WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate explorer ace

  1. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Jongh, F.H.C.; Horst, M.J. van der; Shehata, M.; Leeuwen, J. van; Sinaasappel, M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics.

  2. ACE Action Fellowship Bridges Climate Education into Action for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Alliance for Climate Education educates young people on the science of climate change and empowers them to take action. Since 2009, ACE has educated over two million students and trained more than 4,000 young leaders. The ACE Action Fellowship is a yearlong training program that gives young people the knowledge, skills and confidence to be strong climate leaders. Here, we present the results of the first year of evaluation of the Fellowship program in the 2014-15 school year. Sixty high school students completed matched surveys before and after completing the program. Students were evaluated on skills learned, actions taken, confidence gained, civic engagement, and plans to continue action on climate in the future. Results show that the Fellowship increases young people's confidence: 52% of Fellows report an increase in confidence in leading a group of peers on a climate-related campaign. Fellows also gained leadership skills. More than half of Fellows say they improved in the areas of recruitment, interpersonal communication skills, campaign planning, and public speaking. 50% of Fellows reported an increase in their likelihood of seeking elected office when of age. The Fellowship positively influences young people's intent to study a climate, energy or sustainability-related field. 63% of Fellows identify as people of color. Notably, despite entering the Fellowship with significantly lower self-ratings than white students in experience and skill sets, young people of color reported greater improvement in the areas of public speaking (25% improvement vs. 6% improvement) and petitioning (27% improvement vs. 1% improvement). These results show that the ACE Fellowship gives young people tangible skills and confidence that puts them on a path of climate leadership. Further evaluation will be done to expand the dataset, but early indications show that these young people are poised to make valuable contributions and bring a much needed diverse youth perspective to the

  3. Exploring the Link between ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D Polymorphism and Uterine Leiomyomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Shahbazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uterine leiomyomas arise from the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. ACE gene encodes a convertase enzyme mainly secreted in vascular endothelial cells which is involved in the renin–angiotensin system and blood pressure controlling. This gene has an insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism correlates to serum and tissue ACE levels. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between ACE gene variation and the development of myom. Methods: The samples of 55 uterine leiomyoma patients and 78 healthy women were studied. After obtaining informed consent, blood samples were collected and DNA extraction was performed by Salting-out method. Genotyping was performed using PCR reaction. The amplified products were two bands of 190 and 490 bp, which represents D allele and I allele, respectively. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The D allele frequency was 0.55 in the patient group and 0.51 in the control group. The I allele frequencies in the two groups were 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. The results showed that taking the II genotype into account as reference genotype; homozygous DD individuals were at increased risk of uterine myoma (Odds ratio: 1.37. However, heterozygous ID showed a similar risk with the II genotype as the reference group. Conclusion: High blood pressure is significantly associated with uterine fibroids. It has been shown that atherosclerotic damage of uterine blood vessels and the inflammatory process caused by it may play an important role in the development of uterine myoma. This study indicates a positive relationship between the ACE (I/D polymorphism and the risk of uterine myoma. This finding is evidence of the important role of the renin–angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of myoma

  4. Large diameter lithium compensated silicon detectors for the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allbritton, G.L.; Andersen, H.; Barnes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication of the 100 mm diameter, 3 mm thick lithium-compensated silicon, Si(Li), detectors for the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) instrument on board the ACE satellite required development of new float-zone silicon growing techniques, new Si(Li) fabrication procedures, and new particle beam testing sequences. These developments are discussed and results are presented that illustrate the advances made in realizing these CRIS Si(Li) detectors, which, when operational in the CRIS detector telescopes, will usher in a new generation of cosmic-ray isotope spectrometers

  5. The Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison Explorer--T-ACE: a platform-independent, graphical tool to process large RNAseq datasets of non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, E E R; Kraemer, L; Mountfort, D; Schilhabel, M; Schreiber, S; Rosenstiel, P

    2012-03-15

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow a rapid and cost-effective compilation of large RNA sequence datasets in model and non-model organisms. However, the storage and analysis of transcriptome information from different NGS platforms is still a significant bottleneck, leading to a delay in data dissemination and subsequent biological understanding. Especially database interfaces with transcriptome analysis modules going beyond mere read counts are missing. Here, we present the Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison Explorer (T-ACE), a tool designed for the organization and analysis of large sequence datasets, and especially suited for transcriptome projects of non-model organisms with little or no a priori sequence information. T-ACE offers a TCL-based interface, which accesses a PostgreSQL database via a php-script. Within T-ACE, information belonging to single sequences or contigs, such as annotation or read coverage, is linked to the respective sequence and immediately accessible. Sequences and assigned information can be searched via keyword- or BLAST-search. Additionally, T-ACE provides within and between transcriptome analysis modules on the level of expression, GO terms, KEGG pathways and protein domains. Results are visualized and can be easily exported for external analysis. We developed T-ACE for laboratory environments, which have only a limited amount of bioinformatics support, and for collaborative projects in which different partners work on the same dataset from different locations or platforms (Windows/Linux/MacOS). For laboratories with some experience in bioinformatics and programming, the low complexity of the database structure and open-source code provides a framework that can be customized according to the different needs of the user and transcriptome project.

  6. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

    2003-12-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at

  7. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written i...

  8. The Tri-Agency Climate Education (TrACE) Catalog: Promoting collaboration, effective practice, and a robust portfolio by sharing educational resources developed across NASA, NOAA & NSF climate education initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, C.; Martin, A.; Givens, S. M.; Yue, S.; Wilson, C. E.; Karsten, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Tri-Agency Climate Education (TrACE) Catalog is an online, interactive, searchable and browsable web product driven by a database backend. TrACE was developed for and by the community of educators, scientists, and Federal agency representatives involved in a tri-agency collaboration for climate education. NASA, NOAA, and NSF are working together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for principal investigators and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). TrACE is a tool for the climate education community that promotes the goals of the tri-agency collaboration to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. TrACE was born as "The Matrix," a product of the 2011 Second Annual NASA, NOAA and NSF Climate Change Education Principal Investigators Meeting (see McDougall, Wilson, Martin & Knippenberg, 2011, Abstract ED21B-0583 presented at 2011 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA.) Meeting attendees were asked to populate a pen-and-paper matrix with all of the activities or deliverables they had created or anticipated creating as part of their NOAA/NASA/NSF-funded project. During the 2012 Third Annual Tri-Agency PI Meeting, projects were given the opportunity to add and update their products and deliverables. In the intervening year, the dataset comprising the Matrix was converted to a MySQL database, with a standardized taxonomy and minimum criteria for inclusion, and further developed into the interactive TrACE Catalog. In the fall of 2012, the TrACE Catalog web product will be made publicly

  9. ClimatePad: Enabling public exploration of climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. E.; Chapman, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Informal learners interested in climate issues can find a wealth of information in the print and online media related to climate and climate change. Throughout these resources, the equal use of generic terms like 'global warming' and 'climate change' suggest a level of nuance in the science that is not easy to convey in this conventional media. Perhaps more than any other discipline, climate literacy has the most potential to be enhanced via the process of cognitive construction and reconstruction, rather than simple transmission of knowledge. Constructionism suggests that meaningful learning happens most effectively if the learner is actively engaged in constructing a product in the real world rather than absorbing information passively. Recent technological innovations have introduced mobile computing devices with sufficient power to do serious data analysis. The potential of these devices to augment climate literacy by turning citizens into scientists has yet to be exploited. We introduce ClimatePad, an iPad application that permits students and public to actively browse climate datasets, construct trends, plot time series, create composite differences and view animations of real-world climate data. Interactions with the ClimatePad permits varying the starting and ending dates of trends and differences. Climate analysis maps and animations can be customized with different color palettes, enticing the user to delve into and absorb the subtleties of the regional and temporal variations of the recent climate record. Finally, user-generated climate visualizations created with ClimatePad can be emailed to friends and shared via Facebook, entraining even more active learners.

  10. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases) and 221 normotensives (controls) were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension. Results The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II) of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97), and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92), DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73), respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18)) was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH. PMID:24098401

  11. Climate Change in China : Exploring Informants' Perceptions of Climate Change through a Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lipin, Tan

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a natural phenomenon, but also a global social issue. Many studies try to explore the mechanisms behind climate change and the consequences of climate change, and provide information for developing the measures to mitigate or adapt to it. For example, the IPCC reviews and assesses climate-change-related scientific information produced worldwide, thus aiming to support decision-making from a scientific perspective. However, though various international and regional c...

  12. Exploring the Multifaceted Topic of Climate Change in Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    As the effects of climate change become more profound, climate literacy becomes increasingly important. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) responds to this need through the publication of Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate. Both publications incorporate the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the USGCRP's Third National Climate Assessment. Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive, multidisciplinary information related to various topics. Additionally, each chapter closes with a For Further Exploration essay, which addresses specific topics that complement a chapter concept. Web Resources, which encourage additional exploration of chapter content, and Scientific Literature, from which chapter content was derived can also be found at the conclusion of each chapter. Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics, including the scientific principles that govern Earth's climate system and basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate the system. Released in fall 2015, Living With Our Changing Climate takes a more narrow approach and investigates human and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change, the role of energy choices in affecting climate, actions humans can take through adaption, mitigation, and policy to lessen vulnerabilities, and psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial. While Living With Our Changing Climate is intended for programs looking to add a climate element into their curriculum, Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course. In a 2015 survey of California University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students using Our Changing Climate, 82% found it comfortable to read and utilized its interactive components and resources. Both ebooks illuminate the multidisciplinary aspect of climate change, providing the opportunity for a more sustainable future.

  13. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (i) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (ii) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (iii) the rate of technological advance and diffusion (iv) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper we will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. We believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change.

  14. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (1) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (2) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (3) the rate of technological advance and diffusion, (4) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper the authors will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. The authors believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change

  15. Exploring Connections between Global Climate Indices and African Vegetation Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; deBeurs, Kirsten; Vrieling, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Variations in agricultural production due to rainfall and temperature fluctuations are a primary cause of food insecurity on the continent in Africa. Agriculturally destructive droughts and floods are monitored from space using satellite remote sensing by organizations seeking to provide quantitative and predictive information about food security crises. Better knowledge on the relation between climate indices and food production may increase the use of these indices in famine early warning systems and climate outlook forums on the continent. Here we explore the relationship between phenology metrics derived from the 26 year AVHRR NDVI record and the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We explore spatial relationships between growing conditions as measured by the NDVI and the five climate indices in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa to determine the regions and periods when they have a significant impact. The focus is to provide a clear indication as to which climate index has the most impact on the three regions during the past quarter century. We found that the start of season and cumulative NDVI were significantly affected by variations in the climate indices. The particular climate index and the timing showing highest correlation depended heavily on the region examined. The research shows that climate indices can contribute to understanding growing season variability in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa.

  16. Exploring climate regimes for differentiation of commitments to achieve the EU climate target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen den MGJ; Berk MM; Lucas P; Eickhout B; Vuuren van DP; KMD

    2003-01-01

    This report explores the implications of various international climate regimes for differentiating post-Kyoto (after 2012) commitments compatible with the EU long-term climate objective to limit global-mean temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels. Five

  17. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Kate; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict. PMID:27110806

  18. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Burrows

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict.

  19. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Kate; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-04-22

    The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict.

  20. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  1. Preface ACE 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katayose, Haruhiro; Reidsma, Dennis; Katayose, Haruhiro; Nijholt, Antinus

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE 2013), hosted by the Human Media Interaction research group of the Centre for Telematics and Information Technology at the University of Twente, The Netherlands. The ACE series of conferences,

  2. Agile Coalition Environment (ACE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Michele; Daniel, Dale

    2004-01-01

    .... Interoperability is achieved across all applications, platforms, and security domains. ACE is presented as a network capability that can be applied to the Coalition Enterprise Information Exchange System (CENTRIXS...

  3. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  4. The ACE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) as shown by Michael Holzscheiter (spokesperson), Niels Bassler (co-spokesperson) and Helge Knudsen. ACE is located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. An antiproton annihilates a proton in the nucleus of a cancer cell, producing a pair of gamma rays, destroying the entire cell and some surrounding cells. Many fewer antiprotons are required in this treatment than in the equivalent proton hadron therapy, so there is less risk of healthy tissue damage.

  5. ACE phenotyping in Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Sergei M; Tikhomirova, Victoria E; Metzger, Roman; Naperova, Irina A; Bukina, Tatiana M; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Tayebi, Nahid; Gayfullin, Nurshat M; Schwartz, David E; Samokhodskaya, Larisa M; Kost, Olga A; Sidransky, Ellen

    2018-04-01

    Gaucher disease is characterized by the activation of splenic and hepatic macrophages, accompanied by dramatically increased levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). To evaluate the source of the elevated blood ACE, we performed complete ACE phenotyping using blood, spleen and liver samples from patients with Gaucher disease and controls. ACE phenotyping included 1) immunohistochemical staining for ACE; 2) measuring ACE activity with two substrates (HHL and ZPHL); 3) calculating the ratio of the rates of substrate hydrolysis (ZPHL/HHL ratio); 4) assessing the conformational fingerprint of ACE by evaluating the pattern of binding of monoclonal antibodies to 16 different ACE epitopes. We show that in patients with Gaucher disease, the dramatically increased levels of ACE originate from activated splenic and/or hepatic macrophages (Gaucher cells), and that both its conformational fingerprint and kinetic characteristics (ZPHL/HHL ratio) differ from controls and from patients with sarcoid granulomas. Furthermore, normal spleen was found to produce high levels of endogenous ACE inhibitors and a novel, tightly-bound 10-30 kDa ACE effector which is deficient in Gaucher spleen. The conformation of ACE is tissue-specific. In Gaucher disease, ACE produced by activated splenic macrophages differs from that in hepatic macrophages, as well as from macrophages and dendritic cells in sarcoid granulomas. The observed differences are likely due to altered ACE glycosylation or sialylation in these diseased organs. The conformational differences in ACE may serve as a specific biomarker for Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding ENSO dynamics through the exploration of past climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, Steven J; Brown, Jaclyn N

    2010-01-01

    The palaeoclimate record shows that significant changes in ENSO characteristics took place during the Holocene. Exploring these changes, using both data and models, provides a means of understanding ENSO dynamics. Previous modelling studies have suggested a mechanism whereby changes in the Earth's orbital geometry explain the strengthening of ENSO over the Holocene. Decreasing summer insolation over the Asian landmass resulted in a weakening of the Asian monsoon system. This led to a weakening of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific, creating conditions more favourable for El Nino development. To explore this hypothesised forcing mechanism, we use a climate system model to conduct a suite of simulations of the climate of the past 8,000 years. In the early Holocene, we find that the Asian summer monsoon system is intensified, resulting in an amplification of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific. The stronger trade winds represent a barrier to the eastward propagation of westerly wind bursts, therefore inhibiting the onset of El Nino events. The fundamental behaviour of ENSO remains unchanged, with the major change over the Holocene being the influence of the background state of the Pacific on the susceptibility of the ocean to the initiation of El Nino events.

  7. ACES CONTINUOUS DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. During August, 2002, ACES researchers conducted overflights of...

  8. ACES TRIGGERED DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. During August 2002, ACES researchers conducted overflights of...

  9. ACES TIMING DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. During August or 2002, ACES researchers overflights of...

  10. ACES CONTINUOUS DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was Based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. ACES researchers in August 2002 conducted overflights of...

  11. ACES TRIGGERED DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was Based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. ACES researchers in August 2002 conducted overflights of...

  12. ACES LOG DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was Based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. ACES researchers in August 2002 conducted overflights of...

  13. ACES TIMING DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was Based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. ACES researchers in August 2002 conducted overflights of...

  14. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2 bind integrins and ACE2 regulates integrin signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola E Clarke

    Full Text Available The angiotensin converting enzymes (ACEs are the key catalytic components of the renin-angiotensin system, mediating precise regulation of blood pressure by counterbalancing the effects of each other. Inhibition of ACE has been shown to improve pathology in cardiovascular disease, whilst ACE2 is cardioprotective in the failing heart. However, the mechanisms by which ACE2 mediates its cardioprotective functions have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that both ACE and ACE2 bind integrin subunits, in an RGD-independent manner, and that they can act as cell adhesion substrates. We show that cellular expression of ACE2 enhanced cell adhesion. Furthermore, we present evidence that soluble ACE2 (sACE2 is capable of suppressing integrin signalling mediated by FAK. In addition, sACE2 increases the expression of Akt, thereby lowering the proportion of the signalling molecule phosphorylated Akt. These results suggest that ACE2 plays a role in cell-cell interactions, possibly acting to fine-tune integrin signalling. Hence the expression and cleavage of ACE2 at the plasma membrane may influence cell-extracellular matrix interactions and the signalling that mediates cell survival and proliferation. As such, ectodomain shedding of ACE2 may play a role in the process of pathological cardiac remodelling.

  15. Sustainable development, energy and climate. Exploring synergies and tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.

    2006-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Development, Energy and Climate Project that has been managed by the UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The project is a partnership between the UNEP Risoe Centre and centers of excellence in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa. The focus of this report is on the energy sector mitigation assessments that have been carried out in the countries. In addition to this work, the project has also included adaptation focused case studies that explore climate change impacts on the energy sector and infrastructure. The report includes a short introduction to the project and its approach and summaries of the six country studies. This is followed by an assessment of cross country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. Furthermore, energy access and affordability for households are considered as major social aspects of energy provision. The country study results that are included in this report are a short summary of some of the main findings and do not provide all details of the work that has been undertaken. Some of the countries in particular those with fast growing economies and energy sectors such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa have conducted general scenario analysis of the energy sector and explored some policies in more depth, while the country studies for Bangladesh and Senegal where the energy sector is less developed have focused more on specific issues related to energy access and the electricity sector. (au)

  16. Sustainable development, energy and climate. Exploring synergies and tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K; Garg, A [eds.

    2006-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Development, Energy and Climate Project that has been managed by the UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The project is a partnership between the UNEP Risoe Centre and centers of excellence in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa. The focus of this report is on the energy sector mitigation assessments that have been carried out in the countries. In addition to this work, the project has also included adaptation focused case studies that explore climate change impacts on the energy sector and infrastructure. The report includes a short introduction to the project and its approach and summaries of the six country studies. This is followed by an assessment of cross country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. Furthermore, energy access and affordability for households are considered as major social aspects of energy provision. The country study results that are included in this report are a short summary of some of the main findings and do not provide all details of the work that has been undertaken. Some of the countries in particular those with fast growing economies and energy sectors such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa have conducted general scenario analysis of the energy sector and explored some policies in more depth, while the country studies for Bangladesh and Senegal where the energy sector is less developed have focused more on specific issues related to energy access and the electricity sector. (au)

  17. Conoco serves an ACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, A.; Jackson, G. [Arup Energy (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    The Hang Tuah gas platform recently installed in Conoco's West Natuna field off Indonesia is the first example in the world of a low-cost, relocatable platform based on the ACE concept developed by Arup Energy in the UK. It is expected to operate at two other locations in the West Natuna block during its 25-year lifetime. The ACE platform, which can operate at depths up to 100 m, has four main components: the deck in the form of a barge, strand jacks to lower the four lattice legs on a rectangular steel gravity base, and a jacking system. The background to the decision to opt for the ACE concept, its advantages, the delivery contract, the platform's flexibility, and its fabrication and installation are described. The weights of the various components and the levels to which loads can be raised are summarised in a table. The areas where cost savings are made with this design are explained in a side box.

  18. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  19. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Monkelbaan, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We have arrived at a critical juncture when it comes to understanding the numerous ways in which trade interacts with climate change and energy (trade-climate-energy nexus). Trade remains crucial for the sustainable development of the world's greatest trading nation: China. After clarifying the linkages within the trade, climate change and energy nexus, this article delves into China's specific needs and interests related to trade, climate change and energy. Then it explores the ways in which...

  20. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  1. Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Asseng, S.; Rotter, R.P.; Hengsdijk, H.; Ruane, A.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation

  2. Blood type gene locus has no influence on ACE association with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Anne; Medway, Christopher; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Younkin, Steven; Kehoe, Patrick G; Morgan, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The ABO blood group locus was recently found to contribute independently and via interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene variation to plasma levels of ACE. Variation in ACE has previously been not only implicated as individually conferring susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also proposed to confer risk via interactions with other as yet unknown genes. More recently, larger studies have not supported ACE as a risk factor for AD, whereas the role of ACE pathway in AD has come under increased levels of scrutiny with respect to various aspects of AD pathology and possible therapies. We explored the potential combined involvement of ABO and ACE variations in the genetic susceptibility of 2067 AD cases compared with 1376 nondemented elderly. Including the effects of ABO haplotype did not provide any evidence for the genetic association of ACE with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific

  4. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  5. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  6. Exploring the Climate Literacy Development Utilizing a Learning Progressions Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, A.; Breslyn, W.; McGinnis, J. R.; Hestness, E.; Mouza, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change encompasses a broad and complex set of concepts that is often challenging for students and educators. Using a learning progressions framework, in this exploratory study we report our efforts to identify, describe, and organize the development of learners' understanding of climate change in an empirically supported learning progression (LP). The learning progression framework is a well suited analytical tool for investigating how student thinking develops over time (Duschl et al., 2007). Our primary research question is "How do learners progress over time from an initial to a more sophisticated understanding of climate change?"We followed a development process that involved drafting a hypothetical learning progression based on the science education research literature, consensus documents such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Atlas of Science Literacy. Additionally, we conducted expert reviews with both climate scientists and educational researchers on the content and pedagogical expectations. Data are then collected from learners, which are used to modify the hypothetical learning progression based on how well it describes actual student learning. In this current analysis, we present findings from written assessments (N=294) and in-depth interviews (n=27) with middle school students in which we examine their understanding of the role of human activity, the greenhouse effect as the mechanism of climate change, local and global impacts, and strategies for the adaptation and mitigation of climate change. The culmination of our research is a proposed, empirically supported LP for climate change. Our LP is framed by consideration of four primary constructs: Human Activity, Mechanism, Impacts, and Mitigation and Adaptation. The conditional LP provides a solid foundation for continued research as well as providing urgently needed guidance to the education community on climate change education (for curriculum, instruction, and assessment

  7. Exploring Undergraduate Engagement With The Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, N.; Danielson, R.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Engendering conceptual change from naive to scientifically sophisticated beliefs is a difficult task. One factor that fosters conceptual change is greater engagement with a topic. Yet if one asks about a topic in the wrong way, one may fail to find engagement where it exists or assume it exists where it does not. Climate change is an immense topic with consequences across many domains and people may be more concerned with specific consequences than with the topic generally. Therefore, it may be helpful to disambiguate the various risks to see which consequences people find especially engaging and which they do not. We asked 188 undergraduate students at a large university in California to rate twenty-five potential consequences of climate change on several questions. The questions were drawn from constructs that lead to greater engagement with a topic according to the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Scores were then combined to create engagement scores. We found that two potential consequences of climate change were rated as more engaging than climate change generally: air pollution and increases in the price of food. Many consequences were rated as less engaging, including floods, stronger hurricanes, and melting permafrost. This implies that some consequences that scientists consider potentially worthy of concern are nonetheless not considered engaging by many. We also asked participants several open-ended questions about their perceptions of climate change and what consequences they especially cared about. Results were broadly similar but demonstrated many misconceptions about the mechanics and consequences of climate change. Several participants expressed concerns about increases in earthquakes, changes to the ozone layer, and dangerous changes to the density of the atmosphere. We asked participants about the relationship between the terms climate change and global warming. There was considerable disagreement on how these two

  8. Explore the consequences of climate changes in 2099: Virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Rütvan Mustafa; Jakobsen, Nikolaj Egholk; Roed-Kristiansen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The project’s theme is about climate changes and virtual reality’s role in simplifying the knowledge about the consequences, and the causes behind climate change to the point where the ordinary human understands the problematic. We present how humans understands and perceives the world. We explain how phenomenology and post- phenomenology has an impact on our experiences and how we make sense using some of the philosophical thinkings. We have used sketches to illustrate the desired virtual re...

  9. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  10. Climate change decision-making: Model & parameter uncertainties explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Linville, C.

    1995-12-31

    A critical aspect of climate change decision-making is uncertainties in current understanding of the socioeconomic, climatic and biogeochemical processes involved. Decision-making processes are much better informed if these uncertainties are characterized and their implications understood. Quantitative analysis of these uncertainties serve to inform decision makers about the likely outcome of policy initiatives, and help set priorities for research so that outcome ambiguities faced by the decision-makers are reduced. A family of integrated assessment models of climate change have been developed at Carnegie Mellon. These models are distinguished from other integrated assessment efforts in that they were designed from the outset to characterize and propagate parameter, model, value, and decision-rule uncertainties. The most recent of these models is ICAM 2.1. This model includes representation of the processes of demographics, economic activity, emissions, atmospheric chemistry, climate and sea level change and impacts from these changes and policies for emissions mitigation, and adaptation to change. The model has over 800 objects of which about one half are used to represent uncertainty. In this paper we show, that when considering parameter uncertainties, the relative contribution of climatic uncertainties are most important, followed by uncertainties in damage calculations, economic uncertainties and direct aerosol forcing uncertainties. When considering model structure uncertainties we find that the choice of policy is often dominated by model structure choice, rather than parameter uncertainties.

  11. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  12. Exploring the potential of climate adaptive building shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Building shells with adaptive, rather than static properties, intuitively offer opportunities for both energy savings and comfort enhancements. Progress in this field is characterized by fragmented developments, and the most effective type of climate adaptive building shell (CABS) behaviour is still

  13. Exploring the Climate for Women as Community College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Laden, Berta Vigil

    2002-01-01

    Provides a literature review and national dataset analyses regarding the perceived conditions of women community college faculty members. Reports that the climate at the average community college may be friendlier than at four-year institutions; however, women faculty at community colleges are not free from the confines of glass ceilings, academic…

  14. Exploring the Relationships among Race, Class, Gender, and Middle School Students' Perceptions of School Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…

  15. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  16. Exploring Climate-Smart Land Management for Atlantic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier P. O. Schulte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be a sink or source of carbon, and managing soil carbon has significant potential to partially offset agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. While European Union (EU member states have not been permitted to account for this offsetting potential in their efforts to meet the EU 2020 reduction targets, this policy is now changing for the period 2020 to 2030, creating a demand for land management plans aimed at maximizing the offsetting potential of land. In this letter, we derive a framework for climate-smart land management in the Atlantic climate zone of the EU by combining the results from five component research studies on various aspects of the carbon cycle. We show that the options for proactive management of soil organic carbon differ according to soil type and that a spatially tailored approach to land management will be more effective than blanket policies.

  17. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, William W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. (letter)

  18. Recognizing and exploring the right questions with climate data: An example of better understanding ENSO in climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, C. M.; Brown, B.; Kalb, C. P.; Bullock, R.; Buja, L.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Halley-Gotway, J.; Kaatz, L.; Yates, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Coordinated, multi-model climate change projection archives have already led to a flourishing of new climate impact applications. Collections and online tools for the computation of derived indicators have attracted many non-specialist users and decision-makers and facilitated for them the exploration of potential future weather and climate changes on their systems. Guided by a set of standardized steps and analyses, many can now use model output and determine basic model-based changes. But because each application and decision-context is different, the question remains if such a small collection of standardized tools can faithfully and comprehensively represent the critical physical context of change? We use the example of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation, the largest and most broadly recognized mode of variability in the climate system, to explore the difference in impact contexts between a quasi-blind, protocol-bound and a flexible, scientifically guided use of climate information. More use oriented diagnostics of the model-data as well as different strategies for getting data into decision environments are explored.

  19. Space Weather Drivers in the ACE Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Jordanova, V. K.; Smith, C. W.; Cohen, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft was launched Aug.~25, 1997 [Stone et al., 1998]. Beginning shortly after launch and continuing to the present day ACE has provided real-time data telemetry of solar wind conditions upstream of the Earth. The real-time data includes solar wind speed and density, magnetic field direction and magnitude, and a range of energetic particle intensities [Zwickl et al., 1999]. The real-time data product is provided within 5 minutes of observation and many partners from both industry and science use these data for a variety of purposes. The most common purpose of practical industrial application involves mitigation of lost services arising from magnetospheric storm activity. Many space weather efforts are directed at providing improved predictions of magnetospheric response that can be applied to real-time data in the hope of better predicting the vulnerability and required action of industry to approaching disturbances. It therefore seems prudent that following 6 years of activity including one solar maximum period we should evaluate the nature and strength of the largest disturbances observed with the hope of better assessing the industrial response. Simply put: ``Did ACE observe disturbances that were as large as those seen previously during the space age?'' If not, it may be the case that industry must evaluate its response to the real-time warnings and not become complacent by the simple act of survival. We compare the most intense space weather events of the ACE era with those recorded on the Omnitape data set spanning 40+ years of spacecraft measurements in the near-Earth environment. We compare both magnetospheric response parameters and solar wind drivers. In addition, we compare the large energetic particle events over the same time frame. Stone, E.~C., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 357-408, 1998. Zwickl, R.~D., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 633-648, 1998.

  20. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  1. Advanced Center for Engineering (ACE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE™)The ACE Team provides the ability to conduct fullscale interactive virtual CAD reviews using the CAVE.CapabilitiesTARDEC's...

  2. Future extreme events in European climate: An exploration of regional climate model projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniston, M.; Stephenson, D.B.; Christensen, O.B.

    2007-01-01

    -90) and future (2071-2 100) climate on the basis of regional climate model simulations produced by the PRUDENCE project. A summary of the main results follows. Heat waves - Regional surface warming causes the frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves to increase over Europe. By the end of the twenty first...

  3. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  4. Exploring the health context : a multimethod approach to climate change adaptation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Böckmann, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major environmental Public Health issue of the 21st century. Extreme heat and cold, weather events such as flooding or storms, disease vector distribution changes, and increased pathogen loads in water might all put human health at risk. To protect health from inevitable changes, climate change adaptation strategies are implemented at local, national, and global level. Are these measures effectively reducing health risks? This dissertation explores multiple methods to eval...

  5. Exploring the implication of climate process uncertainties within the Earth System Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B.; Lambert, F. H.; McNeal, D.; Harris, G.; Sexton, D.; Boulton, C.; Murphy, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties in the magnitude of future climate change have been a focus of a great deal of research. Much of the work with General Circulation Models has focused on the atmospheric response to changes in atmospheric composition, while other processes remain outside these frameworks. Here we introduce an ensemble of new simulations, based on an Earth System configuration of HadCM3C, designed to explored uncertainties in both physical (atmospheric, oceanic and aerosol physics) and carbon cycle processes, using perturbed parameter approaches previously used to explore atmospheric uncertainty. Framed in the context of the climate response to future changes in emissions, the resultant future projections represent significantly broader uncertainty than existing concentration driven GCM assessments. The systematic nature of the ensemble design enables interactions between components to be explored. For example, we show how metrics of physical processes (such as climate sensitivity) are also influenced carbon cycle parameters. The suggestion from this work is that carbon cycle processes represent a comparable contribution to uncertainty in future climate projections as contributions from atmospheric feedbacks more conventionally explored. The broad range of climate responses explored within these ensembles, rather than representing a reason for inaction, provide information on lower likelihood but high impact changes. For example while the majority of these simulations suggest that future Amazon forest extent is resilient to the projected climate changes, a small number simulate dramatic forest dieback. This ensemble represents a framework to examine these risks, breaking them down into physical processes (such as ocean temperature drivers of rainfall change) and vegetation processes (where uncertainties point towards requirements for new observational constraints).

  6. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Menu Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade ... Accepted Insurance Make a Donation Refer a Patient Phone Directory Blog, News & Mobile Apps Consult QD Health Essentials Newsroom Mobile Apps ...

  7. ACES ELECTRIC FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ALTUS Cloud Electrification Study (ACES) was based at the Naval Air Facility Key West in Florida. ACES researchers in August 2002 conducted overflights of...

  8. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman, H; Klungel, O H; van Duijn, C M; Witteman, J C M; Hofman, A; de Boer, A; Stricker, B H Ch

    AIMS: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. METHODS: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who started ACE

  9. Amazon collapse in the next century: exploring the sensitivity to climate and model formulation uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B.; Collins, M.; Harris, G.; Chris, H.; Jones, C.

    2007-12-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the risk of abrupt dieback of the Amazon Rain Forest as the result of climate changes over the next century. The recent 2005 Amazon drought brought wider acceptance of the idea that that climate drivers will play a significant role in future rain forest stability, yet that stability is still subject to considerable degree of uncertainty. We present a study which seeks to explore some of the underlying uncertainties both in the climate drivers of dieback and in the terrestrial land surface formulation used in GCMs. We adopt a perturbed physics approach which forms part of a wider project which is covered in an accompanying abstract submitted to the multi-model ensembles session. We first couple the same interactive land surface model to a number of different versions of the Hadley Centre atmosphere-ocean model that exhibit a wide range of different physical climate responses in the future. The rainforest extent is shown to collapse in all model cases but the timing of the collapse is dependent on the magnitude of the climate drivers. In the second part, we explore uncertainties in the terrestrial land surface model using the perturbed physics ensemble approach, perturbing uncertain parameters which have an important role in the vegetation and soil response. Contrasting the two approaches enables a greater understanding of the relative importance of climatic and land surface model uncertainties in Amazon dieback.

  10. Who speaks for the climate now? Exploring portrayals of climate change through new/social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Mass media stitch together formal science and policy with everyday activities in the public sphere. Many dynamic, contested and complex factors, along with non-nation state actors (or 'debate shapers'), contribute to how media outlets portray various facets of climate change. Against this backdrop, new and social media have become increasingly influential. The Pew Center Project for Excellence in Journalism has found that topics involving global warming have earned a much greater share of the news hole in new and social media (Internet weblogs, Twitter) than in traditional outlets (television, newspapers, radio), relative to other stories in those same media. This may be due in part to the flexibility and potentially infinite nature of the 'news hole' in new and social media, but may also mark the trends of diminishing traditional news room capabilities. Overall, new and social media have increasingly been harnessed in a variety of ways for communications about climate change around the world. However, with these shifts and developments come numerous questions. Among them: does increased visibility of climate change in new/social media translate to improved communication, or just more noise? Do these spaces provide opportunities for new forms of deliberative community regarding questions of climate mitigation and adaptation? Or has the content of this increased coverage shifted to polemics and arguments over measured traditional media analysis? In this more open space of content production, do new/social media provide more space for contrarian views to circulate? And through its interactivity, does increased consumption of news through new/social media further fragment a public discourse on climate mitigation and adaptation, through information silos where members of the public can stick to sources that help support their already held views? As new and social media representations of climate change demonstrate, the boundaries between who constitute 'authorized

  11. Identification and characterisation of the angiotensin converting enzyme-3 (ACE3) gene: a novel mammalian homologue of ACE

    OpenAIRE

    Rella, Monika; Elliot, Joann L; Revett, Timothy J; Lanfear, Jerry; Phelan, Anne; Jackson, Richard M; Turner, Anthony J; Hooper, Nigel M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Although multiple ACE-like proteins exist in non-mammalian organisms, to date only one other ACE homologue, ACE2, has been identified in mammals. Results Here we report the identification and characterisation of the gene encoding a third homologue of ACE, termed ACE3, in several mammalian genomes. The ACE3 gene is located on the same chromosome downstream of the ACE gene. Multiple ...

  12. Utilizing the Walking Interview to Explore Campus Climate for Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the walking interview as a qualitative tool to assess campus climate. Using examples from a study that employed the walking interview, the author elucidates how this method of data collection allows for in situ understandings of participants' perceptions, spatial practices, biographies, social architecture, and social realms…

  13. Exploring the Climate for Overweight and Obese Students in a Student Health Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Peggy J.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of health care providers, in conjunction with a nonthreatening physical environment, are important components in establishing a constructive and supportive climate for care of overweight and obese students. Objective: The authors explored providers' attitudes about obesity and assessed the physical environment in a student…

  14. A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.

  15. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; de Jongh, F.H.C.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's

  16. Surf Aces Resurfaced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    of the commercial music industry prompted group members to resist perceived threats to their established profile. Yet in the longer term (and ironically in the name of commercial survival) The Beach Boys began selectively to adopt innovations they had previously shunned. Shorn of its more controversial associations......The rise of the American counter-culture between the early- to mid-1960s and early- to mid-1970s was closely associated with the growth of environmentalism. This article explores how both informed popular music, a form of expression which during these years became not only a prominent form...... 1967, the group’s leader Brian Wilson and lyricist Van Dyke Parks collaborated on a collection of songs embodying such progressive thinking, even though the music of The Beach Boys had previously shown no such ambitions. In the short term their efforts foundered as the risk-averse logic...

  17. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  18. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.

    2014-12-01

    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  19. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schelleman (Hedi); O.H. Klungel (Olaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. de Boer (Anton); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAims: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. Methods: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who

  20. Exploring and Analyzing Climate Variations Online by Using NASA MERRA-2 Data at GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Kempler, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) (http:giovanni.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgiovanni) is a web-based data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. The system enables basic statistical analysis and comparisons of multiple variables. This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional remote sensing and model data sets from a number of NASA data centers. Long term global assimilated atmospheric, land, and ocean data have been integrated into the system that enables quick exploration and analysis of climate data without downloading, preprocessing, and learning data. Example data include climate reanalysis data from NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) which provides data beginning in 1980 to present; land data from NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), which assimilates data from 1948 to 2012; as well as ocean biological data from NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM), which provides data from 1998 to 2012. This presentation, using surface air temperature, precipitation, ozone, and aerosol, etc. from MERRA-2, demonstrates climate variation analysis with Giovanni at selected regions.

  1. A Simple Exploration of Complexity at the Climate-Weather-Social-Conflict Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M.

    2017-12-01

    The conceptualization, exploration, and prediction of interplay between climate, weather, important resources, and social and economic - so political - human behavior is cast, and analyzed, in terms familiar from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics. A simple threshold toy model is presented which emulates human tendencies to either actively engage in responses deriving, in part, from environmental circumstances or to maintain some semblance of status quo, formulated based on efforts drawn from the sociophysics literature - more specifically vis a vis a model akin to spin glass depictions of human behavior - with threshold/switching of individual and collective dynamics influenced by relatively more detailed weather and land surface model (hydrological) analyses via a land data assimilation system (a custom rendition of the NASA GSFC Land Information System). Parameters relevant to human systems' - e.g., individual and collective switching - sensitivity to hydroclimatology are explored towards investigation of overall system behavior; i.e., fixed points/equilibria, oscillations, and bifurcations of systems composed of human interactions and responses to climate and weather through, e.g., agriculture. We discuss implications in terms of conceivable impacts of climate change and associated natural disasters on socioeconomics, politics, and power transfer, drawing from relatively recent literature concerning human conflict.

  2. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of a heat and moisture exchanger on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J. Karel; Muller, Saar H.; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's influence

  3. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.; Payne, Mark

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical...... or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure....... habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can...

  4. Exploring Institutional Transformations to Address High-End Climate Change in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan David Tàbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Either meeting the UNFCCC Paris agreement to limit global average warming below the 2–1.5 °C threshold, or going beyond it entails huge challenges in terms of institutional innovation and transformation. This research describes a participatory integrated assessment process aimed at exploring the options, opportunities, necessary capacities and implications for institutional co-operation and innovation in the Iberian Peninsula under High-End Climate Change (HECC. Using in-depth interviews and a novel participatory research approach, different scenario narratives and pathways about the future of Iberia have been identified using Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs. Special attention is given to the knowledge and policy options needed to implement cross-border organizational changes and co-operation mechanisms that would support the Integrated Climate Governance of the Tagus and Guadiana river basins. We show that a wealth of institutional innovation pathways and specific options and solutions exist not only to reduce GHG emissions (mitigation and the negative impacts of climate change (adaptation, but, above all, to generate new forms of social-ecological system interactions aligned with sustainability (transformation. In particular, and depending on which scenario contexts unfold in the future in Iberia, different kinds of institutional and governance capacities and clusters of solutions may be needed in order to achieve transformation.

  5. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  6. A new tool for exploring climate change induced range shifts of conifer species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Zhao, Yiheng; Liu, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I), overlapping (O), and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz), based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index). A graphical tool (PRS_Chart) was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement) than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management.

  7. A new tool for exploring climate change induced range shifts of conifer species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Kou

    Full Text Available It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I, overlapping (O, and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz, based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index. A graphical tool (PRS_Chart was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management.

  8. Exploring the relationship between quality of management and safety climate in a large scale Danish cross‐sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Carlsen, Kathrine; Kines, Pete

    2011-01-01

    . In addition, we consider the impact of age, gender, education, job type and seniority as well as company size and industrial sector on the rating of safety climate. Predictors of safety climate ratings are analysed by use of multiple regression analysis. Our results show that the leadership style measured...... and transformational leadership and safety climate, and to explore how safety climate is affected by a number of socio-demographic factors and within different industries and company sizes. The analyses are based on data from a recent Danish work environment cross-sectional study including 3681 employees from a wide...... range of industries and who report that safety climate is relevant for their job. We use two safety climate items, (one regarding management safety empowerment; one regarding co-workers’ safety priority), one question about transactional leadership and two scales concerning transformational leadership...

