling the Importance of Climate Change Resilience in Planning the Future Sustainable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding the environmental impacts of the current energy resource mix, significant research efforts have been focused on determining the future energy resource mix to meet emissions reduction and environmental sustainability goals. Many of these studies focus on various constraints such as costs, grid operability requirements, and environmental performance, and develop different plans for the rollout of energy resources between the present and future years. One aspect that has not yet been systematically taken into account in these planning studies, however, is the potential impacts that changing climates may have on the availability and performance of key energy resources that compose these plans. This presentation will focus on a case study for California which analyzes the impacts of climate change on the greenhouse gas emissions and renewable resource utilization of an energy resource plan developed by Energy Environmental Economics for meeting the state's year 2050 greenhouse gas goal of 80% reduction in emissions by the year 2050. Specifically, climate change impacts on three aspects of the energy system are investigated: 1) changes in hydropower generation due to altered