  9. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  10. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  11. Exploring APOE genotype effects on Alzheimer's disease risk and amyloid β burden in individuals with subjective cognitive decline: The FundacioACE Healthy Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) study baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, Sonia; Rodríguez-Gómez, Octavio; Sanabria, Ángela; Pérez-Cordón, Alba; Sánchez-Ruiz, Domingo; Abdelnour, Carla; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Rosende-Roca, Maitée; Mauleón, Ana; Vargas, Liliana; Lafuente, Asunción; Gil, Silvia; Santos-Santos, Miguel Ángel; Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Ortega, Gemma; Guitart, Marina; Gailhajanet, Anna; de Rojas, Itziar; Sotolongo-Grau, Óscar; Ruiz, Susana; Aguilera, Nuria; Papasey, Judith; Martín, Elvira; Peleja, Esther; Lomeña, Francisco; Campos, Francisco; Vivas, Assumpta; Gómez-Chiari, Marta; Tejero, Miguel Ángel; Giménez, Joan; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Orellana, Adelina; Tárraga, Lluís; Ruiz, Agustín; Boada, Mercè

    2018-05-01

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been proposed as a potential preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, the genetic and biomarker profiles of SCD individuals remain mostly unexplored. We evaluated apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4's effect in the risk of presenting SCD, using the Fundacio ACE Healthy Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) SCD cohort and Spanish controls, and performed a meta-analysis addressing the same question. We assessed the relationship between APOE dosage and brain amyloid burden in the FACEHBI SCD and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohorts. Analysis of the FACEHBI cohort and the meta-analysis demonstrated SCD individuals presented higher allelic frequencies of APOE ε4 with respect to controls. APOE dosage explained 9% (FACEHBI cohort) and 11% (FACEHBI and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohorts) of the variance of cerebral amyloid levels. The FACEHBI sample presents APOE ε4 enrichment, suggesting that a pool of AD patients is nested in our sample. Cerebral amyloid levels are partially explained by the APOE allele dosage, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors are involved in this AD endophenotype. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Methods to Explore Building Energy Sensitivity to Climate and Heat Waves Using PNNL's BEND Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleyson, C. D.; Voisin, N.; Taylor, T.; Xie, Y.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-12-01

    The DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model to simulate energy usage in residential and commercial buildings responding to changes in weather, climate, population, and building technologies. At its core, BEND is a mechanism to aggregate EnergyPlus simulations of a large number of individual buildings with a diversity of characteristics over large spatial scales. We have completed a series of experiments to explore methods to calibrate the BEND model, measure its ability to capture interannual variability in energy demand due to weather using simulations of two distinct weather years, and understand the sensitivity to the number and location of weather stations used to force the model. The use of weather from "representative cities" reduces computational costs, but often fails to capture spatial heterogeneity that may be important for simulations aimed at understanding how building stocks respond to a changing climate (Fig. 1). We quantify the potential reduction in temperature and load biases from using an increasing number of weather stations across the western U.S., ranging from 8 to roughly 150. Using 8 stations results in an average absolute summertime temperature bias of 4.0°C. The mean absolute bias drops to 1.5°C using all available stations. Temperature biases of this magnitude translate to absolute summertime mean simulated load biases as high as 13.8%. Additionally, using only 8 representative weather stations can lead to a 20-40% bias of peak building loads under heat wave or cold snap conditions, a significant error for capacity expansion planners who may rely on these types of simulations. This analysis suggests that using 4 stations per climate zone may be sufficient for most purposes. Our novel approach, which requires no new EnergyPlus simulations, could be useful to other researchers designing or calibrating aggregate building model simulations - particularly those looking at

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene are associated with essential hypertension and increased ACE enzyme levels in Mexican individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Martínez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. METHODS: Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. RESULTS: Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363 were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA, H2 (GGATG, H3 (AGATG, and H4 (AGACA. Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 0.77, P = 0.023 and OR = 1.41, P = 0.004 respectively. According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR = 2.0; P = 0.002 and OR = 2.09; P = 0.011, respectively. Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1 as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P = 0.0048. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the "GGATG" haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene are associated with essential hypertension and increased ACE enzyme levels in Mexican individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Vallejo, Maite; Del-Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Valladares, Adan; Cruz-López, Miguel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 0.77, P = 0.023 and OR = 1.41, P = 0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR = 2.0; P = 0.002 and OR = 2.09; P = 0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P = 0.0048). The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the "GGATG" haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

  15. Using expert judgments to explore robust alternatives for forest management under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, Timothy; Mills, Tamsin; Gregory, Robin; Ohlson, Dan

    2012-12-01

    We develop and apply a judgment-based approach to selecting robust alternatives, which are defined here as reasonably likely to achieve objectives, over a range of uncertainties. The intent is to develop an approach that is more practical in terms of data and analysis requirements than current approaches, informed by the literature and experience with probability elicitation and judgmental forecasting. The context involves decisions about managing forest lands that have been severely affected by mountain pine beetles in British Columbia, a pest infestation that is climate-exacerbated. A forest management decision was developed as the basis for the context, objectives, and alternatives for land management actions, to frame and condition the judgments. A wide range of climate forecasts, taken to represent the 10-90% levels on cumulative distributions for future climate, were developed to condition judgments. An elicitation instrument was developed, tested, and revised to serve as the basis for eliciting probabilistic three-point distributions regarding the performance of selected alternatives, over a set of relevant objectives, in the short and long term. The elicitations were conducted in a workshop comprising 14 regional forest management specialists. We employed the concept of stochastic dominance to help identify robust alternatives. We used extensive sensitivity analysis to explore the patterns in the judgments, and also considered the preferred alternatives for each individual expert. The results show that two alternatives that are more flexible than the current policies are judged more likely to perform better than the current alternatives on average in terms of stochastic dominance. The results suggest judgmental approaches to robust decision making deserve greater attention and testing. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Exploring multiple sources of climatic information within personal and medical diaries, Bombay 1799-1828

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, George

    2016-04-01

    Private diaries are being recognised as an important source of information on past climatic conditions, providing place-specific, often daily records of meteorological information. As many were not intended for publication, or indeed to be read by anyone other than the author, issues of observer bias are lower than some other types of documentary sources. This paper comprises an exploration of the variety of types of climatic information can be mined from a single document or set of documents. The focus of the analysis is three private and one medical diary kept by British colonists in Bombay, western India, during the first decades of the nineteenth century. The paper discusses the potential of the diaries for reconstruction of precipitation, temperature and extreme events. Ad-hoc temperature observations collected by the four observers prove to be particularly fruitful for reconstructing monthly extreme temperatures, with values comparable to more systematic observations collected during the period. This leads to a tentative conclusion that extreme temperatures in Bombay were around 5°C lower during the period than today, a difference likely predominantly attributable to the urban heat island effect.

  17. Development of flood regressions and climate change scenarios to explore estimates of future peak flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Smith, Martyn J.; Freehafer, Douglas A.

    2015-12-31

    A new Web-based application, titled “Application of Flood Regressions and Climate Change Scenarios To Explore Estimates of Future Peak Flows”, has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Transportation, that allows a user to apply a set of regression equations to estimate the magnitude of future floods for any stream or river in New York State (exclusive of Long Island) and the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont. The regression equations that are the basis of the current application were developed in previous investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are described at the USGS StreamStats Web sites for New York (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/new_york.html) and Vermont (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/Vermont.html). These regression equations include several fixed landscape metrics that quantify aspects of watershed geomorphology, basin size, and land cover as well as a climate variable—either annual precipitation or annual runoff.

  18. EXPLORING TAX HOLIDAY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION FOR INDONESIAN INVESTMENT CLIMATE: HAS IT BEEN EFFECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyono R.D.P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the reasons for the ineffectiveness of tax holiday policy implementation in Indonesia as well as the government’s strategies to improve the investment climate. This research uses exploratory study type which does not test theory or hypothesis by using preliminary survey method, conducting direct or indirect interview via e-mail to certain informant by giving questionnaire and direct observation passively observing the field and related websites supporting statistical data in this study in depth. In testing the validity of research data used source triangulation and method triangulation. The progress that has been achieved to date in the implementation of tax holiday policy is to provide ease of bureaucracy administration and simplicity of licensing services in investing by improving coordination among government to improve foreign investors' confidence when investing in Indonesia. So technically, the implementation of tax holiday policy is quite effective in attracting foreign direct investment because it can perform the right obligations according to the regulations. In the investment point of view, tax holiday policy is not effective in attracting foreign direct investment or not becoming the main factor of investor's goal in investment. The cause of the ineffectiveness of the tax holiday policy in attracting foreign direct investment in Indonesia is another indicator that becomes an assessment among others the ease of investment licensing, infrastructure, electricity supply, investor protection, minority and tax administration. Indonesian government's strategy to improve the investment climate is through deregulation, debureaucracy, law enforcement and business certainty for investors.

  19. ACE polymorphism does not determine short-term renal response to ACE-inhibition in proteinuric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKleij, FGH; Navis, GJ; Gansevoort, RT; Scheffer, H; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE

    1997-01-01

    Background. The renal response to ACE inhibition is known to vary between individuals. The ACE genotype is a determinant of the ACE concentrations in plasma and tissue, and therefore might affect the renal response to ACE inhibition in renal patients. Methods. To test this hypothesis we studied the

  20. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  1. Alabama Cooperative Extension System - ACES.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Mobile Monroe Montgomery Morgan Perry Pickens Pike Randolph Russell Shelby St. Clair Sumter Marengo Tuscaloosa Greene Pickens Sumter Conecuh Escambia Monroe Clarke Choctaw Washington Baldwin Mobile Office Communications & Marketing Information Technology ACES Publications & Store 4-H &

  2. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when

  3. Hypoglycemia, S-ACE and ACE genotypes in a Danish nationwide population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet; Bergholdt, Regine

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High S-ACE levels have been shown to predispose to increased risk of hypoglycemia, however; some inconsistency relates to the risk of the ACE genotype. We investigated the association between S-ACE level at diagnosis and ACE genotype to long-term risk of severe hypoglycemia in more than...... to increased risk of hypoglycemia generated from a negative binominal model were long diabetes duration (p high S-ACE level (p = 0.0497) when adjusted for ACE genotype. In the stratified analysis, S-ACE and insulin dosage were associated with hypoglycemia in girls (p = 0.026 and 0...

  4. Listing of Available ACE Data Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This document is divided into multiple sections. Section 2 lists some of the more frequently used ENDF/B reaction types that can be used with the FM input card. The remaining sections (described below) contain tables showing the available ACE data tables for various types of data. These ACE data libraries are distributed by the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) with MCNP6.

  5. Explore 2070: what use of a prospective exercise on climate change impacts at the national scale to define adaptation strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroget, Aurelie; Perrin, Charles; Sauquet, Eric; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Chazot, Sebastien; Chauveau, Mathilde; Rouchy, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Projected climate change could have important impacts on water availability in France by mid-21. century. The Explore 2070 prospective study, directed by the Ministry in charge of ecology, has thus highlighted the necessity to quantify and anticipate these changes, and to build adaptation strategies to limit their negative impacts on hydro-systems and human activities. This paper analyses how these works have contributed to the sensitization of water actors and to the reflection about climate change adaptation in France and to the reflection on adaptation to climate change in France

  6. ACE Gene in Egyptian Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Magdy A; El-Nabiel, Lobna M; Fahmy, Nagia Aly; Aref, Hany; Shreef, Edrees; Abd El-Tawab, Fathy; Abdulghany, Osama M

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) is a crucial player in vascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The present study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Egyptian population. Also, we analyzed the ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a risk factor for small-vessel (SV) versus large-vessel (LV) disease. Sixty patients with ischemic stroke were included: 30 with SV disease and 30 with LV disease. In addition, a control group of 30 apparent healthy subjects were studied. Clinical assessment, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging brain, and genetic study using the polymerase chain reaction of ACE gene were done for all subjects. We found that the distribution of ACE gene polymorphism frequency was significantly different between the 3 groups. The DD genotype was far more common in stroke patients compared to controls. It was also significantly more common in each of the patient groups compared to controls but rather similar in the 2 patient groups with SV and LV diseases. We found that the ACE gene deletion/deletion genotype is common in Egyptian patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke but does not appear to be specific neither to SV nor to LV disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the relationship between APOBEC3B deletion and ACE Alu insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wang

    Full Text Available The insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, commonly associated with many diseases, is believed to have affected human adaptation to environmental changes during the out-of-Africa expansion. APOBEC3B (A3B, a member of the cytidine deaminase family APOBEC3s, also exhibits a variable gene insertion/deletion polymorphism across world populations. Using data available from published reports, we examined the global geographic distribution of ACE and A3B genotypes. In tracking the modern human dispersal routes of these two genes, we found that the variation trends of the two I/D polymorphisms were directly correlated. We observed that the frequencies of ACE insertion and A3B deletion rose in parallel along the expansion route. To investigate the presence of a correlation between the two polymorphisms and the effect of their interaction on human health, we analyzed 1199 unrelated Chinese adults to determine their genotypes and other important clinical characteristics. We discovered a significant difference between the ACE genotype/allele distribution in the A3B DD and A3B II/ID groups (P = 0.045 and 0.015, respectively, indicating that the ACE Alu I allele frequency in the former group was higher than in the latter group. No specific clinical phenotype could be associated with the interaction between the ACE and A3B I/D polymorphisms. A3B has been identified as a powerful inhibitor of Alu retrotransposition, and primate A3 genes have undergone strong positive selection (and expansion for restricting the mobility of endogenous retrotransposons during evolution. Based on these findings, we suggest that the ACE Alu insertion was enabled (facilitated by the A3B deletion and that functional loss of A3B provided an opportunity for enhanced human adaptability and survival in response to the environmental and climate challenges arising during the migration from Africa.

  8. Environmental regulation in the new exploration climate: After Rio, what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millison, D.

    1993-01-01

    Exploration activities of U.S.-headquartered petroleum companies have increasingly shifted to international targets, in large part due to excessive environmental regulation. However, governments hosting new exploration venues are promulgating environmental regulations, often based on U.S. EPA regulations, which affect the economics of oil and gas operations. New host-country regulations, combined with a growing worldwide open-quotes green movement,close quotes require the new exploration climate to be evaluated in terms of environmental restrictions on drilling, production, and downstream operations. Is the industry truly fleeing regulation, but destined to dead-end in a never-never land of dwindling opportunity? Or is there hope for a system of reasonable regulations which encourage open-quotes sustainable developmentclose quotes of new petroleum resources? The green movement now places a new burden on trade. Exporters must verify to open-quotes greenclose quotes consumers that their products are open-quotes environmentally friendlyclose quotes, effectively introducing a non-tariff trade restriction. The playing field of international trade is leveled by adaption of US or European-style environmental regulation. THe UNCED conference in Rio has further promoted a system of international environmental regulation which will likely grow stronger as globalization of trade increases. This presentation focuses on the increasing standardization of international regulations which affect petroleum development. Key issues discussed are: the effect of atmospheric emissions controls on energy development policy and petroleum operations, environmental regulations in Latin America-risk vs. technology-based policies, and linking environmental regulations and international trade

  9. Technology Development for 3-D Wide Swath Imaging Supporting ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerry; Li, Lihua; Mclinden, Matthew; Park, Richard; Cooley, Michael; Stenger, Pete; Hand, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey (DS) Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems Mission (ACE) aims to advance our ability to observe and predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcing, especially those changes associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE is focused on obtaining measurements to reduce the uncertainties in current climate models arising from the lack in understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. As part of the mission instrument suite, a dual-frequency radar comprised of a fixed-beam 94 gigahertz (W-band) radar and a wide-swath 35 gigahertz (Ka-band) imaging radar has been recommended by the ACE Science Working Group.In our 2010 Instrument Incubator Program project, we've developed a radar architecture that addresses the challenge associated with achieving the measurement objectives through an innovative, shared aperture antenna that allows dual-frequency radar operation while achieving wide-swath (100 kilometers) imaging at Ka-band. The antenna system incorporates 2 key technologies; a) a novel dual-band reflectorreflectarray and b) a Ka-band Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) feed module. The dual-band antenna is comprised of a primary cylindrical reflectorreflectarray surface illuminated by a point-focus W-band feed (compatible with a quasi-optical beam waveguide feed, such as that employed on CloudSat); the Ka-band AESA line feed provides wide-swath across-track scanning. The benefits of this shared-aperture approach include significant reductions in ACE satellite payload size, weight, and cost, as compared to a two aperture approach. Four objectives were addressed in our project. The first entailed developing the tools for the analysis and design of reflectarray antennas, assessment of candidate reflectarray elements, and validation using test coupons. The second objective was to develop a full-scale aperture design utilizing the reflectarray surface and to

  10. ExplorOcean H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean-Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N.; Wood, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The ExplorOcean H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean—Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change, teaches middle and high school students about ocean threats related to climate change through hands-on activities and learning experiences in the field. During each session (in-class or after-school as a club), students build an understanding about how climate change impacts our oceans using resources provided by ExplorOcean (hands-on activities, presentations, multi-media). Through a student leadership model, students present lessons to each other, interweaving a deep learning of science, 21st century technology, communication skills, and leadership. After participating in learning experiences and activities related to 6 key climate change concepts: 1) Introduction to climate change, 2) Increased sea temperatures, 3) Ocean acidification, 4) Sea level rise, 5) Feedback mechanisms, and 6) Innovative solutions. H2O SOS- Operation Climate change participants select one focus issue and use it to design a multi-pronged campaign to increase awareness about this issue in their local community. The campaign includes social media, an interactive activity, and a visual component. All participating clubs that meet participation and action goals earn a field trip to ExplorOcean where they dive deeper into their selected issue through hands-on activities, real-world investigations, and interviews or presentations with experts. In addition to self-selected opportunities to showcase their focus issue, teams will participate in one of several key events identified by ExplorOcean, including ExplorOcean's annual World Oceans Day Expo.

  11. 'Changing climate, changing health, changing stories' profile: using an EcoHealth approach to explore impacts of climate change on inuit health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S L; Edge, V L; Cunsolo Willox, A

    2012-03-01

    Global climate change and its impact on public health exemplify the challenge of managing complexity and uncertainty in health research. The Canadian North is currently experiencing dramatic shifts in climate, resulting in environmental changes which impact Inuit livelihoods, cultural practices, and health. For researchers investigating potential climate change impacts on Inuit health, it has become clear that comprehensive and meaningful research outcomes depend on taking a systemic and transdisciplinary approach that engages local citizens in project design, data collection, and analysis. While it is increasingly recognised that using approaches that embrace complexity is a necessity in public health, mobilizing such approaches from theory into practice can be challenging. In 2009, the Rigolet Inuit Community Government in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada partnered with a transdisciplinary team of researchers, health practitioners, and community storytelling facilitators to create the Changing Climate, Changing Health, Changing Stories project, aimed at developing a multi-media participatory, community-run methodological strategy to gather locally appropriate and meaningful data to explore climate-health relationships. The goal of this profile paper is to describe how an EcoHealth approach guided by principles of transdisciplinarity, community participation, and social equity was used to plan and implement this climate-health research project. An overview of the project, including project development, research methods, project outcomes to date, and challenges encountered, is presented. Though introduced in this one case study, the processes, methods, and lessons learned are broadly applicable to researchers and communities interested in implementing EcoHealth approaches in community-based research.

  12. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene L. Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1 the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2 the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3 carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4 adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.

  13. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley.

    Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their

  14. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    Abstract In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios

  15. Multi-factor, multi-state, multi-model scenarios: Exploring food and climate futures for Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Vervoort, Joost; Palazzo, Amanda; Islam, Shahnila; Lord, Steven; Helfgott, Ariella; Havlík, Petr; Peou, Rathana; Sassen, Marieke; Veeger, Marieke; van Soesbergen, Arnout; Arnell, Andrew P.; Stuch, Benjamin; Arslan, Aslihan; Lipper, Leslie

    Abstract Decision-makers aiming to improve food security, livelihoods and resilience are faced with an uncertain future. To develop robust policies they need tools to explore the potential effects of uncertain climatic, socioeconomic, and environmental changes. Methods have been developed to use

  16. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Monkelbaan

    2014-12-01

    As a way forward, different approaches towards the governance of trade and climate change will be highlighted. Besides discussing the specific aspects of Chinese participation in global trade and climate change governance, this paper aims at offering broader insights into the nexus between trade, energy and climate governance in China.

  17. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  18. Using statistical models to explore ensemble uncertainty in climate impact studies: the example of air pollution in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. P. Lemaire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its sensitivity to unfavorable weather patterns, air pollution is sensitive to climate change so that, in the future, a climate penalty could jeopardize the expected efficiency of air pollution mitigation measures. A common method to assess the impact of climate on air quality consists in implementing chemistry-transport models forced by climate projections. However, the computing cost of such methods requires optimizing ensemble exploration techniques. By using a training data set from a deterministic projection of climate and air quality over Europe, we identified the main meteorological drivers of air quality for eight regions in Europe and developed statistical models that could be used to predict air pollutant concentrations. The evolution of the key climate variables driving either particulate or gaseous pollution allows selecting the members of the EuroCordex ensemble of regional climate projections that should be used in priority for future air quality projections (CanESM2/RCA4; CNRM-CM5-LR/RCA4 and CSIRO-Mk3-6-0/RCA4 and MPI-ESM-LR/CCLM following the EuroCordex terminology. After having tested the validity of the statistical model in predictive mode, we can provide ranges of uncertainty attributed to the spread of the regional climate projection ensemble by the end of the century (2071–2100 for the RCP8.5. In the three regions where the statistical model of the impact of climate change on PM2.5 offers satisfactory performances, we find a climate benefit (a decrease of PM2.5 concentrations under future climate of −1.08 (±0.21, −1.03 (±0.32, −0.83 (±0.14 µg m−3, for respectively Eastern Europe, Mid-Europe and Northern Italy. In the British-Irish Isles, Scandinavia, France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean, the statistical model is not considered skillful enough to draw any conclusion for PM2.5. In Eastern Europe, France, the Iberian Peninsula, Mid-Europe and Northern Italy, the statistical model of the

  19. SimilarityExplorer: A visual inter-comparison tool for multifaceted climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Poco; A. Dasgupta; Y. Wei; W. Hargrove; C. Schwalm; R. Cook; E. Bertini; C. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Inter-comparison and similarity analysis to gauge consensus among multiple simulation models is a critical visualization problem for understanding climate change patterns. Climate models, specifically, Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBM) represent time and space variable ecosystem processes, for example, simulations of photosynthesis and respiration, using algorithms...

  20. Climate change and foreign policy : an exploration of options for greater integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexhage, J.; Murphy, D.; Brown, O.; Cosbey, A.; Dickey, P.; Parry, J.-E.; Van Ham, J.; Tarasofsky, R.; Darkin, B.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is a global challenge and one of biggest challenges of this century. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change requires new thinking in foreign policy. This paper discussed the results of a research study that examined the role of foreign policy in fostering a more effective international response to the challenge of climate change. The scope involved an examination of instruments relevant to Danish foreign policy. The paper first identified the climate change challenge and discussed international diplomacy and relations. Energy security and investment was discussed in terms of the impact of energy security on climate change efforts and opportunities for integration. Other areas where critical issues and opportunities for integration were offered include international peace and security; trade and investment; and development cooperation. The paper made several recommendations in these areas in addition to diplomatic networking. The study concluded that foreign policy can further the climate change agenda in a number of areas in diplomacy and foreign relations within the European Union, transatlantic relations, Arctic issues and United Nations affairs. This includes better integration of climate change into the European Union's common foreign and security policy, the Lisbon Agenda, and incorporating climate change in the work of a wide range of bodies under the United Nations. refs., figs

  1. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.; Burgess, Neil David; Cabeza, Mar

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate...

  2. Ethics and public perception of climate change: exploring the Christian voices in the US public debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Petersen, A.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change raises many questions with strong moral and ethical dimensions that are important to address in climate-policy formation and international negotiations. Particularly in the United States, the public discussion of these dimensions is strongly influenced by religious groups and leaders.

  3. Exploring the role of traditional ecological knowledge in climate change initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Vinyeta; Kathy. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations are projected to face disproportionate impacts as a result of climate change in comparison to nonindigenous populations. For this reason, many American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are identifying and implementing culturally appropriate strategies to assess climate impacts and adapt to projected changes. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK...

  4. Identification and characterisation of the angiotensin converting enzyme-3 (ACE3 gene: a novel mammalian homologue of ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan Anne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Although multiple ACE-like proteins exist in non-mammalian organisms, to date only one other ACE homologue, ACE2, has been identified in mammals. Results Here we report the identification and characterisation of the gene encoding a third homologue of ACE, termed ACE3, in several mammalian genomes. The ACE3 gene is located on the same chromosome downstream of the ACE gene. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modelling have been employed to characterise the predicted ACE3 protein. In mouse, rat, cow and dog, the predicted protein has mutations in some of the critical residues involved in catalysis, including the catalytic Glu in the HEXXH zinc binding motif which is Gln, and ESTs or reverse-transcription PCR indicate that the gene is expressed. In humans, the predicted ACE3 protein has an intact HEXXH motif, but there are other deletions and insertions in the gene and no ESTs have been identified. Conclusion In the genomes of several mammalian species there is a gene that encodes a novel, single domain ACE-like protein, ACE3. In mouse, rat, cow and dog ACE3, the catalytic Glu is replaced by Gln in the putative zinc binding motif, indicating that in these species ACE3 would lack catalytic activity as a zinc metalloprotease. In humans, no evidence was found that the ACE3 gene is expressed and the presence of deletions and insertions in the sequence indicate that ACE3 is a pseudogene.

  5. Hypoglycemia, S-ACE and ACE genotypes in a Danish nationwide population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet; Bergholdt, Regine

    2011-01-01

    High S-ACE levels have been shown to predispose to increased risk of hypoglycemia, however; some inconsistency relates to the risk of the ACE genotype. We investigated the association between S-ACE level at diagnosis and ACE genotype to long-term risk of severe hypoglycemia in more than 1000 chil...... children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes being part of the Danish Registry of Childhood diabetes over a 10-yr period....

  6. Student and teacher perceptions of school climate: a multilevel exploration of patterns of discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Leaf, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    School climate has been linked with improved academic achievement and reduced discipline problems, and thus is often a target of school improvement initiatives. However, few studies have examined the extent to which student and teacher perceptions vary as a function of individual, classroom, and school characteristics, or the level of congruence between teachers' and their students' perceptions of school climate. Using data from 1881 fifth-grade students and their 90 homeroom teachers, we examined parallel models of students' and teachers' perceptions of overall school climate and academic emphasis. Two additional models were fit that assessed the congruence between teacher and student perceptions of school climate and academic emphasis. Multilevel analyses indicated that classroom-level factors were more closely associated with teachers' perceptions of climate, whereas school-level factors were more closely associated with the students' perceptions. Further analyses indicated an inverse association between student and teacher ratings of academic emphasis, and no association between student and teacher ratings of overall climate. Teacher ratings were more sensitive to classroom-level factors, such as poor classroom management and proportion of students with disruptive behaviors, whereas student ratings were more influenced by school-level factors such as student mobility, student-teacher relationship, and principal turnover. The discrepancy in ratings of academic emphasis suggests that while all of the respondents may have shared objectively similar experiences, their perceptions of those experiences varied significantly. These results emphasize the importance of assessing both student and teacher perceptions in future research on school climate.

  7. Exploring Science Teachers' Argumentation and Personal Epistemology About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-06-01

    This case study investigated the nature of in-service science teachers' argumentation and personal epistemology about global climate change during a 3-year professional development program on climate change education. Qualitative analysis of data from interviews and written assessments revealed that while these teachers grounded their arguments on climate issues in evidence, the evidence was often insufficient to justify their causal claims. Compared with generating arguments for their own views, teachers had more difficulties in constructing evidence-based arguments for alternative perspectives. Moreover, while these teachers shared some similarities in their epistemology about climate science, they varied in their beliefs about specific aspects such as scientists' expertise and the credibility of scientific evidence. Such similarities and distinctions were shown to relate to how teachers used evidence to justify claims in their arguments. The findings also suggested a mismatch between teachers' personal epistemology about science in general and climate science, which was revealed through their argumentation. This work helps to further the ongoing discussions in environmental education about what knowledge and skills teachers need in order to teach climate issues and prepare students for future decision making. It constitutes first steps to facilitate reasoning and argumentation in climate change education and provides important implications for future design of professional development programs.

  8. Effects of safety climate on safety norm violations: exploring the mediating role of attitudinal ambivalence toward personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Serpe, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Research on the role of organizational and psychosocial factors in influencing risk behaviors and the likelihood of injury at work showed that safety climate also has great impact on workers' behavior. However, the mechanisms through which this impact operates are still partially unclear. In order to explore the role that attitudinal ambivalence toward wearing PPE might play in mediating the impact of safety climate on safety norm violations, a questionnaire was administered to 345 Italian workers. Three dimensions of safety climate (i.e., company safety concern, senior managers' safety concern, supervisors' attitudes towards safety) were found to be positively associated with the individual ambivalence level, whereas the fourth one (i.e., work pressure) was negatively correlated with it. In turn, low levels of ambivalence were associated with a lower tendency to break the safety norms, even though the perception of a good safety climate also maintained a direct effect on unsafe behaviors. Designers of training program for the prevention of work related injuries must pay great attention to the psycho-social factors (such as the effects of the safety climate perception by employees on their attitudes and behaviors), and include specific contents into the prevention programs in order to improve workers compliance with safety norms.

  9. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  10. ACE: A distributed system to manage large data archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Mike I.; Allen, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Competitive pressures in the oil and gas industry are requiring a much tighter integration of technical data into E and P business processes. The development of new systems to accommodate this business need must comprehend the significant numbers of large, complex data objects which the industry generates. The life cycle of the data objects is a four phase progression from data acquisition, to data processing, through data interpretation, and ending finally with data archival. In order to implement a cost effect system which provides an efficient conversion from data to information and allows effective use of this information, an organization must consider the technical data management requirements in all four phases. A set of technical issues which may differ in each phase must be addressed to insure an overall successful development strategy. The technical issues include standardized data formats and media for data acquisition, data management during processing, plus networks, applications software, and GUI's for interpretation of the processed data. Mass storage hardware and software is required to provide cost effective storage and retrieval during the latter three stages as well as long term archival. Mobil Oil Corporation's Exploration and Producing Technical Center (MEPTEC) has addressed the technical and cost issues of designing, building, and implementing an Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to support the petroleum E and P function, which is critical to the corporation's continued success. Mobile views ACE as a cost effective solution which can give Mobile a competitive edge as well as a viable technical solution.

  11. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the

  12. Edge states in the climate system: exploring global instabilities and critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Bódai, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Multistability is a ubiquitous feature in systems of geophysical relevance and provides key challenges for our ability to predict a system’s response to perturbations. Near critical transitions small causes can lead to large effects and—for all practical purposes—irreversible changes in the properties of the system. As is well known, the Earth climate is multistable: present astronomical and astrophysical conditions support two stable regimes, the warm climate we live in, and a snowball climate characterized by global glaciation. We first provide an overview of methods and ideas relevant for studying the climate response to forcings and focus on the properties of critical transitions in the context of both stochastic and deterministic dynamics, and assess strengths and weaknesses of simplified approaches to the problem. Following an idea developed by Eckhardt and collaborators for the investigation of multistable turbulent fluid dynamical systems, we study the global instability giving rise to the snowball/warm multistability in the climate system by identifying the climatic edge state, a saddle embedded in the boundary between the two basins of attraction of the stable climates. The edge state attracts initial conditions belonging to such a boundary and, while being defined by the deterministic dynamics, is the gate facilitating noise-induced transitions between competing attractors. We use a simplified yet Earth-like intermediate complexity climate model constructed by coupling a primitive equations model of the atmosphere with a simple diffusive ocean. We refer to the climatic edge states as Melancholia states and provide an extensive analysis of their features. We study their dynamics, their symmetry properties, and we follow a complex set of bifurcations. We find situations where the Melancholia state has chaotic dynamics. In these cases, we have that the basin boundary between the two basins of attraction is a strange geometric set with a nearly zero

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential of standardized Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar; De, Apurba; Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (Fabaceae) is a tropical legume, traditionally used for controlling blood pressure. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the successful strategies for controlling hypertension. The present study evaluated the ACE inhibition potential of the standardized extract of M. pruriens seeds. Standardization of the extract and its fractions were carried out by RP-HPLC method [methanol and 1% v/v acetic acid in water (5:95 v/v)] using levodopa as a marker. The ACE inhibition activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL) using the HPLC-DAD and the UV spectrophotometric method. The liberation of hippuric acid (HA) from hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) was estimated in the spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC assay at 228 nm. Methanol extract and aqueous fraction showed a maximum activity with IC50 values of 38.44 ± 0.90 and 57.07 ± 2.90 µg/mL (RP-HPLC), and 52.68 ± 2.02 and 67.65 ± 2.40 µg/mL (spectrophotometry), respectively. The study revealed that the aqueous extract contains the highest amount of levodopa. Eventually the methanol extract showed highest ACE inhibition activity except levodopa alone. It was further observed that the inhibition was altered with respect to the change in the content of levodopa in the extract. Thus, it can be assumed that levodopa may be responsible for the ACE inhibition activity of M. pruriens seeds. It can be concluded that M. pruriens seed is a potential ACE inhibitor can be explored further as an effective antihypertensive agent.

  14. An exploration of potential directions for climate change policy in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    The challenges facing decision and policy makers for climate change actions in the Canadian North were described. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the impacts are already being felt there, and scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. Canada is well positioned to take a lead role in addressing climate change in northern regions. This paper examined the policy choices in the North and outlined the policy directions worthy of further consideration and development. The objective of the paper is to provide a catalyst for on-going discussion and deliberation on climate change actions and policy options in Northern Canada. The paper also addressed the global context that influences national framework and local initiatives. Some tentative policy choices were proposed and described within the general context of the global challenge that climate change presents for the design of coherent regional public policy. It was suggested that integration and mitigation measures should not be approached in isolation from other environmental and socio-economic changes, such as pollution abatement and economic and social development. It was emphasized that building on the sound foundation of current policy frameworks in these areas is essential to the integration of climate change initiatives within established and complementary processes. It was concluded that the evolution of policy options for climate change in the North will be driven by a political willingness to take deliberate actions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. A knowledge discovery approach to explore some Sun/Earth's climate relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, A.; Valdes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Recent developments in data driven modeling and analysis including computational intelligence techniques may throw new light on the exploration of possible solar activity/Earth's climate relationships. Here we present three different examples of methodologies under development and some preliminary results. a) Multivariate Time Series Model Mining (MVTSMM) analysis [1] and Genetic Programming were applied to Greenland's CRETE Site-E ice core Delta O18/16 values (1721-1983, one year interval sampling) and with sunspots activity (International Sunspots Number) during the same time span [2]. According to the results (1771 to 1933 period) indicated by the lag importance spectrum obtained with MVTSMM analysis, the sun's activity itself shows high internal variability and is inhomogeneous. The Dalton minimum, a low activity period usually considered to occur between 1790 and 1830, is shown to be a complex structure beginning about 1778 and ending in 1840. Apparently, the system entered a new state in 1912. In the joint analysis, the analytical tool uses extensively the solar activity data to explain the Delta O18/16 data, showing areas of stable patterns, lag drifts and abrupt pattern disruptions, indicating changes of state in the solar processes of several kinds at different times. b) A similar MVTSMM analysis was conducted on Central England Temperature (CET) and solar activity data using Group Sunspots Number (GSN) with a useful interpretive span of time from 1771 to 1916. The joint analysis involved large amounts of solar activity variables, except for the 1843-1862 and 1877-1889 periods where the discovered models used much less information from GSN data. As with the Crete-E/ISN analysis the lag importance spectrum of CET/GSN shows a number of clear discontinuities. A quarter of them are present in both (1778-1779, 1806, 1860-1862, 1912-1913). These experiments were designed for testing methodologies and not for specific hypothesis testing. However, it seems that

  16. Expression and evolutionary analyses of three acetylcholinesterase genes (Mi-ace-1, Mi-ace-2, Mi-ace-3) in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ruqiang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yuyan; Huang, Wenkun; Fan, Chengming; Wu, Qingsong; Peng, Deliang; da Silva, Washington; Sun, Xiaotang

    2017-05-01

    The full cDNA of Mi-ace-3 encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Meloidogyne incognita was cloned and characterized. Mi-ace-3 had an open reading frame of 1875 bp encoding 624 amino acid residues. Key residues essential to AChE structure and function were conserved. The deduced Mi-ACE-3 protein sequence had 72% amino acid similarity with that of Ditylenchus destructor Dd-AChE-3. Phylogenetic analyses using 41 AChEs from 24 species showed that Mi-ACE-3 formed a cluster with 4 other nematode AChEs. Our results revealed that the Mi-ace-3 cloned in this study, which is orthologous to Caenorhabditis elegans AChE, belongs to the nematode ACE-3/4 subgroup. There was a significant reduction in the number of galls in transgenic tobacco roots when Mi-ace-1, Mi-ace-2, and Mi-ace-3 were knocked down simultaneously, whereas little or no effect were observed when only one or two of these genes were knocked down. This is an indication that the functions of these three genes are redundant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dupuy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6% between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30% in the 45–55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  18. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan; Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  19. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Spence, Alexa [School of Psychology/Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Poortinga, Wouter [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Demski, Christina [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Pidgeon, Nick, E-mail: pidgeonn@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: > We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. > Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. > British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. > Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. > Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  20. Climate shocks and rural-urban migration in Mexico: Exploring nonlinearities and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; DeWaard, Jack; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Ha, Jasmine Trang

    2016-01-01

    Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321). We measure climate shocks as monthly deviation from a 30-year (1961-1990) long-term climate normal period, and uncover important nonlinearities using quadratic and cubic specifications. Satellite-based measures of urban extents allow us to classify migrant-sending and migrant-receiving municipalities as rural or urban to examine four internal migration patterns: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Among our key findings, results from multilevel models reveal that each additional drought month increases the odds of rural-urban migration by 3.6%. In contrast, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration is nonlinear. After a threshold of ~34 heat months is surpassed, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration becomes positive and progressively increases in strength. Policy and programmatic interventions may therefore reduce climate induced rural-urban migration in Mexico through rural climate change adaptation initiatives, while also assisting rural migrants in finding employment and housing in urban areas to offset population impacts. PMID:28435176

  1. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  2. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  3. An exploration of options and functions of climate technology centres and networks. Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Wuertenberger, L.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2010-11-01

    This paper responds to a request to UNEP from the UNFCCC Expert Group on Technology Transfer to examine operational modalities for climate technology centres and networks. The paper first discusses possible dimensions for the climate technology centre and network, and it reviews a number of existing networks and centres. It then distinguishes five options for the organizational structure and describes potential operational characteristics for each of these options. All options examined seek to build from existing climate and non-climate-related public and private technology centres, networks, and initiatives. Consistent with the UNFCCC negotiating text and draft technology decision, the paper evaluates potential implementation options and outcomes for each of the functions tentatively assigned to the climate technology centre and network, as well as selected functions of the technology executive committee. Approaches are offered for integrating delivery of these functions through coordinated programmes, and hypothetical examples are given to explain how the technology mechanism might add value in practice. The options presented in this paper are not an exhaustive treatment of potential structures or implementation approaches, and other approaches can be considered.

  4. Communicating Ocean Acidification and Climate Change to Public Audiences Using Scientific Data, Interactive Exploration Tools, and Visual Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Rossiter, A.; Spitzer, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium, a hands-on science museum, explores local environmental conditions of San Francisco Bay to connect audiences to the larger global implications of ocean acidification and climate change. The work is centered in the Fisher Bay Observatory at Pier 15, a glass-walled gallery sited for explorations of urban San Francisco and the Bay. Interactive exhibits, high-resolution data visualizations, and mediated activities and conversations communicate to public audiences the impacts of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean. Through a 10-year education partnership with NOAA and two environmental literacy grants funded by its Office of Education, the Exploratorium has been part of two distinct but complementary strategies to increase climate literacy beyond traditional classroom settings. We will discuss two projects that address the ways complex scientific information can be transformed into learning opportunities for the public, providing information citizens can use for decision-making in their personal lives and their communities. The Visualizing Change project developed "visual narratives" that combine scientific visualizations and other images with story telling about the science and potential solutions of climate impacts on the ocean. The narratives were designed to engage curiosity and provide the public with hopeful and useful information to stimulate solutions-oriented behavior rather than to communicate despair about climate change. Training workshops for aquarium and museum docents prepare informal educators to use the narratives and help them frame productive conversations with the pubic. The Carbon Networks project, led by the Exploratorium, uses local and Pacific Rim data to explore the current state of climate change and ocean acidification. The Exploratorium collects and displays local ocean and atmosphere data as a member of the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System and as an observing station for NOAA's Pacific

  5. ACES MWL data analysis center at SYRTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynadier, F.; Delva, P.; le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Guerlin, C.; Laurent, P.; Wolf, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ACES-PHARAO mission aims at operating a cold-atom caesium clock on board the International Space Station, and performs two-way time transfer with ground terminals, in order to allow highly accurate and stable comparisons of its internal timescale with those found in various metrology institutes. Scientific goals in fundamental physics include tests of the gravitational redshift with unprecedented accuracy, and search for a violation of the Lorentz local invariance. As launch is coming closer we are getting ready to process the data expected to come from ACES Microwave Link (MWL) once on board the International Space Station. Several hurdles have been cleared in our software in the past months, as we managed to implement algorithms that reach target accuracy for ground/space desynchronisation measurement. I will present the current status of data analysis preparation, as well as the activities that will take place at SYRTE in order to set up its data processing center.

  6. Exploring Pacific Northwest ecosystem resilience: packaging climate change science for federal managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to jeopardize ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. Managing ecosystems for future resilience requires collaboration, innovation and communication. The abundance of data and documents describing the uncertainty around both climate change projections and impacts has become challenging to managers who have little funding and limited time to digest and incorporate these materials into planning and implementation documents. We worked with US Forest Service and BLM managers to help them develop vulnerability assessments and identify on-the-ground strategies to address climate change challenges on the federal lands in northwest Oregon (Siuslaw, Willamette and Mt. Hood National Forests; Eugene and Salem BLM Districts). We held workshops to promote dialogue about climate change, which were particularly effective in fostering discussions between the managers who often do not have the time to share their knowledge and compare experiences across administrative boundaries. We used the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) framework to identify measurable management objectives and rapidly assess local vulnerabilities. We used databasin.org to centralize usable information, including state-of-the-art CMIP5 climate projections, for the mandated assessments of vulnerability and resilience. We introduced participants to a decision support framework providing opportunities to develop more effective adaptation strategies. We built a special web page to hold the information gathered at the workshops and provide easy access to climate change information. We are now working with several Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to design gateways - conservation atlases - to their relevant data repositories on databasin.org and working with them to develop web tools that can provide usable information for their own vulnerability assessments.

  7. Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David; Huntingford, Chris; Fisher, Rosie; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Sitch, Stephen; McSweeney, Carol; Meir, Patrick

    2009-12-08

    We examine the evidence for the possibility that 21st-century climate change may cause a large-scale "dieback" or degradation of Amazonian rainforest. We employ a new framework for evaluating the rainfall regime of tropical forests and from this deduce precipitation-based boundaries for current forest viability. We then examine climate simulations by 19 global climate models (GCMs) in this context and find that most tend to underestimate current rainfall. GCMs also vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia. We attempt to take into account the differences between GCM-simulated and observed rainfall regimes in the 20th century. Our analysis suggests that dry-season water stress is likely to increase in E. Amazonia over the 21st century, but the region tends toward a climate more appropriate to seasonal forest than to savanna. These seasonal forests may be resilient to seasonal drought but are likely to face intensified water stress caused by higher temperatures and to be vulnerable to fires, which are at present naturally rare in much of Amazonia. The spread of fire ignition associated with advancing deforestation, logging, and fragmentation may act as nucleation points that trigger the transition of these seasonal forests into fire-dominated, low biomass forests. Conversely, deliberate limitation of deforestation and fire may be an effective intervention to maintain Amazonian forest resilience in the face of imposed 21st-century climate change. Such intervention may be enough to navigate E. Amazonia away from a possible "tipping point," beyond which extensive rainforest would become unsustainable.

  8. Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  9. HVRM: a second generation ACE-FTS instrument concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-François; Larouche, Martin; Dupont, Fabien; Girard, Guillaume; Veilleux, James; Buijs, Henry; Desbiens, Raphaël.; Perron, Gaétan; Grandmont, Frédéric; Paradis, Simon; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) is the main instrument on-board the SCISAT-1 satellite, a mission mainly supported by the Canadian Space Agency [1]. It is in Low- Earth Orbit at an altitude of 650 km with an inclination of 74E. Its data has been used to track the vertical profile of more than 30 atmospheric species in the high troposphere and in the stratosphere with the main goal of providing crucial information for the comprehension of chemical and physical processes controlling the ozone life cycle. These atmospheric species are detected using high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) spectra in the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region. This leads to more than 170 000 spectral channels being acquired in the IR every two seconds. It also measures aerosols and clouds to reduce the uncertainty in their effects on the global energy balance. It is currently the only instrument providing such in-orbit high resolution measurements of the atmospheric chemistry and is often used by international scientists as a unique data set for climate understanding. The satellite is in operation since 2003, exceeding its initially planned lifetime of 2 years by more than a factor of 5. Given its success, its usefulness and the uniqueness of the data it provides, the Canadian Space Agency has founded the development of technologies enabling the second generation of ACE-FTS instruments through the High Vertical Resolution Measurement (HVRM) project but is still waiting for the funding for a mission. This project addresses three major improvements over the ACE-FTS. The first one aims at improving the vertical instantaneous field-of-view (iFoV) from 4.0 km to 1.5 km without affecting the SNR and temporal precision. The second aims at providing precise knowledge on the tangent height of the limb observation from an external method instead of that used in SCISAT-1 where the altitude is typically inferred from the monotonic CO2 concentration seen in the spectra. The

  10. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  11. Racial Privilege in the Professoriate: An Exploration of Campus Climate, Retention, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Uma M.; Howard, Tyrone C.; Allen, Walter R.; Han, June C.

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the principles of critical race theory to examine quantitatively the experiences of a national sample of 37,582 faculty. Among the key factors influencing retention and satisfaction are campus racial climate, autonomy and independence, and the review and promotion process. Results support the value of examining faculty of color…

  12. Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E; Jacques, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. We also examine the national origins of the books and the academic backgrounds of their authors or editors, finding that with the help of American CTTs climate change denial has spread to several other nations and that an increasing portion of denial books are produced by individuals with no scientific training. It appears that at least 90% of denial books do not undergo peer review, allowing authors or editors to recycle scientifically unfounded claims that are then amplified by the conservative movement, media, and political elites.

  13. Exploring the role of fire, succession, climate, and weather on landscape dynamics using comparative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Russell A. Parsons; Ian D. Davies; Karen J. King; Chao Li; Ross A. Bradstock; Malcolm Gill

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the relative importance of vegetation change and disturbance as agents of landscape change under current and future climates would (1) provide insight into the controls of landscape dynamics, (2) help inform the design and development of coarse scale spatially explicit ecosystem models such as Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), and (3) guide...

  14. Introduction: exploring and explaining the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. I.; van Asselt, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction lays the groundwork for this Special Issue by providing an overview of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP), and by introducing three main analytical themes. The first theme concerns the emergence and continuation of the APP. The contributions show

  15. Spatiotemporal Exploration of Impacts of Coupled Climate and Socioeconomic Changes on Grassland Ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Although the coupled impacts of climate change and human adaptation on land cover change has been a prime research topic in recent years, a majority of reported efforts are examining the coupled effects of climate and socioeconomic factors qualitatively. Even though some are applying statistical methods, they often look into the impacts of coupled climate variations and socioeconomic transformations on land cover changes in a detached or sequential manner, or they handle socioeconomic influences indirectly through land use changes. Very few of them deal with the coupled effects concurrently through times and cross regions. We assimilate a big dataset of climate change, plant community growth condition, and socioeconomic transformation in Inner Mongolia of China. The study area consists of twelve types of plant communities, reflecting an east-to-west water-temperature gradient from moist meadow-type, to typical steppe-type and then to arid desert-type communities. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI), derived from MODIS at a 250 m resolution and 16-day intervals from May 8 to September 28 during 2000-2010, is adopted as a proxy for vegetation growth. The inter-annual and intra-annual changes of seven climate factors (barometric pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunlight hours, temperature, vapor pressure and wind speed) during the same period are synchronized with the EVI observations. Ten socioeconomic variables (urban population, urban GDP, rural GDP, grain output, livestock, fixed assets investment, local government revenue, per capita net income of farmers and pastoralists, the total length of highways, and rural population) are collected over 34 counties in the study area and during the same period. The GIS-based spatial database approach is adopted to integrate all of the above data into a big spatiotemporal dataset. We develop a multi-controlled panel-data regression model to investigate spatiotemporal changes of vegetation growth and their underlying causes

  16. Structural determinants for binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 and angiotensin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eClayton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 is a zinc carboxypeptidase involved in the renin angiotensin system (RAS and inactivates the potent vasopressive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II by removing the C-terminal phenylalanine residue to yield Ang1-7. This conversion inactivates the vasoconstrictive action of Ang II and yields a peptide that acts as a vasodilatory molecule at the Mas receptor and potentially other receptors. Given the growing complexity of RAS and level of cross-talk between ligands and their corresponding enzymes and receptors, the design of molecules with selectivity for the major RAS binding partners to control cardiovascular tone is an on-going challenge. In previous studies we used single β-amino acid substitutions to modulate the structure of Ang II and its selectivity for ACE2, AT1R and angiotensin type 2 (AT2R receptor. We showed that modification at the C-terminus of Ang II generally resulted in more pronounced changes to secondary structure and ligand binding, and here we further explore this region for the potential to modulate ligand specificity. In this study, 1 a library of forty-seven peptides derived from the C-terminal tetra-peptide sequence (-IHPF of Ang II was synthesised and assessed for ACE2 binding, 2 the terminal group requirements for high affinity ACE2 binding were explored by and N- and C-terminal modification, 3 high affinity ACE2 binding chimeric AngII analogues were then synthesized and assessed, 4 the structure of the full-length Ang II analogues were assessed by circular dichroism, and 5 the Ang II analogues were assessed for AT1R/AT2R selectivity by cell-based assays. Studies on the C-terminus of Ang II demonstrated varied specificity at different residue positions for ACE2 binding and four Ang II chimeric peptides were identified as selective ligands for the AT2 receptor. Overall, these results provide insight into the residue and structural requirements for ACE2 binding and angiotensin receptor

  17. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chattopadhyay

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS. Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  18. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Kessler, Sean P; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yamashita, Michifumi; Senanayake, Preenie deS; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE) in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II) with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  19. Polar Bears or People? Exploring Ways in Which Teachers Frame Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of the effects of climate change, but they are also the ones who will be required to take action-to mitigate and to adapt. Framing, as both a theory and an analytic method, has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's concern and intention to act. The theory and the…

  20. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  1. Methodology to Calculate the ACE and HPQ Metrics Used in the Wave Energy Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bull, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories; Dallman, Ann [Sandia National Laboratories; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Laboratories; Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Laboratories; Newborn, David [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division; Quintero, Miguel [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division; LaBonte, Alison [U.S. Department of Energy; Karwat, Darshan [U.S. Department of Energy; Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research Ltd.

    2018-03-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wave Energy Prize Competition encouraged the development of innovative deep-water wave energy conversion technologies that at least doubled device performance above the 2014 state of the art. Because levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metrics are challenging to apply equitably to new technologies where significant uncertainty exists in design and operation, the prize technical team developed a reduced metric as proxy for LCOE, which provides an equitable comparison of low technology readiness level wave energy converter (WEC) concepts. The metric is called 'ACE' which is short for the ratio of the average climate capture width to the characteristic capital expenditure. The methodology and application of the ACE metric used to evaluate the performance of the technologies that competed in the Wave Energy Prize are explained in this report.

  2. Organizational safety climate and supervisor safety enforcement: Multilevel explorations of the causes of accident underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M

    2015-11-01

    According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor safety enforcement behaviors (and to a less consistent extent, organizational-level safety climate) predicted employee accident underreporting. There was also a significant cross-level interaction, such that the effect of supervisor enforcement on underreporting was attenuated in organizations with a positive safety climate. These results may benefit human resources and safety professionals by pinpointing methods of increasing the accuracy of accident reporting, reducing actual safety incidents, and reducing the costs to individuals and organizations that result from underreporting. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Exploring the reversibility of marine climate change impacts in temperature overshoot scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, K.; Li, X.; Tokarska, K.; Kohfeld, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a measure for mitigating climate change and restoring the climate system to a `safe' state after overshoot. Previous studies have demonstrated that the changes in surface air temperature due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions can be reversed through CDR, while some oceanic properties, for example thermosteric sea level rise, show a delay in their response to CDR. This research aims to investigate the reversibility of changes in ocean conditions after implementation of CDR with a focus on ocean biogeochemical properties. To achieve this, we analyze climate model simulations based on two sets of emission scenarios. We first use RCP2.6 and its extension until year 2300 as the reference scenario and design several temperature and cumulative CO2 emissions "overshoot" scenarios based on other RCPs, which represents cases with less ambitious mitigation policies in the near term that temporarily exceed the 2 °C target adopted by the Paris Agreement. In addition, we use a set of emission scenarios with a reference scenario limiting warming to 1.5°C in the long term and two overshoot scenarios. The University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM), a climate model of intermediate complexity, is forced with these emission scenarios. We compare the response of select ocean variables (seawater temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen) in the overshoot scenarios to that in the respective reference scenario at the time the same amount of cumulative emissions is achieved. Our results suggest that the overshoot and subsequent return to a reference CO2 cumulative emissions level would leave substantial impacts on the marine environment. Although the changes in global mean sea surface variables (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) are largely reversible, global mean ocean temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH differ significantly from those in the reference scenario. Large ocean areas exhibit

  4. User's manual ACE/ONED (Version 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Bok; Lee, Jeong Chan; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Chang Kyu; Ji, Sung Kyun; Song, Jae Woong; Kim, Yong Rae; Chang, Jong Hwa

    1996-03-01

    This report explains installation of ACE/ONED code, structure of input and output, how to prepare input and introduces some sample inputs. ACE/ONED developed by KAERI is a two-group one-dimensional diffusion theory code for nuclear design and reactor simulations. The usage of ACE/ONED encompasses core follow calculation, load-following calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation, control rod maneuvering, and so on. ACE/ONED programmed of FORTRAN 77 in most part can be run on almost all kinds of computer including personal computer. 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new

  5. Principal Component Analysis to Explore Climatic Variability and Dengue Outbreak in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Afrozuddin Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Various studies have reported that global warming causes unstable climate and many serious impact to physical environment and public health. The increasing incidence of dengue incidence is now a priority health issue and become a health burden of Pakistan.  In this study it has been investigated that spatial pattern of environment causes the emergence or increasing rate of dengue fever incidence that effects the population and its health. Principal component analysis is performed for the purpose of finding if there is/are any general environmental factor/structure which could be affected in the emergence of dengue fever cases in Pakistani climate. Principal component is applied to find structure in data for all four periods i.e. 1980 to 2012, 1980 to 1995 and 1996 to 2012.  The first three PCs for the period (1980-2012, 1980-1994, 1995-2012 are almost the same and it represent hot and windy weather. The PC1s of all dengue periods are different to each other. PC2 for all period are same and it is wetness in weather. PC3s are different and it is the combination of wetness and windy weather. PC4s for all period show humid but no rain in weather. For climatic variable only minimum temperature and maximum temperature are significantly correlated with daily dengue cases.  PC1, PC3 and PC4 are highly significantly correlated with daily dengue cases 

  6. Exploring the biogeophysical limits of global food production under different climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    An adapted Earth system model is used to investigate the limitations that future climate and water availability impose on the potential expansion and productivity of croplands. The model maximizes the cropland area under prevailing climate conditions and accounts for an optimized, sustainable irrigation practice, thus allowing us to consider the two-way feedback between climate and agriculture. For three greenhouse gas concentration scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), we show that the total cropland area could be extended substantially throughout the 21st century, especially in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where the rising water demand resulting from increasing temperatures can largely be met by increasing precipitation and irrigation rates. When accounting for the CO2 fertilization effect, only a few agricultural areas have to be abandoned owing to declines in productivity, while increasing temperatures allow for the expansion of croplands even into high northern latitudes. Without the CO2 fertilization effect there is no increase in the overall cropland fraction during the second half of the century but areal losses in increasingly water-stressed regions can be compensated for by an expansion in regions that were previously too cold. However, global yields are more sensitive and, without the benefits of CO2 fertilization, they may decrease when greenhouse gas concentrations exceed the RCP4.5 scenario. For certain regions the situation is even more concerning and guaranteeing food security in dry areas in Northern Africa, the Middle East and South Asia will become increasingly difficult, even for the idealized scenarios investigated in this study.

  7. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  8. An exploration of potential directions for climate change policy in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.; Burton, I.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the relatively small contribution to greenhouse gas emissions by residents of Northern Canada, scientists project changes in average annual temperatures in the North to be among the highest in the world. For this reason it is important to understand what may happen, as well as actions of a precautionary nature that can be taken now, and what action are likely to be required in the longer term. While focusing on climate change policy options and implementation measures for Northern Canada, the paper also discusses basic policy considerations as well as the global context that influences the national frameworks and local initiatives. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Multiple ace genes encoding acetylcholinesterases of Caenorhabditis elegans have distinct tissue expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Didier; Fedon, Yann; Toutant, Jean-Pierre; Arpagaus, Martine

    2003-08-01

    ace-1 and ace-2 genes encoding acetylcholinesterase in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans present 35% identity in coding sequences but no homology in noncoding regions (introns, 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions). A 5'-region of ace-2 was defined by rescue of ace-1;ace-2 mutants. When green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by this regulatory region, the resulting pattern was distinct from that of ace-1. This latter gene is expressed in all body-wall and vulval muscle cells (Culetto et al., 1999), whereas ace-2 is expressed almost exclusively in neurons. ace-3 and ace-4 genes are located in close proximity on chromosome II (Combes et al., 2000). These two genes were first transcribed in vivo as a bicistronic messenger and thus constitute an ace-3;ace-4 operon. However, there was a very low level of monocistronic mRNA of ace-4 (the upstream gene) in vivo, and no ACE-4 enzymatic activity was ever detected. GFP expression driven by a 5' upstream region of the ace-3;ace-4 operon was detected in several muscle cells of the pharynx (pm3, pm4, pm5 and pm7) and in the two canal associated neurons (CAN cells). A dorsal row of body-wall muscle cells was intensively labelled in larval stages but no longer detected in adults. The distinct tissue-specific expression of ace-1, ace-2 and ace-3 (coexpressed only in pm5 cells) indicates that ace genes are not redundant.

  10. Modification of epigenetic patterns in low birth weight children: importance of hypomethylation of the ACE gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Marina; dos Santos, Jéssica Cassilla; Ortiz, Paula Helena Lima; Hirata, Mario; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas; Araujo, Ronaldo C; Ierardi, Daniela Filippini; Franco, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that epigenetic alterations are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many chronic disorders linked to fetal programming. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) appears as one candidate gene that brings new insights into the epigenetic control and later development of diseases. In this view, we have postulated that epigenetic modifications in the ACE gene might show different interactions between birth weight (BW), blood pressure levels, plasma ACE activity and ACE I/D polymorphism. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the DNA methylation of 3 CpG sites using pyrosequencing within the ACE gene promoter of peripheral blood leukocytes from 45 LBW children compared with 70 NBW children. Our results have revealed that LBW children have lower methylation levels (PACE activity (P = 0.001). Adjusting for prematurity, gender, age, body mass index, and family history of cardiovascular disease did not alter these findings. We have also performed analyses of individual CpG sites. The frequency of DNA methylation was significantly different at two CpG sites (site 1: nucleotide position +555; and site 3: nucleotide position +563). In addition, we have found a significant inverse correlation between degree of DNA methylation and both ACE activity (PACE gene promoter is associated with LBW in 6 to 12 year-old children. The magnitude of these epigenetic changes appears to be clinically important, which is supported by the observation that discrete changes in DNA methylation can affect systolic blood pressure and ACE protein activity levels.

  11. Betydningen af deletionspolymorfi i ACE-genet for progression af ACE-haemmerbehandlet diabetisk nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Parving, H H; Jacobsen, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene on progression of diabetic nephropathy. We performed an observational follow-up study of 35 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Pati...

  12. An Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Mutation (Y465D) Causes a Dramatic Increase in Blood ACE via Accelerated ACE Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kerry; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Chen, Zhenlong; Castellon, Maricela; Popova, Isolda A.; Kalinin, Sergey; Mendonca, Emma; Petukhov, Pavel A.; Schwartz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D) substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE. Methodology/Principal Findings HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp) ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE - between Arg1203 and Ser1204 - was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure) and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another. Conclusions/Significance The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase). PMID:21998728

  13. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Y465D causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE via accelerated ACE shedding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Danilov

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE.HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE--between Arg1203 and Ser1204--was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another.The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase.

  14. The advanced containment experiments (ACE) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Ritzman, R.; Merilo, M.; Rahn, F.; Machiels, A.

    1992-01-01

    The overall structure and content of the ACE Project, which has been obtaining experimental data in four key areas of LWR severe accident technology are described. The key areas consist of filtration systems for vented containment concepts, radioiodine behavior in containment, the interaction of molten core material with structural concrete, and the use of water to terminate the core-concrete interaction process. Experiment procedures used in each phase of the work are summarized and the principal results and conclusions developed to date are discussed

  15. Exploring institutional transformations to address high-end climate change in Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tàbara, Joan David; Cots, Francesc; Pedde, Simona; Hölscher, Katharina; Kok, Kasper; Lovanova, Anastasia; Lourenço, Tiago Capela; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Etherington, John

    2018-01-01

    Either meeting the UNFCCC Paris agreement to limit global average warming below the 2-1.5 °C threshold, or going beyond it entails huge challenges in terms of institutional innovation and transformation. This research describes a participatory integrated assessment process aimed at exploring the

  16. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  17. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  18. Does angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) gene polymorphism lead to chronic kidney disease among hypertensive patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Taposh; Singh, Narinder Pal; Kar, Premashish; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Kapoor, Seema; Pollipalli, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Neena

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the important contributing factors linked with both causation and development of kidney disease. It is a multifactorial, polygenic, and complex disorder due to interaction of several risk genes with environmental factors. The present study was aimed to explore genetic polymorphism in ACE-1 gene as a risk factor for CKD among hypertensive patients. Three hundred patients were enrolled in the study. Ninety were hypertensive patients with CKD taken as cases, whereas 210 hypertensive patients without CKD were taken as controls. Demographic data including age, sex, Body mass index (BMI), and other risk factors were also recorded. DNA was extracted from blood by salting out method. Genotyping of ACE gene was done by PCR technique. All the statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info and SPSS version 16 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Mean age was higher in the control group (p ACE gene (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.72-2.81). Similarly, the risk for CKD among hypertensive patients was also associated with D allele of ACE gene (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.86-1.79). It is concluded that ACE-DD genotype may be a risk factor for the causation and development of chronic kidney failure among hypertensive patients.

  19. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE D/I) polymorphism and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem in Egypt and causes different liver disease spectrum. Evidence indicates that angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism may play a role in determining disease progression. We aimed to determine the association of ACE gene I/D polymorphism ...

  20. ACE: A Collaborative School Consultation Program for Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Caroline; Massé, Line

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a description of ACE (Accompagnement collaboratif des enseignants (Collaborative teacher accompaniment)), a new program designed to guide secondary school teachers in integrating students with behavioral problems in their classrooms. ACE proposes collaborative accompaniment inspired by behavioral and mental health…

  1. Comparison of the optimized conditions for genotyping of ACE ID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE ID polymorphism is inevitable for genetic epidemiology of several cardiovascular and non cardiovascular diseases due to its direct influence on ACE activity level. In the present work, conditions were optimized for its analysis using conventional and direct blood PCR (DB PCR). Blood samples from nine normotensive ...

  2. Advances in Computer Entertainment. 10th International Conference, ACE 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Katayose, H.; Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE 2013), hosted by the Human Media Interaction research group of the Centre for Telematics and Information Technology at the University of Twente, The Netherlands. The ACE series of conferences,

  3. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  4. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion dimorphism tracks with higher serum ace activities in both younger and older subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Philippe M.; Hill, Susan H.; Obineche, Enyioma N.; Lestringant, Gilles G.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of a 287 base pair alu sequence in the ACE gene (D allele) is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (I allele) in adults. We carried out a case control study of thr ACE*I/D dimorphism in relation to circulating ACE activities to evaluate associations between the two variables in adults, compared to younger (18 years or less) individuals. Genotypes of the ACE*I/D dimorphism were determined on DNA samples from a population of 164 random (unrelated) Emirtaes nationals, composed of groups: 112 subjects above 18 years of age (range=20-77), and 52 subjects of 18 years or less (range=1-18) and analyzed for putative associations with serum ACE activities. ACE*I/D genotypes of the 164 individualds were determined by assays based on polymerase chain reaction. ACE activities were determined on serum samples of these subjects bu colorimetric assays. The D allele was associared with increasd ACE values in both adult and younger individuals. Mean ACE activity levels associated with II, ID and DD genotypes, however, were 42%-61% higher in the 18 years and under group of subjects. The ACE*I/D marker accounted for 28% of the variance of the phenomenon determining ACE levels in adults, and for 30% among youngsters. The ACE*I/D dimorphism is correlated strongly with circulating ACE activities in both and young Emirati, subjects and the corresponding mean ACE activities were significantly higher among the youngsters. (author)

  5. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson L S; Chu, Tanya T W; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a population of Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese. A total of 1767 (843 male, 924 female) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit. ACE I/D genotype distribution was compared by chi-square test, the correlation between ACE I/D polymorphism and serum ACE activity was analysed by ANOVA test and gender difference of serum ACE activity of different genotypes was compared by independent sample t-test. No statistically significant difference of genotype distribution between male and female subjects was found. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE genotype. Overall, there was no gender difference of serum ACE activity; however, when sub-grouping the subjects by ACE I/D genotype, male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. No significant gender difference of genotype distribution was found in elderly Chinese. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE I/D polymorphism in elderly Chinese. Male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Úri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.

  7. Exploring Student Service Members/Veterans Social Support and Campus Climate in the Context of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now that the financial needs of post 9/11 student service members/veterans have begun to be addressed, the attention has shifted to disabilities and recovery strategies of student service members/veterans. Therefore, in a cross sectional design, this study electronically surveyed 189 enrolled student service members/veterans attending a large urban state university about their experiences of returning to school. Specifically, this study described the students’ rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and alcohol abuse, perceived stress, adaptive and non-adaptive coping strategies, social support, participation in campus activities, and perceived campus climate. Moreover, correlates of recovery were examined. Although the majority of the returning students were doing well, 36.1% reported a high level of stress, 15.1% reported a high level of anger, 17.3% reported active symptoms of PTSD, and 27.1% screened positive for alcohol problems. Social networks were found to be the most salient factor in recovery. The study’s limitations are discussed and specific support strategies are presented that can be employed by disability services, counseling services and college administrators.

  8. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme ACE Gene Polymorphism with ACE Activity and Susceptibility to Vitiligo in Egyptian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Dahlia I; Nada, Hesham; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-05-01

    The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with vitiligo in the Indians and Koreans, but not in those of English or Turkish background. We investigated the ACE (I/D) polymorphism in vitiligo patients for the first time in Egypt and compared serum ACE levels between vitiligo patients and controls. The present study was carried out in 100 vitiligo patients (40 males and 60 females) and in 100 healthy controls of an Egyptian population using the polymerase chain reaction genotyping method. The ACE genotype and allele frequency was significantly different between vitiligo patients and controls. Our results revealed a significant increase in the frequency of the ACE I allele (p=0.002; odds ratio: 1.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.207-3.284) with an overrepresentation of I/D genotype in the vitiligo patient group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the segmental, nonsegmental, and focal vitiligo in ACE gene genotype distribution. Serum ACE levels were significantly increased in vitiligo patients compared to controls (p=0.034). This study suggests that, for the first time, ACE gene polymorphism confers susceptibility to vitiligo in the Egyptian population.

  9. Peeking Below the Snow Surface to Explore Amundsen Sea Climate Variability and Locate Optimal Ice-Core Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, P. D.; Fudge, T. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Observations over recent decades reveal rapid changes in ice shelves and fast-flowing grounded ice along the Amundsen Sea coast of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Long-term perspectives on this ongoing ice loss are needed to address a central question of Antarctic research: how much and how fast will Antarctic ice-loss raise sea level? Ice cores can provide insight into past variability of the atmospheric (wind) forcing of regional ocean dynamics affecting ice loss. Interannual variability of snow accumulation on coastal ice domes grounded near or within ice shelves reflects local to regional atmospheric circulation near the ice-ocean interface. Records of snow accumulation inferred from shallow ice cores strongly correlate with reanalysis precipitation and pressure fields, but ice cores have not yet been retrieved along the Amundsen Sea coast. High-frequency airborne radar data (NASA Operation IceBridge), however, have been collected over this region and we demonstrate that these data accurately reflect annual stratigraphy in shallow snow and firn (1 to 2 decades of accumulation). This further validates the agreement between radar snow accumulation records and climate reanalysis products. We then explore regional climate controls on local snow accumulation through comparison with gridded reanalysis products, providing a preview of what information longer coastal ice core records may provide with respect to past atmospheric forcing of ocean circulation and WAIS ice loss.

  10. Pathological Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch in the stressed heart is transcriptionally controlled by the endothelial Brg1–FoxM1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Feng, Xuhui; Zhou, Qiong; Cheng, Wei; Shang, Ching; Han, Pei; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown. Here we report that the Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) chromatin remodeler and forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor cooperate within cardiac (coronary) endothelial cells of pathologically stressed hearts to trigger the Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch, angiotensin I-to-II conversion, and cardiac hypertrophy. In mice, cardiac stress activates the expression of Brg1 and FoxM1 in endothelial cells. Once activated, Brg1 and FoxM1 form a protein complex on Ace and Ace2 promoters to concurrently activate Ace and repress Ace2, tipping the balance to Ace2 expression with enhanced angiotensin II production, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Disruption of endothelial Brg1 or FoxM1 or chemical inhibition of FoxM1 abolishes the stress-induced Ace2-to-Ace switch and protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1 and FOXM1 expression is also activated in endothelial cells; their expression levels correlate strongly with the ACE/ACE2 ratio, suggesting a conserved mechanism. Our studies demonstrate a molecular interaction of Brg1 and FoxM1 and an endothelial mechanism of modulating Ace/Ace2 ratio for heart failure therapy. PMID:27601681

  11. Explorative Observations of the Urban Climate System in the Rotterdam Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. M.; van Hove, L. W.; Heusinkveld, B. G.; Steeneveld, G.; van Heerwaarden, C.; Elbers, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Until recently, the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect was thought to be relatively unimportant for Dutch conditions since The Netherlands are located in the mild Cfb climate, close to the sea. This view altered after the heat waves of 2003 and 2006 that caused an excess mortality between 1400 and 2200. The excess mortality was found in the cities in particular. Climate projections show that also in The Netherlands heat waves will likely become more frequent in the next decades, which may form an important threat to the livability in urban areas. However, information regarding UHI in Dutch cities is completely lacking, both from observational and model perspective, which hampers the design of suitable adaptation and heat mitigation strategies. In this study, an assessment of the intensity of UHI in the city of Rotterdam is made. The main aim is to assess whether or not heat stress already is or will be a critical issue in the Rotterdam area. Traverse measurements were performed in the city using two cargo bicycles as a mobile platform, equipped specifically for urban meteorology measurements. The cargo bicycles allow manoeuvring easily through the narrow streets in the city. They are equipped with a thermometer, a humidity sensor, a 2-dimensional sonic anemometer and a set of radiation sensors to measure solar radiation and infrared radiation exchange from six directions. The data are recorded at 1 Hz, and connected with concurrent GPS readings. The instruments are powered by a solar panel mounted on the baggage carrier. Measurements were performed along two previously determined routes through a number of characteristic urban districts, including an industrial area, an older residential area, a city park and the harbour area. The routes were photographed at fixed intervals from 50 cm above the ground with a fisheye lens pointing upwards. The observations were carried out during four 1-2h time intervals on 6 August 2009, a warm day with a maximum temperature of near 30

  12. Exploring the energy-water-food-climate nexus for the Indian Economy in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheripour, F.; Hertel, T. W.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The economy of India is expected to face serious environmental challenges over the coming decades. Population growth, coupled with economic growth of nearly 7%/year to 2030 will translate into strong growth in energy demands - particularly electricity. The electricity sector's claim on total available water could grow from 4% to more than 10% in India in 2030, if the use of wet cooling technologies persists (IGES 2013). Water-saving, dry cooling technologies are available for coal-fired power plants, but this requires significant investment and must be done at the time of construction. Growing water demands from electricity generation, when coupled with industrial, residential and commercial demands, are projected to result in water shortages for irrigation in some key river basins such as Indus, Ganges, Subernarekha, Krishna, and Chotanagpui (Rosegrant et al., 2013). The resulting pressure on agricultural production is likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which itself may increase demands for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to higher temperatures and more variable rainfall (AgMIP, 2013). In this paper we examine the impact of water scarcity on economic growth, food, and energy security in India using an enhanced version of the GTAP-AEZ-WATER model. We find that investments in water-saving technology in the electricity sector are less costly than developing new water supply. However, even when these technologies are implemented, we project shortfalls in water available for irrigated agriculture. These shortfalls result in the contraction of irrigated area and diminished food production relative to the unconstrained baseline. However, trade could help India to mitigate a portion of this pressure by importing more food products from water abundant regions. In addition, allowing for the trading of water within river basins helps to alleviate some of the consequences of water scarcity.

  13. Exploring the Lyapunov instability properties of high-dimensional atmospheric and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cruz, Lesley; Schubert, Sebastian; Demaeyer, Jonathan; Lucarini, Valerio; Vannitsem, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    The stability properties of intermediate-order climate models are investigated by computing their Lyapunov exponents (LEs). The two models considered are PUMA (Portable University Model of the Atmosphere), a primitive-equation simple general circulation model, and MAOOAM (Modular class="text">Arbitrary-Order Ocean-Atmosphere Model), a quasi-geostrophic coupled ocean-class="text">atmosphere model on a β-plane. We wish to investigate the effect of the different levels of filtering on the instabilities and dynamics of the atmospheric flows. Moreover, we assess the impact of the oceanic coupling, the dissipation scheme, and the resolution on the spectra of LEs. The PUMA Lyapunov spectrum is computed for two different values of the meridional temperature gradient defining the Newtonian forcing to the temperature field. The increase in the gradient gives rise to a higher baroclinicity and stronger instabilities, corresponding to a larger dimension of the unstable manifold and a larger first LE. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the attractor increases as well. The convergence rate of the rate function for the large deviation law of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) is fast for all exponents, which can be interpreted as resulting from the absence of a clear-cut atmospheric timescale separation in such a model. The MAOOAM spectra show that the dominant atmospheric instability is correctly represented even at low resolutions. However, the dynamics of the central manifold, which is mostly associated with the ocean dynamics, is not fully resolved because of its associated long timescales, even at intermediate orders. As expected, increasing the mechanical atmosphere-ocean coupling coefficient or introducing a turbulent diffusion parametrisation reduces the Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. In all considered configurations, we are not yet in the regime in which one can robustly define large deviation laws describing the statistics of the FTLEs. This

  14. Peripheral artery disease: potential role of ACE-inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Coppola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Coppola, Giuseppe Romano, Egle Corrado, Rosa Maria Grisanti, Salvatore NovoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephro-Urological Diseases, Chair of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct antiatherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, thay have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.Keywords: atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction, ACE-inhibitors

  15. A meta-analysis of the accuracy of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in the detection of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Andrew J; Mitchell, Alex J

    2014-04-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) and its Revised version (ACE-R) are relatively new screening tools for cognitive impairment that may improve upon the well-known Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and other brief batteries. We systematically reviewed diagnostic accuracy studies of ACE and ACE-R. Published studies comparing ACE, ACE-R and MMSE were comprehensively sought and critically appraised. A meta-analysis of suitable studies was conducted. Of 61 possible publications identified, meta-analysis of qualifying studies encompassed 5 for ACE (1,090 participants) and 5 for ACE-R (1156 participants); of these, 9 made direct comparisons with the MMSE. Sensitivity and specificity of the ACE were 96.9% (95% CI = 92.7% to 99.4%) and 77.4% (95% CI = 58.3% to 91.8%); and for the ACE-R were 95.7% (95% CI = 92.2% to 98.2%) and 87.5% (95% CI = 63.8% to 99.4%). In a modest prevalence setting, such as primary care or general hospital settings where the prevalence of dementia may be approximately 25%, overall accuracy of the ACE (0.823) was inferior to ACE-R (0.895) and MMSE (0.882). In high prevalence settings such as memory clinics where the prevalence of dementia may be 50% or higher, overall accuracy again favored ACE-R (0.916) over ACE (0.872) and MMSE (0.895). The ACE-R has somewhat superior diagnostic accuracy to the MMSE while the ACE appears to have inferior accuracy. The ACE-R is recommended in both modest and high prevalence settings. Accuracy of newer versions of the ACE remain to be determined.

  16. An Exploration of Mechanisms for Mediating the Influence of Extratropical Glaciation on the Tropical Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Frierson, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    the NHWARM and NHCOLD cases, despite the substantial reduction in atmospheric water vapor in the cold case. The extremely strong midlatitude cooling produces a modest southward shift in the January ITCZ, and none at all in the July ITCZ, indicating that basic Hadley dynamics can make the ITCZ very resistant to moving; we find that the ITCZ position closely follows the tropical temperature maximum. The ITCZ shifts are discussed in terms of theoretical concepts applying to the Hadley circulation. Using an energy balance model (EBM) based on diffusion of moist static energy, Frierson and Held have shown that there is a compensation between changes in latent and sensible heat transport as climate warms, provided the meridional distribution of absorbed solar radiation remains fixed. We have extended this analysis to the case in which the solar forcing gradient is allowed to change, as is the case in our simulations owing to the change in surface albedo between the two simulations. In this case, the EBM does not require strict compensation, and in fact correctly reproduces the fact that tropical heat export increases in the NHCOLD case. However, the EBM over-estimates the penetration of the cooling past the Equator, owing to inadequacies in the diffusive treatment of the Hadley circulation. The EBM also misprepresents the magnitude of midlatitude heat flux changes, owing to the bottom-trapped nature of extratropical cooling seen in the GCM experiments, which is not reflected in the assumptions about the vertical profile of temperature built into the EBM. The implications of incorporating this effect will be discussed.

  17. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  18. ACE I/D Gene Polymorphism Can't Predict the Steroid Responsiveness in Asian Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Na; Lei, Feng-Ying; Huang, Wei-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background The results from the published studies on the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and the treatment response to steroid in Asian children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is still conflicting. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relation between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and treatment response to steroid in Asian children and to explore whether ACE D allele or DD genotype could become a predictive marker for steroid responsiveness. Methodology/Principal Findings Association studies were identified from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and CBM-disc (China Biological Medicine Database) as of September 1, 2010, and eligible investigations were synthesized using meta-analysis method. Five investigations were identified for the analysis of association between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) risk in Asian children and seven studies were included to explore the relationship between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) susceptibility. Five investigations were recruited to explore the difference of ACE I/D gene distribution between SRNS and SSNS. There was no a markedly association between D allele or DD genotype and SRNS susceptibility or SSNS risk, and the gene distribution differences of ACE between SRNS and SSNS were not statistically significant. II genotype might play a positive role against SRNS onset but not for SSNS (OR = 0.51, P = 0.02; OR = 0.95, P = 0.85; respectively), however, the result for the association of II genotype with SRNS risk was not stable. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that D allele or DD homozygous can't become a significant genetic molecular marker to predict the treatment response to steroid in Asian children with INS. PMID:21611163

  19. The NOAA Real-Time Solar-Wind (RTSW) System using ACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, R. D.; Doggett, K. A.; Sahm, S.; Barrett, W. P.; Grubb, R. N.; Detman, T. R.; Raben, V. J.; Smith, C. W.; Riley, P.; Gold, R. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Maruyama, T.

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) RTSW system is continuously monitoring the solar wind and produces warnings of impending major geomagnetic activity, up to one hour in advance. Warnings and alerts issued by NOAA allow those with systems sensitive to such activity to take preventative action. The RTSW system gathers solar wind and energetic particle data at high time resolution from four ACE instruments (MAG, SWEPAM, EPAM, and SIS), packs the data into a low-rate bit stream, and broadcasts the data continuously. NASA sends real-time data to NOAA each day when downloading science data. With a combination of dedicated ground stations (CRL in Japan and RAL in Great Britain), and time on existing ground tracking networks (NASA's DSN and the USAF's AFSCN), the RTSW system can receive data 24 hours per day throughout the year. The raw data are immediately sent from the ground station to the Space Environment Center in Boulder, Colorado, processed, and then delivered to its Space Weather Operations center where they are used in daily operations; the data are also delivered to the CRL Regional Warning Center at Hiraiso, Japan, to the USAF 55th Space Weather Squadron, and placed on the World Wide Web. The data are downloaded, processed and dispersed within 5 min from the time they leave ACE. The RTSW system also uses the low-energy energetic particles to warn of approaching interplanetary shocks, and to help monitor the flux of high-energy particles that can produce radiation damage in satellite systems.

  20. Dust Aerosols at the Source Region During ACE-ASIA: A Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  1. Characterization of Dust Properties at the Source Region During ACE-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally-occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, east coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS overpass, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with MODIS retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  2. The advanced composition explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.C.; Burlaga, L.F.; Cummings, A.C.; Feldman, W.C.; Frain, W.E.; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R.E.; Hovestadt, D.; Krimigis, S.M.; Mason, G.M.; McComas, D.; Mewaldt, R.A.; Simpson, J.A.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) was recently selected as one of two new Explorer-class missions to be developed for launch during the mid-1990's ACE will observe particles of solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic origins, spanning the energy range from that of the solar wind (∼1 keV/nucleon) to galactic cosmic ray energies (several hundred MeV/nucleon). Definitive studies will be made of the abundance of nearly all isotopes from H to Zn (1≤Z≤30), with exploratory isotope studies extending to Zr(Z=40). To accomplish this, the ACE payload includes six high-resolution spectrometers, each designed to provide the optimum charge, mass, or charge-state resolution in its particular energy range, and each having a geometry factor optimized for the expected flux levels, so as to provide a collecting power a factor of 10 to 1000 times greater than previous or planned experiments. The payload also includes several instruments of standard design that will monitor solar wind and magnetic field conditions and energetic H, He, and electron fluxes. We summarize here the scientific objectives, instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission approach that were defined for ACE during the Phase-A study period

  3. Advanced Course in Engineering (ACE) - Cyber Security Boot Camp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Older, Susan

    2008-01-01

    .... ACE achieved its stated objectives by completely immersing students in the cyber-security discipline for ten weeks, through a combination of intense coursework, open-ended problems, and internship...

  4. Exploring the School Climate--Student Achievement Connection: Making Sense of Why the First Precedes the Second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Albert; Shindler, John

    2016-01-01

    Many educators view school climate and student achievement as separate considerations. For some, the idea of promoting a high quality climate can seem like a luxury in the face of the current high stakes assessment climate in which student achievement gains are the paramount consideration. However, the results of this study suggest that climate…

  5. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace - phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region

  6. Keeping pace with ACE: are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists potential doping agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Fedoruk, Matthew N; Rupert, Jim L

    2008-01-01

    In the decade since the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was first proposed to be a 'human gene for physical performance', there have been numerous studies examining the effects of ACE genotype on physical performance phenotypes such as aerobic capacity, muscle function, trainability, and athletic status. While the results are variable and sometimes inconsistent, and corroborating phenotypic data limited, carriers of the ACE 'insertion' allele (the presence of an alu repeat element in intron 16 of the gene) have been reported to have higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), greater response to training, and increased muscle efficiency when compared with individuals carrying the 'deletion' allele (absence of the alu repeat). Furthermore, the insertion allele has been reported to be over-represented in elite athletes from a variety of populations representing a number of endurance sports. The mechanism by which the ACE insertion genotype could potentiate physical performance is unknown. The presence of the ACE insertion allele has been associated with lower ACE activity (ACEplasma) in number of studies, suggesting that individuals with an innate tendency to have lower ACE levels respond better to training and are at an advantage in endurance sporting events. This could be due to lower levels of angiotensin II (the vasoconstrictor converted to active form by ACE), higher levels of bradykinin (a vasodilator degraded by ACE) or some combination of the two phenotypes. Observations that individuals carrying the ACE insertion allele (and presumably lower ACEplasma) have an enhanced response to training or are over-represented amongst elite athletes raises the intriguing question: would individuals with artificially lowered ACEplasma have similar training or performance potential? As there are a number of drugs (i.e. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists [angiotensin receptor blockers--ARBs]) that have the ability to either reduce ACEplasma

  7. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled

  8. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  9. An exploration of workplace social capital as an antecedent of occupational safety and health climate and outcomes in the Chinese education sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Janice; Leka, Stavroula; Hunt, Nigel; MacLennan, Sara

    2014-07-01

    It is widely acknowledged that teachers are at greater risk of work-related health problems. At the same time, employee perceptions of different dimensions of organizational climate can influence their attitudes, performance, and well-being at work. This study applied and extended a safety climate model in the context of the education sector in Hong Kong. Apart from safety considerations alone, the study included occupational health considerations and social capital and tested their relationships with occupational safety and health (OSH) outcomes. Seven hundred and four Hong Kong teachers completed a range of questionnaires exploring social capital, OSH climate, OSH knowledge, OSH performance (compliance and participation), general health, and self-rated health complaints and injuries. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the relationships between predictive and outcome variables. SEM analysis revealed a high level of goodness of fit, and the hypothesized model including social capital yielded a better fit than the original model. Social capital, OSH climate, and OSH performance were determinants of both positive and negative outcome variables. In addition, social capital not only significantly predicted general health directly, but also had a predictive effect on the OSH climate-behavior-outcome relationship. This study makes a contribution to the workplace social capital and OSH climate literature by empirically assessing their relationship in the Chinese education sector.

  10. Revisiting historical climatic signals to better explore the future: prospects of water cycle changes in Central Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Velluet, C.; Guichard, F.; Mougin, E.; Chelbi, S.; Sultan, B.

    2015-06-01

    Rainfall and climatic conditions are the main drivers of natural and cultivated vegetation productivity in the semiarid region of Central Sahel. In a context of decreasing cultivable area per capita, understanding and predicting changes in the water cycle are crucial. Yet, it remains challenging to project future climatic conditions in West Africa since there is no consensus on the sign of future precipitation changes in simulations coming from climate models. The Sahel region has experienced severe climatic changes in the past 60 years that can provide a first basis to understand the response of the water cycle to non-stationary conditions in this part of the world. The objective of this study was to better understand the response of the water cycle to highly variable climatic regimes in Central Sahel using historical climate records and the coupling of a land surface energy and water model with a vegetation model that, when combined, simulated the Sahelian water, energy and vegetation cycles. To do so, we relied on a reconstructed long-term climate series in Niamey, Republic of Niger, in which three precipitation regimes can be distinguished with a relative deficit exceeding 25% for the driest period compared to the wettest period. Two temperature scenarios (+2 and +4 °C) consistent with future warming scenarios were superimposed to this climatic signal to generate six virtual future 20-year climate time series. Simulations by the two coupled models forced by these virtual scenarios showed a strong response of the water budget and its components to temperature and precipitation changes, including decreases in transpiration, runoff and drainage for all scenarios but those with highest precipitation. Such climatic changes also strongly impacted soil temperature and moisture. This study illustrates the potential of using the strong climatic variations recorded in the past decades to better understand potential future climate variations.

  11. Regulation of the aceI multidrug efflux pump gene in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Hassan, Karl A; Ashwood, Heather E; Gamage, Hasinika K A H; Li, Liping; Mabbutt, Bridget C; Paulsen, Ian T

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the function of AceR, a putative transcriptional regulator of the chlorhexidine efflux pump gene aceI in Acinetobacter baumannii. Chlorhexidine susceptibility and chlorhexidine induction of aceI gene expression were determined by MIC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in A. baumannii WT and ΔaceR mutant strains. Recombinant AceR was prepared as both a full-length protein and as a truncated protein, AceR (86-299), i.e. AceRt, which has the DNA-binding domain deleted. The binding interaction of the purified AceR protein and its putative operator region was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays. The binding of AceRt with its putative ligand chlorhexidine was examined using surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays. MIC determination assays indicated that the ΔaceI and ΔaceR mutant strains both showed lower resistance to chlorhexidine than the parental strain. Chlorhexidine-induced expression of aceI was abolished in a ΔaceR background. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated chlorhexidine-stimulated binding of AceR with two sites upstream of the putative aceI promoter. Surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays suggested that the purified ligand-binding domain of the AceR protein was able to bind with chlorhexidine with high affinity. This study provides strong evidence that AceR is an activator of aceI gene expression when challenged with chlorhexidine. This study is the first characterization, to our knowledge, of a regulator controlling expression of a PACE family multidrug efflux pump.

  12. Textbooks of Doubt: Using Systemic Functional Analysis to Explore the Framing of Climate Change in Middle-School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Diego; Busch, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Middle school students are learning about climate change in large part through textbooks used in their classes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the language employed in these materials frames this topic. To this end, we used systemic functional analysis to study the language of the chapters related to climate change in four sixth grade…

  13. Exploring the strategies for households to adapt to climate-change in arid and semiarid East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'ang'a, Stanley K.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis I set out to investigate how households cope and adapt to climate change in the context of arid and semi-arid areas of East Africa. This research fits well in the wider literature on the relationship between climate change and variability and household responses in term of coping

  14. Developing adaptive capacity in times of climate change in central rural Vietnam: exploring smallholders’ learning and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Thi Hong Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Climate change already affects Vietnam in virtually all sectors. Agriculture in small communities is particularly vulnerable to current and projected climate change impacts. Many of the smallholder farmers in Vietnam have limited adaptive capacity to deal with these impacts. Increasingly social

  15. Visualization of uncertainty and ensemble data: Exploration of climate modeling and weather forecast data with integrated ViSUS-CDAT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Kristin; Pascucci, Valerio; Johhson, Chris; Wilson, Andrew; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Williams, Dean; Doutriaux, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Climate scientists and meteorologists are working towards a better understanding of atmospheric conditions and global climate change. To explore the relationships present in numerical predictions of the atmosphere, ensemble datasets are produced that combine time- and spatially-varying simulations generated using multiple numeric models, sampled input conditions, and perturbed parameters. These data sets mitigate as well as describe the uncertainty present in the data by providing insight into the effects of parameter perturbation, sensitivity to initial conditions, and inconsistencies in model outcomes. As such, massive amounts of data are produced, creating challenges both in data analysis and in visualization. This work presents an approach to understanding ensembles by using a collection of statistical descriptors to summarize the data, and displaying these descriptors using variety of visualization techniques which are familiar to domain experts. The resulting techniques are integrated into the ViSUS/Climate Data and Analysis Tools (CDAT) system designed to provide a directly accessible, complex visualization framework to atmospheric researchers.

  16. Agreement on technology? Exploring the political feasibility of technology-oriented agreements and their compatibility with cap-and-trade approaches to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Bakker, S.; Van der Zwaan, B.; Junginger, M.; Kuik, O.; Massey, E.

    2007-11-01

    Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)

  17. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership-climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Fenwick, Karissa; Kong, Yinfei

    2017-11-14

    Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach's alpha = .88) and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach's alpha = .88), services (Cronbach's alpha = .86), and personnel (Cronbach's alpha = .86) practices. Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  18. Why do some people do "more" to mitigate climate change than others? Exploring heterogeneity in psycho-social associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized--and differentiated from common mitigation behavior--as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change--but not in motivational or socio-demographic links--with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries.

  19. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Using interviews and focus groups with resource managers to explore risk perceptions and responses to climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, K. R.; Travis, W.; Rangwala, I.; Rondeau, R.; Young, L.

    2016-12-01

    Resource managers in the western U.S. are increasingly tasked to incorporate climate change into management decisions and long-term planning, but this task is complicated by multiple challenges, among them the need to bridge between the differing perspectives and prerogatives of scientists and resource managers. As part of a larger, iterative, interdisciplinary, multi-landscape research project that built on a prior climate vulnerability research, we conducted more than 50 semi-structured interviews and four focus groups with resource managers in the Gunnison Basin in western Colorado. The interviews addressed the managers' risk perceptions and knowledge about the resources and landscapes, while the focus groups asked resource managers to reflect on their own resource decision-making in light of three narrative future climate scenarios created by scientists on the research team. While time-intensive, the interviews and focus groups produced important insights into the managers' understanding of both the resources in question and the future climate scenarios. We found that the managers' mental models of their systems, and their conceptions of landscape changes and future threats, were diverse and sometimes in conflict with those held by the research team. The managers' responses to the climate scenarios reflected divergent and nuanced perceptions of risk, adaptation and uncertainty, heavily shaped by personal experience—which could be a constraint under rapidly changing future conditions. Our deployment of social science methodologies facilitated the co-production of climate adaptation strategies and a bridge between and among scientists and managers. The participants found the focus groups helpful since they (1) provided space to focus on decision-making under climate change, rather than fixate on details of the science, and (2) facilitated interaction with colleagues from other agencies. Climate scientists used participant feedback to inform future scenario

  1. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; hide

    2013-01-01

    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  2. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  3. The Stimuli-Actions-Effects-Responses (SAER)-framework for exploring perceived relationships between private and public climate change adaptation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Hermine; Schönhart, Martin; Larcher, Manuela; Schmid, Erwin

    2018-03-01

    Empirical findings on actors' roles and responsibilities in the climate change adaptation process are rare even though cooperation between private and public actors is perceived important to foster adaptation in agriculture. We therefore developed the framework SAER (Stimuli-Actions-Effects-Responses) to investigate perceived relationships between private and public climate change adaptation in agriculture at regional scale. In particular, we explore agricultural experts' perceptions on (i) climatic and non-climatic factors stimulating private adaptation, (ii) farm adaption actions, (iii) potential on-farm and off-farm effects from adaptation, and (iv) the relationships between private and public adaptation. The SAER-framework is built on a comprehensive literature review and empirical findings from semi-structured interviews with agricultural experts from two case study regions in Austria. We find that private adaptation is perceived as incremental, systemic or transformational. It is typically stimulated by a mix of bio-physical and socio-economic on-farm and off-farm factors. Stimulating factors related to climate change are perceived of highest relevance for systemic and transformational adaptation whereas already implemented adaptation is mostly perceived to be incremental. Perceived effects of private adaptation are related to the environment, weather and climate, quality and quantity of agricultural products as well as human, social and economic resources. Our results also show that public adaptation can influence factors stimulating private adaptation as well as adaptation effects through the design and development of the legal, policy and organizational environment as well as the provision of educational, informational, financial, and technical infrastructure. Hence, facilitating existing and new collaborations between private and public actors may enable farmers to adapt effectively to climate change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The ACES mission: scientific objectives and present status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, L.; Dimarcq, N.; Salomon, C.

    2017-11-01

    "Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space" (ACES) is a mission in fundamental physics that will operate a new generation of atomic clocks in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The ACES clock signal will combine the medium term frequency stability of a space hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long term stability and accuracy of a frequency standard based on cold cesium atoms (PHARAO). Fractional frequency stability and accuracy of few parts in 1016 will be achieved. The on-board time base distributed on Earth via a microwave link (MWL) will be used to test fundamental laws of physics (Einstein's theories of Special and General Relativity, Standard Model Extension, string theories…) and to develop applications in time and frequency metrology, universal time scales, global positioning and navigation, geodesy and gravimetry. After a general overview on the mission concept and its scientific objectives, the present status of ACES instruments and sub-systems will be discussed.

  5. The ACE gene and human performance: 12 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthucheary, Zudin; Skipworth, James R A; Rawal, Jai; Loosemore, Mike; Van Someren, Ken; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2011-06-01

    Some 12 years ago, a polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene became the first genetic element shown to impact substantially on human physical performance. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists not just as an endocrine regulator, but also within local tissue and cells, where it serves a variety of functions. Functional genetic polymorphic variants have been identified for most components of RAS, of which the best known and studied is a polymorphism of the ACE gene. The ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been associated with improvements in performance and exercise duration in a variety of populations. The I allele has been consistently demonstrated to be associated with endurance-orientated events, notably, in triathlons. Meanwhile, the D allele is associated with strength- and power-orientated performance, and has been found in significant excess among elite swimmers. Exceptions to these associations do exist, and are discussed. In theory, associations with ACE genotype may be due to functional variants in nearby loci, and/or related genetic polymorphism such as the angiotensin receptor, growth hormone and bradykinin genes. Studies of growth hormone gene variants have not shown significant associations with performance in studies involving both triathletes and military recruits. The angiotensin type-1 receptor has two functional polymorphisms that have not been shown to be associated with performance, although studies of hypoxic ascent have yielded conflicting results. ACE genotype influences bradykinin levels, and a common gene variant in the bradykinin 2 receptor exists. The high kinin activity haplotye has been associated with increased endurance performance at an Olympic level, and similar results of metabolic efficiency have been demonstrated in triathletes. Whilst the ACE genotype is associated with overall performance ability, at a single organ level, the ACE genotype and related polymorphism have significant

  6. Efficacy of lycopene on modulation of renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE and ACE gene expression in hyperlipidaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazish Iqbal; Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on renal tissue antioxidant enzymes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and serum activity in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats (200-250 g weight), 5-6 months of age, were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Group I received normal diet; group II received 24 g high fat diet/100 g of daily diet; group III received 24 g high fat diet/100 g daily diet and 200 ml of lycopene extract (twice a week) for 8 weeks; and group IV received 200 ml oral lycopene extract twice a week for 8 weeks. A marked increase was observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels, serum C-reactive protein, kidney weight, tissue renal malonyldialdehyde level, ACE gene expression and serum level, while a decrease catalase level among hyperlipidaemic rats was observed. Histologically, interstitial inflammation and proliferation was seen. Lycopene supplementation significantly decreased plasma urea and creatinine, serum ACE, renal tissue malonyldialdehyde level and C-reactive protein level, while it increased tissue antioxidant enzymes level and total protein. Tissue inflammation and proliferation was improved. This finding suggests that supplementation of lycopene is effective for renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE gene expression and ACE serum level in hyperlipidaemic rats. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  8. Towards healthy learning climates in postgraduate medical education: exploring the role of hospital-wide education committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postgraduate medical education prepares residents for delivery of high quality patient care during training as well as for later practice, which makes high quality residency training programs crucial to safeguard patient care. Healthy learning climates contribute to high quality

  9. ACE (I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease: a comprehensive database and meta-analysis involving study quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsios Georgios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in modifying the response to treatment modalities in coronary artery disease is controversial. Methods PubMed was searched and a database of 58 studies with detailed information regarding ACE I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease was created. Eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analysis methods, including cumulative meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and study quality issues were explored. Results Forty studies involved invasive treatments (coronary angioplasty or coronary artery by-pass grafting and 18 used conservative treatment options (including anti-hypertensive drugs, lipid lowering therapy and cardiac rehabilitation procedures. Clinical outcomes were investigated by 11 studies, while 47 studies focused on surrogate endpoints. The most studied outcome was the restenosis following coronary angioplasty (34 studies. Heterogeneity among studies (p ACE I/D polymorphism on the response to treatment for the rest outcomes (coronary events, endothelial dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, progression/regression of atherosclerosis, individual studies showed significance; however, results were discrepant and inconsistent. Conclusion In view of available evidence, genetic testing of ACE I/D polymorphism prior to clinical decision making is not currently justified. The relation between ACE genetic variation and response to treatment in CAD remains an unresolved issue. The results of long-term and properly designed prospective studies hold the promise for pharmacogenetically tailored therapy in CAD.

  10. Safety-Culture Exploration in Taiwan’s Metal Industries: Identifying the Workers’ Background Influence on Safety Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chiang Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the safety-climate level in Taiwan’s metal industries, as well as to identify the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate. An earlier report showed that a poor safety culture was related to the cause of accidents in Taiwan’s traditional manufacturing industries. This study surveyed a total of 839 workers who voluntarily participated and completed the safety-culture questionnaires. These workers were from a Taiwanese metal company and its five satellite companies. Three safety-climate factors, namely safety perception, safety communication and safety-management systems, were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted by developing structural equation modeling to ensure the questionnaire’s validity. The influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was identified by using one-way ANOVA. The reliability result of the questionnaire was above the acceptable level. The overall safety-climate score was 4.22 out of a five-point scale for safety perception, 4.23 for safety-management systems and 3.97 for safety communication. The scores indicate a good level of safety climate, with room for improvement in safety communication. Additionally, the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was confirmed. Based on the validity test, it was also found that the questionnaire could be improved by reconstructing its questions in its development process in order to increase the safety-climate model’s reliability and validity, as well as its model fit.

  11. Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs. Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations

  12. Exploring recent and projected climate change in a steep monsoonal catchment in the middle Himalaya through innovative synthesis of local observations, gridded datasets and community engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Pritchard, Davis; Tiwari, Prakash; Fowler, Hayley; Kumaun, Bhagwati

    2016-04-01

    Under the auspices of an "Innovation Partnerships" programme research exchange grant jointly funded by the India Department of Science and Technology and the British Council, Kumaun University and Newcastle University have been collaboratively exploring the recorded historical and projected future climate change implications for a case study catchment, the Ramgad river, in the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya (Uttarakhand state, India). This work weaves together diverse research strands with the aim of producing a coherent thorough characterisation of the impacts of recent/on-going and likely climate evolution on local communities. Participatory research activities in multiple villages in the case study catchment have yielded a consistent narrative of changes posed by the increasingly erratic monsoonal rainfall as well as upward displacement and replacement crops in their historical elevation ranges due to temperature change. Multi-decadal climate records from both local observations and global meteorological records reveal a more complex picture with strong seasonal asymmetry of changes in both temperature and precipitation: a) trend analysis shows mild weakening of the early phase (May, July) but strengthen in the later stages (August, September); b) temperature trends show much stronger warming in late winter and early spring (February to April) than the rest of the year with additional asymmetry in both sign and magnitude of change between individual components (Tmax, Tmin) of the diurnal temperature cycle. On-going research seeks to associate this asymmetry with causal mechanisms (cloud radiative effect, atmospheric circulation). Analysis of historical records will provide the basis for validation and assessment of individual regional climate model projections from the CORDEX South Asia domain ensemble. For the terraced agricultural communities of the Kumaon Himalaya, the most directly consequential effects of climate variability and change are impacts on crop yields

  13. deletion polymorphism of ACE gene and Alzheimerв€™s disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omayma M. Hassanin

    2014-06-27

    Jun 27, 2014 ... ease, 45 males and 39 females aged 65 ± 7 years from the Geriatric Department at Ain-Shams Uni- ..... alternative therapy provided by the ACE protein. .... enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in relation to physical perfor-.

  14. Exploring the impact of climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum on the pattern of human occupation of Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ariane; Levavasseur, Guillaume; James, Patrick M A; Guiducci, Dario; Izquierdo, Manuel Arturo; Bourgeon, Lauriane; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Vrac, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a global climate event, which had significant repercussions for the spatial distribution and demographic history of prehistoric populations. In Eurasia, the LGM coincides with a potential bottleneck for modern humans and may mark the divergence date for Asian and European populations (Keinan et al., 2007). In this research, the impact of climate variability on human populations in the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is examined with the aid of downscaled high-resolution (16 × 16 km) numerical climate experiments. Human sensitivity to short time-scale (inter-annual) climate variability during this key time period, which follows the initial modern human colonisation of Eurasia and the extinction of the Neanderthals, is tested using the spatial distribution of archaeological sites. Results indicate that anatomically modern human populations responded to small-scale spatial patterning in climate variability, specifically inter-annual variability in precipitation levels as measured by the standard precipitation index. Climate variability at less than millennial scale, therefore, is shown to be an important component of ecological risk, one that played a role in regulating the spatial behaviour of prehistoric human populations and consequently affected their social networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation: 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Harman, Ciaran

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the Dunne diagram, the climatic and landscape controls on the partitioning of annual runoff into its various components (Hortonian and Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow) are assessed quantitatively, from a purely theoretical perspective. A simple distributed hydrologic model has been built sufficient to simulate the effects of different combinations of climate, soil, and topography on the runoff generation processes. The model is driven by a sequence of simple hypothetical precipitation events, for a large combination of climate and landscape properties, and hydrologic responses at the catchment scale are obtained through aggregation of grid-scale responses. It is found, first, that the water balance responses, including relative contributions of different runoff generation mechanisms, could be related to a small set of dimensionless similarity parameters. These capture the competition between the wetting, drying, storage, and drainage functions underlying the catchment responses, and in this way, provide a quantitative approximation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Second, only a subset of all hypothetical catchment/climate combinations is found to be "behavioral," in terms of falling sufficiently close to the Budyko curve, describing mean annual runoff as a function of climate aridity. Furthermore, these behavioral combinations are mostly consistent with the qualitative picture presented in the Dunne diagram, indicating clearly the commonality between the Budyko curve and the Dunne diagram. These analyses also suggest clear interrelationships amongst the "behavioral" climate, soil, and topography parameter combinations, implying these catchment properties may be constrained to be codependent in order to satisfy the Budyko curve.

  16. Angiotensin I - Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in relation to physical performance, cognition and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Bathum, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age.......Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age....

  17. Molecular and Recombinational Mapping of Mutations in the Ace Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Gelbart, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region within which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize...

  18. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  19. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  20. Differential ACE expression among tissues in allele-specific Wistar rat lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamilic, Jelena; Lely, A. Titia; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; Tent, Hilde; Navis, Gerjan J.; Korstanje, Ron

    In humans, the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene accounts for half of the variance in plasma ACE activity. The deletion allele is associated with high plasma ACE activity, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. In rat, a similar association is found

  1. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of angiotensin...

  2. Exploring eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under climate and land-use changes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Castanho, A. D.; Moghim, S.; Bras, R. L.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; McKnight, S.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation and drought have imposed regional-scale perturbations onto Amazonian ecosystems and are predicted to cause larger negative impacts on the Amazonian ecosystems and associated regional carbon dynamics in the 21st century. However, global climate models (GCMs) vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia, giving rise to uncertainty in the expected fate of the Amazon over the coming century. In this study, we explore the possible eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under projected climate and land-use changes in the 21st century using two state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models—Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1(ED2.1) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS)—driven by three representative, bias-corrected climate projections from three IPCC GCMs (NCARPCM1, NCARCCSM3 and HadCM3), coupled with two land-use change scenarios (a business-as-usual and a strict governance scenario). We also analyze the relative roles of climate change, CO2 fertilization, land-use change and fire in driving the projected composition and structure of the Amazonian ecosystems. Our results show that CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation productivity and above-ground biomass (AGB) in the region, while land-use change and fire cause AGB loss and the replacement of forests by the savanna-like vegetation. The impacts of climate change depend strongly on the direction and severity of projected precipitation changes in the region. In particular, when intensified water stress is superimposed on unregulated deforestation, both ecosystem models predict large-scale dieback of Amazonian rainforests.

  3. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring adaptations to climate change with stakeholders: A participatory method to design grassland-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, Marion; Piquet, Mathilde; Duru, Michel; Martin-Clouaire, Roger

    2017-05-15

    Research is expected to produce knowledge, methods and tools to enhance stakeholders' adaptive capacity by helping them to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change at their own level. Farmers face substantial challenges from climate change, from changes in the average temperatures and the precipitation regime to an increased variability of weather conditions and the frequency of extreme events. Such changes can have dramatic consequences for many types of agricultural production systems such as grassland-based livestock systems for which climate change influences the seasonality and productivity of fodder production. We present a participatory design method called FARMORE (FARM-Oriented REdesign) that allows farmers to design and evaluate adaptations of livestock systems to future climatic conditions. It explicitly considers three climate features in the design and evaluation processes: climate change, climate variability and the limited predictability of weather. FARMORE consists of a sequence of three workshops for which a pre-existing game-like platform was adapted. Various year-round forage production and animal feeding requirements must be assembled by participants with a computerized support system. In workshop 1, farmers aim to produce a configuration that satisfies an average future weather scenario. They refine or revise the previous configuration by considering a sample of the between-year variability of weather in workshop 2. In workshop 3, they explicitly take the limited predictability of weather into account. We present the practical aspects of the method based on four case studies involving twelve farmers from Aveyron (France), and illustrate it through an in-depth description of one of these case studies with three dairy farmers. The case studies shows and discusses how workshop sequencing (1) supports a design process that progressively accommodates complexity of real management contexts by enlarging considerations of climate change

  5. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership–climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick G. Guerrero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Methods Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach’s alpha = .88 and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach’s alpha = .88, services (Cronbach’s alpha = .86, and personnel (Cronbach’s alpha = .86 practices. Results Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p < .001. We also found a positive indirect effect between transformational leadership and each of the culturally competent practices: knowledge (standardized indirect effect = .006, bootstrap p = .004, services (standardized indirect effect = .019, bootstrap p < .001, and personnel (standardized indirect effect = .014, bootstrap p = .005. Conclusions Findings contribute to implementation science. They build on leadership theory and offer evidence of the mediating role of climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  6. A SURVEY OF MAGNETIC WAVES EXCITED BY NEWBORN INTERSTELLAR He+ OBSERVED BY THE ACE SPACECRAFT AT 1 au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Meghan K.; Argall, Matthew R.; Joyce, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    We report observations of low-frequency waves at 1 au by the magnetic field instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer ( ACE /MAG) and show evidence that they arise due to newborn interstellar pickup He + . Twenty-five events are studied. They possess the generally predicted attributes: spacecraft-frame frequencies slightly greater than the He + cyclotron frequency, left-hand polarization in the spacecraft frame, and transverse fluctuations with minimum variance directions that are quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field. Their occurrence spans the first 18 years of ACE operations, with no more than 3 such observations in any given year. Thus, the events are relatively rare. As with past observations by the Ulysses and Voyager spacecraft, we argue that the waves are seen only when the background turbulence is sufficiently weak as to allow for the slow accumulation of wave energy over many hours.

  7. A SURVEY OF MAGNETIC WAVES EXCITED BY NEWBORN INTERSTELLAR He{sup +} OBSERVED BY THE ACE SPACECRAFT AT 1 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Meghan K.; Argall, Matthew R.; Joyce, Colin J., E-mail: mkl54@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Matthew.Argall@unh.edu, E-mail: cjl46@wildcats.unh.edu [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); and others

    2016-10-10

    We report observations of low-frequency waves at 1 au by the magnetic field instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer ( ACE /MAG) and show evidence that they arise due to newborn interstellar pickup He{sup +}. Twenty-five events are studied. They possess the generally predicted attributes: spacecraft-frame frequencies slightly greater than the He{sup +} cyclotron frequency, left-hand polarization in the spacecraft frame, and transverse fluctuations with minimum variance directions that are quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field. Their occurrence spans the first 18 years of ACE operations, with no more than 3 such observations in any given year. Thus, the events are relatively rare. As with past observations by the Ulysses and Voyager spacecraft, we argue that the waves are seen only when the background turbulence is sufficiently weak as to allow for the slow accumulation of wave energy over many hours.

  8. Fatal angioedema induced by angiotensin conversion enzyme (ACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE inhibitors are often prescribed in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and kidney disease. These drugs are on the Essential Drugs List, and are therefore used at primary to tertiary health care levels in South Africa. Angioedema is considered a rare, but potentially fatal side-effect of this agent, with a reported ...

  9. Development of Antennas for Subsurface Radars within ACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarovoy, Alexander; Meincke, Peter; Dauvignac, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the joint activities of the ACE-2 partners in the area of antennas for surface penetrating radar. Main areas of joint research and development are discussed and main results of joint activities are presented. Special attention is given to experimental verification...

  10. Lack of association between two ACE gene polymorphisms (rs4291 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent disorder and the most common cause of dementia in elderly populations. Genetic and environmental factors together play a role in developing late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). According to the recent published papers, ACE is one of the candidate susceptibility genes for LOAD.

  11. POMB/ACE chemotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S

    1997-05-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates.

  12. Characterization of Dust Properties during ACE-Asia and PRIDE: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Ji, Q. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentration over particular pathways around the globe. For example, the ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). The PRIDE (Puerto RIco Dust Experiment, July 2000) was designed to measure the properties of Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Dust particles typically originate in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of dust aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the ocean. During ACE-Asia and PRIDE we had measured aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from ground-based remote sensing. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. We will present the results and discuss their implications in regional climatic effects.

  13. Exploring Students' Epistemological Knowledge of Models and Modelling in Science: Results from a Teaching/Learning Experience on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia; Levrini, Olivia; Dillon, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has been debating climate change for over two decades. In the light of certain arguments put forward by the aforesaid community, the EU has recommended a set of innovative reforms to science teaching such as incorporating environmental issues into the scientific curriculum, thereby helping to make schools a place of civic…

  14. Sanus-Ace: Negotiating a Memorandum of Understanding in external corporate venturing.

    OpenAIRE

    VANHAVERBEKE, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This negotiation case describes a situation in which an investment manager of a large chemical company (ACE) has to decide about a corporate venturing investment in a small high-tech start-up (Sanus). To win board approval for this investment, an ACE business unit (in this case, ACE Food Specialties) must write a letter of commitment. The investment manager of ACE Venturing cannot invest in the start-up without a MoU between the start-up and the business unit of ACE. This case provides the re...

  15. ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade mediates ACE inhibitor, captopril, protective effects in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-08-01

    The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. 8 weeks after the surgical procedures, captopril was administered orally (40mgkg -1 d -1 ), while the specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered at infusion rate of 400ngkg -1 min -1 for 6 weeks. Bone metabolic markers were measured in serum and urine. Minerals concentrations were quantified in serum, urine and femoral bones by inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Trabecular and cortical morphometry was analyzed in the right distal femurs using micro-CT. Finally, the expressions of RAS peptides, enzymes and receptors along with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined femurs heads. OVX animals markedly showed altered bone metabolism and mineralization along with disturbed bone micro-structure. Captopril significantly restored the metabolic bone bio-markers and corrected Ca 2+ and P values in urine and bones of estrogen deficient rats. Moreover, the trabecular and cortical morphometric features were repaired by captopril in OVX groups. Captopril also improved the expressions of ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG, while abolished OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) and RANKL. Inhibition of Ang1-7 cascade by A-779 significantly eradicated captopril protective effects on bone metabolism, mineralization and micro-structure. A-779 also restored OVX effects on RANKL expression and ACE-1/AngII/AT1R

  16. AceTree: a tool for visual analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Carlos L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invariant lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has potential as a powerful tool for the description of mutant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. We previously described procedures for the imaging and automatic extraction of the cell lineage from C. elegans embryos. That method uses time-lapse confocal imaging of a strain expressing histone-GFP fusions and a software package, StarryNite, processes the thousands of images and produces output files that describe the location and lineage relationship of each nucleus at each time point. Results We have developed a companion software package, AceTree, which links the images and the annotations using tree representations of the lineage. This facilitates curation and editing of the lineage. AceTree also contains powerful visualization and interpretive tools, such as space filling models and tree-based expression patterning, that can be used to extract biological significance from the data. Conclusion By pairing a fast lineaging program written in C with a user interface program written in Java we have produced a powerful software suite for exploring embryonic development.

  17. Exploring Flood Resilience Thinking in the Retail Sector under Climate Change: A Case Study of an Estuarine Region of Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With predictions of extreme precipitation and sea-level rise under climate change that may induce morphological changes of estuaries, increased estuarine flood risk needs to be considered. The aim of this case study was to contemplate sustainability from the perspective of flood resilience that focuses on environmental problems and solutions. The study provided insights into retailers’ resilience thinking regarding the flood-prone Shetzu Peninsula in Taipei City. It is of concern that the retailers strategically identified potential flood risks and have developed adaptive knowledge, skills, and networks. The Location Quotient (LQ analysis was conducted to verify that the retail sector of Shetzu Peninsula was considered a basic industry. Further assessments, an interactive visualization model and a consumption intensity map, were provided as supportive data. Based on the results, semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore 15 key retailers’ resilience thinking on how to adapt to floods in terms of risk communication under climate change. This approach is vital to meet the adaptation challenge in the Shetzu Peninsula. As a result, the study indicated that retailers have strategically identified potential weather-related risks and have implemented adaptation plans for each store functions. The study discussed that, in the face of climate change, maladaptation, interactive visualization models for communicating flood risks, and place attachment are key issues to increase flood resilience under climate change. The introduction of adaptation interventions in terms of urban resilience as a part of a comprehensive strategy helps to manage the impacts of climate change towards urban sustainability.

  18. Association of ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the northernmost province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; He, Ning; Zhang, Keyong; Wu, Nan; Zhao, Jingbo; Qiu, Changchun

    2018-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, as a strong candidate gene for essential hypertension(EH), has been extensively studied. In this study, we carried out a population-based case-control study to explore whether ACE gene I/D and A2350G polymorphisms could consider to be risk factors for EH. A total of 2040 subjeces were recruited from Chinese Han in this study, out of which 1010 were cases and 1030 were normotensive individuals. ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and A2350G polymorphism was detected after restriction enzyme digestion with BstuI. Besides, we choosed 10% samples randomly sequencing to verify the accuracy of results. Genotype and allele frequencies distribution of I/D and A2350G in EH and control groups were significantly different. After grouped by sex or age, there were still statistical significances for two polymorphisms. In dominant and recessive model of A2350G, we found significant differences between two groups, respectively. For ACE I/D polymorphism, we observed that the existence of dramatical difference in dominant model between two groups, while in recessive model, marginally significant difference was found. Among the four haplotypes composed by ACE gene A2350G and I/D, haplotype G-D reached the statistical significance in two groups, and exhibited to be a risk factor for the development of EH, whose P ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms were associated with increasing the risk of suffering from EH in the northernmost province of China individuals, with D allele and G allele individuals had a higher risk of EH(OR = 1.443, 95%CI = 1.273-1.636 and OR = 1.481, 95%CI = 1.303-1.684).

  19. ACE genotype, phenotype and all-cause mortality in different cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise H; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Carrying the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and high ACE activity are prognostic factors in diabetic nephropathy, which predicts mortality in type 1 diabetes. We studied the association between the ACE D-allele and ACE phenotype and long-term all-cause ...

  20. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  1. Exploring the response of net primary productivity variations to urban expansion and climate change: a scenario analysis for Guangdong Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fengsong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Lao, Chunhua; Xia, Gengrui

    2015-03-01

    Urban land development alters landscapes and carbon cycle, especially net primary productivity (NPP). Despite projections that NPP is often reduced by urbanization, little is known about NPP changes under future urban expansion and climate change conditions. In this paper, terrestrial NPP was calculated by using Biome-BGC model. However, this model does not explicitly address urban lands. Hence, we proposed a method of NPP-fraction to detect future urban NPP, assuming that the ratio of real NPP to potential NPP for urban cells remains constant for decades. Furthermore, NPP dynamics were explored by integrating the Biome-BGC and the cellular automata (CA), a widely used method for modeling urban growth. Consequently, urban expansion, climate change and their associated effects on the NPP were analyzed for the period of 2010-2039 using Guangdong Province in China as a case study. In addition, four scenarios were designed to reflect future conditions, namely baseline, climate change, urban expansion and comprehensive scenarios. Our analyses indicate that vegetation NPP in urban cells may increase (17.63 gC m(-2) year(-1)-23.35 gC m(-2) year(-1)) in the climate change scenario. However, future urban expansion may cause some NPP losses of 241.61 gC m(-2) year(-1), decupling the NPP increase of the climate change factor. Taking into account both climate change and urban expansion, vegetation NPP in urban area may decrease, minimally at a rate of 228.54 gC m(-2) year(-1) to 231.74 gC m(-2) year(-1). Nevertheless, they may account for an overall NPP increase of 0.78 TgC year(-1) to 1.28 TgC year(-1) in the whole province. All these show that the provincial NPP increase from climate change may offset the NPP decrease from urban expansion. Despite these results, it is of great significance to regulate reasonable expansion of urban lands to maintain carbon balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ACE up the sleeve - are vascular patients medically optimized?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coveney, A P

    2011-03-01

    To examine the current medical management of arteriopathic patients attending a vascular surgical service at a university teaching hospital over a 6-month period. The prescribing of antiplatelets, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers was specifically examined. Vascular patients are often under the care of multiple specialties, and therefore the influence of different medical specialties on the patients\\' medical management was also examined.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and adult attachment interview (AAI) in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning. Specifically, the group differences for individuals who experienced no ACE (n=42, 33%), those with 1-3 ACEs (n=48, 37.8%), and those with ≥4 ACEs (n=37, 29.1%) revealed a pattern in which increased group ACE exposure was associated with greater lack of resolution for past trauma/loss experiences, more adult traumatic events, and more difficulty disclosing past trauma. Despite ≥4 ACEs, 51.4% of highly exposed individuals were classified as secure in the Adult Attachment Interview. Resilience in this group may be related to a combination of attachment security, college education, and engagement in meaningful activities. Likewise, adversity may actually encourage the cultivation of more social support, goal efficacy, and planning behaviors; factors that augment resilience to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

  5. The ACE2 gene: its potential as a functional candidate for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Louise M; Harrap, Stephen B; Velkoska, Elena; Patel, Sheila K

    2013-01-01

    The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CVD (cardiovascular disease), and RAS blockade is an important therapeutic strategy in the management of CVD. A new counterbalancing arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 degrades Ang (angiotensin) II, the main effector of the classic RAS, and generates Ang-(1-7). Altered ACE2 expression is associated with cardiac and vascular disease in experimental models of CVD, and ACE2 is increased in failing human hearts and atherosclerotic vessels. In man, circulating ACE2 activity increases with coronary heart disease, as well as heart failure, and a large proportion of the variation in plasma ACE2 levels has been attributed to hereditary factors. The ACE2 gene maps to chromosome Xp22 and this paper reviews the evidence associating ACE2 gene variation with CVD and considers clues to potential functional ACE2 variants that may alter gene expression or transcriptional activity. Studies to date have investigated ACE2 gene associations in hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease, but the results have been inconsistent. The discrepancies may reflect the sample size of the studies, the gender or ethnicity of subjects, the cardiovascular phenotype or the ACE2 SNP investigated. The frequent observation of apparent sex-dependence might be of special importance, if confirmed. As yet, there are no studies to concurrently assess ACE2 gene polymorphisms and circulating ACE2 activity. Large-scale carefully conducted clinical studies are urgently needed to clarify more precisely the potential role of ACE2 in the CVD continuum.

  6. Assertion checking environment (ACE) for formal verification of C programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Babita; Dhodapkar, S.D.; Ramesh, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe an Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) for compositional verification of programs, which are written in an industrially sponsored safe subset of C programming language called MISRA C [Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software, 1998]. The theory is based on Hoare logic [Commun. ACM 12 (1969) 576] and the C programs are verified using static assertion checking technique. First the functional specifications of the program, captured in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function, are derived from the specifications. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (also called annotations or formal comments) in the program code. The assertions are then proved formally using ACE and theorem proving tool called Stanford Temporal Prover [The Stanford Temporal Prover User's Manual, 1998]. ACE has been developed by us and consists mainly of a translator c2spl, a GUI and some utility programs. The technique and tools developed are targeted towards verification of real-time embedded software

  7. Exploring Historical Coffee and Climate Relations in Southern Guatemala: An Integration of Tree Ring Analysis and Remote Sensing Data =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Diego

    This dissertation makes use of a physical geography perspective to examine the relationship between agriculture and climate in Guatemala using dendrochronology. I examined the potential of high-resolution climate proxy data from dendrochronology to help fill in the gaps of past climate information to better understand the natural and anthropogenic variability of precipitation which, in turn, can inform Guatemala's agriculture sector. This research has demonstrated successful cross-dating and climate sensitivity of Abies guatemalensis in the Pacific slope of Guatemala. Based on this, I have produced a 124-year record of mean precipitation from June-July-August. The mean precipitation from June-July-August at this site seems to receive an important influence from the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean in the form of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the region 3.4. The analysis on the frequency of the precipitation records suggests that single year droughts dominate the record yet, periods of 9 years below-average rainfall can persist. Likewise, single year pluvial events also dominate the evaluated period. The long-term reconstruction of precipitation allowed to describe past relationships between coffee plantations and pests. For instance, the frequency analysis suggests that 4 or more consecutive periods of above-average precipitation are associated with several coffee pests and subsequently great economical losses due to crop failures, including the last coffee leaf rust crisis. This study also presents a streamflow reconstruction of the Upper Samala River watershed using a tree ring-width chronology derived from the Guatemalan fir (Abies guatemalensis) to reconstruct mean August-September-October streamflow volumes for the period 1889-2013. Our analysis shows that strong statistical correlations are present between tree-ring width measurements and monthly natural streamflow series. The mean August-September-October streamflow variability is

  8. A Simple Model Framework to Explore the Deeply Uncertain, Local Sea Level Response to Climate Change. A Case Study on New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Alexander; Louchard, Domitille; Keller, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level rise threatens many coastal areas around the world. The integrated assessment of potential adaptation and mitigation strategies requires a sound understanding of the upper tails and the major drivers of the uncertainties. Global warming causes sea-level to rise, primarily due to thermal expansion of the oceans and mass loss of the major ice sheets, smaller ice caps and glaciers. These components show distinctly different responses to temperature changes with respect to response time, threshold behavior, and local fingerprints. Projections of these different components are deeply uncertain. Projected uncertainty ranges strongly depend on (necessary) pragmatic choices and assumptions; e.g. on the applied climate scenarios, which processes to include and how to parameterize them, and on error structure of the observations. Competing assumptions are very hard to objectively weigh. Hence, uncertainties of sea-level response are hard to grasp in a single distribution function. The deep uncertainty can be better understood by making clear the key assumptions. Here we demonstrate this approach using a relatively simple model framework. We present a mechanistically motivated, but simple model framework that is intended to efficiently explore the deeply uncertain sea-level response to anthropogenic climate change. The model consists of 'building blocks' that represent the major components of sea-level response and its uncertainties, including threshold behavior. The framework's simplicity enables the simulation of large ensembles allowing for an efficient exploration of parameter uncertainty and for the simulation of multiple combined adaptation and mitigation strategies. The model framework can skilfully reproduce earlier major sea level assessments, but due to the modular setup it can also be easily utilized to explore high-end scenarios and the effect of competing assumptions and parameterizations.

  9. Exploring the nexus between climate change, food security, and deforestation in Q'eqchi' Maya communities, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, I.; Harbor, J.

    2013-12-01

    The challenges of food security in the central Highlands of Guatemala are linked to deforestation, land degradation, and climate change. The Q'eqchi' Maya people that inhabit this region are smallholder farmers who rely on subsistence agriculture for survival. The Q'eqchi' support themselves with timber products and ecosystem services provided by the cloud forest, a unique ecosystem where a substantial portion of water is obtained through the condensation of water droplets onto vegetation via cloud filtration. Over the past 30 years, small-scale deforestation of the cloud forest in the Sierra Yalijux and Sacranix has increased as demand for agricultural land has risen. A link between the decline of cloud forest cover and an increase in severe precipitation events that drive soil erosion has been observed in the study area. As a result, land degradation poses a serious threat to the long-term food security of Q'eqchi' communities. We have examined the social, cultural, and land tenure dynamics that impact the ability of the Q'eqchi' to adapt to the rapidly changing climate, as well as to implement recommendations for grassroots initiatives to enhance these adaptations. Using remote-sensing we constructed three land use change maps that show that deforestation rates have increased by over 200% between 1986-2006 in the Sierra Yaljux and Sacranix mountain ranges, largely due to slash and burn agriculture. Using these land use change maps as an input into the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation we show that implementation of agroecological techniques to counter the impacts of land use change drastically reduces soil erosion and is the best management practice. Surveys and focus groups in several Q'eqchi' villages revealed that precipitation events have become less frequent and more intense over the past 30 years, and temperatures have generally been increasing as well. Q'eqchi' people have observed that increasing severe precipitation events have accelerated soil

  10. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  11. Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannavar, Santosh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs₃₄₀). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL⁻¹) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Exploring Relationships among Tree-Ring Growth, Climate Variability, and Seasonal Leaf Activity on Varying Timescales and Spatial Resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, Upasana;Zang, Christian;Vicente-Serrano, Sergio;Menzel, Annette

    2018-01-01

    In the first section of this study, we explored the relationship between ring width index (RWI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series on varying timescales and spatial resolutions, hypothesizing positive associations between RWI and current and previous- year NDVI at 69 forest sites scattered in the Northern Hemisphere. We noted that the relationship between RWI and NDVI varies over space and between tree types (deciduous versus coniferous), bioclimatic zones, cumulati...

  13. Exploring Relationships among Tree-Ring Growth, Climate Variability, and Seasonal Leaf Activity on Varying Timescales and Spatial Resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Upasana Bhuyan; Christian Zang; Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano; Annette Menzel

    2017-01-01

    In the first section of this study, we explored the relationship between ring width index (RWI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series on varying timescales and spatial resolutions, hypothesizing positive associations between RWI and current and previous- year NDVI at 69 forest sites scattered in the Northern Hemisphere. We noted that the relationship between RWI and NDVI varies over space and between tree types (deciduous versus coniferous), bioclimatic zones, cumulati...

  14. Elevated ACE activity is not associated with asthma, COPD, and COPD co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Dahl, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a potential candidate gene for risk of asthma, COPD, and COPD co-morbidity. In 9034 Danish adults, we determined whether individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the ACE D allele are at greater risk of asthma, COPD, or COPD co-morbidity compared...... with ACE II homozygous individuals. In the general population, serum ACE activity increased with the number of D alleles (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: II vs. ID, p....4-1.2). The results were similar upon adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, total cholesterol, and ACE inhibitor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker use. These data suggest that lifelong genetically elevated ACE activity is not a major risk factor for asthma or COPD, or for ischemic heart...

  15. Determinants of Executive Directors’ Remuneration in Malaysia’s ACE Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Chee Yoong

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to analyse and evaluate the determinants of executive directors' remuneration of public listed companies in Malaysia's ACE Market. This study is using panel data analysis on 76 public listed companies in ACE Market from 2009 to 2013 (5 years) with the total of 380 observations. Similar to AIM Market in UK, ACE Market is set up to facilitate emerging companies, which are important to Malaysia economic growth, to raise capital easily. Unfortunately, these companies...

  16. MSCs with ACE II gene affect apoptosis pathway of acute lung injury induced by bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomiao; Gao, Fengying; Li, Qian; Dong, Zhixia; Sun, Bo; Hou, Lili; Li, Zhuozhe; Liu, Zhenwei

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and related mechanisms of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE II) on acute lung injury (ALI). MSCs were separated from umbilical cord cells, and the changes of phenotype before and after ACE II silence were observed using Flow Cytometer. ALI model was induced by 10 mg/mL bleomycin in 60 Balb/c mice, and the rest 8 mice were regarded as the baseline group. The mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15): control, ACE II, stem, and stem + ACE II. The apoptotic index (AI) was calculated using TUNEL, and the detection of protein and mRNA of Bax, Bak and p53, Bcl-2, Grp78, CHOP and Caspase 12 were used by western-blot and RT-PCR, respectively. The umbilical cord cells differentiated into stable MSCs about 14 days, and ACE II transfection reached a peak at the 5th day after transfection. ACE II silence did not affect the phenotype of MSCs. All the proteins and mRNAs expression except Bcl-2 in the stem and stem + ACE II were significantly lower than those in control from 8 h (p ACE II performed a better effect than single stem in most indexes, including AI (p ACE II can significantly suppress apoptosis in ALI mice, and may be an effective clinical treatment for ALI.

  17. Evaluation of ACE gene I/D polymorphism in Iranian elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Somayeh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Salehi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an important gene, which is associated with the successful physical activity. The ACE gene has a major polymorphism (I/D) in intron 16 that determines its plasma and tissue levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is an association between this polymorphism and sports performance in our studied population including elite athletes of different sports disciplines. We investigated allele frequency and genotype distribution of the ACE gene in 156 Iranian elite athletes compared to 163 healthy individuals. We also investigated this allele frequency between elite athletes in three functional groups of endurance, power, and mixed sports performances. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was performed on intron 16 of the ACE gene. The ACE genotype was determined for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15, and results were analyzed by Chi-Square test. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency of the ACE gene in athletes and control group (P = 0.05, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a significant difference in allele frequency of the ACE gene in 3 groups of athletes with different sports disciplines (P = 0.045). Proportion of the ACE gene D allele was greater in elite endurance athletes (37 high-distance cyclists) than two other groups. Findings of the present study demonstrated that there is an association between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and sports performance in Iranian elite athletes.

  18. Somatic ACE regulates self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells via the MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chenchen; Shao, Binbin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Kai; Cai, Jinyang; Wang, Su; Huang, Xiaoyan

    2018-05-24

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal is an indispensable part of spermatogenesis. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that plays a critical role in regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Here, we used RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to confirm that somatic ACE (sACE) but not testicular ACE (tACE) is highly expressed in mouse testis before postpartum day 7 and in cultured SSCs. Our results revealed that sACE is located on the membrane of SSCs. Treating cultured SSCs with the ACE competitive inhibitor captopril was found to inhibit sACE activity, and significantly reduced the proliferation rate of SSCs. Microarray analysis identified 651 genes with significant differential expression. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and cell cycle. sACE was found to play an important role in SSC self-renewal via the regulation of MAPK-dependent cell proliferation.

  19. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  20. A Systematic Exploration of the Local and Remote Climate Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosol Emissions from Key Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Kasoar, M.; Shawki, D.; Lamarque, J. F.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Bellouin, N.; Collins, W.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2016-12-01

    The radiative forcing of short-lived pollutants such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone is highly inhomogeneous and can therefore affect regional temperature, circulation and precipitation in a much more complicated way than the forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases. Such effects have only recently started to be examined thoroughly and systematically from a global point of view, to understand regional interactions. Here, after outlining some key past work in this area, results from recent simulations with the UK Met Office's HadGEM3 global composition-climate model will be presented in which anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and black carbon in key regions (East Asia, South Asia, Europe, the US, and the northern mid-latitudes as a whole) have been removed. The linkages between emissions, concentrations, radiative forcing, temperature and precipitation responses will be discussed. A particular emphasis will be placed on non-local effects, i.e. how emissions over a certain region can affect other areas remotely. Finally, we will contrast our results with those from similar experiments pursued using the NASA GISS-E2 and the NCAR CESM1 models for US and East Asian SO2 emissions, and will discuss the large differences in the models' behaviour.

  1. Exploring the Effect of Climate Perturbations on Water Availability for Renewable Energy Development in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, David M.

    Energy and water are connected through the water-use cycle (e.g. obtaining, transporting, and treating water) and thermoelectric energy generation, which converts heat to electricity via steam-driven turbines. As the United States implements more renewable energy technologies, quantifying the relationships between energy, water, and land-surface impacts of these implementations will provide policy makers the strengths and weaknesses of different renewable energy options. In this study, a MODFLOW model of the Indian Wells Valley (IWV), in California, was developed to capture the water, energy, and land-surface impacts of potential proposed 1) solar, 2) wind, and 3) biofuel implementations. The model was calibrated to pre-existing groundwater head data from 1985 to present to develop a baseline model before running two-year predictive scenarios for photovoltaic (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, and biofuel implementations. Additionally, the baseline model was perturbed by decreasing mountain front recharge values by 5%, 10%, and 15%, simulating potential future system perturbations under a changing climate. These potential future conditions were used to re-run each implementation scenario. Implementation scenarios were developed based on population, typical energy use per person, existing land-use and land-cover type within the IWV, and previously published values for water use, surface-area use, and energy-generation potential for each renewable fuel type. The results indicate that the quantity of water needed, localized drawdown from pumping water to meet implementation demands, and generation efficiency are strongly controlled by the fuel type, as well as the energy generating technology and thermoelectric technologies implemented. Specifically, PV and wind-turbine (WT) implementations required less than 1% of the estimated annual aquifer recharge, while technologies such as biofuels and CSP, which rely on thermoelectric generation, ranged from 3% to 20

  2. Exploring the MIS M2 glaciation occurring during a warm and high atmospheric CO2 Pliocene background climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn

    2017-08-01

    Prior to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation around ∼2.7 Ma, a large global glaciation corresponding to a 20 to 60 m sea-level drop occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (3.312-3.264 Ma), interrupted the period of global warmth and high CO2 concentration (350-450 ppmv) of the mid Piacenzian. Unlike the late Quaternary glaciations, the M2 glaciation only lasted 50 kyrs and occurred under uncertain CO2 concentration (220-390 ppmv). The mechanisms causing the onset and termination of the M2 glaciation remain enigmatic, but a recent geological hypothesis suggests that the re-opening and closing of the shallow Central American Seaway (CAS) might have played a key role. In this article, thanks to a series of climate simulations carried out using a fully coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) and a dynamic ice sheet model, we show that re-opening of the shallow CAS helps precondition the low-latitude oceanic circulation and affects the related northward energy transport, but cannot alone explain the onset of the M2 glaciation. The presence of a shallow open CAS, together with favourable orbital parameters, 220 ppmv of CO2 concentration, and the related vegetation and ice sheet feedback, led to a global ice sheet build-up producing a global sea-level drop in the lowest range of proxy-derived estimates. More importantly, our results show that the simulated closure of the CAS has a negligible impact on the NH ice sheet melt and cannot explain the MIS M2 termination.

  3. Economic Hardship in Childhood: A Neglected Issue in ACE Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen; Curtis, Mike

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with ill-health in adulthood, but ACE literature has focused on family disruption or dysfunction (e.g., child abuse, parental separation), with less attention to economic adversity. We examined whether a mother's economic hardship in childhood (EHC) was associated with women's hardships and health-risk behaviors during/just before pregnancy. Methods We analyzed population-based survey data on 27,102 postpartum California women. EHC included respondents' reports that during childhood they/their families experienced hunger because of inability to afford food or moved because of problems paying rent/mortgage and the frequency of difficulty paying for basic needs. We examined six maternal hardships/behaviors during/just before pregnancy, including four hardships (poverty, food insecurity, homelessness/no regular place to sleep, intimate partner violence) and two behaviors (smoking, binge drinking). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated from sequential logistic regression models estimating associations between EHC (categorized by level of hardship) and each maternal hardship/behavior, first without adjustment, then adjusting for other childhood and current maternal factors, and finally adding family disruption/dysfunction. Results Before adjustment for family disruption/dysfunction, the highest and intermediate EHC levels were associated with each maternal hardship/behavior; after full adjustment, those associations persisted except with smoking. Higher EHC levels generally appeared associated with larger PRs, although confidence intervals overlapped. Conclusions for Policy/Practice These findings link childhood economic hardship with women's hardships, binge drinking, and possibly smoking around the time of pregnancy. Without establishing causality, they support previous research indicating that childhood economic adversity should be considered an ACE.

  4. ACE gene in pregnancy complications: Insights into future vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Sticchi, Elena; Rossi, Lorenza; Cellai, Anna Paola; Rogolino, Angela; Abbate, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    A history of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPCs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, possibly related to the persistence of endothelial dysfunction. We performed this study in order to search for a common genetic background shared by women with a history of PMPC and vascular disorders, due to their common pathophysiologic pathway of endothelial dysfunction. We analyzed the prevalence of seven polymorphisms in ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and eNOS genes, endothelial-function related, in 290 women with a history of premature cardiovascular events (CVDs), and in 367 women with a history of PMPC (preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth (SB), and small for gestational age (SGA)), compared with 300 healthy women (HW) who delivered after uneventful pregnancy (HW). ACE D allele frequency was similar between women with history of CVD and PMPC, and significantly higher than that observed in HW [OR (95% CI) 1.91, p = 0.002, and OR (95% CI) 2.18, p ACE-240T or eNOS-786C allele, a two-fold increase in SB susceptibility was evidenced (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005, respectively). Women with a history of SB and premature CVD exhibited a significantly higher unfavorable allelic burden ≥ 3 in comparison to that observed in HW (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Our findings demonstrate a common genetic background shared by women with a history of vascular disorders and PMPCs; pregnancy may be considered a window to future cardiovascular risk; therefore, "non-classic" genetic biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction might allow one to identify women who could have a greater benefit for an early cardiovascular screening and prevention.

  5. A.L.I.C.E.: an ACE in Digitaland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Shah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial linguistic Internet computer entity, A.L.I.C.E. is considered head and shoulders above other artificial conversational entities, an ACE in digitaland. Three times winner of Loebner’s annual instantiation of Turing’s Test for machine intelligence in 2000, 2001 and 2004 judged most human-like machine, A.L.I.C.E. was additionally gold medal champion in 2004, for most knowledgeable programme in Chatterbox Challenge and won bronze medal for most popular ACE. As a modern Eliza, A.L.I.C.E appears as a dark-haired, blue-eyed female avatar, or e-person. The programme’s architecture contains a combinatory scheme including key-word matching, spell checker, grammatical parser, random sentence generator and case-based reasoning or next-neighbour classification. These features allow A.L.I.C.E. to correctly identify the sense of word ‘live’ to produce responses about residential location when asked “where do you live?” and ask question about “subject” being “studied” when presented with “I study a lot”. As a discourse model, discourse features such as information exchange, disclosure of intentions, goals and desires are minimally exhibited in A.L.I.C.E.’s conversations; its verbal behaviour is akin to that of autistic children. However, A.L.I.C.E. type programmes appear on e-commerce Internet sites in a variety of roles; their use will continue to grow as more companies see their deployment as enhancing humancomputer interaction while building brand awareness and increasing sales. ELBOT, Loebner’s 2003 bronze runner up and Chatterbox 2003 winner, is the underlying technology behind text-based dialogical query system Anna, used by Swedish furniture store IKEA. As a virtual customer service agent, NY Wall Street Journal considered it a most useful ACE. As seen in both the Loebner Contests and Chatterbox Challenges, in unrestricted domains these programmes have a long way to go before they are able to constrain their

  6. ACE puts containment venting systems to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merilo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Filtered venting of reactor containments has received considerable attention recently as a method for avoiding containment failure due to overpressure during severe accidents. Several proposed filtration devices have been tested in the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) programme, such that a self consistent comparison of the aerosol removal characteristics of these systems could be obtained. Considering the different design, requirements and operating conditions of the filter devices, a direct comparison is not possible, nor appropriate. Nevertheless, large scale models, using full scale elements of the various devices whenever feasible, have been tested with consistent mixtures of aerosols and carrier gases. (author)

  7. Comparison of In-Person vs. Digital Climate Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.; Flora, J. A.; Saphir, M.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, ACE (Alliance for Climate Education) evaluated the impact of its 45-minute live climate edutainment education program on the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of high school students with respect to climate change. The results showed gains in knowledge, increased engagement, as well as increased communication about climate change with number of students reporting talking about climate change with friends and family more than doubling. In 2016, ACE launched a digital version of its in-person edutainment education program, a 40-minute video version of the live program. This digital version, Our Climate Our Future (OCOF), has now been used by nearly 4,000 teachers nationwide and viewed by over 150,000 students. We experimentally tested the impact of the digital program (OCOF) compared to the live program and a control group. The experiment was conducted with 709 students in 27 classes at two North Carolina public high schools. Classes were assigned to one of three conditions: digital, live and control. In the digital version, students watched the 40-minute OCOF video featuring the same educator that presented the live program. In the live version, students received an identical 40-minute live presentation by an ACE staff educator The control group received neither treatment. When compared to controls, both programs were effective in positively increasing climate change knowledge, climate justice knowledge, perceived self-efficacy to make climate-friendly behavior changes, and beliefs about climate change (all statistically significant at or above P<.01). In the areas of hope that people can solve climate change and intent to change behavior, only the live program showed significant increases. In these two areas, it may be that an in-person experience is key to affecting change. In light of these positive results, ACE plans to increase the use of OCOF in schools across the country to assist teachers in their efforts to teach about climate change.

  8. Exploring the effects of climatic variables on monthly precipitation variation using a continuous wavelet-based multiscale entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushangar, Kiyoumars; Alizadeh, Farhad; Adamowski, Jan

    2018-08-01

    North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), indeces. The results revealed that all climatic features except NAO influenced precipitation in Iran during the 1960-2010 period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. From lakes to sand seas: a record of early Mars climate change explored in northern Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Banham, S.; Rubin, D. M.; Watkins, J. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Edgar, L. A.; Stack, K.; Day, M.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Ewing, R. C.; Stein, N.; Rivera-Hernandez, F.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Murray formation accumulated. The contrast in depositional environments between these units suggest that the prevailing climate in Gale crater changed, at least temporarily, from a humid environment with surface water that had potential for sustaining life, to a barren desert with reduced potential for habitability at the surface.

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA Methylation Analysis of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Peter; Baghai, Thomas C.; Schüle, Cornelius; Born, Christoph; Früstück, Clemens; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Varallo-Bedarida, Gabriella; Rupprecht, Rainer; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Bondy, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    Background The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been repeatedly discussed as susceptibility factor for major depression (MD) and the bi-directional relation between MD and cardiovascular disorders (CVD). In this context, functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene have been linked to depression, to antidepressant treatment response, to ACE serum concentrations, as well as to hypertension, myocardial infarction and CVD risk markers. The mostly investigated ACE Ins/Del polymorphism accounts for ∼40%–50% of the ACE serum concentration variance, the remaining half is probably determined by other genetic, environmental or epigenetic factors, but these are poorly understood. Materials and Methods The main aim of the present study was the analysis of the DNA methylation pattern in the regulatory region of the ACE gene in peripheral leukocytes of 81 MD patients and 81 healthy controls. Results We detected intensive DNA methylation within a recently described, functional important region of the ACE gene promoter including hypermethylation in depressed patients (p = 0.008) and a significant inverse correlation between the ACE serum concentration and ACE promoter methylation frequency in the total sample (p = 0.02). Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between the concentrations of the inflammatory CVD risk markers ICAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin and the degree of ACE promoter methylation in MD patients could be demonstrated (p = 0.01 - 0.04). Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that aberrations in ACE promoter DNA methylation may be an underlying cause of MD and probably a common pathogenic factor for the bi-directional relationship between MD and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22808171

  12. DNA methylation analysis of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE has been repeatedly discussed as susceptibility factor for major depression (MD and the bi-directional relation between MD and cardiovascular disorders (CVD. In this context, functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene have been linked to depression, to antidepressant treatment response, to ACE serum concentrations, as well as to hypertension, myocardial infarction and CVD risk markers. The mostly investigated ACE Ins/Del polymorphism accounts for ~40%-50% of the ACE serum concentration variance, the remaining half is probably determined by other genetic, environmental or epigenetic factors, but these are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main aim of the present study was the analysis of the DNA methylation pattern in the regulatory region of the ACE gene in peripheral leukocytes of 81 MD patients and 81 healthy controls. RESULTS: We detected intensive DNA methylation within a recently described, functional important region of the ACE gene promoter including hypermethylation in depressed patients (p = 0.008 and a significant inverse correlation between the ACE serum concentration and ACE promoter methylation frequency in the total sample (p = 0.02. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between the concentrations of the inflammatory CVD risk markers ICAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin and the degree of ACE promoter methylation in MD patients could be demonstrated (p = 0.01 - 0.04. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that aberrations in ACE promoter DNA methylation may be an underlying cause of MD and probably a common pathogenic factor for the bi-directional relationship between MD and cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and (for NO2 an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise and MAESTRO and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  14. Uncertainty quantification for accident management using ACE surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varuttamaseni, A.; Lee, J. C.; Youngblood, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method is used to generate RELAP5 surrogates which are then used to determine the distribution of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed (F and B) operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The construction of the surrogates assumes conditional independence relations among key reactor parameters. The choice of parameters to model is based on the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor. The peak clad temperature is calculated based on the independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the F and B operation. The relationship between these independent variables and the plant parameters such as coolant pressure and temperature is represented by surrogates that are constructed based on 45 RELAP5 cases. The time-dependent PCT for different values of F and B parameters is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagating the information through two layers of surrogates. The results of our analysis show that the ACE surrogates are able to satisfactorily reproduce the behavior of the plant parameters even though a quasi-static assumption is primarily used in their construction. The PCT is found to be lower in cases where the F and B operation is initiated, compared to the case without F and B, regardless of the F and B parameters used. (authors)

  15. ACE2 Global Digital Elevation Model : User Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. G.; Berry, P. A. M.; Benveniste, J.

    2013-12-01

    Altimeter Corrected Elevations 2 (ACE2), first released in October 2009, is the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) created by fusing the high accuracy of over 100 million altimeter retracked height estimates, derived primarily from the ERS-1 Geodetic Mission, with the high frequency content available within the near-global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This novel ACE2 GDEM is freely available at 3”, 9”, 30” and 5' and has been distributed via the web to over 680 subscribers. This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of subscribed users, along with fields of study and potential uses. Investigations have also been performed to determine the most popular spatial resolutions and the impact these have on the scope of data downloaded. The analysis has shown that, even though the majority of users have come from Europe and America, a significant number of website hits have been received from South America, Africa and Asia. Registered users also vary widely, from research institutions and major companies down to individual hobbyists looking at data for single projects.

  16. Aerobic exercise training differentially affects ACE C- and N-domain activities in humans: Interactions with ACE I/D polymorphism and association with vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cléber Rene; Fernandes, Tiago; Lemos, José Ribeiro; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Alves, Guilherme Barreto; Mota, Glória de Fátima Alves da; Dias, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have linked angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (II, ID and DD) to physical performance. Moreover, ACE has two catalytic domains: NH2 (N) and COOH (C) with distinct functions, and their activity has been found to be modulated by ACE polymorphism. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the interaction between aerobic exercise training (AET) and ACE I/D polymorphism on ACE N- and C-domain activities and vascular reactivity in humans. A total of 315 pre-selected healthy males were genotyped for II, ID and DD genotypes. Fifty completed the full AET (II, n = 12; ID, n = 25; and DD, n = 13), performed in three 90-minute sessions weekly, in the four-month exercise protocol. Pre- and post-training resting heart rate (HR), peak O 2 consumption (VO 2 peak), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm vascular conduction (FVC), total circulating ACE and C- and N-domain activities were assessed. One-way ANOVA and two -way repeated-measures ANOVA were used. In pre-training, all variables were similar among the three genotypes. In post-training, a similar increase in FVC (35%) was observed in the three genotypes. AET increased VO 2 peak similarly in II, ID and DD (49±2 vs. 57±1; 48±1 vs. 56±3; and 48±5 vs. 58±2 ml/kg/min, respectively). Moreover, there were no changes in HR and MBP. The DD genotype was also associated with greater ACE and C-domain activities at pre- and post-training when compared to II. AET decreased similarly the total ACE and C-domain activities in all genotypes, while increasing the N-domain activity in the II and DD genotypes. However, interestingly, the measurements of N-domain activity after training indicate a greater activity than the other genotypes. These results suggest that the vasodilation in response to AET may be associated with the decrease in total ACE and C-domain activities, regardless of genotype, and that the increase in N-domain activity is dependent on the DD

  17. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and renal function. A review of the current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L

    1991-01-01

    studies have been published to date. In chronic renal failure, ACE inhibitors may worsen anaemia and hyperkalaemia. Renovascular hypertension can be treated with ACE inhibitors, but the treatment may lead to a compromised renal function. The dosage of these drugs should be reduced in renal failure...

  19. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Riquelme

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  20. Validity of the T-ACE in pregnancy in predicting child outcome and risk drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Janisse, James; Hannigan, John H

    2010-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) requires detection of in-pregnancy maternal risk drinking. The widely used T-ACE screen has been applied in various ways, although the impact of those different uses on effectiveness is uncertain. We examined relations among different T-ACE scoring criteria, maternal drinking, and child outcome. Self-reported across-pregnancy maternal drinking was assessed in 75 African-American women. The different T-ACE criteria used varied the level of drinking that defined tolerance (two or three drinks) and the total T-ACE score cut-points (two or three). Receiver operator curves and regression analysis assessed the significance of relations. Increasing the total T-ACE score cut-point to 3 almost doubled specificity in detecting risk drinking whereas maintaining adequate sensitivity, equivalent to that in the original report, and identified substantially more neurobehavioral deficits in children. Redefining tolerance at three drinks did not improve T-ACE effectiveness in predicting outcomes. This study is among the first to show the ability of an in-pregnancy T-ACE assessment to predict child neurodevelopmental outcome. In addition, increasing the total T-ACE score criterion (from 2 to 3) improved identification of non-drinking mothers and unaffected children with little loss in detection of drinkers and affected children. Efficient in-pregnancy screens for risk drinking afford greater opportunities for intervention that could prevent/limit FASDs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The validity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katie; Hacker, Vicki; Lincoln, Nadina Berrice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the validity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) as a screening measure to detect cognitive impairment after stroke. Stroke patients in hospital were recruited and the ACE-R, which includes the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), was administered, followed by a battery of neuropsychological tests, which served as the 'gold standard' for classification of cognitive impairment. The diagnostic validity of the ACE-R was determined by ROC analysis. Of the 101 patients who completed the ACE-R, 61 also completed the neuropsychological assessment. Both the MMSE and the ACE-R were found to have inadequate diagnostic validity for the detection of overall cognitive impairment (MMSE AUC = 0.53, p > 0.05; ACE-R AUC = 0.53, p > 0.05). The ACE-R subscales predicted impairment in specific cognitive domains significantly better than chance; Visuospatial (AUC = 0.71, p cognitive functioning. The ACE-R was not a suitable measure to screen for overall cognitive impairment in acute stroke patients, but was able to detect impairment in visuospatial, attention and executive domains.

  2. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europea and Olea lancea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Adsersen, A.; Brøgger Christensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Olea europea and Olea lancea both inhibited Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in vitro. A bioassay-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of a strong ACE-inhibitor namely the secoiridoid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)-4E...

  3. High serum ACE activity predicts severe hypoglycaemia over time in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    High serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) within 1 year in type 1 diabetes. We wanted to find out whether ACE activity is stable over time and predicts SH beyond 1 year, and if gender differences exist in the association...

  4. An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assogba, Benoît S; Djogbénou, Luc S; Milesi, Pascal; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Perez, Julie; Ayala, Diego; Chandre, Fabrice; Makoutodé, Michel; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2015-10-05

    Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1(R) allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1(D)) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1(D) confers less resistance than ace-1(R), the high fitness cost associated with ace-1(R) is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management.

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with an ACE gene polymorphism and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meurs, Kathryn M.; Olsen, Lisbeth H.; Reimann, Maria J.

    2018-01-01

    a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated......Objectives Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified...... with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease. Methods Seventy-three dogs with a diagnosis of mitral valve disease were evaluated and a blood sample was drawn for ACE polymorphism genotyping and ACE activity measurement. Results Forty-three dogs were homozygous for the ACE polymorphism...

  6. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  7. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  8. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru Wijesekara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension.

  9. AceDoPC, a structured phospholipid to target the brain with docosahexaenoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagarde Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AceDoPC® is a structured phospholipid or acetyl-LysoPC-DHA made to prevent docosahexaenoic acyl migrating from the sn-2 to sn-1 position of the phospholipid, however keeping the main physical-chemical properties of LysoPC-DHA. As previously shown for LysoPC-DHA, AceDoPC® allows DHA crossing a re-constituted blood-brain barrier with higher efficiency than non-esterified DHA or PC-DHA. When injected to blood of rats, AceDoPC® is processed within the brain to deliver DHA to phosphatidyl-choline and -ethanolamine. When injected to rats following the induction of an ischemic stroke, AceDoPC® prevents the extension of brain lesions more efficiently than DHA. Overall, these properties make AceDoPC® a promising phospholipid carrier of DHA to the brain.

  10. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  11. Does the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modify the response to ACE inhibitor therapy? – A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna Annalisa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. Methods Our systematic review involved searching six electronic databases, then contacting the investigators (and pharmaceutical industry representatives responsible for the creation of these databases. Two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized, placebo-controlled trials and abstracted from each study details on characteristics and quality. Results Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Despite repeated efforts to contact authors, only four of the eleven studies provided sufficient data to quantify the effect modification by genotypes. We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. Pooling of the results was inappropriate, due to heterogeneity in ethnicity, clinical domains and outcomes. Conclusion Lack of sufficient genetic data from the reviewed studies precluded drawing any convincing conclusions. Better reporting of genetic data are needed to confirm our preliminary observations concerning better response to ACE inhibitors among Caucasian DD carriers as compared to II carriers.

  12. Pairing Quaternary paleoecology and modern ROV exploration to produce novel reconstructions of marine ecosystem responses to millennial-scale climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, S. E.; Pak, D. K.; Borreggine, M. J.; Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J.; Nicholson, C.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most interesting problems for 21st Century marine ecology is understanding the potential physical, chemical, and biological scale of future climate-forced oceanographic changes. These fundamental questions can be informed through the examination of micro- and macrofauna from Quaternary sedimentary sequences, combined with modern observations of continental margin ecosystems. Here we examine Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) exploratory videos and sedimentary push cores, to identify biological assemblages, including mollusc, echinoderm, ostracod, and foraminifera density, diversity, and community structure from Santa Barbara Basin in the California Borderland. ROV explorations, from 380-500 meters below sea level (mbsl), describe the zonation of benthic fauna and the distribution of chemosynthetic trophic webs, which are consequences of gradations in the oxygen minimum zone and the ventilating sill depth (475 mbsl). Such observations reveal the modern vertical distribution of chemosynthetic bacterial communities and shallower, diverse communities associated with detrital food webs. Biological assemblages from 16.1-3.4 ka (from core MV0811-15JC, collected at 418 mbsl) produce a suite of paleoceanographic indicators, such as dissolved oxygen concentrations (foraminifera), chemosynthetic trophic webs (molluscs), and water masses (ostracods). These assemblages demonstrate how continental margin ecosystems reorganize vertically (through the water column) and geographically through climate events, for example through the loss of cryophilic species, the ephemeral occurrence of chemosynthetic communities, and the trace fossil evidence (through predation scarring on mollusc shells) of higher trophic web interactions. Together with ROV seafloor observations, these communities can reconstruct step-by-step vertical changes in the zonation of the continental margin, and can identify intervals of zonation change in relation to both Santa Barbara Basin ventilation and the

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with an ACE gene polymorphism and myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Kathryn M; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Reimann, Maria J; Keene, Bruce W; Atkins, Clarke E; Adin, Darcy; Aona, Brent; Condit, Julia; DeFrancesco, Teresa; Reina-Doreste, Yamir; Stern, Joshua A; Tou, Sandra; Ward, Jessica; Woodruff, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease. Seventy-three dogs with a diagnosis of mitral valve disease were evaluated and a blood sample was drawn for ACE polymorphism genotyping and ACE activity measurement. Forty-three dogs were homozygous for the ACE polymorphism; five were heterozygous and 25 were homozygous wild type. The mean age and the median severity of disease were not different for dogs with the polymorphism and dogs with the wild-type sequence. The median baseline ACE activity was significantly lower for the ACE polymorphism (27.0 U/l) than the wild-type sequence dogs (31.0 U/l) (P=0.02). Dogs with more severe disease and the ACE polymorphism had significantly lower levels of ACE activity than dogs with the wild-type sequence (P=0.03). The CKCS appears to have a high prevalence of the ACE variant. Dogs with the ACE variant had lower levels of ACE activity even in more advanced mitral valve disease than dogs without the variant. The clinical significance of this finding and its impact on the need for ACE-I in dogs with the polymorphism and heart disease deserves further study.

  14. ACE I/D genotype, adiposity, and blood pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothschild Max

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is a possible candidate gene that may influence both body fatness and blood pressure. Although several genetic studies have been conducted in adults, relatively few studies have examined the contribution of potential candidate genes, and specifically ACE I/D, on adiposity and BP phenotypes in childhood. Such studies may prove insightful for the development of the obesity-hypertension phenotype early in life. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in body fatness and resting blood pressure (BP by ACE I/D genotype, and determine if the association between adiposity and BP varies by ACE I/D genotype in children. Methods 152 children (75 girls, 77 boys were assessed for body composition (% body fat using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry and resting BP according to American Heart Association recommendations. Buccal cell samples were genotyped using newly developed PCR-RFLP tests for two SNPs (rs4341 and rs4343 in complete linkage disequilibrium with the ACE I/D polymorphism. Partial correlations were computed to assess the ociations between % body fat and BP in the total sample and by genotype. ANCOVA was used to examine differences in resting BP by ACE I/D genotype and fatness groups. Results Approximately 39% of youth were overfat based on % body fat (>30% fat in girls, 25% fat in boys. Body mass, body mass index, and fat-free mass were significantly higher in the ACE D-carriers compared to the II group (p Conclusion ACE D-carriers are heavier than ACE II children; however, BP did not differ by ACE I/D genotype but was adversely influenced in the overfat D-carriers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the genetics of fatness and BP phenotypes in children.

  15. ACE-it: a tool for genome-wide integration of gene dosage and RNA expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; Belien, J.A.M.; Vosse, S.; Achame, E.M.; Ylstra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We describe a tool, called ACE-it (Array CGH Expression integration tool). ACE-it links the chromosomal position of the gene dosage measured by array CGH to the genes measured by the expression array. ACE-it uses this link to statistically test whether gene dosage affects RNA expression. ©

  16. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space and Planetary Physics, 2435 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H. [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T., E-mail: mjweberg@umich.edu, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu, E-mail: slepri@umich.edu [Associate Research Scientist, 2417 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to {approx}25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  17. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weberg, Micah J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lepri, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to ∼25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  18. Short-term treatment with diminazene aceturate ameliorates the reduction in kidney ACE2 activity in rats with subtotal nephrectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Velkoska

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2 is an important modulator of the renin angiotensin system (RAS through its role to degrade angiotensin (Ang II. Depletion of kidney ACE2 occurs following kidney injury due to renal mass reduction and may contribute to progressive kidney disease. This study assessed the effect of diminazine aceturate (DIZE, which has been described as an ACE2 activator, on kidney ACE2 mRNA and activity in rats with kidney injury due to subtotal nephrectomy (STNx. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into Control groups or underwent STNx; rats then received vehicle or the DIZE (s.c. 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. STNx led to hypertension (P<0.01, kidney hypertrophy (P<0.001 and impaired kidney function (P<0.001 compared to Control rats. STNx was associated with increased kidney cortical ACE activity, and reduced ACE2 mRNA in the cortex (P<0.01, with reduced cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05, and increased urinary ACE2 excretion (P<0.05 compared to Control rats. Urinary ACE2 activity correlated positively with urinary protein excretion (P<0.001, and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.04. In STNx rats, DIZE had no effect on blood pressure or kidney function, but was associated with reduced cortical ACE activity (P<0.01, increased cortical ACE2 mRNA (P<0.05 and increased cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05. The precise in vivo mechanism of action of DIZE is not clear, and its effects to increase ACE2 activity may be secondary to an increase in ACE2 mRNA abundance. In ex vivo studies, DIZE did not increase ACE2 activity in either Control or STNx kidney cortical membranes. It is not yet known if chronic administration of DIZE has long-term benefits to slow the progression of kidney disease.

  19. Characterization of Dust Properties Near Source Region During ACE-Asia: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S. -C.; Ji, Q.; Chu, A.; Hsu, C.; Holben, B.; Campbell, J.; Welton, E. J.; Shu, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  20. Generating and verification of ACE-multigroup library for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chaobin; Hu Zehua; Chen Yixue; Wu Jun; Yang Shouhai

    2012-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code MCNP can handle multigroup calculations and a sample multigroup set based on ENDF/B-V, MGXSNP, is available for MCNP for coupled neutron-photon transport. However, this library is not suit- able for all problems, and there is a need for users to be able to generate multigroup libraries tailored to their specific applications. For these purposes CSPT (cross section processing tool) is created to generate multigroup library for MCNP from deterministic multigroup cross sections (GENDF or ANISN format at present). Several ACE-multigroup libraries based on ENDF/B-VII.0 converted and verified in this work, we drawn the conclusion that the CSPT code works correctly and the libraries produced are credible. (authors)

  1. Relationship between major depressive disorder and ACE gene I/D polymorphism in a Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Inanir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder (MDD is a complex disease and a significant health problem that is prevalent across the world. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE has an important role in renin-angiotensin system (RAS and converts inactive angiotensin I to a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide angiotensin II. Levels of ACE in plasma vary according to the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the influence ACE gene I/D variations on the risk of MDD. Methods In the present case-control study, we analyzed ACE I/D polymorphism in 346 MDD patients and 210 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction technique. Results Comparing the two groups, no significant difference was observed with regard to either genotype distributions or allele frequencies of the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. Discussion Our findings suggest that the ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with MDD in Turkish case-control study. Further studies are still needed.

  2. Differentiation of semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R Rhys; Dawson, Kate; Mioshi, Eneida; Erzinçlioğlu, Sharon; Hodges, John R

    2008-04-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a simple diagnostic tool bridging the gap between the very brief Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and much longer test batteries used by neuropsychologists which has proven extremely popular internationally. We aimed to assess the ability of the ACE to differentiate semantic dementia (SD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ACE was administered to three groups: SD patients (n = 40) and two separate groups of AD patients (n = 40 in each), matched for overall ACE or MMSE score. Significant differences were found between SD and both AD groups for the ACE sub-scores of naming, reading and orientation in time. Discriminant analysis (SD versus AD) led to the formulation of a 'semantic index' (naming plus reading minus scores for serial-7s, orientation in time and drawing). Application of the semantic index to the patient data found values of less than zero to be predictive of SD rather than AD with 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Validation analysis in an independent sample of 24 SD and AD patients proved even more favourable. The overall ACE score is known to be a sensitive, and specific, indicator of early neurodegenerative dementia; this study shows that the ACE can also be used to detect SD through application of the semantic index.

  3. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2007-07-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is reported to be a highly sensitive and specific "bedside" test for the diagnosis of dementia, but large pragmatic studies of its use in day-to-day clinical practice are lacking. This study measured diagnostic accuracy of ACE in a large cohort of consecutive patients referred to a dedicated Cognitive Function Clinic. Consecutive new referrals over a 3.5-year period were administered the ACE (n=285). ACE scores and subscores (VLOM ratio) were compared to clinical diagnoses of dementia and dementia subtype, established on the basis of widely accepted diagnostic criteria and at least 12-month follow-up. ACE had good sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of dementia, with excellent diagnostic accuracy as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, a lower cutoff than that used in the index paper was required for optimum test sensitivity and specificity. ACE VLOM ratio subscore for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia proved less accurate. This study suggests that ACE is useful for the diagnosis of dementia in routine clinical practice but that other instruments may be required for the differential diagnosis of the dementia syndrome.

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2013-09-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key player of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), involved in conversion of active product, angiotensin-II. Alterations in RAS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases involving heart, kidney, lung and liver. This study is designed to investigate the association of ACE gene expression in induction of liver cirrhosis in rats. Total 12 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided in two groups. Control group received 0.9% NaCl, where as Test group received thioacidamide (TAA), dissolved in 0.9%NaCl, injected intraperitoneally at a dosage of 200mg/Kg of body weight, twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were decapitated and blood sample was collected at the end of experimental period and used for liver functions, enzyme activity, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation estimations. Genomic DNA was isolated from excised tissue determine the ACE genotypes using specific primers. The ACE gene expression in liver tissue was assessed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. The activity of ALT, total and direct bilirubin, SOD and CAT levels were significantly high (pACE gene expression after 12 weeks TAA treatment in cirrhotic rats was significantly increased (pACE gene expression. The finding of major up-regulation of ACE in the experimental rat liver provides further insight into the complexities of the RAS and its regulation in liver injury. The development of specific modulators of ACE activity and function, in future, will help determine the role of ACE and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of liver disease.

  5. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  6. Using Eco-hydrologic modeling in the Penobscot River Watershed to explore the role of climate and land use change on DOC concentration and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, S. F. B. B.; Schaaf, C.; Douglas, E. M.; Huntington, T. G.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon leaches from the terrestrial watersheds to serve as one of the largest sources of marine DOC. Runoff, slope, soil organic matter and land cover characteristics are the primary spatial factors controlling the variability of fluvial Dissolved Organic Carbon fluxes through the catchment. In large, more heterogeneous catchments, streamflow dissolved organic carbon dynamics are regulated by the combined effect of hydrological mechanisms and the proportion of major landscape elements, such as wetland and forested areas. A number of studies have demonstrated that the amount of wetlands, especially peatlands, controls the watershed level transport of DOC in streams.The Penobscot River Watershed is located in north-central Maine and drains into the Gulf of Maine. It is the second largest watershed in New England. The Penobscot River Watershed is primarily forested but also contains extensive bogs, marshes, and wooded swamps.Studying the spatial and temporal changes in DOC export in the Penobscot River Watershed allows us to better understand and detect carbon sinks to carbon source shifts (or vice versa) in northern forested ecosystems.The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System, is a physical process based terrestrial model that has the ability to simulate both the source and transportation of DOC by combining both hydrological and ecological processes. The study is focused on simulating the DOC concentration and flux with RHESSys in the Penobscot River Watershed. The simulated results are compared with field measurements of DOC from the watershed and the model results from the LOADEST and the temporal DOC export patterns are explored. Future changes in the amount of streamflow DOC will also be investigated by using projected land cover and climate change scenarios. Incremental increases in the loss of wetland areas have been implemented to explore the sensitivity of this watershed to wetland loss and progressive changes in forested land cover

  7. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  8. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  9. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  10. Mars SubsurfAce Sounding by Time-Domain Electromagnetic MeasuRements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, G.; Minna, L.; Pagnan, S.; Tacconi, M.

    1999-09-01

    MASTER (Mars subsurfAce Sounding by Time-domain Electromagnetic measuRements) is an experimental project proposed to fly aboard the Italian Drill (DEEDRI) payload for the Mars Surveyor Program 2003. MASTER will offer the scientific community the first opportunity to scan Mars subsurface structure by means of the technique employing time-domain electromagnetic measurements TDEM. Up today proposed experiments for scanning the Martian subsurface have focused on exploring the crust of the planet Mars up to few meters, while MASTER will explore electrical structures and related soil characteristics and processes at depths up to hundreds meters at least. TDEM represents an active remote sensing system and will be used likely a ULF/ELF/VLF ``radar." If a certain volumetric zone has different electrical conductivity, the current in the sample will vary generating a secondary scattered electromagnetic field containing the information about the explored volume. The volumetric mean value of the conductivity will be estimated according to the implicit near field e.m. propagation conditions, considering the skin depth (d) and the apparent resistivity (ra) as the most representative and critical parameters. As any active remotely sensed measurements the TDEM system behaves like a ``bistatic" communication channel and is mandatory to investigate the characteristics of the background noise at the receiver site. The MASTER system, can operate also as a passive listening device of the possible electromagnetic background noise on the Mars surface at ULF/ELF/VLF bands. Present paper will describe in details the application of the TDEM method as well as the approaches to the detection and estimation of the e.m. BGN on Mars surface, in terms of man made, natural BGN and intrinsic noise of the sensors and electronic systems. The electromagnetic background noise detection/estimation represents by itself a no cost experiment and the first experiment of this type on Mars.

  11. ACE3P Computations of Wakefield Coupling in the CLIC Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its novel two-beam accelerator concept envisions rf power transfer to the accelerating structures from a separate high-current decelerator beam line consisting of power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). It is critical to numerically verify the fundamental and higher-order mode properties in and between the two beam lines with high accuracy and confidence. To solve these large-scale problems, SLAC's parallel finite element electromagnetic code suite ACE3P is employed. Using curvilinear conformal meshes and higher-order finite element vector basis functions, unprecedented accuracy and computational efficiency are achieved, enabling high-fidelity modeling of complex detuned structures such as the CLIC TD24 accelerating structure. In this paper, time-domain simulations of wakefield coupling effects in the combined system of PETS and the TD24 structures are presented. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel CLIC two-beam accelerator scheme.

  12. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the simplified entry functionality in the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry: Modification of...

  13. ACE INHIBITION ATTENUATES SYMPATHETIC CORONARY VASOCONSTRICTION IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERONDI, R; SAINO, A; TIO, RA; POMIDOSSI, G; GREGORINI, L; ALESSIO, P; MORGANTI, A; ZANCHETTI, A; MANCIA, G

    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive

  14. Alu insertion/deletion of ACE gene polymorphism might not affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widodo

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... a Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya ... Subjects and methods: The serum bradykinin and I/D polymorphism have been ..... Japanese hypertensive patients receiving an ACE inhibitor.

  15. Compact Magnet-less Circulators for ACE and Other NASA Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission, recommended by the National Research Council’s Earth Science Decadal Survey, will support the development of...

  16. Verification and validation of ACE-format library created from ENDF/B-VII.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chaobin; Hu Zehua; Zhang Benai; Chen Yixue; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    ENDF/B-VII.0, released by the USA Cross Section Evaluation Working Group(CSEWG) in December 2006, was developed in five years since the previous release of ENDF/B-VI.8 and was demonstrated to contain much better physical representations of the data and to perform much better than previus ENDF evaluations over a broad range of applications. We generated ACE-format pointwise cross section library from the ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron reaction sublibrary with the processing code NJOY. The paper provides an overview of ENDF/B-VII.0, a summary of the ACE-format files producing process and a detail description of the validation of the ACE-format library. The conclusion is that the ACE-format library produced is correct. (authors)

  17. Beneficial role of D allele in controlling ACE levels: a study among Brahmins of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shobha; Sharma, Nidhi; Thakur, Sunil; Mondal, Prakash R; Saraswathy, Kallur N

    2016-06-01

    India being a country with vast diversity is expected to have different dietary and life style patterns which in turn may lead to population-specific environmental risk factors. Further, the interaction of these risk factors with the genetic makeup of population makes it either susceptible or resistant to cardiovascular disease. One such candidate gene is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) for various cardiovascular mechanisms. ACE is the key enzyme of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway which maintains homeostasis blood pressure in the body and any variation in the levels is reported to be associated with various complex diseases. The DD genotype is found to increase ACE levels, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases and decrease in ACE levels are associated with kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE levels among Brahmins of National Capital Region (NCR) north India, with respect to age and sex ratio distribution. In this study, 136 subjects of which 50 males and 86 females, who were unrelated up to first cousin, aged 25 to70 years were studied. ACE gene was found to be polymorphic with high frequency of heterozygote (ID) followed by II and DD genotypes. The studied population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to ACE I/D polymorphism (P = 0.55). I allele frequency was found to be higher (0.560) than the D allele (0.44). The median level of ACE was found to be 65.96 ng/mL (48.12-86.24) which is towards lower side of the normal range. ACE levels were found to be increased among individual having either of the homozygotes that is II or DD and higher frequency of heterozygote (ID) is indicative of advantage in the population by maintaining lower ACE levels. The limitation of the present study is low sample size, however, the merit is that the subjects belonged to a Mendalian population with a common gene pool.

  18. Joint ACE ground penetrating radar antenna test facility at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter; Sarri, A.

    2005-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented.......A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented....

  19. Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineviciene, Valentina; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Tubelis, Linas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE (I/D), PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms on footballers performance among 199 Lithuanian professional footballers and 167 sedentary, healthy men (controls). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods on DNA from leucocytes. Results revealed that the angiotensin-1-coverting enzyme gene (ACE) genotype distribution was significantly different between total football players group (II 23.6%, ID 46.7% and DD 29.6%) and the controls (II 24.6%, ID 29.9% and DD 45.5%; P=0.002). Although investigating PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms no significant results were obtained in the total football players group, however, significant differences were determined between forwards and controls [PPARGC1A: GG 54.6%, GA 29.5%, AA 15.9% vs. GG 49.7%, GA 44.3% and AA 6.0% (P = 0.044); PPARA: GG 52.3%, GC 40.9%, CC 6.8% vs. GG 72.4%, GC 24.6% and CC 3.0% (P = 0.034)]. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio of the genotype [ACE ID + PPARA GG] being a footballer was 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.74), and of [ACE ID + PPARGC1A GG] 1.93 (95% CI 1.10-3.37) and of [ACE II + PPARA GC] 2.83 (95% CI 1.02-7.91) compared to controls. It was revealed that ACE ID genotype together with PPARA GG and PPARGC1A GG as well as ACE II genotype with PPARA GC is probably the 'preferable genotype' for footballers. Summing up, the present study suggests that the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA polymorphisms genotypes are associated, separately and in combination, with Lithuanian footballers' performance.

  20. ACE I/D polymorphism in Indian patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Dhandapany, Perundurai Subramaniam; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).......The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)....

  1. Oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells protects against experimental uveitis and autoimmune uveoretinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shil, Pollob K; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Zhu, Ping; Verma, Amrisha; Daniell, Henry; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-12-01

    Hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) resulting in elevated Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to all stages of inflammatory responses including ocular inflammation. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has established a protective axis of RAS involving ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas that counteracts the proinflammatory and hypertrophic effects of the deleterious ACE/AngII/AT1R axis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that enhancing the systemic and local activity of the protective axis of the RAS by oral delivery of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells would confer protection against ocular inflammation. Both ACE2 and Ang-(1-7), fused with the non-toxic cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) were expressed in plant chloroplasts. Increased levels of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) were observed in circulation and retina after oral administration of CTB-ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) expressing plant cells. Oral feeding of mice with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) significantly reduced endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in mice. Treatment with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) also dramatically decreased cellular infiltration, retinal vasculitis, damage and folding in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Thus, enhancing the protective axis of RAS by oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells provide an innovative, highly efficient and cost-effective therapeutic strategy for ocular inflammatory diseases.

  2. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema of the Intestine: Case Report, Incidence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Oudit

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of fosinopril-induced angioedema of the intestine with a chronic course accompanied by multiple acute exacerbations is described. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema of the intestine (AIAI occurs in a minority of patients taking an ACE inhibitor. The clinical presentation encompasses acute abdominal symptoms, pronounced bowel edema and ascites with occasional facial and/or oropharyngeal swelling. AIAI is diagnosed based on the temporal relationship between the symptomatic presentation and drug use, absence of alternative diagnoses including other causes of angioedema, and the prompt resolution of symptoms upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Prompt radiological investigation (abdominal computerized tomography and/or ultrasound is critical in making an early diagnosis and in preventing unnecessary surgical intervention. There is a female predominance of AIAI, which may reflect the interaction of estradiol with the various pathways involved in the pathophysiology of AIAI. Management of AIAI consists mainly of conservative measures and discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be considered as appropriate alternatives. Awareness and knowledge of AIAI are important because of the increasing use of ACE inhibitors, current delays in making the diagnosis, obvious management strategies once the diagnosis is made and the dysutility of alternative diagnoses, which may lead to considerable morbidity. AIAI must be considered in patients taking ACE inhibitors who develop gastrointestinal complaints irrespective of the duration of the therapy.

  3. ACE Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy: Clinical Implications of Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyu Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20–40% of diabetic patients develop nephropathy which is the leading cause of ESRD in developed countries. The ACE I/D polymorphism is thought to be a marker for functional polymorphism which regulates circulating and tissue ACE activity. While the initial study found a protective effect of the II genotype on the development of nephropathy in IDDM patients, subsequent studies have addressed the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. RAAS blockers are the first line drugs for the treatment hypertension associated with diabetes and have been widely used in everyday clinical practice for the purpose of reducing proteinuria in patients with various renal diseases. However, the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers is variable and the percentage of reducing proteinuria is in the range of 20–80%. The antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers may be related to a number of factors: the type or the dose of RAAS blockers, the duration of therapy, the level of sodium intake, and the type of patient’s ACE I/D genotype. Besides the nongenetic factors, drug responses, can be influenced by ACE gene polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy and therapeutic response of RAAS blockers.

  4. Assessment of the relationship between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Lu, Yi; Chen, Xue-Xia; Xian, Wen-Feng; Tu, Wei-Feng; Li, Hong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival after renal transplantation from the published reports are still debatable. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival after renal transplantation using meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library on 1 November 2014, and eligible studies were recruited and synthesized using a meta-analysis methodology. Twelve investigations were included in this meta-analysis for the assessment of the relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival. In this meta-analysis, the ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation for overall populations, Caucasians, Brazilians and Africans. Interestingly, the ACE D allele and DD genotype were associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation in the Asian population. ACE D allele and DD genotype were associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation in the Asian population. However, more studies should be performed to confirm this association. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. ACE-FTS version 3.0 data set: validation and data processing update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Waymark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On 12 August 2003, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE was launched into a 74° inclination orbit at 650 km with the mission objective to measure atmospheric composition using infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy (Bernath et al. 2005. The ACE mission consists of two main instruments, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO (McElroy et al. 2007, which are being used to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere.  Here, we focus on the high resolution (0.02 cm-1 infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, that measures in the 750-4400 cm-1 (2.2 to 13.3 µm spectral region.  This instrument has been making regular solar occultation observations for more than nine years.  The current ACE-FTS data version (version 3.0 provides profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratios (VMRs of more than 30 atmospheric trace gas species, as well as 20 subsidiary isotopologues of the most abundant trace atmospheric constituents over a latitude range of ~85°N to ~85°S.  This letter describes the current data version and recent validation comparisons and provides a description of our planned updates for the ACE-FTS data set. [...

  6. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  7. Proceedings of the Toronto TEAM/ACES workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1991-03-01

    The third TEAM Workshop of the third round was held at Ontario Hydro in Toronto 25--26 October 1990, immediately following the Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation. This was the first Joint Workshop with ACES (Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society), whose goals are similar to TEAM, but who tend to work at higher frequencies (Antennas, Propagation, and Scattering). A fusion problem, the eddy current heating of the case of the Euratom Large Coil Project Coil, was adapted as Problem 14 at the Oxford Workshop, and a solution to that problem was presented at Toronto by Oskar Biro of the Graz (Austria) University of Technology. Individual solutions were also presented for Problems 8 (Flaw in a Plate) and 9 (Moving Coil inside a Pipe). Five new solutions were presented to Problem 13 (DC Coil in a Ferromagnetic Yoke), and Koji Fujiwara of Okayama University summarized these solutions along with the similar number presented at Oxford. The solutions agreed well in the air but disagreed in the steel. Codes with a formulation in magnetic field strength or scalar potential underestimated the flux density in the steel, and codes based on flux density or vector potential overestimated it. Codes with edge elements appeared to do better than codes with nodal elements. These results stimulated considerable discussions; in my view that was the most valuable result of the workshop

  8. Empirical Modeling of ICMEs Using ACE/SWICS Ionic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Y.; Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are some of the largest, most energetic events in the solar system releasing an immense amount of plasma and magnetic field into the Heliosphere. The Earth-bound plasma plays a large role in space weather, causing geomagnetic storms that can damage space and ground based instrumentation. As a CME is released, the plasma experiences heating, expansion and acceleration; however, the physical mechanism supplying the heating as it lifts out of the corona still remains uncertain. From previous work we know the ionic composition of solar ejecta undergoes a gradual transition to a state where ionization and recombination processes become ineffective rendering the ionic composition static along its trajectory. This property makes them a good indicator of thermal conditions in the corona, where the CME plasma likely receives most of its heating. We model this so-called `freeze-in' process in Earth-directed CMEs using an ionization code to empirically determine the electron temperature, density and bulk velocity. `Frozen-in' ions from an ensemble of independently modeled plasmas within the CME are added together to fit the full range of observational ionic abundances collected by ACE/SWICS during ICME events. The models derived using this method are used to estimate the CME energy budget to determine a heating rate used to compare with a variety of heating mechanisms that can sustain the required heating with a compatible timescale.

  9. Why Do Some People Do “More” to Mitigate Climate Change than Others? Exploring Heterogeneity in Psycho-Social Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized—and differentiated from common mitigation behavior—as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change—but not in motivational or socio-demographic links—with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

  10. The Power of Edutainment: Alliance for Climate Education's Assembly Presentation: Impact on Student Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is a national nonprofit that delivers an in-school multi-media assembly presentation to high school students about climate science and solutions. In two years of operation, ACE has reached 870,000 students in over 1400 schools. Throughout spring 2011 and fall 2012, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) will survey approximately 2000 high school students in 100 classrooms at 20 schools before and after its assembly to assess impact on knowledge, attitude and behavior related to global warming and climate science. The survey instrument has been designed in partnership with experts at the Yale School of the Environment and Stanford University's Precourt Energy Center. The knowledge section of the survey queries students' factual understanding of basic climate science. The behavior section asks students about basic climate-related habits related to waste, transportation and energy consumption. The attitude section is comprised of a 15-question subset of the national survey reported in Global Warming's Six Americas. Preliminary results from approximately 200 pre and post-presentation surveys suggest that after viewing the ACE Assembly, climate friendly behaviors increase slightly; correct answers to climate knowledge questions increase by 8%; and attitudes shift away from "Disengaged, Doubtful and Dismissive" toward "Alarmed, Concerned and Cautious."

  11. ACE variants interact with the RAS pathway to confer risk and protection against type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2009-01-01

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Among candidate genes examined for susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been found to be associated with pathogenesis......, in the present study, we evaluated the association of ACE haplotypes and the interactions of ACE, angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II receptor type I (AGTR1) gene polymorphisms with DNP in Asian Indians. We genotyped seven variants of the RAS pathway genes (ACE, AGT, and AGTR1) in type 2 diabetic cohorts...... and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms and their possible interactions with different ACE I/D genotypes are less clearly defined. Recent studies also show that ACE haplotypes may be better predictors to disease susceptibility. Thus...

  12. Assessment of the rs4340 ACE gene polymorphism in acute coronary syndrome in a Western Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Haro, A; Valle, Y; Valdes-Alvarado, E; Casillas-Muñoz, F; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Reynoso-Villalpando, G L; Flores-Salinas, H E; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J R

    2017-09-27

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is considered one of the main causes of death worldwide. Contradictory findings concerning the impact of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene on cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Previous conclusions point out that the variability in results depends on ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms to determine the association of rs4340 polymorphisms of the ACE gene and ACE circulating levels in ACS. Genotyping of rs4340 polymorphisms was performed in a total of 600 individuals from Western Mexico divided into two groups: the ACS and the control group (CG). The polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Serum ACE concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. D/D carriers had higher ACE levels than I/I carriers (3.6 vs 2.8 ng/mL, P ACE concentration levels; however, the polymorphism was not associated with ACS.

  13. Egg ovotransferrin-derived ACE inhibitory peptide IRW increases ACE2 but decreases proinflammatory genes expression in mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Kaustav; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Guan, LeLuo; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    Egg ovotransferrin-derived angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide IRW was previously shown to reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats through reduced vascular inflammation and increased nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of this peptide through transcriptome analysis by RNAseq technique. Total RNA was extracted from kidney and mesenteric arteries; the RNAseq libraries (from untreated and IRW-treated groups) were constructed and subjected to sequence using HiSeq 2000 system (Illumina) system. A total of 12 764 and 13 352 genes were detected in kidney and mesenteric arteries, respectively. The differentially expressed (DE) genes between untreated and IRW-treated groups were identified and the functional analysis through ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a greater role of DE genes identified from mesenteric arteries than that of kidney in modulating various cardiovascular functions. Subsequent qPCR analysis further confirmed that IRW significantly increased the expression of ACE-2, ABCB-1, IRF-8, and CDH-1 while significantly decreased the expression ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in mesenteric arteries. Our research showed for the first time that ACE inhibitory peptide IRW could contribute to its antihypertensive activity through increased ACE2 and decreased proinflammatory genes expression. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2 weeks. 48 h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. - Highlights: • Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 activator prevents ovalbumin-induced asthma. • DIZE acted by upregulating ACE2, downregulating ACE1, MAPKs, markers of inflammation, apoptosis. • DIZE reduced airway inflammation, fibrosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and

  15. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2 weeks. 48 h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. - Highlights: • Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 activator prevents ovalbumin-induced asthma. • DIZE acted by upregulating ACE2, downregulating ACE1, MAPKs, markers of inflammation, apoptosis. • DIZE reduced airway inflammation, fibrosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and

  16. Verification of SIGACE code for generating ACE format cross-section files with continuous energy at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhifeng; Yu Tao; Xie Jinsen; Qin Mian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the recently released ENDF/B-VII. 1 library, high temperature neutron cross-section files are generated through SIGACE code using low temperature ACE format files. To verify the processed ACE file of SIGACE, benchmark calculations are performed in this paper. The calculated results of selected ICT, standard CANDU assembly, LWR Doppler coefficient and SEFOR benchmarks are well conformed with reference value, which indicates that high temperature ACE files processed by SIGACE can be used in related neutronics calculations. (authors)

  17. Molecular and Thermodynamic Mechanisms of the Chloride-dependent Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme (ACE)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher J.; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Akif, Mohd; Sturrock, Edward D.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE), a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis, cleaves the vasoactive angiotensin-I, bradykinin, and a number of other physiologically relevant peptides. sACE consists of two homologous and catalytically active N- and C-domains, which display marked differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. A series of single substitution mutants were generated and evaluated under varying chloride concentrations using isothermal titration calorimetry. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants provided details on the chloride-dependent interactions with ACE. Chloride binding in the chloride 1 pocket of C-domain ACE was found to affect positioning of residues from the active site. Analysis of the chloride 2 pocket R522Q and R522K mutations revealed the key interactions with the catalytic site that are stabilized via chloride coordination of Arg522. Substrate interactions in the S2 subsite were shown to affect chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket. The Glu403-Lys118 salt bridge in C-domain ACE was shown to stabilize the hinge-bending region and reduce chloride affinity by constraining the chloride 2 pocket. This work demonstrated that substrate composition to the C-terminal side of the scissile bond as well as interactions of larger substrates in the S2 subsite moderate chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket of the ACE C-domain, providing a rationale for the substrate-selective nature of chloride dependence in ACE and how this varies between the N- and C-domains. PMID:24297181

  18. Dependence of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field on Heliocentric Distance between 0.3 and 1.7 AU from MESSENGER, ACE and MAVEN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneson, C.; Johnson, C.; Al Asad, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetometer data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft were used to characterize the variation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with heliocentric distance from 0.3 to 1.7 AU. MESSENGER and ACE data form a set of simultaneous observations that spans eight years, from March 2007 until April 2015, with ACE observations continuing until the present. MAVEN data have been collected since November 2014. Furthermore, for the period 2008-2015, MESSENGER and ACE observations were taken over the same range of heliocentric distances: 0.31-0.47 AU and 0.94-1.00 AU respectively. The IMF varies with the solar sunspot cycle, and so data taken simultaneously at different heliocentric distances allow solar-cycle effects to be decoupled from the radial evolution of the IMF. The data were averaged temporally by taking 1-hour means, and median values were then computed in 0.01-AU bins. For the time interval spanned by all observations, the median value of the magnitude of the IMF decreases steadily from 30.1 nT at 0.3 AU to 4.3 nT at 1.0 AU and 2.5 nT at 1.6 AU. The magnitude of the IMF was found to decay with heliocentric distance according to an inverse power law with an exponent equal to the adiabatic index for an ideal monatomic gas, 5/3, within 95% confidence limits. The magnitude of the radial component decays with distance as an inverse square law within 95% confidence limits. We also consider temporal variations of the heliocentric-dependence of the IMF over the current solar cycle by computing power law fits to the simultaneous MESSENGER and ACE observations using a moving window. Our study complements the recent study of Gruesbeck et al. (2017) that used Juno data to consider the variation in IMF properties over the heliocentric distance range 1 to 6 AU.

  19. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism with elevated serum ACE activity and major depression in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzabadi, Negar; Shafiei, Massoumeh; Bahramali, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmed; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Tajik, Nader

    2012-12-30

    Genetic factors contribute substantially to the likelihood of developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) elements in cognition and behaviour and their involvement in aetiology and treatment of depression imply that RAS gene polymorphism(s) associated with RAS overactivity might also be associated with depression. In the present study, genotype and allele frequencies of six common polymorphisms of genes encoding for RAS components were determined in DNAs extracted from venous blood of 191 depressed and 104 healthy individuals using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed, for the first time, that GG genotype of ACE A2350G was significantly associated with MDD among Iranian participants (P=0.001; odds ratio (OR)=6.2; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-18.3). Significant higher serum ACE activity (P=0.0001) as well as higher diastolic blood pressure (P=0.036) were observed in depressed patients compared to the healthy control group. Depressed patients carrying GG genotype of the A2350G polymorphism had a significantly higher serum ACE activity (P=0.02) than individuals with either AA or AG genotype. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis of RAS overactivity in depression in that the genotype associated with higher serum ACE activity in an Iranian population was also associated with MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  2. Associations between ACE-Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Lean Body Mass in Community Dwelling Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Jennifer W; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Wertheim, Betsy C; Klimentidis, Yann; Chen, Zhao; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Manini, Todd M; Womack, Catherine R; Kroenke, Candyce H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2018-01-01

    Studies suggest that ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may preserve skeletal muscle with aging. We evaluated longitudinal differences in lean body mass (LBM) among women diagnosed with hypertension and classified as ACE-I/ARB users and nonusers among Women's Health Initiative participants that received dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to estimate body composition ( n =10,635) at baseline and at years 3 and 6 of follow-up. Of those, 2642 were treated for hypertension at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for relevant demographics, behaviors, and medications, assessed ACE-I/ARB use/nonuse and LBM associations at baseline, as well as change in LBM over 3 and 6 years. Although BMI did not differ by ACE-I/ARB use, LBM (%) was significantly higher in ACE-I/ARB users versus nonusers at baseline (52.2% versus 51.3%, resp., p =0.001). There was no association between ACE-I/ARB usage and change in LBM over time. Reasons for higher LBM with ACE-I/ARB use cross sectionally, but not longitundinally, are unclear and may reflect a threshold effect of these medications on LBM that is attenuated over time. Nevertheless, ACE-I/ARB use does not appear to negatively impact LBM in the long term.

  3. Fine-Mapping Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene: Separate QTLs Identified for Hypertension and for ACE Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Min; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Fann, Cathy S. J.; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Kang, Chih-Sen; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been implicated in multiple biological system, particularly cardiovascular diseases. However, findings associating ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism with hypertension or other related traits are inconsistent. Therefore, in a two-stage approach, we aimed to fine-map ACE in order to narrow-down the function-specific locations. We genotyped 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE from 1168 individuals from 305 young-onset (age ≤40) hypertension pedigrees, and found four linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. A tag-SNP, rs1800764 on LD block 2, upstream of and near the ACE promoter, was significantly associated with young-onset hypertension (p = 0.04). Tag-SNPs on all LD blocks were significantly associated with ACE activity (p-value: 10–16 to ACE activity were found between exon13 and intron18 and between intron 20 and 3′UTR, as revealed by measured haplotype analysis. These two major QTLs of ACE activity and the moderate effect variant upstream of ACE promoter for young-onset hypertension were replicated by another independent association study with 842 subjects. PMID:23469169

  4. Telomere length is associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Eriksson, Anders; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Short telomeres are often associated with cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, while the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (DD, ID, II) has shown such associations less consistently. We hypothesized that telomere length...... and association of telomere length with cardiovascular risk is affected by ACE (I/D) genotype. METHODS: We measured leucocyte telomere length (LTL) by Southern blot and analysed ACE I/D genotypes in 1249 subjects with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined interactions of ACE I...

  5. Computer code TRANS-ACE predicting for fire and explosion accidents in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Nishio; Gunji; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1993-11-01

    The accident analysis code TRANS-ACE was developed to evaluate the safety of a ventilation system in a reprocessing plant in the event of fire and explosion accidents. TRANS-ACE can evaluate not only the integrity of a ventilation system containing HEPA filters but also the source term of radioactive materials for release out of a plant. It calculates the temperature, pressure, flow rate, transport of combustion materials and confinement of radioactive materials in the network of a ventilation system that might experience a fire or explosion accident. TRANS-ACE is based on the one-dimensional compressible thermo-fluid analysis code EVENT developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Calculational functions are added for the radioactive source term, heat transfer and radiation to cell and duct walls and HEPA filter integrity. For the second edition in the report, TRANS-ACE has been improved incorporating functions for the initial steady-state calculation to determine the flow rates, pressure drops and temperature in the network before an accident mode analysis. It is also improved to include flow resistance calculations of the filters and blowers in the network and to have an easy to use code by simplifying the input formats. This report is to prepare an explanation of the mathematical model for TRANS-ACE code and to be the user's manual. (author)

  6. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  7. Lactoferricin-related peptides with inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José M; Burguete, María C; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Enrique, María; Vallés, Salvador; Salom, Juan B; Torregrosa, Germán; Marcos, José F; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2006-07-26

    A selection of lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-related peptides with an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect have been examined using in vitro and ex vivo functional assays. Peptides that were analyzed included a set of sequence-related antimicrobial hexapeptides previously reported and two representative LfcinB-derived peptides. In vitro assays using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and angiotensin I as substrates allowed us to select two hexapeptides, PACEI32 (Ac-RKWHFW-NH2) and PACEI34 (Ac-RKWLFW-NH2), and also a LfcinB-derived peptide, LfcinB17-31 (Ac-FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-NH2). Ex vivo functional assays using rabbit carotid arterial segments showed PACEI32 (both D- and L-enantiomers) and LfcinB17-31 have inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent angiotensin I-induced contraction. None of the peptides exhibited in vitro ACE inhibitory activity using bradykinin as the substrate. In conclusion, three bioactive lactoferricin-related peptides exhibit inhibitory effects on both ACE activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction with potential to modulate hypertension that deserves further investigation.

  8. Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Mytilus coruscus Hydrolysate Using Uniform Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory peptides from mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated and the variable factors, protease concentration, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature, were optimized using Uniform Design, a new statistical experimental method. The results proved that the hydrolysate of alkali proteases had high ACE-inhibitory activity, especially the alkali protease E1. Optimization by Uniform Design showed that the best hydrolysis conditions for preparation of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Mytilus coruscus were protease concentration of 36.0 U/mL, hydrolysis time of 2.7 hours, pH 8.2, and Temperature at 59.5°C, respectively. The verification experiments under optimum conditions showed that the ACE-inhibitory activity (91.3% were agreed closely with the predicted activity of 90.7%. The amino acid composition analysis of Mytilus coruscus ACE-inhibitory peptides proved that it had high percent of lysine, leucine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.

  9. Individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genes on muscle phenotypes in Polish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orysiak, Joanna; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Gajewski, Jan; Szczepanska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk). The ID polymorphism of ACE and the R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 were typed using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism), respectively. The genotype distribution of the ACE and ACTN3 genes did not differ significantly between groups of athletes for either sex. There was no association between ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (alone or in combination) and sum of muscle strength, height of jump or mechanical power in both jump tests (CMJ and SPJ) for male and female athletes. These findings do not support an influential role of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in determining power/strength performance of elite athletes.

  10. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  11. Determination of association constants between steroid compounds and albumins by partial-filling ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Lotta K; Sirén, Heli

    2007-10-01

    ACE is a popular technique for evaluating association constants between drugs and proteins. However, ACE has not previously been applied to study the association between electrically neutral biomolecules and plasma proteins. We studied the affinity between human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and three neutral endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione) and two synthetic analogues (methyltestosterone and fluoxymesterone) by applying the partial-filling technique in ACE (PF-ACE). From the endocrinological point of view, the distribution of endogenous steroids among plasma components is of great interest. Strong interactions with albumins suppress the biological activity of steroids. Notable differences in the association constants were observed. In the case of the endogenous steroids, the interactions between testosterone and the albumins were strongest, and those between androstenedione and the albumins were substantially weaker. The association constants, K(b), for testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione and HSA at 37 degrees C were 32 100 +/- 3600, 21 600 +/- 1500 and 13 300 +/- 1300 M(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for the steroids and BSA were 18 800 +/- 1500, 14 000 +/- 400 and 7800 +/- 900 M(-1). Methyltestosterone was bound even more strongly than testosterone, while fluoxymesterone was only weakly bound by the albumins. Finally, the steroids were separated by PF-ACE with HSA and BSA used as resolving components.

  12. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralva, T; Roca, M; Gleichgerrcht, E; Bonifacio, A; Raimondi, C; Manes, F

    2011-01-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is an improved version of the earlier brief screening test which has been validated in English with high sensitivity and specificity to detect cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ACE-R in an Argentine population. A group of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and patients with behavioural variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) paired by age, sex, and years of education with healthy controls were assessed using the ACE-R. Stage of dementia was measured with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). The English version of the ACE-R was first translated into Spanish and then back-translated into English by two blind independent experts. Internal reliability was very good (Cronbach's alpha=0.89). Concurrent validity, determined by the correlation between total ACE-R and CDR was significant (Pcognitive impairment and has shown to discriminate between bvFTD and AD. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of different part of Channa striata prepared by various cooking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasanah, E.; Budiari, S.; Thenawijaya, M.; Palupi, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    Channa striata (snakehead) extract has been known possessing positive activity, one of which is the ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro. Aims of this study were to determine the effect of cooking and parts of C. striata, i.e. meat/fillet, gonad, skin, gill against the ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activity in vitro. Heat processing methods used were direct boiling and indirect boiling and steamed at 100 °C for 10 min. ACE inhibition activity was analyzed using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) as substrate and antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH method. The result shows that the higher the concentration of the extract (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), the higher the antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by gonad followed by meat extract, skin, and gill. Cooking treatment affected antioxidant activity, being the detrimental treatment were steam and direct boiling. The egg/gonad of C. striata showed the highest capability to inhibit ACE activity followed by meat/fillet, gill and skin. In concentration of 10 mg, extract of C. striata gonad was comparable to captopril, a commercial hypertension drug. While uncooked fillet showed the highest ACE inhibition activity followed by indirect boiling, direct boiling and steaming.

  14. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE): structure, biological roles, and molecular basis for chloride ion dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Yates, Christopher J; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (sACE) has an essential role in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis. It is a zinc protease that cleaves angiotensin-I (AngI), bradykinin, and a broad range of other signalling peptides. The enzyme activity is provided by two homologous domains (N- and C-), which display clear differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. The presence of chloride ions in sACE and its unusual role in activity was identified early on in the characterisation of the enzyme. The molecular mechanisms of chloride activation have been investigated thoroughly through mutagenesis studies and shown to be substrate-dependent. Recent results from X-ray crystallography structural analysis have provided the basis for the intricate interactions between ACE, its substrate and chloride ions. Here we describe the role of chloride ions in human ACE and its physiological consequences. Insights into the chloride activation of the N- and C-domains could impact the design of improved domain-specific ACE inhibitors.

  15. Exploring the science–policy interface on climate change: The role of the IPCC in informing local decision-making in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Candice Howarth; James Painter

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) review of\\ud how to make its Assessment Reports (ARs) more accessible in the future, the research\\ud reported here assesses the extent to which the ARs are a useful tool through which scientific\\ud advice informs local decision-making on climate change in the United Kingdom. Results from\\ud interviews with local policy representatives and three workshops with UK academics, practitioners\\ud and local decision makers are present...

  16. Big Explosions, Strong Gravity: Making Girl Scouts ACEs of Space through Chandra Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lochner, J. C.; Ganguly, R.; Feaga, L. M.; Ford, K. E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Thanks to two years of Chandra E/PO funding we have carried out a number of successful activities with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, focusing on girls in the 11-17 year age range. Our reasons for targeting this age range include the general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age (meaning that we reach them early enough to have a positive effect). We initially target girls due to their underrepresentation in science, but the actitivities are all gender-neutral and highly adaptable to other groups. The program includes two components, in collaboration with Girl Scouts of Central Maryland. The first component is a well-established one-day Girl Scout patch activity entitled Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) where the girls earn a patch for their badge sash. The four BESG activities, mostly adapted from existing E/PO material, are available on the World Wide Web for use by others. The activities cover the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for astronomy, the cosmic abundance of the elements and the supernova origin of many of the elements, black holes and their detection, and supernova explosions/stellar evolution. Thus far approximately 200 girls and their parents have participated in BESG and it has now become part of the council culture. The second activity is new and is part of the relatively new Girl Scout Studio 2B program, which is a girl-led program for the 11-17 year age range. Based on several meetings with small groups of girls and adults, we have formed a Studio 2B "club" called the ACE of Space Club (Astronomical Cosmic Exploration). We'll describe our experiences interacting with the Girl Scouts in this girl-led program.

  17. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  18. Towards a conceptual framework for exploring multilevel relationships between Lean Management and Six Sigma, enabling HRM, strategic climate and outcomes in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, R.; Paauwe, J.; Huijsman, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theory-driven framework simultaneously linking Lean Management and Six Sigma (LM&SS), enabling HRM and strategic climate to outcomes in health care. This framework contributes toward our understanding of direct and indirect (moderating and mediating) effects related to LM&SS

  19. Biodegradation and corrosion behavior of manganese oxidizer Bacillus cereus ACE4 in diesel transporting pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, A.; Ganesh Babu, T.; Karutha Pandian, S.; Maruthamuthu, S.; Palaniswamy, N.; Rajendran, A.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation problem of petroleum products arises since hydrocarbon acts as an excellent food source for a wide variety of microorganisms. Microbial activity leads to unacceptable level of turbidity, corrosion of pipeline and souring of stored product. The present study emphasizes the role of Bacillus cereus ACE4 on degradation of diesel and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX steel. A demonstrating bacterial strain ACE4 was isolated from corrosion products and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that it has more than 99% similarity with B. cereus. The biodegradation and corrosion studies revealed that B. cereus degraded the aliphatic protons and aromatic protons in diesel and is capable of oxidizing ferrous/manganese into oxides. This is the first report that discloses the involvement of manganese oxidizer B. cereus ACE4 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on corrosion in a tropical country pipeline

  20. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R

    2006-11-01

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Aktivitas Inhibitor Enzim Pengubah Angiotensin (ACE dan Antioksidan Peptida Kolagen dari Teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habbib Khirzin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teripang merupakan salah satu echinodermata yang memiliki kandungan protein tinggi dan sekitar 70% dari proteinnya merupakan kolagen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dan antioksidan dari peptida kolagen teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan menggunakan asam asetat 0,5 M. Peptida kolagen diperoleh melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan enzim pepsin dengan konsentrasi 0,1 U/g kolagen, selama 0; 30; 60; 90; 120; 180; dan 240 menit. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE dan antioksidan peptida kolagen diuji dengan metode spektroskopi. Kolagen yang dihasilkan memiliki rendemen 16,40% dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE tertinggi dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis selama 180 menit dengan penghambatan sebesar 82,31%, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh peptida kolagen dari hidrolisis kolagen selama 120 menit dengan nilai IC50 1,9 mg/ml.

  2. Global distribution of upper tropospheric formic acid from the ACE-FTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Abad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first near global upper tropospheric distribution of formic acid (HCOOH observed from space using solar occultation measurements from the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS on board the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite. Using a new set of spectroscopic line parameters recently published for formic acid by Vander Auwera et al. (2007 and Perrin and Vander Auwera (2007, we have retrieved the concentrations of HCOOH between 5 km and the tropopause for ACE-FTS observations from February 2004 to September 2007. We observe a significant seasonal dependence for the HCOOH concentrations related to vegetation growth and biomass burning. We estimate an emission ratio of 0.0051±0.0015 for HCOOH relative to CO for tropical South American fires using a selected set of data for September 2004. Results from the balloon-borne MkIV Fourier transform spectrometer are also presented and compared with the ACE measurements.

  3. Improvement of ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate by Maillard reaction with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu; Meng, Jun; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is widely used to improve the functional properties or biological activities of food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Maillard reaction on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in a casein hydrolysate-xylose system. Two-step hydrolysis was used to prepare casein ACE inhibitory peptides. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating hydrolyzed casein with xylose at pH 8.0, 110 °C for up to 16 h. The results showed that the content of free amino group decreased (P Maillard reaction (P reaction in the MRPs. The study shows that the Maillard reaction under appropriate conditions can improve the ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate effectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Frequency of cough during therapy with ACE inhibitors in Greek hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulos, A D; Meikopoulos, M; Voyaki, S

    1993-12-01

    Persistent dry cough is one of the most common side-effects during therapy with ACE inhibitors. The frequency of cough ranges widely (from 0.2% to 15%) in different series, being higher in small studies and smaller in retrospective studies with large number of patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the true frequency of cough induced by treatment with ACE inhibitors in Greek hypertensives and to determine various possibly correlated parameters, including sex, duration of therapy and kind and dose of ACE inhibitors. All hypertensive patients followed in our Hypertension Clinic and treated with ACE inhibitors participated in the study. A total of 228 patients, 103 males and 125 females, 24-80 years of age, were treated with ACE inhibitors for a period of 1-41 months: 121 with enalapril, 40 with captopril, 39 with lisinopril, 25 with perindopril and 3 with ramipril. During treatment with ACE inhibitors persistent dry cough occurred in 15 patients, 12 women and 3 men, giving a frequency of 6.58%. Eleven patients (4.82%) volunteered the information and three after questioning. The mean age of these 15 patients with cough was significantly higher from that of the group (n = 213) without cough (64.27 +/- 2.5 vs. 57.9 +/- 0.74 years, mean +/- SEM, P = 0.024). The 12 women with cough were significantly older than the 113 without cough (67.77 +/- 2.8 vs. 57.8 +/- 1.04 years, P = 0.032).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. High-throughput interpretation of gene structure changes in human and nonhuman resequencing data, using ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, William H; Campbell, Michael S; Holt, Carson; DeNardo, Erin K; Ware, Doreen; Allen, Andrew S; Yandell, Mark; Reddy, Timothy E

    2017-05-15

    The accurate interpretation of genetic variants is critical for characterizing genotype-phenotype associations. Because the effects of genetic variants can depend strongly on their local genomic context, accurate genome annotations are essential. Furthermore, as some variants have the potential to disrupt or alter gene structure, variant interpretation efforts stand to gain from the use of individualized annotations that account for differences in gene structure between individuals or strains. We describe a suite of software tools for identifying possible functional changes in gene structure that may result from sequence variants. ACE ('Assessing Changes to Exons') converts phased genotype calls to a collection of explicit haplotype sequences, maps transcript annotations onto them, detects gene-structure changes and their possible repercussions, and identifies several classes of possible loss of function. Novel transcripts predicted by ACE are commonly supported by spliced RNA-seq reads, and can be used to improve read alignment and transcript quantification when an individual-specific genome sequence is available. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we show that ACE predictions confirm earlier results regarding the quantitative effects of nonsense-mediated decay, and we show that predicted loss-of-function events are highly concordant with patterns of intolerance to mutations across the human population. ACE can be readily applied to diverse species including animals and plants, making it a broadly useful tool for use in eukaryotic population-based resequencing projects, particularly for assessing the joint impact of all variants at a locus. ACE is written in open-source C ++ and Perl and is available from geneprediction.org/ACE. myandell@genetics.utah.edu or tim.reddy@duke.edu. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  6. Brazilian adaptation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Amaral Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R is a highly sensitive and specific tool for the detection of mild dementia. It is particularly useful in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal dementia. While the first version of the test battery has been adapted in many countries, its revised version has not, probably because it was published very recently. Objective: To translate and adapt the ACE-R for use in the Brazilian population. Methods: Two independent translations were made from English into Portuguese, followed by two independent back-translations. Few adaptations in accordance to the Brazilian culture and language were made and a first version of the instrument produced. This former version of the ACE-R was administered to 21 cognitively healthy subjects aged 60 years or more, with different educational levels. Results: The mean age of the studied sample of healthy elderly was 75.4 years (ranging from 60 to 89 years. Small additional modifications were necessary after the evaluation of the first ten subjects in order to improve comprehension of the test. The final Portuguese version of the ACE-R was produced and was found to be well understood by the remaining 11 subjects, taking an average of 15 minutes to be administered. Conclusions: The Brazilian version of the ACE-R proved to be a promising cognitive instrument for testing both in research and clinical settings. With this regard, additional studies are currently being carried out in our unit in order to investigate the diagnostic properties of the ACE-R in our milieu.

  7. Brazilian adaptation of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Viviane Amaral; Caramelli, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) is a highly sensitive and specific tool for the detection of mild dementia. It is particularly useful in differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from frontotemporal dementia. While the first version of the test battery has been adapted in many countries, its revised version has not, probably because it was published very recently. Objective To translate and adapt the ACE-R for use in the Brazilian population. Methods Two independent translations were made from English into Portuguese, followed by two independent back-translations. Few adaptations in accordance to the Brazilian culture and language were made and a first version of the instrument produced. This former version of the ACE-R was administered to 21 cognitively healthy subjects aged 60 years or more, with different educational levels. Results The mean age of the studied sample of healthy elderly was 75.4 years (ranging from 60 to 89 years). Small additional modifications were necessary after the evaluation of the first ten subjects in order to improve comprehension of the test. The final Portuguese version of the ACE-R was produced and was found to be well understood by the remaining 11 subjects, taking an average of 15 minutes to be administered. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the ACE-R proved to be a promising cognitive instrument for testing both in research and clinical settings. With this regard, additional studies are currently being carried out in our unit in order to investigate the diagnostic properties of the ACE-R in our milieu. PMID:29213390

  8. Brazilian adaptation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Viviane Amaral; Caramelli, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) is a highly sensitive and specific tool for the detection of mild dementia. It is particularly useful in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal dementia. While the first version of the test battery has been adapted in many countries, its revised version has not, probably because it was published very recently. To translate and adapt the ACE-R for use in the Brazilian population. Two independent translations were made from English into Portuguese, followed by two independent back-translations. Few adaptations in accordance to the Brazilian culture and language were made and a first version of the instrument produced. This former version of the ACE-R was administered to 21 cognitively healthy subjects aged 60 years or more, with different educational levels. The mean age of the studied sample of healthy elderly was 75.4 years (ranging from 60 to 89 years). Small additional modifications were necessary after the evaluation of the first ten subjects in order to improve comprehension of the test. The final Portuguese version of the ACE-R was produced and was found to be well understood by the remaining 11 subjects, taking an average of 15 minutes to be administered. The Brazilian version of the ACE-R proved to be a promising cognitive instrument for testing both in research and clinical settings. With this regard, additional studies are currently being carried out in our unit in order to investigate the diagnostic properties of the ACE-R in our milieu.

  9. PAPR reduction in FBMC using an ACE-based linear programming optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as

  10. Climate - Our future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this picture-based book is to make climate change understandable to a wider public. Images tell the story, figure captions enhance the essentials. Text passages tie and highlight the story, rather than provide long explanations of complex scientific reasoning. Brief summaries at the end of each chapter review knowledge of which everybody should be aware. They are based on the scientific assessments of the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report. The climate story is explored from six different angles: the physical system, past changes, how climate affects cultures, how people affect climate, the importance of research and how to view the future

  11. Etabloituminen Venäjän markkinoille : case: Ace Cafe

    OpenAIRE

    Airaksinen, Joni; Husu, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää Ace Cafe –kahvilaravintolaketjun etabloitumismahdollisuuksia Venäjän markkinoille. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tuottaa kohdeyritykselle hyödyllinen entry plan ja tutkia Venäjän sekä erityisesti Pietarin alueen markkinoita ravintola- ja kahvila-alan näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Ace Corner Finland Oy:lle. Tutkimus oli kvalitatiivinen eli laadullinen tutkimus, joka tehtiin haastatteluiden ja Venäjän markkinoita luotaavan PEST...

  12. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...

  13. Adverse cardiac effects of exogenous angiotensin 1-7 in rats with subtotal nephrectomy are prevented by ACE inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Burrell

    Full Text Available We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang 1-7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi to Ang 1-7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1-7 on the heart in experimental kidney failure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (STNx and were treated with vehicle, the ACEi ramipril (oral 1mg/kg/day, Ang 1-7 (subcutaneous 24 μg/kg/h or dual therapy (all groups, n = 12. A control group (n = 10 of sham-operated rats were also studied. STNx led to hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and increased both left ventricular ACE2 activity and ACE binding. STNx was not associated with changes in plasma levels of ACE, ACE2 or angiotensin peptides. Ramipril reduced blood pressure, improved cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and inhibited cardiac ACE. Ang 1-7 infusion increased blood pressure, cardiac interstitial fibrosis and cardiac ACE binding compared to untreated STNx rats. Although in STNx rats, the addition of ACEi to Ang 1-7 prevented any deleterious cardiac effects of Ang 1-7, a limitation of the study is that the large increase in plasma Ang 1-7 with ramipril may have masked any effect of infused Ang 1-7.

  14. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients after an acute coronary event : The Diacourse-ACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to define the clinical profile and difficulties encountered by type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event (ACE), to develop and evaluate a tailored supportive intervention for type 2 diabetes patients with a first ACE and to examine diabetes-related

  15. PEMBENTUKAN KESADARAN MEREK MELALUI PILIHAN MEDIA DAN PESAN IKLAN YANG EFEKTIF (Studi Pada PT. Ace Jaya Proteksi Cabang Pekanbaru)

    OpenAIRE

    Afred Suci

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak: Penelitian dilakukan di PT. ACE Jaya Proteksi cabang Pekanbaru guna menganalisis seberapa besar nasabah menyadari keberadaan merek perusahaan dengan adanya media dan pesan iklan. Populasi penelitian adalah nasabah ACE Jaya Proteksi cabang Pekanbaru. Dengan menggunakan formulasi dari Djarwanto dan Subagyo diperoleh jumlah sampel sebanyak 96 orang yang kemudian digenapkan menjadi 100 orang nasabah. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bah...

  16. Production of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides from Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates: Purification and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Mirzaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates were prepared by two different sonicated-enzymatic (trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysis treatments to obtain antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained by 5 h, exhibited the highest antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. After fractionation using ultrafiltration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC techniques, two new peptides were identified. One fragment (LL-9, MW = 1180 Da with the amino acid sequence of Leu-Pro-Glu-Ser-Val-His-Leu-Asp-Lys showed significant ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 22.88 μM while another peptide fragment (VL-9, MW = 1118 Da with the amino acid sequence of Val-Leu-Ser-Thr-Ser-Phe-Pro-Pro-Lys showed the highest antioxidant and ACE inhibitory properties (IC50 = 15.20 μM, 5568 μM TE/mg protein. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibitory activities of VL-9 is due to interaction with the S2 (His513, His353, Glu281 and S′1 (Glu162 pockets of ACE and LL-9 can fit perfectly into the S1 (Thr345 and S2 (Tyr520, Lys511, Gln281 pockets of ACE. Keywords: K. marxianus, Bioactive peptides, Antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, Protein hydrolysate

  17. 75 FR 82010 - AceInfo Solutions and Avaya Government Solutions, Koansys LLC, and Quality Associates Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Associates Inc., to fulfill the obligations of the contract. DATES: AceInfo Solutions and its subcontractors... Inc. have been awarded a contract to perform work for OPP, and access to this information will enable... Contract No. GS-06F-0337Z, AceInfo Solutions and its subcontractors, Avaya Government Solutions, Koansys...

  18. Exploring clouds, weather, climate, and modeling using bilingual content and activities from the Windows to the Universe program and the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its third year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences through its affiliation with the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). W2U web pages are written at three levels in English and Spanish. This information targets learners at all levels, educators, and families who seek to understand and share resources and information about the nature of weather and the climate system, and career role models from related research fields. This resource can also be helpful to educators who are building bridges in the classroom between the sciences, the arts, and literacy. Visitors to the W2U's CMMAP web portal can access a beautiful new clouds image gallery; information about each cloud type and the atmospheric processes that produce them; a Clouds in Art interactive; collections of weather-themed poetry, art, and myths; links to games and puzzles for children; and extensive classroom- ready resources and activities for K-12 teachers. Biographies of CMMAP scientists and graduate students are featured. Basic science concepts important to understanding the atmosphere, such as condensation, atmosphere pressure, lapse rate, and more have been developed, as well as 'microworlds' that enable students to interact with experimental tools while building fundamental knowledge

  19. ACE Inhibitor and ARB utilization and expenditures in the Medicaid fee-for-service program from 1991 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Boyang; Kelton, Christina M L; Guo, Jeff J; Wigle, Patricia R

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, as well as for kidney disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus and the management of patients after myocardial infarction. To (a) describe ACE inhibitor and ARB utilization and spending in the Medicaid fee-for-service program from 1991 through 2008, and (b) estimate the potential cost savings for the collective Medicaid programs from a higher ratio of generic ACE inhibitor utilization. A retrospective, descriptive analysis was performed using the National Summary Files from the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data, which are composed of pharmacy claims that are subject to federally mandated rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers. For the years 1991-2008, quarterly claim counts and expenditures were calculated by summing data for individual ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Quarterly per-claim expenditure as a proxy for drug price was computed for all brand and generic drugs. Market shares were calculated based on the number of pharmacy claims and Medicaid expenditures. In the Medicaid fee-for-service program, ACE inhibitors accounted for 100% of the claims in the combined market for ACE inhibitors and ARBs in 1991, 80.6% in 2000, and 64.7% in 2008. The Medicaid expenditure per ACE inhibitor claim dropped from $37.24 in 1991 to $24.03 in 2008 when generics accounted for 92.5% of ACE inhibitor claims; after adjusting for inflation for the period from 1991 to 2008, the real price drop was 59.2%. Brand ACE inhibitors accounted for only 7.5% of the claims in 2008 for all ACE inhibitors but 32.1% of spending; excluding the effects of manufacturer rebates, Medicaid spending would have been reduced by $28.7 million (9%) in 2008 if all ACE inhibitor claims were generic. The average price per ACE inhibitor claim in 2008 was $24.03 ($17.64 per generic claim vs. $103.45 per brand claim) versus $81.98 per ARB

  20. Contribution of ICT to Climate Targets of Cities. Exploring the potential of Information and Communication Technologies in reducing emissions and energy use from buildings and travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna

    2012-07-01

    This thesis examines how ICT solutions can assist in lowering energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings and travel in order to help cities meet their climate targets. It also provides an overview of relevant research intended to furnish new knowledge about the issues involved and to find solutions to social problems. The first part of the thesis provides an analysis and compilation of critical system boundaries that need to be used for cities to set targets for energy use and GHG emissions. The climate targets of cities are dependent on setting system boundaries and establishing methods of calculations for monitoring whether the targets have been achieved. Today, there is no official standard for how the system boundaries must be set or what calculation methodologies to apply to evaluate the climate targets. Four main categories of system boundaries were identified: the temporal scope, the object of target setting, the unit of target setting, and the target range (e.g. consumer-producer and lifecycle perspective). Eight European cities were examined in relation to how they set climate targets. The examination showed that awareness of what is included in the targets is limited and that there is a need for standardised and consistent protocols and methods of setting climate targets for cities. In the second part of the thesis, leading Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS) and their functionalities were investigated. The relationship between individual decisions on different travel modes and functionalities of ATIS was investigated through a systematic investigation of the functionality of nine ATIS, mainly from Sweden, Germany, UK and USA. This allowed decisions that could lead to lower energy use and emissions of GHG to be identified. It also resulted in a proposal on requirements for new and improved functionality that could support a reduction in energy use and GHG emissions and a shift to renewable energy sources if implemented in next

  1. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE Gene Polymorphism with Inflammation and Cellular Cytotoxicity in Vitiligo Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Rashed

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disorder with profound heterogeneity in its aetio-pathophysiology. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in the physiology of the vasculature, blood pressure and inflammation. An insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was reported be associated with the development of vitiligo.Our aim was to evaluate the ACE I/D polymorphism in vitiligo patients and controls. Our second aim was to find a possible association between ACE gene polymorphism and inflammatory mediators (as interleukin (IL-6 and/or cellular cytotoxicity induced by serum nitrite (as a breakdown product of the cytotoxic nitric oxide in vitiligo patients.This case-control study included 74 vitiligo patients and 75 apparently healthy controls. The distribution of ACE gene I/D genotype was investigated using PCR. Serum ACE, IL-6 and nitrite were measured by colorimetric method, ELISA and Griess assay respectively.The ACE allele frequency was significantly different between vitiligo patients and healthy controls (P = 0.026. However there was no significant difference between the ACE genotyping frequency in both groups (P = 0.115. There were statistically significant higher VIDA score (P = 0.007, and serum IL-6 (P < 0.001 in patients with the DD genotype when compared to other genotypes. Serum nitrite in patients with the DD genotype was significantly higher (P = 0.007 when compared to patients with II genotype. Serum levels of ACE, IL-6 and nitrite in vitiligo patients were statistically significantly higher than those in controls.As a conclusion, ACE gene polymorphism might grant susceptibility to develop vitiligo. Serum IL-6 and nitrite levels might have an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Targeting these two factors might have an implication in the treatment of some resistant cases.

  2. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  3. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Polymorphism with Inflammation and Cellular Cytotoxicity in Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Laila; Abdel Hay, Rania; Mahmoud, Rania; Hasan, Nermeen; Zahra, Amr; Fayez, Salwa

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a disorder with profound heterogeneity in its aetio-pathophysiology. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in the physiology of the vasculature, blood pressure and inflammation. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was reported be associated with the development of vitiligo. Our aim was to evaluate the ACE I/D polymorphism in vitiligo patients and controls. Our second aim was to find a possible association between ACE gene polymorphism and inflammatory mediators (as interleukin (IL)-6) and/or cellular cytotoxicity induced by serum nitrite (as a breakdown product of the cytotoxic nitric oxide) in vitiligo patients. This case-control study included 74 vitiligo patients and 75 apparently healthy controls. The distribution of ACE gene I/D genotype was investigated using PCR. Serum ACE, IL-6 and nitrite were measured by colorimetric method, ELISA and Griess assay respectively. The ACE allele frequency was significantly different between vitiligo patients and healthy controls (P = 0.026). However there was no significant difference between the ACE genotyping frequency in both groups (P = 0.115). There were statistically significant higher VIDA score (P = 0.007), and serum IL-6 (P ACE, IL-6 and nitrite in vitiligo patients were statistically significantly higher than those in controls. As a conclusion, ACE gene polymorphism might grant susceptibility to develop vitiligo. Serum IL-6 and nitrite levels might have an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Targeting these two factors might have an implication in the treatment of some resistant cases.

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Composition over Two Solar Cycles as Observed by the Ulysses/HISCALE and ACE/EPAM Pulse Height Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J. D.; Madanian, H.; Manweiler, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the compositional variation in the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) population in the inner heliosphere over two solar cycles using data from the Ulysses Heliospheric Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM). The Ulysses mission was active from late 1990 to mid-2009 in a heliopolar orbit inclined by 80° with a perihelion of 1.3 AU and an aphelion of 5.4 AU. The ACE mission has been active since its launch in late 1997 and is in a halo orbit about L1. These two missions provide a total of 27 years of continuous observation in the inner heliosphere with twelve years of simultaneous observation. HISCALE and EPAM data provide species-resolved differential flux and density of SEP between 0.5-5 MeV/nuc. Several ion species (He, C, O, Ne, Si, Fe) are identified using the Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) system of the Composition Aperture for both instruments. The He density shows a noticeable increase at high solar activity followed by a moderate drop at the quiet time of the solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24. The density of heavier ions (i.e. O and Fe) change minimally with respect to the F10.7 index variations however, certain energy-specific count rates decrease during solar minimum. With Ulysses and ACE observing in different regions of the inner heliosphere, there are significant latitudinal differences in how the O/He ratios vary with the solar cycle. At solar minimum, there is reasonable agreement between the observations from both instruments. At solar max 23, the differences in composition over the course of the solar cycle, and as observed at different heliospheric locations can provide insight to the origins of and acceleration processes differentially affecting solar energetic ions.

  5. Activation pattern of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) and ACE/Ang II pathway in course of heart failure assessed by multiparametric MRI in vivo in Tgαq*44 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Olkowicz, Mariola; Skórka, Tomasz; Jablonska, Magdalena; Orzylowska, Anna; Bar, Anna; Gonet, Michal; Berkowicz, Piotr; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Here, we analyzed systemic (plasma) and local (heart/aorta) changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance in Tgαq*44 mice in course of heart failure (HF). Tgαq*44 mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Gαq overexpression and late onset of HF were analyzed at different age for angiotensin pattern in plasma, heart, and aorta using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, for progression of HF by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging under isoflurane anesthesia, and for physical activity by voluntary wheel running. Six-month-old Tgαq*44 mice displayed decreased ventricle radial strains and impaired left atrial function. At 8-10 mo, Tgαq*44 mice showed impaired systolic performance and reduced voluntary wheel running but exhibited preserved inotropic reserve. At 12 mo, Tgαq*44 mice demonstrated a severe impairment of basal cardiac performance and modestly compromised inotropic reserve with reduced voluntary wheel running. Angiotensin analysis in plasma revealed an increase in concentration of angiotensin-(1-7) in 6- to 10-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice. However, in 12- to 14-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice, increased angiotensin II was noted with a concomitant increase in Ang III, Ang IV, angiotensin A, and angiotensin-(1-10). The pattern of changes in the heart and aorta was also compatible with activation of ACE2, followed by activation of the ACE pathway. In conclusion, mice with cardiomyocyte Gαq protein overexpression develop HF that is associated with activation of the systemic and the local ACE/Ang II pathway. However, it is counterbalanced by a prominent ACE2/Ang-(1-7) activation, possibly allowing to delay decompensation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance were analyzed based on measurements of a panel of nine angiotensins in plasma, heart, and aorta of Tgαq*44 mice in relation to progression of heart failure (HF) characterized by multiparametric MRI and exercise performance. The early stage of HF was associated with upregulation of the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) pathway, whereas the end

  6. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part G. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #22--Refrigerator Mechanic; #24--Motorcycle Repairperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fourth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Refrigerator Mechanic and Motorcycle Repairperson. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T. general educational…

  7. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  8. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex...

  9. Novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from boneless chicken leg meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Masaaki; Baba, Takako; Ikemoto, Narumi; Katayama, Midori; Morimoto, Tomoko; Matsumura, Saki

    2010-06-23

    Four peptides that inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were separated from the hydorlysate of boneless chicken leg meat digested with artificial gastric juice (pepsin). Two peptides were identified as the peptides encrypted in myosin heavy chain. The peptide P1 (MNVKHWPWMK) corresponds to the amino acid sequence from amino acids 825 to 834 of myosin heavy chain, and the peptide P4 (VTVNPYKWLP) corresponds to the amino acid sequence from amino acids 125 to 135 of myosin heavy chain. They are novel ACE inhibitory peptides derived from chicken, and IC(50) values of P1 and P4 were determined as 228 and 5.5 microM, respectively. Although these values were much larger than 0.022 microM for captopril, a typical synthetic ACE inhibitor, they are comparable to IC(50) values reported for various ACE inhibitory peptides derived from foods. Because the peptide P4 has a relatively low IC(50) value, it is a good starting substance for designing food supplements for hypertensive patients.

  10. Early steroid sulfurisation in surface sediments of a permanebtly stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Robertson, L.; Volkman, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Surface sediments (0 25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C27-C29 steroids.

  11. ACE inhibition with perindopril and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis : Results from the PERTINENT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceconi, C.; Fox, K.M.; Remme, W.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Deckers, J.W.; Bertrand, M.; Parrinello, G.; Kluft, C.; Blann, A.; Cokkinos, D.; Ferrari, R.

    2009-01-01

    The PERTINENT study measured biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis in a stable coronary artery disease population from EUROPA receiving ACE inhibition with perindopril 8 mg/day or placebo. Biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  12. Natural products inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE: a review between 1980 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE is a modern therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension. Within the enzyme cascade of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE removes histidyl-leucine from angiotensin I to form the physiologically active octapeptide angiotensin II, one of the most potent known vasoconstrictors. Therefore, a rationale for treating hypertension would be to administer drugs or natural compounds which selectively inhibit ACE. The present work constitutes a review of the literature of plants and chemically defined molecules from natural sources with in vitro anti-hypertensive potential based on the inhibition of ACE. The review refers to 321 plants, the parts utilized, type of extract and whether they are active or not. It includes also the names of 158 compounds isolated from higher plants, marine sponges and algae, fungi and snake venom. Some aspects of recent research with natural products directed to produce anti-hypertensive drugs are discussed. In this review, 148 references were cited.

  13. Numerical analysis for simulation of condensing vapor bubble using CFD-ACE+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.; Dutta, Anu; Singh, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The motion of bubbles is very complex. They may be subject to break-up or coalescence and may appear to move with a spiraling, zigzagging or rocking behavior. Recently, many studies have been carried out to numerically simulate the rising bubble in various conditions by using VOF approach. However, all the above studies were limited to adiabatic bubble where heat and mass transfer between the phases were not considered. In the present work, an attempt was made to capture the behaviour of condensing bubble flowing in a channel, by using commercial CFD code CFD-ACE+ through VOF model. A User-Defined Function was developed to simulate interfacial heat and mass transfer during condensation. The effect of condensation on bubble behavior was analyzed by comparing the behavior of condensing bubble with that of adiabatic bubble. For validation of CFD-ACE UDF of bubble condensation, a comparison was made with the literature quoted experimental data and it agreed well. Through this work an emphasis was put on VOF module along with the development of an UDF for bubble condensation in CFD-ACE+ code. This theoretical study is motivated by the future CFD application and the intent to investigate the capabilities of the CFD-ACE+ package. (author)

  14. The association of ACE gene polymorphism with diabetic kidney disease and renoprotective efficacy of valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the associations between the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD; and the efficacy of valsartan in reducing the urine protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Materials and methods: We enrolled 128 T2DM patients in this study, including 54 cases with DKD (DKD+ and 74 controls (DKD–. The ACE polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the genotype distribution and allele frequency were analyzed. The DKD+ group was subdivided into the DD, ID and II subgroups, based on their genotypes. In addition, patients with DKD received valsartan treatment for 12 weeks. We determined changes in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR and serum creatinine (SCr. Results: The frequencies of the genotypes DD and ID were higher in the DKD+ than in the DKD– group. The frequency of allele D was higher, and of allele I was lower, in the DKD+ than in DKD– group (p < 0.05. Following valsartan treatment, albuminuria was significantly decreased in subgroups DD and ID (p < 0.05. Conclusions: In T2DM patients, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with onset of DKD. Furthermore, the ACE I/D polymorphism influenced the renoprotective response to valsartan: Patients with the DD genotype benefitted the most from this treatment.

  15. Ace inhibitors and cardiovascular regulation : the importance of autocrine and paracrine mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, Jan van

    1992-01-01

    As demonstrated in a large number of clinical studies, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are of great value for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Although the clinical merits of these drugs are now well recognized, their mechanism of action is not yet completely understood. The

  16. Relationship of Serum Klotho Level With ACE Gene Polymorphism in Stable Kidney Allograft Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaare Nahandi, Maryam; Ardalan, Mohamad Reza; Banagozar Mohamadi, Ali; Ghorbani Haghjo, Amir; Jabbarpor Bonyadi, Morteza; Mohamadian, Tahere

    2017-03-01

    The kidney is the main source of serum Klotho production. Immunosuppressive agents could affect the kidney in this regard. The effect of the ACE gene polymorphism on Klotho production is a less studied area. This study aimed to assess serum Klotho and ACE gene in a group of stable kidney transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, 30 kidney transplant recipients with stable allograft function and 27 healthy young individuals were assessed for their serum Klotho levels. The ACE gene polymorphisms were studied in both groups. Klotho level was higher in kidney transplant recipients than the controls, but the difference was not significant (2.76 ± 2.41 ng/mL versus 2.01 ± 1.41 ng/mL, respectively). In both groups, serum Klotho level was higher in those with the I>I polymorphism, the men, those with higher glomerular filtration rate, and younger individuals, but the differences did not reach a significant level. Higher body mass index was significantly associated with lower serum Klotho level in both groups. Klotho level after kidney transplantation meets the range in healthy individuals, and it is not affected by the ACE gene polymorphism.

  17. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.

  18. ACE gene polymorphism and losartan treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cooper, Mark E.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Liu, Nancy; Lunceford, Jared; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Wong, Peggy H.; Lyle, Paulette A.; Rossing, Peter; Brenner, Barry M.

    Losartan treatment reduced renal outcomes in proteinuric patients with type 2 diabetes in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study. It is unknown whether an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene

  19. The association of ACE gene polymorphism with diabetic kidney disease and renoprotective efficacy of valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuying; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Qiao, Huibo; Wang, Li; Xu, Zhigang; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the associations between the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD); and the efficacy of valsartan in reducing the urine protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We enrolled 128 T2DM patients in this study, including 54 cases with DKD (DKD+) and 74 controls (DKD-). The ACE polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the genotype distribution and allele frequency were analyzed. The DKD+ group was subdivided into the DD, ID and II subgroups, based on their genotypes. In addition, patients with DKD received valsartan treatment for 12 weeks. We determined changes in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine (SCr). The frequencies of the genotypes DD and ID were higher in the DKD+ than in the DKD- group. The frequency of allele D was higher, and of allele I was lower, in the DKD+ than in DKD- group (p ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with onset of DKD. Furthermore, the ACE I/D polymorphism influenced the renoprotective response to valsartan: Patients with the DD genotype benefitted the most from this treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Saleem

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.04-3.36] and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620], while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR.

  1. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE) in a Persian-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid Reza; Khatibi, Ali; Ganjavi, Anahita; Shams, Jamal; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Use of reliable screening and diagnostic tests for assessment of cognitive abilities in neurological patients is rapidly increasing in clinical practice. This is due to the increase in the prevalence of dementias and the raised awareness of cognitive impairment in neurological disorders. Two well-known bedside screening tests for dementias among the English-speaking population are the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). However, such tests have not been developed for the Persian-speaking population, which is estimated at 120 million worldwide. In this study we developed the Persian ACE and MMSE, adopted from the English version. We also assessed the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in the identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that the Persian ACE at a cutoff point of 84, has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91% in discriminating MCI from a normal population; at 78, the test has a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in differentiating MCI from AD, and at a similar cutoff point has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96% in discriminating AD from a normal population. We conclude that the Persian ACE is a valuable tool in clinical practice in the Persian-speaking population. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Procedures for In... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test relating to highway movements of commercial goods that are transported in-bond through the United States from one point in Canada to another point in Canada. The NCAP...

  3. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098–4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  4. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...

  5. Using NJOY to Create MCNP ACE Files and Visualize Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, Albert Comstock [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-14

    We provide lecture materials that describe the input requirements to create various MCNP ACE files (Fast, Thermal, Dosimetry, Photo-nuclear and Photo-atomic) with the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing code system. Input instructions to visualize nuclear data with NJOY are also provided.

  6. Concurrent neutral endopeptidase and ACE inhibition in experimental heart failure: renal and hormonal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K

    1993-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors have been shown to strengthen the effects of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It has been well documented that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act beneficially in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the present study, renal...

  7. ACE - an algebraic compiler and encoder for the Chalk River datatron computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Okazaki, E.A.; Millican, M.

    1960-03-01

    ACE is a program written for the Chalk River Datatron (Burroughs 205) Computer to enable the machine to compile a program for solving a problem from instructions supplied by the user in a notation related much more closely to algebra than to the machine's own code. (author)

  8. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and... Chemical Libraries and Repository; 4. Information architecture support, consultation on site structure and..., Business and industry, Government contracts, Government property, Security measures. Dated: January 19...

  9. Pulmonary sarcoidosis : CT findings and correlation with sACE level and PFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Eun Kyung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Kwon, Jin Sook; Park, Kwang Bo; Lim, Tae Whan

    1997-01-01

    To assess CT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and correlate these with sACE level and PFT Between 1989 and 1995, 14 patients (4 men and 10 women, aged between 28 and 55 years) with histologically confirmed pulmonary sarcoidosis were consecutively selected. HRCT scans were performed in 12 patients and conventional CT scans in two. CT findings were reviewed by three radiologists, and were correlated with the index of disease activity based on sACE level and pulmonary function test. Pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities were seen in all patients;small nodules of less than 3mm in diameter were seen in eight. Other abnormalities were nodules of more than 3mm in diameter (n=7), confluent nodules (n=5), ground glass opacity (n=5), patchy areas of consolidation with air bronchogram (n=5), and architectural distortion (n=3). The upper lung zone was more frequently involved than the middle or lower zone. In ten patients, the paripheral interstitum was predominantly involved, while only three patients showed predominant peribronchovascular involvement. Lymphadenopathy was noted in 13. There was no correlation between sACE level, the results of a pulmonary function test and the extent of parenchymal involvement. HRCT is valuable for the identification, characterization, and determination of the extent to which parenchymal lung is involved in sarcoidosis. The extent of this involvement does not correlate with sACE level and pulmonary function test results

  10. Late Noachian Icy Highlands climate model: Exploring the possibility of transient melting and fluvial/lacustrine activity through peak annual and seasonal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ashley M.; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2018-01-01

    The nature of the Late Noachian climate of Mars remains one of the outstanding questions in the study of the evolution of martian geology and climate. Despite abundant evidence for flowing water (valley networks and open/closed basin lakes), climate models have had difficulties reproducing mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) > 273 K in order to generate the ;warm and wet; climate conditions presumed to be necessary to explain the observed fluvial and lacustrine features. Here, we consider a ;cold and icy; climate scenario, characterized by MAT ∼225 K and snow and ice distributed in the southern highlands, and ask: Does the formation of the fluvial and lacustrine features require continuous ;warm and wet; conditions, or could seasonal temperature variation in a ;cold and icy; climate produce sufficient summertime ice melting and surface runoff to account for the observed features? To address this question, we employ the 3D Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique global climate model (LMD GCM) for early Mars and (1) analyze peak annual temperature (PAT) maps to determine where on Mars temperatures exceed freezing in the summer season, (2) produce temperature time series at three valley network systems and compare the duration of the time during which temperatures exceed freezing with seasonal temperature variations in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) where similar fluvial and lacustrine features are observed, and (3) perform a positive-degree-day analysis to determine the annual volume of meltwater produced through this mechanism, estimate the necessary duration that this process must repeat to produce sufficient meltwater for valley network formation, and estimate whether runoff rates predicted by this mechanism are comparable to those required to form the observed geomorphology of the valley networks. When considering an ambient CO2 atmosphere, characterized by MAT ∼225 K, we find that: (1) PAT can exceed the melting point of water (>273 K) in

  11. Role of Renin-Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Level and ACE Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekatas, Demet D; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim H; Ispiroglu, Murat; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ilhan, Necip; Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the histological and clinical effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE gene polymorphism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their roles in the progression of the disease. Liver function tests, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), ACE, and ACE gene polymorphism were evaluated in the NAFLD group and control group. The study group was evaluated by dividing the group into four subgroups by ACE gene polymorphism (D/D homozygous, I/I homozygous, D/I heterozygous, I/D heterozygous). Liver biopsies were evaluated according to Brunt Classification. A total of 31 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study. The ACE level was found to be 11.69 ± 1.99 in the NAFLD group and 11.52 ± 1.72 in the control group (p = 0.70). There was a negative correlation between ACE levels and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.008, r= -0.512). Biochemical parameters were not different among ACE gene polimorphism subgroups, except FBG (between D/D, I/D and D/I, I/D; p = 0.02). When the ACE levels were compared in terms of grade and stage, no significant difference was found (for stage and grade p = 0.68). The ACE gene polymorphism subgroups did not differ by histopathologic findings; grade and stage (for grade p = 0.42, for stage p = 0.92). In this study, we could not find a correlation of ACE and ACE gene polymorphism with metabolic risk factors and the disease severity in NAFLD. Tekatas DD, Bahcecioglu IH, Ispiroglu M, Sahin A, Ilhan N, Yalniz M, Demirel U. Role of Renin-Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Level and ACE Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(2):137-142.

  12. The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate Targets—A Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Few

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists considerable uncertainty over both shale and conventional gas resource availability and extraction costs, as well as the fugitive methane emissions associated with shale gas extraction and its possible role in mitigating climate change. This study uses a multi-region energy system model, TIAM (TIMES integrated assessment model, to consider the impact of a range of conventional and shale gas cost and availability assessments on mitigation scenarios aimed at achieving a limit to global warming of below 2 °C in 2100, with a 50% likelihood. When adding shale gas to the global energy mix, the reduction to the global energy system cost is relatively small (up to 0.4%, and the mitigation cost increases by 1%–3% under all cost assumptions. The impact of a “dash for shale gas”, of unavailability of carbon capture and storage, of increased barriers to investment in low carbon technologies, and of higher than expected leakage rates, are also considered; and are each found to have the potential to increase the cost and reduce feasibility of meeting global temperature goals. We conclude that the extraction of shale gas is not likely to significantly reduce the effort required to mitigate climate change under globally coordinated action, but could increase required mitigation effort if not handled sufficiently carefully.

  13. Association Between ACE Gene Polymorphism and QT Dispersion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Zulkuf; Ugurlu, Murat; Ucaman, Berzal; Veysel Ulug, Ali; Kaya, Ilyas; Cevik, Kemal; Sahin Adiyaman, Mehmet; Oztürk, Onder; Iyem, Hikmet; Ozdemir, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is associated with high renin-angiotensin system causing myocardial fibrosis and ventricular repolarization abnormality. Based on these findings, this study was designed to determine the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and QT dispersion after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 108 patients with acute MI. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients for genomic DNA analysis. ECGs were recorded at baseline and at the end of a 6-month follow up. The OT dispersion was manually calculated. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 ±9.9 years (ranging from 36 to 70). The patients with DD genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with II or DI genotype at the baseline, while at the end of the six-month follow up the patients with DI genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with DD or II genotypes. However, the magnitude of the QT dispersion prolongation was higher in patients carrying the ACE D allele than patients who were not carrying it, at baseline and at the end of six-month follow up (52.5 ±2.6 msn vs. 47.5±2.1 msn at baseline, 57±3.2 msn vs. 53±2.6 msn in months, P: 0.428 and P: 0.613, respectively). Carriers of the D allele of ACE gene I/D polymorphism may be associated with QT dispersion prolongation in patients with MI.An interaction of QT dispersion and ACE gene polymorphism may be associated with an elevation of serum type I-C terminal pro-collagen concentration, possibly leading to myocardial fibrosis, and increased action potential duration.

  14. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Yan; Mita, Kazuei; Zhao, Xia; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Moriyama, Minoru; Wang, Huabin; Iwanaga, Masashi; Kawasaki, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn 2+ -binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs. BmAcer3 was expressed in testes, and BmAcer4 and BmAcer5 were expressed in compound eyes; however, the transcription levels of these three genes were very low. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were conducted to determine the tissue distribution and developmental expression of BmAcer1and BmAcer2. Transcripts of BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were found in the reproductive organs during the larval and pupal stages. BmAcer1 was dominant in fat bodies during the feeding stage and showed high expression in the epidermis, wing discs, and pupal wing tissues after the wandering stage. Its expression patterns in epidermis, wing discs, and wing tissues resembled the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer in the larval and pupal stages. Acer1 was observed in the hemolymph at all stages, appearing to be the source of it are fat bodies, wings, and epidermis, and functioning after being secreted into the hemolymph. BmAcer2 was abundant in the midgut during the feeding stage and after the wandering stage and in silk glands after the pupal stage. We conclude that the evolution of BmAcer occurred through duplication, and, thereafter, functional diversification developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymorphism of the ACE gene and the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Mlak, Radosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Czukiewska, Ewa; Milanowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in repetitive breathing pauses accompanied by oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Among the candidate genes affecting the risk of OSA, genes whose polymorphisms influence the development of diseases with similar pathogenesis such as OSA could be listed: APOE, genes for leptin and leptin receptor, TNFA1, ADRB2 and ACE (gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme). Until now there has been a confirmed relationship between ACE gene polymorphism and cardiovascular diseases, but its effect on the incidence of OSA is debatable. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on the risk of OSA. Fifty-five patients with confirmed diagnose of OSA and qualified to CPAP therapy entered the study. The control group included 50 subjects who did not complain of any sleep related symptoms. Diagnose of OSA was set on the basis of full overnight polysomnography together with Epworth Sleepiness Scale according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine guidelines. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes with Qiagen DNA mini Kit. ACE gene polymorphism was determined in genomic DNA using allele specific polymerase chain reaction. Different sizes of PCR products were observed on agarose gel electrophoresis. There were non-significant differences in the frequency of ACE genotypes. However, allele D had significantly lower prevalence in the study group than in the control group. (χ(2) = 4.25 p = 0.04). Moreover, I allele carriers had a threefold greater risk of developing OSA (HR = 2.748, 95% CI = 1.029-7.340, p gene polymorphism might be useful to determine the risk of developing OSA in clinically predisposed patients.

  16. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  17. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  18. A meta-analysis of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of pre-eclampsia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, A P; Sultana, A; Bammidi, V K; Sampathirao, K; Jamil, K

    2011-10-01

    A meta-analyses of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia was performed. We shortlisted 33 studies (17 for ACE; 16 for eNOS gene polymorphisms), of which 29 articles (16 for ACE and 15 for eNOS) were analysed. Overall, 1,620 cases with pre-eclampsia and 2,158 controls were analysed for intron 16 insertion-deletion polymorphism in ACE gene. A total of 1,610 subjects with pre-eclampsia and 2,875 controls were analysed for the Glu298Asp in eNOS gene. Overall, the random-effects odds ratio (OR) with Glu298Asp in eNOS gene was 0.958 (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.747-1.228, p > 0.05), and for the insertion-deletion/ACE polymorphism was 0.987 (95% CI 0.698-1.395, p > 0.05). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the studies that evaluated polymorphisms in ACE (Q value = 55.6; I(2) = 73; p value = 0.000); and eNOS (Q value = 37.2; I(2) = 62.4; p value = 0.001) polymorphisms. No significant risk of pre-eclampsia was observed in both eNOS and ACE genes with these polymorphisms.

  19. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan-Hong; Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m 2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients ( P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers.

  20. Is the association between ACE genes and blood pressure mediated by postnatal growth during the first 3 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, JungWon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Hwayoung; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Hong, Young Mi; Oh, Se-Young; Ha, Eunhee; Kang, DukHee; Park, Hyesook

    2012-06-01

    Unlike the defined role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in adult hypertension, ACE gene did not show direct influence on childhood blood pressure (BP), rather, seemed to be related to childhood growth with age-dependent characteristics. Thus, we examined intermediate effects of postnatal growth between the ACE polymorphisms and BP. We analyzed data from 257 children born in 2001-04 at Ewha Womans University Hospital in Seoul, Korea, and followed them up until 3 years of age. Children with excessive adiposity had higher BP, as rapid growers did to no-change and decelerated growers. The ACE II genotype was associated with greater growth acceleration than the DD genotype (II: 46.8% vs. DD: 23.9%), and with a higher BP. The interactions between ACE genotype and adiposity at age 3 were significant on the BP levels. The highest BP increase with the same degree of adiposity was observed in those with the II genotype [β (SE) for BMI: 1.9 (0.9), p=0.04]; particularly, only rapid grown II carriers demonstrated statistical significance on this linear association. These results suggested that ACE polymorphisms and BP association are mediated by postnatal growth. Further studies are required to determine the age-specific ACE genetic effects and its undefined biological mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sennhenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM. The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index. While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and

  2. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya - Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M G; Maass, Brigitte L; Whitbread, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [ Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha -1 . An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  3. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M. G.; Maass, Brigitte L.; Whitbread, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  4. Exploring Challenges and Opportunities of Coproduction: USDA Climate Hub Efforts to Integrate Coproduction with Applied Research and Decision Support Tool Development in the Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, G.; Prendeville, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    A lack of coproduction, the joint production of new technologies or knowledge among technical experts and other groups, is arguably one of the reasons why much scientific information and resulting decision support systems are not very usable. Increasingly, public agencies and academic institutions are emphasizing the importance of coproduction of scientific knowledge and decision support systems in order to facilitate greater engagement between the scientific community and key stakeholder groups. Coproduction has been embraced as a way for the scientific community to develop actionable scientific information that will assist end users in solving real-world problems. Increasing the level of engagement and stakeholder buy-in to the scientific process is increasingly necessary, particularly in the context of growing politicization of science and the scientific process. Coproduction can be an effective way to build trust and can build-on and integrate local and traditional knowledge. Employing coproduction strategies may enable the development of more relevant and useful information and decision support tools that address stakeholder challenges at relevant scales. The USDA Northwest Climate Hub has increasingly sought ways to integrate coproduction in the development of both applied research projects and the development of decision support systems. Integrating coproduction, however, within existing institutions is not always simple, given that coproduction is often more focused on process than products and products are, for better or worse, often the primary focus of applied research and tool development projects. The USDA Northwest Climate Hub sought to integrate coproduction into our FY2017 call for proposal process. As a result we have a set of proposals and fledgling projects that fall along the engagement continuum (see Figure 1- attached). We will share the challenges and opportunities that emerged from this purposeful integration of coproduction into the work

  5. Are extreme hydro-meteorological events a prerequisite for extreme water quality impacts? Exploring climate impacts on inland and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, A. M.; Balaji, V.; Del Giudice, D.; Sinha, E.; Zhou, Y.; Ho, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Questions surrounding water sustainability, climate change, and extreme events are often framed around water quantity - whether too much or too little. The massive impacts of extreme water quality impairments are equally compelling, however. Recent years have provided a host of compelling examples, with unprecedented harmful algal blooms developing along the West coast, in Utah Lake, in Lake Erie, and off the Florida coast, and huge hypoxic dead zones continuing to form in regions such as Lake Erie, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico. Linkages between climate change, extreme events, and water quality impacts are not well understood, however. Several factors explain this lack of understanding, including the relative complexity of underlying processes, the spatial and temporal scale mismatch between hydrologists and climatologists, and observational uncertainty leading to ambiguities in the historical record. Here, we draw on a number of recent studies that aim to quantitatively link meteorological variability and water quality impacts to test the hypothesis that extreme water quality impairments are the result of extreme hydro-meteorological events. We find that extreme hydro-meteorological events are neither always a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the occurrence of extreme water quality impacts. Rather, extreme water quality impairments often occur in situations where multiple contributing factors compound, which complicates both attribution of historical events and the ability to predict the future incidence of such events. Given the critical societal importance of water quality projections, a concerted program of uncertainty reduction encompassing observational and modeling components will be needed to examine situations where extreme weather plays an important, but not solitary, role in the chain of cause and effect.

  6. From gene to protein—experimental and clinical studies of ACE2 in blood pressure control and arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sheila K.; Velkoska, Elena; Freeman, Melanie; Wai, Bryan; Lancefield, Terase F.; Burrell, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart and renal failure, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II. An “alternate” arm of the RAS now exists in which ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of Ang II, and generation of the vasodilator Ang 1-7. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart,...

  7. ACE-inhibitorer er fortsat førstevalg ved behandling af hjertesvigt--en gennemgang af et Cochranereview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Niels; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias

    2013-01-01

    A new Cochrane metaanalysis has reviewed the literature on the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The conclusion supports the present recommendation from the European Society of Cardiology that angiotensin converting...... enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are first choice and that ARBs should be reserved to patients who are intolerant to ACE-Is. Neither ACE-Is nor ARBs are effective in the treatment of heart failure patients with normal left ventricular function....

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism uncovers a novel function for the transcription factor Ace2 during Candida albicans hyphal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Calderón-Noreña

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C

  9. Reporting of the translation and cultural adaptation procedures of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination version III (ACE-III) and its predecessors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nadine; Panagioti, Maria; Waheed, Muhammad Wali; Waheed, Waquas

    2017-09-13

    The ACE-III, a gold standard for screening cognitive impairment, is restricted by language and culture, with no uniform set of guidelines for its adaptation. To develop guidelines a compilation of all the adaptation procedures undertaken by adapters of the ACE-III and its predecessors is needed. We searched EMBASE, Medline and PsychINFO and screened publications from a previous review. We included publications on adapted versions of the ACE-III and its predecessors, extracting translation and cultural adaptation procedures and assessing their quality. We deemed 32 papers suitable for analysis. 7 translation steps were identified and we determined which items of the ACE-III are culturally dependent. This review lists all adaptations of the ACE, ACE-R and ACE-III, rates the reporting of their adaptation procedures and summarises adaptation procedures into steps that can be undertaken by adapters.

  10. Comparison of species-resolved energy spectra from ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison between energy spectra measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument and the Van Allen Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) for two significant and distinct events in early 2013. The first is an impulsive solar particle event on March 17th. While intense, this event presented no significant surprises in terms of its composition or anisotropy characteristics, thus providing a good baseline for response of the trapped radiation belts as observed by the Van Allen Probes. The second solar event occurred late May 22nd and early May 23rd. This event has a much greater concentration of medium and heavy ions than the St. Patrick's Day event, as well as having very peculiar energy spectra with evidence of two distinct populations. During the St. Patrick's Day Event, the energy spectra for helium, carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron all show the same spectral power law slope -3.1. The event shows strong anisotropy with intensities differing by a factor of four for both protons and Z>1 ions. The late May event also has strong anisotropy, and in the same directions as the St. Patrick's Day Event, but with very different composition and energy spectra. The spectra are much harder with power law spectral slopes of -0.5. Additionally, there is a significant spectral bump at 3 MeV/nuc for helium that is not present in the spectra of the heavier ions. The intensities of the heavier ions, however, show an increase that is an order of magnitude greater than the increase seen for helium. The March 17 RBSPICE observations show multiple injection events lasting for less than an hour each during the Van Allen Probes B apogees. These injections are seen in protons as well as Helium and only somewhat observed in Oxygen. Spectral slopes for the observations range from approximately -5 during quiet times to double peaked events with a spectral slope of approximately -2 at the beginning of the injection

  11. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  12. Simulation of the ACE L2 and ACE L5 MCCI experiment under dry surface conditions with ASTEC MEDICIS using an effective heat transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agethen, Kathrin; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2013-07-01

    In a postulated severe accident the loss of cooling can lead to a melting of the core and to a failure of the vessel. The molten core material discharges to the containment cavity and interacts with the concrete basemat. The heat up of the concrete leads to the release of sparing gases (H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SiO), which stir the pool und causes chemical reactions. Especially the metals (Zr, Fe, Ni, Cr) in the corium are oxidized und the exothermic energy is released to the melt, which raises the melt temperature further. The release of combustible gases (H{sub 2}, CO) and fission products to the containment atmosphere occurs as a result. In the long time (>10 h) containment failure and basemat penetration may occur, which can lead to fission product release to the environment. For further development and validation, simulations of experiments in which molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) is investigated, are necessary. In this work the new available effective heat transfer model in MEDICIS is used to calculate experiments of the ACE program, in which generic corium material is heated up and interacts with the concrete basemat. Here, especially the ACE L2 experiment with siliceous concrete and the ACE L5 experiment with limestone common sand (LCS) concrete will be presented. These experiments enable to analyze the heat transfer from the interior of the melt to the upper surface under dry conditions. Secondary the modeling in ASTEC version 2.p2 with the effective heat transfer module in MEDICIS is described. Results of MEDICIS simulations will be discussed by means of phenomena like ablation behavior and erosions depth, layer temperature and surface heat loss. Finally the issue of an effective heat transfer coefficient for the surface under dry conditions without top flooding is figured out. (orig.)

  13. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  14. SU-F-T-22: Clinical Implications When Using TG-186 (ACE) Heterogeneity Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhacheva, A; Grade, E; Sadeghi, A; Sokolowski, T [Arizona Cancer Specialists, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using traditional TG-43 formalism and Oncentra Brachy Advanced Collapsed cone Engine (ACE) TG-186 calculation algorithm in clinical setting. Methods: We analyzed dosimetry of four patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-channel intracavitary device (SAVI). All patients were treated to 34 Gy in 10 fractions using a high-dose-rate (192) Ir source. The plans were designed and treated using the TG-43 model. ACE was used to assess the effect heterogeneity correction on various dosimetric parameters. Mass density was estimated using Hounsfield units. Results: Compared to TG-43 formalism, ACE estimated lower doses to targets and organs at risk. The mean difference was 19.8% (range 15.3–24.1%) for PTV-eval V200, 12.0% (range 9.7–17.7%) for PTV-eval V150, 4.3% (range 3.3–6.5%) for PTV-eval D95, 3.3% (range 1.4–5.4%) for PTV-eval D90, 5.4% (range 2.9–9.9%) for maximum rib dose, and 5.7% (2.4–7.4%) for maximum skin dose. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the difference and the PTV-eval volume, air volume, or tissue-applicator conformance. Conclusion: Based on our preliminary study, the TG-43 algorithm appears to overestimate the dose to targets and organs at risk when compared to the ACE TG-186 software. We hypothesize that air adjacent to the SAVI struts contributes to lack of scatter thereby contributing a significant difference in dose calculation when using ACE. We believe that ACE calculation provides a more realistic isodose distribution than TG-43. We plan to further investigate the impact of heterogeneity correction on brachytherapy planning for a wide variety of clinical scenarios, include skin, cervix/uterus, prostate, and lung.

  15. DAF: differential ACE filtering image quality assessment by automatic color equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Saint-Jean, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ideally, a quality assessment system would perceive and measure image or video impairments just like a human being. But in reality, objective quality metrics do not necessarily correlate well with perceived quality [1]. Plus, some measures assume that there exists a reference in the form of an "original" to compare to, which prevents their usage in digital restoration field, where often there is no reference to compare to. That is why subjective evaluation is the most used and most efficient approach up to now. But subjective assessment is expensive, time consuming and does not respond, hence, to the economic requirements [2,3]. Thus, reliable automatic methods for visual quality assessment are needed in the field of digital film restoration. The ACE method, for Automatic Color Equalization [4,6], is an algorithm for digital images unsupervised enhancement. It is based on a new computational approach that tries to model the perceptual response of our vision system merging the Gray World and White Patch equalization mechanisms in a global and local way. Like our vision system ACE is able to adapt to widely varying lighting conditions, and to extract visual information from the environment efficaciously. Moreover ACE can be run in an unsupervised manner. Hence it is very useful as a digital film restoration tool since no a priori information is available. In this paper we deepen the investigation of using the ACE algorithm as a basis for a reference free image quality evaluation. This new metric called DAF for Differential ACE Filtering [7] is an objective quality measure that can be used in several image restoration and image quality assessment systems. In this paper, we compare on different image databases, the results obtained with DAF and with some subjective image quality assessments (Mean Opinion Score MOS as measure of perceived image quality). We study also the correlation between objective measure and MOS. In our experiments, we have used for the first image

  16. FAIR 1.0 (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments). An interactive model to explore options for differentiation of future commitments in international climate policy making. User documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.; Both, S.; Faber, A.; Oostenrijk, R.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains the model documentation and user instructions of the FAIR model (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments). FAIR is an interactive - scanner-type - computer model to quantitatively explore a range of alternative climate policy options for international differentiation of future commitments and link these to targets for global climate protection. The model includes three different approaches for evaluating international commitment regimes: (1) Increasing participation: in this mode the number of parties involved and their level of commitment gradually increase according to participation and differentiation rules, such as per capita income, per capita emissions, or contribution to global warming; (2) Convergence: in this mode all parties participate in the burden-sharing regime, with emission rights converging to equal per capita levels over time; (3) Triptych: different burden sharing rules are applied for different sectors (e.g. convergence of per capita emissions in the domestic sector, efficiency and de-carbonisation targets for the industry sector and the power generation sector). The first two modes are representatives of top-down methodologies, so from global emission ceilings to regional emission budgets, whereas the triptych approach is more bottom-up in character, although it can be combined with specific emission targets (as illustrated in the case of the EU). In order to construct and evaluate global emission profiles, the FAIR model also has the mode: Scenario construction. In this mode the impacts in terms of the main climate indicators can be scanned of a constructed or well-defined global emissions profile

  17. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease using a brief cognitive screening tool: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Chade

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods: 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia, 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results: Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  18. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease with a brief cognitive screening tool: the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Anabel; Roca, María; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fabbro, Nicolás; Arévalo, Gonzalo Gómez; Gershanik, Oscar; Manes, Facundo

    2008-01-01

    Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia), 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  19. Circulating ACE is a predictor of weight loss maintenance not only in overweight and obese women, but also in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Holst, Claus; Wodzig, W K W H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was identified as a predictor of weight loss maintenance in overweight/obese women of the Diogenes project. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ACE acted also as a predictor in men of the Diogenes study and to compare it with that in women....... DESIGN: Subjects, who lost ¿8% of body weight induced by low-caloric diet in an 8-week weight loss period, were assigned to weight loss maintenance with dietary intervention for 6 months. SUBJECTS: 125 overweight/obese healthy men from eight European countries who completed whole intervention....... MEASUREMENTS: Concentrations and activity of serum ACE at baseline and after the 8-week weight loss, in addition to anthropometric and physiological parameters. RESULTS: Serum ACE concentration decreased by 11.3±10.6% during the weight loss period in men. A greater reduction is associated with less body weight...

  20. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in ACE Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... accelerated liquidation request indicator. C. Electronic Data Interface (EDI) Capability Trade participants.../ace_edi_messages/catair_main/abi_catair . Operational documentation addressing PSC may be found in the...

  1. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE gene in females with peripartum cardiomyopathy: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Yaqoob

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: ACE DD genotype and overall frequency of D allele is significantly higher in patients with PPCM. Also, the presence of DD genotype is associated with worse systolic performance indices measured echocardiographically.

  2. LAMOST DR1: Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances with SP_Ace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Smith, M. C.; Grebel, E. K.; Zhong, J.; Hou, J. L.; Chen, L.; Stello, D.

    2018-04-01

    We present a new analysis of the LAMOST DR1 survey spectral database performed with the code SP_Ace, which provides the derived stellar parameters {T}{{eff}}, {log}g, [Fe/H], and [α/H] for 1,097,231 stellar objects. We tested the reliability of our results by comparing them to reference results from high spectral resolution surveys. The expected errors can be summarized as ∼120 K in {T}{{eff}}, ∼0.2 in {log}g, ∼0.15 dex in [Fe/H], and ∼0.1 dex in [α/Fe] for spectra with S/N > 40, with some differences between dwarf and giant stars. SP_Ace provides error estimations consistent with the discrepancies observed between derived and reference parameters. Some systematic errors are identified and discussed. The resulting catalog is publicly available at the LAMOST and CDS websites.

  3. STEADY-ACE, 3-D Neutronics and Multichannel Thermohydraulics Analysis of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Abe, Kiyoharu

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Three-dimensional nuclear and thermal-hydraulic core performance of a BWR. 2 - Method of solution: The program consists of two subprograms: i.e. the few-group three-dimensional diffusion subprogram DIFFUSION- ACE and the multichannel thermal-hydraulic subprogram HYDRO-ACE. The two subprograms are combined in an iterative way so that the interdependency of the power distribution and the void fraction distribution can be treated consistently. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of energy groups is fixed to be 2 or 3. Number of control rods is less than 16. Options for the calculation geometry are available only to 'full core', 'half core' and 'quarter core'

  4. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding...... in the ACE gene; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa...... proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...

  5. Intercalibration and Cross-Correlation of Ace and Wind Solar Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This report covers activities funded from October 1, 1998 through September 30, 2002. Two yearly status reports have been filed on this grant, and they are included as Appendix 1. The purpose of this grant was to compare ACE and Wind solar wind parameters when the two spacecraft were near to one another and then to use the intercalibrated parameters to carry out scientific investigations. In September, 2001 a request for a one-year, no-cost extension until September 30, 2002 was submitted and approved. The statement of work for that extension included adjustment of ACE densities below wind speeds of 350 km/s, a study of shock normal orientations using travel time delays between the two spacecraft, comparison of density jumps at shocks, and a study of temperature anisotropies and double streaming to see if such features evolved between the spacecraft.

  6. Numerical Simulation for Flow Distribution in ACE7 Fuel Assemblies affected by a Spacer Grid Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongpil; Jeong, Ji Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In spite of various efforts to understand hydraulic phenomena in a rod bundle containing deformed rods due to swelling and/or ballooning of clad, the studies for flow blockage due to spacer grid deformation have been limited. In the present work, 3D CFD analysis for flow blockage was performed to evaluate coolant flow within ACE7 fuel assemblies (FAs) containing a FA affected by a spacer grid deformation. The real geometry except for inner grids was used in the simulation and the region including inner grid was replaced by porous media. In the present work, the numerical simulation was performed to predict coolant flow within ACE7 FAs affected by a Mid grid deformation. The 3D CFD result shows that approximately 60 subchannel hydraulic diameter is required to fully recover coolant flow under normal operating condition.

  7. New ACE-Inhibitory Peptides from Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Lara P; Boschin, Giovanna; Recca, Teresa; Morelli, Carlo F; Ragona, Laura; Francescato, Pierangelo; Arnoldi, Anna; Speranza, Giovanna

    2017-12-06

    A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by alkaline solubilization/acid precipitation, was subjected to extensive chemical hydrolysis under acid conditions (6 M HCl). The resulting hydrolysate was fractionated by semipreparative RP-HPLC, and the purified fractions were tested as inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Mono- and bidimensional NMR experiments and LC-MS analyses led to the identification of four potentially bioactive peptides, i.e. GVLY, IEE, LGV, and RVR. They were prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC 50 values were GVLY 16 ± 1.5 μM, LGV 145 ± 13 μM, and RVR 526 ± 33 μM, confirming that hemp seed may be a valuable source of hypotensive peptides.

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  9. Multi-Stakeholder Development of a Serious Game to Explore the Water-Energy-Food-Land-Climate Nexus: The SIM4NEXUS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sušnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, food, land and climate form a tightly-connected nexus in which actions on one sector impact other sectors, creating feedbacks and unanticipated consequences. This is especially because at present, much scientific research and many policies are constrained to single discipline/sector silos that are often not interacting (e.g., water-related research/policy. However, experimenting with the interaction and determining how a change in one sector could impact another may require unreasonable time frames, be very difficult in practice and may be potentially dangerous, triggering any one of a number of unanticipated side-effects. Current modelling often neglects knowledge from practice. Therefore, a safe environment is required to test the potential cross-sectoral implications of policy decisions in one sector on other sectors. Serious games offer such an environment by creating realistic ‘simulations’, where long-term impacts of policies may be tested and rated. This paper describes how the ongoing (2016–2020 Horizon2020 project SIM4NEXUS will develop serious games investigating potential plausible cross-nexus implications and synergies due to policy interventions for 12 multi-scale case studies ranging from regional to global. What sets these games apart is that stakeholders and partners are involved in all aspects of the modelling definition and process, from case study conceptualisation, quantitative model development including the implementation and validation of each serious game. Learning from playing a serious game is justified by adopting a proof-of-concept for a specific regional case study in Sardinia (Italy. The value of multi-stakeholder involvement is demonstrated, and critical lessons learned for serious game development in general are presented.

  10. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    OpenAIRE

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang, Tao; Kang, Chang-Hee; Uno, Itsushi; Poon, Steven; Oh, Sung-Nam; Werczynski, Sylvester; Kim, Jiyoung; Henderson-Sellers, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites—Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii)—is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variabil...

  11. Pembentukan Kesadaran Merek Melalui Pilihan Media Dan Pesan Iklan Yang Efektif (Studi Pada PT. Ace Jaya Proteksi Cabang Pekanbaru)

    OpenAIRE

    Suci, Afred

    2016-01-01

    : The study held in PT. ACE Jaya Proteksi Pekanbaru branch in order to analyze how strong customers' awareness of corporate brand existence through advertising media and messages. Population were customers of ACE Jaya Proteksi Pekanbaru Branch. By using Djarwanto & Subagyo formulation, was obtained 96 samples and rounded up to 100 respondents. Data was analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. The result reveals that either simultaneously or partially, advertising media and message ...

  12. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  13. Investigation of interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors in various buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Arayne, Muhammad Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Abbas, Hira Fatima

    2015-02-01

    This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL-1 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and 1H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.

  14. Development of multidimensional two-fluid model code ACE-3D for evaluation of constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Akira; Akimoto, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kamo, Hideki

    1996-11-01

    In order to perform design calculations for a passive safety reactor with good accuracy by a multidimensional two-fluid model, we developed an analysis code, ACE-3D, which can apply for evaluation of constitutive equations. The developed code has the following features: 1. The basic equations are based on 3-dimensional two-fluid model and the orthogonal or the cylindrical coordinate system can be selected. The fluid system is air-water or steam-water. 2. The basic equations are formulated by the finite-difference scheme of staggered mesh. The convection term is formulated by an upwind scheme and the diffusion term by a center-difference scheme. 3. Semi-implicit numerical scheme is adopted and the mass and the energy equations are treated equally in convergent steps for Jacobi equations. 4. The interfacial stress term consists of drag force, life force, turbulent dispersion force, wall force and virtual mass force. 5. A {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulent model for bubbly flow is incorporated as the turbulent model. The predictive capability of ACE-3D has been verified using a data-base for bubbly flow in a small-scale vertical pipe. In future, the constitutive equations will be improved with a data-base in a large vertical pipe developed in our laboratory and we have a plan to construct a reliable analytical tool through the improvement work, the progress of calculational speed with vector and parallel processing, the assessments for phase change terms and so on. This report describes the outline for the basic equations and the finite-difference equations in ACE-3D code and also the outline for the program structure. Besides, the results for the assessments of ACE-3D code for the small-scale pipe are summarized. (author)

  15. ASSOCIATION OF ACTN3 R577X AND ACE I/D POLYMORPHISMS IN BRAZILIANS WRESTLERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Marcelo Romanovitch; Oliveira Netto, Zair Candido; Salgueirosa, Fabiano; Fernandes, Priscila; Matos, Oslei de; Bassan, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: By associating genetics and sport, it is possible to identify subjects with greater capacity to adapt to training, and lower chances of injury. Objective: The investigation evaluated the genotypic and allelic distribution of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms in Brazilian high-performance athletes in wrestling and percussion combat sports. Methods: The study included 37 male athletes ranked from first to third place in world scenarios, divided into two groups: wrestl...

  16. Pembuatan Game Fruit Entrepreneur Dengan Menggunakan Engine RPG Maker VX Ace

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, M. Rizki

    2015-01-01

    Game merupakan salah satu industry di dunia saat ini. Perkembangan game begitu pesat dengan jenis yang beragam, mulai dari game yang hanya dapat di mainkan oleh satu orang saja hingga game yang dapat dimainkan oleh beberapa orang sekaligus. RPG maker VX Ace merupakan perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk membuat sebuah game ber-genre RPG. Tujuan tugas akhir ini adalah untuk membuat sebuah game bertema wirausaha namun dengan gaya bermain RPG (role playing game). 112406244

  17. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  18. Comparing the effectiveness of TWEAK and T-ACE in determining problem drinkers in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    2010-01-01

    The TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools are validated methods of identifying problem drinking in a pregnant population. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools in identifying problem drinking using traditional cut-points (CP). Study participants consisted of women calling the Motherisk Alcohol Helpline for information regarding their alcohol use in pregnancy. In this cohort, concerns surrounding underreporting are not likely as women self-report their alcohol consumption. Participant's self-identification, confirmed by her amount of alcohol use, determined whether she was a problem drinker or not. The TWEAK and T-ACE tools were administered on both groups and subsequent analysis was done to determine if one tool was more effective in predicting problem drinking. The study consisted of 75 problem and 100 non-problem drinkers. Using traditional CP, the TWEAK and T-ACE tools both performed similarly at identifying potential at-risk women (positive predictive value = 0.54), with very high sensitivity rates (100-99% and 100-93%, respectively) but poor specificity rates (36-43% and 19-34%, respectively). Upon comparison, there was no statistical difference in the effectiveness for one test performing better than next using either CP of 2 (P = 0.66) or CP of 3 (P = 0.38). Despite the lack of difference in performance, improved specificity associated with TWEAK suggests that it may be better suited to screen at-risk populations seeking advice from a helpline.

  19. Determination of DDT and metabolites in surface water and sediment using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibali, Linda L; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Zvinowanda, Caliphs

    2009-12-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques, liquid-liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD in water ranged from 80%-96% and 76%-95% (LLE); 56%-76% and 56%-70% (SPE) and 75%-84% (ACE), respectively; while that recoveries for sediment samples varied from 65%-95% for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 80%-91% for 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD. The high recoveries exhibited by ACE compared very well with LLE and SE. This was not the case with SPE which exhibited the lowest value of recoveries for both 2,4 and 4,4'DDD, DDE and DDT standard samples. The mean concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged from nd-1.10 μg/L, nd-0.80 μg/L, nd-1.21 μg/L and 1.92 μg/L for LLE, SPE, ACE and SE, respectively. The total DDT (2,4' and 4,4'-DDT) in water and sediment samples ranged from 1.20-3.25 μg/L and 1.82-5.24 μg/L, respectively. The low concentrations of the DDT metabolites obtained in the present study may suggest a recent contamination of the river by DDT.

  20. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Isolated from Flaxseed, an Alternative to ACE Inhibitors in the Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kailash

    2013-12-01

    Secoisolariciresionol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed and is phytoestrogen. SDG is a potent and long-acting hypotensive agent. Plant phytoestrogens have inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The hypotensive effects of SDG, a phytoestrogen, may be mediated through inhibition of ACE. The objective of this study was to investigate if SDG-induced hypotension is mediated through inhibition of ACE. The Sprague Dawley male rats were anesthetized and trachea was cannulated. The right jugular vein was cannulated to administer the drug and the carotid artery was cannulated to record arterial pressures using PIOEZ-1 miniature model transducer (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) and Beckman dynograph (Beckman Instruments, Inc., Schiller Park, IL). The effects of angiotensin I (0.2 µg/kg, intravenously [IV]) in the absence and presence of SDG (10 mg/kg, IV), and SDG alone on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were measured before and after 15, 30, and 60 minutes of drug administration. SDG decreased the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure by 37, 47, and 43%, respectively, at 15 minutes and 18.8, 21.2, and 20.3%, respectively, at 60 minutes. Angiotensin I increased the arterial pressure. SDG decreased angiotensin I-induced rise in the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures by 60, 58, and 51%, respectively, at 15 minutes and 48, 46, and 30%, respectively, at 60 minutes. The data suggest that SDG reduced the angiotensin I-induced rise in the arterial pressures and hence SDG is a potent ACE inhibitor.

  1. Development of multidimensional two-fluid model code ACE-3D for evaluation of constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Akira; Akimoto, Hajime; Kamo, Hideki.

    1996-11-01

    In order to perform design calculations for a passive safety reactor with good accuracy by a multidimensional two-fluid model, we developed an analysis code, ACE-3D, which can apply for evaluation of constitutive equations. The developed code has the following features: 1. The basic equations are based on 3-dimensional two-fluid model and the orthogonal or the cylindrical coordinate system can be selected. The fluid system is air-water or steam-water. 2. The basic equations are formulated by the finite-difference scheme of staggered mesh. The convection term is formulated by an upwind scheme and the diffusion term by a center-difference scheme. 3. Semi-implicit numerical scheme is adopted and the mass and the energy equations are treated equally in convergent steps for Jacobi equations. 4. The interfacial stress term consists of drag force, life force, turbulent dispersion force, wall force and virtual mass force. 5. A κ-ε turbulent model for bubbly flow is incorporated as the turbulent model. The predictive capability of ACE-3D has been verified using a data-base for bubbly flow in a small-scale vertical pipe. In future, the constitutive equations will be improved with a data-base in a large vertical pipe developed in our laboratory and we have a plan to construct a reliable analytical tool through the improvement work, the progress of calculational speed with vector and parallel processing, the assessments for phase change terms and so on. This report describes the outline for the basic equations and the finite-difference equations in ACE-3D code and also the outline for the program structure. Besides, the results for the assessments of ACE-3D code for the small-scale pipe are summarized. (author)

  2. Comparison of the diabetes guidelines from the ADA/EASD and the AACE/ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Susan

    To compare recent diabetes guideline updates from the American Diabetes Association-European Association for the Study of Diabetes (ADA/EASD) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists-American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE). The ADA/EASD guideline continues to advocate a stepwise approach to glycemic control that initiates with metformin and intensifies treatment incrementally to dual and triple therapy at 3-month intervals until the patient is at their individualized goal. The AACE/ACE guideline provides a broader choice of first-line medications, with a suggested hierarchy of use, and it encourages initial dual and triple therapy if the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level is high enough at diagnosis (7.5%-9.0% and >9.0%, respectively). Target A1C levels are higher in the ADA/EASD guideline (≤7.0%) compared with the AACE/ACE guideline (≤6.5%), although both statements indicate that targets should be adjusted to specific clinical scenarios based on safety. Both guidelines now include the new sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors among their choices of acceptable glucose-lowering medications and endorse the overall cardiovascular and pancreatic safety of incretin therapies, and the safety of pioglitazone vis-a-vis bladder cancer. In practice, the ADA/EASD guidelines tend to be more user-friendly for general practitioners because of the simple stepwise intensification regimen, whereas the AACE/ACE guidelines are more commonly followed by specialists (endocrinologists) because of the more aggressive A1C targets. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ASSOCIATION OF ACTN3 R577X AND ACE I/D POLYMORPHISMS IN BRAZILIANS WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Romanovitch Ribas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: By associating genetics and sport, it is possible to identify subjects with greater capacity to adapt to training, and lower chances of injury. Objective: The investigation evaluated the genotypic and allelic distribution of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms in Brazilian high-performance athletes in wrestling and percussion combat sports. Methods: The study included 37 male athletes ranked from first to third place in world scenarios, divided into two groups: wrestling (23 wrestlers, being 11 of Judo, 4 of Greco-Roman style, 8 of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, with mean age of 27.3 ± 6.9 years and percussion combat sports (14 athletes with a mean age of 25.7±4.4 years, being 6 of Karate, 3 of Muay Thai, 4 of Taekwondo, 1 Boxing. Genotyping of ACTN3 and ACE I/D polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from the genomic DNA. Genotypic and allelic distributions were compared with control populations and athletes by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test; all analyzes considered p ≤ 0.05. Results: The genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of ACTN3 RR=46%, RX=38% and XX=16%; R=65% and X=35%, and ACE I/D DD=47.7%, ID=34.3% and II=20%; D=62.9% and I=37.1% did not differ from the control population; however, when compared with wrestling athletes a significant difference was observed. Conclusion: These results suggest an association of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genes with Brazilian high-performance wrestling athletes.

  4. Effects of Different Working Modes of Ultrasound on Structural Characteristics of Zein and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used as a new technology to pretreat protein prior to proteolysis to improve enzymolysis efficiency. The effects of different working modes of ultrasound on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates and the structural characteristics of zein were investigated. The solubility, surface hydrophobicity (H0, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and circular dichroism (CD spectra of zein pretreated with ultrasound were determined. All ultrasound pretreatments significantly improved the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates (p<0.05. The highest ACE inhibitory activity, representing an increase of 99.21% over the control, was obtained with dual sweeping frequency ultrasound of 33±2 and 68±2 kHz. The effects of single sweeping frequency and dual fixed frequency ultrasound were stronger than those of single fixed frequency ultrasound for improving the ACE inhibitory activity of zein. Structural changes in zein were induced by ultrasound, as confirmed by changes in the solubility, H0, UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and CD spectra of zein, and these were consistent with the corresponding ACE inhibitory activities of zein hydrolysates. Thus, ultrasound working mode and frequency have significant effects on the structure of zein and the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates.

  5. The impact of ACE gene polymorphism on the incidence and phenotype of sarcoidosis in rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieszko, Robert; Krawczyk, Paweł; Powrózek, Tomasz; Szudy-Szczyrek, Aneta; Szczyrek, Michał; Homa, Iwona; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Current theory on the etiology of this disease involves participation of genetic factors and unknown antigens present in the patients' environment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of different polymorphic forms of the ACE gene in healthy individuals and sarcoidosis patients, and to estimate the risk of sarcoidosis in carriers of different ACE genotypes living in rural and urban settings. The study group included 180 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Assessment of the disease was based on clinical features, laboratory and imaging examinations, as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). ACE gene polymorphism was examined in DNA isolated from peripheral blood or BAL fluid (BALF) leukocytes. Incidence of sarcoidosis was not influenced by gender, age or place of residence of the patients. There were no differences in the frequency of particular genotypes in patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy individuals. The risk of disease did not depend on the ACE gene polymorphism. There were no differences in the frequencies of the different genotypes and alleles of the ACE gene in patients with sarcoidosis divided by gender, age and place of residence or by clinical manifestation of sarcoidosis. Our results do not support the previous concept which suggested a higher incidence of sarcoidosis in individuals living in rural areas and in carriers of selected ACE genotypes. It is possible that this is related to the changing environment of rural areas, increasing urbanization and pollution.

  6. Utilisation of rapeseed protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ACE activity is related to increased arterial pressure and coronary diseases. A rapeseed protein isolate was hydrolyzed with the protease Alcalase in order to investigate the possible presence of ACE inhibitory peptides in the resulting hydrolysates. Hydrolysis for 30 min yielded a hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Two fractions of this hydrolysate obtained by Biogel P2 gel filtration chromatography were used for further purification of ACE inhibitory peptides. Three fractions with ACE inhibitory activity were purified by reverse-phase HPLC of Biogel P2 f ractions. This demonstrates that rapeseed protein hydrolysates represent a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides .La actividad de ECA está relacionada con una presión arterial alta y enfermedades cardíacas. Un aislado proteico de colza se hidrolizó con alcalasa para estudiar la posible presencia de péptidos inhibidores de ECA en el hidrolizado. La hidrólisis durante 30 min produjo el hidrolizado con la mayor actividad inhibidora de ECA. Dos fracciones de este hidrolizado, obtenidas por cromatografía de filtración en gel Biogel P2, se usaron para la purificación de péptidos inhibidores de ECA. Tres fracciones con actividad inhibidora de ECA se purificaron mediante HPLC en fase reversa de las fracciones obtenidas mediante Biogel P2. Esto demuestra que los hidrolizados proteicos de colza representan una buena fuente de péptidos inhibidores de ECA.

  7. DD genotype of ACE gene in boys: may it be a risk factor for minimal change nephrotic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasehirli, Belgin; Balat, Ayşe; Büyükçelik, Mithat

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the circulating and cellular levels of ACE and may be a risk factor in several renal diseases. We analyzed the association of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with the clinical presentation of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in a Turkish child population. This study consisted of 97 children with MCNS and 144 healthy controls. Genotyping of ACE gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The distributions of ACE genotypes were II in 13%, ID in 49%, and DD in 38% in patient group, and 9%, 49%, and 42% in control group, respectively. The frequency of the D allele was 63% and that of the I allele was 37% in patients. There were no relevant differences in the allele frequencies and genotypes of ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls. However, DD genotype was higher in boys in children with MCNS (78.4%. vs. 50.0%, p = 0.004). The frequencies of DD genotype and D allele in boys were 7.25 and 2.56 times higher than II genotype and I allele in the patient group, respectively. We suggest that DD genotype in boys may be one of the risk factors for MCNS.

  8. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorlidah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC. Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI. Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%, Schizophyllum commune (27.6%, and Hericium erinaceus (17.7% showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL. Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents.

  9. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  10. Specific uptake of DHA by the brain from a structured phospholipid, AceDoPC®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernoud-Hubac Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 is highly enriched in the brain and is required for proper brain development and function. Its deficiency has been shown to be linked with the emergence of neurological diseases. Dietary ω-3 fatty acid supplements including DHA have been suggested to improve neuronal development and enhance cognitive functions. Findings suggested that DHA is better incorporated into the brain when esterified at the sn-2 position of a lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC-DHA. AceDoPC® is a structured phospholipid or acetyl-LysoPC-DHA. As previously shown for LysoPC-DHA, AceDoPC® is a specific and preferred carrier of DHA to the brain. When AceDoPC® was injected to rats that were subjected to an ischemic stroke, it prevents the extension of brain lesions. Regarding the essential role of DHA for cerebral functions, targeting the brain with specific carriers of DHA might provide novel therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  12. The ACE gene D/I polymorphism as a modulator of severity of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marson Fernando A L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a monogenic disease with complex expression because of the action of genetic and environmental factors. We investigated whether the ACE gene D/I polymorphism is associated with severity of CF. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, from 2009 to 2011, at University of Campinas – UNICAMP. We analyzed 180 patients for the most frequent mutations in the CFTR gene, presence of the ACE gene D/I polymorphism and clinical characteristics of CF. Results There was an association of the D/D genotype with early initiation of clinical manifestations (OR: 1.519, CI: 1.074 to 2.146, bacterium Burkholderia cepacia colonization (OR: 3.309, CI: 1.476 to 6.256 and Bhalla score (BS (p = 0.015. The association was observed in subgroups of patients which were defined by their CFTR mutation genotype (all patients; subgroup I: no mutation detected; subgroup II: one CFTR allele identified to mutation class I, II or III; subgroup III: both CFTR alleles identified to mutation class I, II and/or III. Conclusion An association between the D allele in the ACE gene and the severity of CF was found in our study.

  13. Association of ACE Gene I/D polymorphism with migraine in Kashmiri population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Irfan Yousuf; Sheikh, Saleem; Shah, Zafar Amin; Pandith, Arshid A; Wani, Mushtaq; Asimi, Ravouf; Wani, Maqbool; Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Mehraj, Iqra

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a complex, recurrent headache disorder that is one of the most common complaints in neurology practice. The role of various genes in its pathogenesis is being studied. We did this study to see whether an association exists between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and migraine in our region. The study included 100 patients diagnosed with migraine and 121 healthy controls. The study subject were age and gender matched. The analysis was based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and included following steps: DNA extraction from blood, PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 100 cases, 69 were females and 31 were males. Fifty-seven were having migraine without aura and 43 had migraine with aura. 45 of the cases had II polymorphism, 40 had ID polymorphism and 15 had DD polymorphism in ACE gene. We were not able to find a statistically significant association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism with