WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate experiment facility

  1. Artificial climate experiment facility in Institute for Environmental Sciences

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences is now constructing the artificial climate experiment facility (ACEF) to research the effect of climate on movement of elements in the various environments. The ACEF will have one large, and five small artificial climate experiment chambers. The large chamber is designed to simulate climate conditions in all Japan. It will equip systems to simulate sunshine, rainfall (including acid rain), snowfall and fog (including acid fog). `Yamase` condition will also be reproduced in it. Yamase is a Japanese term describing the characteristic weather condition occurring mainly on the Pacific Ocean side at the northern Japan. While the small chamber will not have rainfall, snowfall and fog systems, radioisotopes will be used in the two small chambers which will be set up in a radioisotope facility. We describe here the outline of the ACEF and the preliminary research programs being undertaken using both kinds of chambers. (author)

  2. Artificial climate experiment facility in Institute for Environmental Sciences

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi

    1999-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences is now constructing the artificial climate experiment facility (ACEF) to research the effect of climate on movement of elements in the various environments. The ACEF will have one large, and five small artificial climate experiment chambers. The large chamber is designed to simulate climate conditions in all Japan. It will equip systems to simulate sunshine, rainfall (including acid rain), snowfall and fog (including acid fog). 'Yamase' condition will also be reproduced in it. Yamase is a Japanese term describing the characteristic weather condition occurring mainly on the Pacific Ocean side at the northern Japan. While the small chamber will not have rainfall, snowfall and fog systems, radioisotopes will be used in the two small chambers which will be set up in a radioisotope facility. We describe here the outline of the ACEF and the preliminary research programs being undertaken using both kinds of chambers. (author)

  3. What's your opinion? The experience of therapeutic climate in a treatment facility for adults with mild intellectual disability and severe challenging behavior

    Helmond, P.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Helm, G.H.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A therapeutic climate is important so that clients can optimally develop themselves. In a treatment facility for adults with mild intellectual disability and severe challenging behavior we assessed clients’ experiences of therapeutic climate in relation to their internalizing and externalizing

  4. Climatic Environmental Test Facilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has an extensive suite of facilities for supporting MIL-STD-810 testing, toinclude: Temperature/Altitude, Rapid Decompression, Low/High Temperature,Temperature...

  5. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-06-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  6. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2000-01-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  7. Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Critical Experiments Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been in existence for 45 years. In that period of time, thousands of measurements have been made on assemblies containing every fissionable material in various configurations that included bare metal and compounds of the nitrate, sulfate, fluoride, carbide, and oxide. Techniques developed or applied include Rossi-α, source-jerk, rod oscillator, and replacement measurements. Many of the original measurements of delay neutrons were performed at the site, and a replica of the Hiroshima weapon was operated at steady state to assist in evaluating the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons. Solid, liquid, and gas fissioning systems were run at critical. Operation of this original critical facility has demonstrated the margin of safety that can be obtained through remote operation. Eight accidental excursions have occurred on the site, ranging from 1.5 x 10 16 to 1.2 x 10 17 fissions, with no significant exposure to personnel or damage to the facility beyond the machines themselves -- and in only one case was the machine damaged beyond further use. The present status of the facility, operating procedures, and complement of machines will be described in the context of programmatic activity. New programs will focus on training, validation of criticality alarm systems, experimental safety assessment of process applications, and dosimetry. Special emphasis will be placed on the incorporation of experience from 45 years of operation into present procedures and programs. 3 refs

  8. Researches at hadron experiment facility

    Sawada, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    Some of the nuclear, hadron and elementary particle experiments proposed to hadron experiment facility to use the extracted slow proton beam at J-PARC are overviewed. Characteristic feature of the facility is the secondary beam obtained from the intense proton beam. Nuclear hadron physics experiments and kaon rare decay experiments are presented here as the typical ones. Hypernuclear spectroscopy with S=-2 state is expected to be started as soon as the beam becomes available. The kaon bound systems not only with three nucleons like K-pnn but also more numerous like Li and Be are to be studied systematically. Bound states of two kaons using (K - , K + ) reaction will be challenged. Pentaquark will be searched for and its properties will be studied if it really exists. Nuclear structure studies from the view point of large Bjorken x are planned to be studied by irradiating hydrogen, deuteron or heavier targets with primary proton beam and analyzing generated muon pairs. Properties of vector mesons in nuclear matter are to be studied with the primary beam. Neutral kaon rare decay will be investigated to study CP nonconservation. Large progress of elementary particle physics is anticipated by using the intense proton beam at J-PARC. (S. Funahashi)

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  10. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Gubasch, U [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  11. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Gubasch, U. [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  12. Facility for electron cooling experiments

    Budker, G.I.; Dikanskij, N.S.; Kudelajnen, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The NAP-M proton storage ring intended for electron cooling experiments is described. The NAP-M magnetic system comprises four bending magnets and eight correction elements. located at the ends of rectilinear gaps. An electron beam facility is located in one of the rectilinear gaps. An 1.5 MeV electrostatic accelerator is used as a proton injector. The NAP-M accelerating system includes a driving generator, a power amplifier and a resonator. The proton beam lifetime (at the RF-system switched-off) up to 7 s has been obtained at the NAP-N at the injection energy, and up to 600 s at 65 MeV and the proton current of 120 μA

  13. NTES laser facility for physics experiments

    Christie, D.J.; Foley, R.J.; Frank, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on the NTES laser facility: Mission Statement and Project Description; Experiment Area; High-Energy, Double-Pass Laser; Facilities; Laser Control and Data Acquisition; and Auxiliary Lasers

  14. LMFBR safety experiment facility planning and analysis

    Stevenson, M.G.; Scott, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    In the past two years considerable effort has been placed on the planning and design of new facilities for the resolution of LMFBR safety issues. The paper reviews the key issues, the experiments needed to resolve them, and the design aspects of proposed new facilities. In addition, it presents a decision theory approach to selecting an optimal combination of modified and new facilities

  15. Material science experiments on the Atlas Facility

    Keinigs, Rhonald K.; Atchison, Walter L.; Faehl, Rickey J.; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Anderson, Wallace E.; Bartsch, Robert Richard; Flower-Maudlin, Elane C.; Hammerberg, James E.; Holtkamp, David B.; Jones, Michael E.; Kyrala, George A.; Oro, David M.; Parker, Jerald V.; Preston, Dean L.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Scudder, David W.; Sheehey, Peter T.; Shlacter, Jack S.; Stokes, John L.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Tonks, Davis L.; Turchi, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Three material properties experiments that are to be performed on the Atlas pulsed power facility are described; friction at sliding metal interfaces, spallation and damage in convergent geomety, and plastic flow at high strain and high strain rate. Construction of this facility has been completed and experiments in high energy density hydrodynamics and material dynamics will begin in 2001.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Management Plan

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Mission and Vision Statements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mission The ARM Climate Research Facility, a DOE scientific user facility, provides the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote-sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. Vision To provide a detailed and accurate description of the Earth atmosphere in diverse climate regimes to resolve the uncertainties in climate and Earth system models toward the development of sustainable solutions for the nation's energy and environmental challenges.

  17. Health Care Facilities Resilient to Climate Change Impacts

    Jaclyn Paterson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events and create risks that will impact health care facilities. Health care facilities will need to assess climate change risks and adopt adaptive management strategies to be resilient, but guidance tools are lacking. In this study, a toolkit was developed for health care facility officials to assess the resiliency of their facility to climate change impacts. A mixed methods approach was used to develop climate change resiliency indicators to inform the development of the toolkit. The toolkit consists of a checklist for officials who work in areas of emergency management, facilities management and health care services and supply chain management, a facilitator’s guide for administering the checklist, and a resource guidebook to inform adaptation. Six health care facilities representing three provinces in Canada piloted the checklist. Senior level officials with expertise in the aforementioned areas were invited to review the checklist, provide feedback during qualitative interviews and review the final toolkit at a stakeholder workshop. The toolkit helps health care facility officials identify gaps in climate change preparedness, direct allocation of adaptation resources and inform strategic planning to increase resiliency to climate change.

  18. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment Facility (THEF)

    Martinell, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment Facility (THEF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overview describes the major test systems, measurements, and data acquisition system, and presents objectives, facility configuration, and results for major experimental projects recently conducted at the THEF. Plans for future projects are also discussed. The THEF is located in the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF) area at the INEL

  19. Operating procedures: Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility

    Lerche, R.A.; Carey, R.W.

    1984-03-20

    The Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility (FEAF) is a computer facility based on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer. It became operational in late 1982. At that time two manuals were written to aid users and staff in their interactions with the facility. This manual is designed as a reference to assist the FEAF staff in carrying out their responsibilities. It is meant to supplement equipment and software manuals supplied by the vendors. Also this manual provides the FEAF staff with a set of consistent, written guidelines for the daily operation of the facility.

  20. Operating procedures: Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility

    Lerche, R.A.; Carey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility (FEAF) is a computer facility based on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer. It became operational in late 1982. At that time two manuals were written to aid users and staff in their interactions with the facility. This manual is designed as a reference to assist the FEAF staff in carrying out their responsibilities. It is meant to supplement equipment and software manuals supplied by the vendors. Also this manual provides the FEAF staff with a set of consistent, written guidelines for the daily operation of the facility

  1. Tritium monitoring equipments for animal experiment facilities

    Sato, Hiroo

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiment facilities using tritium are described with reference to laws and regulations concerning radiological safety. Usual breeding facilities and surrounding conditions at non-radioactive animal experiments are summarized on feasible and effective designs of tritium monitors. Characteristics and desirable arrangements of various kinds of tritium monitors such as ionization chambers, proportional counters and liquid scintillation detectors are discussed from the standpoint of monitoring for room, glove-box, stack, liquid waste and personnel. (J.P.N.)

  2. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now...... variability in temperature are ecologically important. Embracing complexity in future climate change experiments in general is therefore crucial......., precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  3. YALINA-Thermal Facility Experiments

    Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Sadovich, S.; Cintas, A.; Márquez Damián, J.I.; Lopasso, E.M.; Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.; Rossi, P.C.R.; Antunes, A.; Oliveira, F.L. de; Lee, S.M.; Xia, P.; Shi, Y.; Xia, H.; Zhu, Q.; Yu, T.; Wu, X.; Zhang, W.; Cao, J.; Luo, H.; Quan, Y.; Kulkarni, K.; Yadav, R.D.S.; Bajpai, A.; Degweker, S.B.; Modak, R.S.; Park, H.J.; Shim, H.J.; Kim, C.H.; Wojciechowski, A.; Zuta, M.; Pešić, M.; Avramović, I.; Beličev, P.; Gohar, Y.; Talamo, A.; Aliberti, G.

    2017-01-01

    This Section discussed the results obtained by the Member States participating in the IAEA coordinated research project on Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analysis on Accelerator Driven Systems, and Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Utilization in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Assembly Systems for the YALINA Thermal facility. Member States used both Monte Carlo and deterministic computational tools to analyse the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly, including: MCNP5, MCNPX, McCARD, PARTISN, and ERANOS computer programs. All calculations have been performed using the ENDF/B-VI (different modes) nuclear data libraries with the exception of Republic of Korea which used the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library. Generally, there is a good agreement between the results obtained by all the Member States. Deterministic codes perform space, energy, and angle discretization and materials homogenizations, which introduce approximations affecting the obtained results. In subcritical assemblies, the neutron multiplication and the detector counting rate depend strongly on the external neutron source. Cf and D-D sources provide similar results since they emit neutrons with similar average energy. D-T neutrons trigger (n,xn) reactions and have a longer mean free path, which increases the neutron leakage if the geometry dimensions of the assembly are small, as in the case of the YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly. Close to criticality, the effect of the external neutron source diminishes since fission neutrons dominate the neutron population.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  5. On-orbit technology experiment facility definition

    Russell, Richard A.; Buchan, Robert W.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify on-orbit integrated facility needs to support in-space technology experiments on the Space Station and associated free flyers. In particular, the first task was to examine the proposed technology development missions (TDMX's) from the model mission set and other proposed experimental facilities, both individually and by theme, to determine how and if the experiments might be combined, what equipment might be shared, what equipment might be used as generic equipment for continued experimentation, and what experiments will conflict with the conduct of other experiments or Space Station operations. Then using these results, to determine on-orbit facility needs to optimize the implementation of technology payloads. Finally, to develop one or more scenarios, design concepts, and outfitting requirements for implementation of onboard technology experiments.

  6. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  7. Nuclear astrophysics experiments with Pohang neutron facility

    Kim, Yeong Duk; Yoo, Gwang Ho

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics experiments for fundamental understanding of Big Bang nucleosynthesis was performed at Pohang Neutron Facility. Laboratory experiments, inhomogeneous Big Bang nucleosynthesis and S-process were used for nucleosynthesis. For future study, more study on S-process for the desired data and nuclear network calculation are necessary

  8. Material Processing Facility - Skylab Experiment M512

    1972-01-01

    This chart details Skylab's Materials Processing Facility experiment (M512). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  9. Status of the low frequency facility experiment

    Bracci, L; Calamai, G; Cuoco, E; Dominici, P; Fabbroni, L; Guidi, G; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Mazzoni, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Porzio, A; Ricciardi, I; Solimeno, S; Ballardin, G; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Casciano, C; Cavalieri, R; Cecchi, R; Cella, G; Dattilo, V; Virgilio, A Di; Fazzi, M; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Frasconi, F; Gennaro, G; Giazotto, A; Holloway, L; Penna, P La; Lomtadze, T; Nenci, F; Nicolosi, L; Lelli, F; Paoletti, F; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Poggiani, R; Raffaelli, F; Taddei, R; Vicere, A; Zhang, Z; Frasca, S; Majorana, E; Palomba, C; Perciballi, M; Puppo, P; Rapagnani, P; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency facility is a VIRGO R and D experiment having the goal of performing a direct measurement of the thermal noise of the VIRGO suspensions by means of a two-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to the last stage of the attenuating chain. The present status of advancement of this experiment is reported: the apparatus, including mechanical and optical parts, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the first control loops are active. First measurements on the suspended cavity are in progress

  10. Status of the low frequency facility experiment

    Bracci, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Calamai, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Cuoco, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Dominici, P [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Fabbroni, L [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Guidi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Losurdo, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Martelli, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Mazzoni, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Stanga, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Vetrano, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Porzio, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Ricciardi, I [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Solimeno, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Ballardin, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Braccini, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Bradaschia, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Casciano, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cavalieri, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cecchi, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cella, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Dattilo, V [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Virgilio, A Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Ferrante, I [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Fidecaro, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy)] [and others

    2002-04-07

    The low frequency facility is a VIRGO R and D experiment having the goal of performing a direct measurement of the thermal noise of the VIRGO suspensions by means of a two-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to the last stage of the attenuating chain. The present status of advancement of this experiment is reported: the apparatus, including mechanical and optical parts, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the first control loops are active. First measurements on the suspended cavity are in progress.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  13. Characterizing experiments of the PPOOLEX test facility

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    This report summarizes the results of the characterizing test series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Air and steam/air mixture was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool (wet well). Altogether eight air and four steam/air mixture experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the general behavior of the facility and the performance of basic instrumentation. Proper operation of automation, control and safety systems was also tested. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. The facility is equipped with high frequency measurements for capturing different aspects of the investigated phenomena. The general behavior of the PPOOLEX facility differs significantly from that of the previous POOLEX facility because of the closed two-compartment structure of the test vessel. Heat-up by several tens of degrees due to compression in both compartments was the most obvious evidence of this. Temperatures also stratified. Condensation oscillations and chugging phenomenon were encountered in those tests where the fraction of non-condensables had time to decrease significantly. A radical change from smooth condensation behavior to oscillating one occurred quite abruptly when the air fraction of the blowdown pipe flow dropped close to zero. The experiments again demonstrated the strong diminishing effect that noncondensable gases have on dynamic unsteady loadings experienced by submerged pool structures. BWR containment like behavior related to the beginning of a postulated steam line break accident was observed in the PPOOLEX test facility during the steam/air mixture experiments. The most important task of the research project, to produce experimental data for code simulation purposes, can be

  14. The Burning Plasma Experiment conventional facilities

    Commander, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Program Plasma Experiment (BPX) is phased to start construction of conventional facilities in July 1994, in conjunction with the conclusion of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project. This paper deals with the conceptual design of the BPX Conventional Facilities, for which Functional and Operational Requirements (F ampersand ORs) were developed. Existing TFTR buildings and utilities will be adapted and used to satisfy the BPX Project F ampersand ORs to the maximum extent possible. However, new conventional facilities will be required to support the BPX project. These facilities include: The BPX building; Site improvements and utilities; the Field Coil Power Conversion (FCPC) building; the TFTR modifications; the Motor Generation (MG) building; Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) building; and the associated Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) systems. The BPX building will provide for safe and efficient shielding, housing, operation, handling, maintenance and decontamination of the BPX and its support systems. Site improvements and utilities will feature a utility tunnel which will provide a space for utility services--including pulse power duct banks and liquid nitrogen coolant lines. The FCPC building will house eight additional power supplied for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The MG building will house the two MG sets larger than the existing TFTR MG sets. This paper also addresses the conventional facility cost estimating methodology and the rationale for the construction schedule developed. 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Critical experiment study on uranyl nitrate solution experiment facility

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Wang Jinrong

    2005-01-01

    The Uranyl Nitrate Solution Experiment Facility was constructed for the research on nuclear criticality safety. In this paper, the configuration of the facility is introduced; a series of critical experiments on uranyl nitrate solution is described later, which were performed for various uranium concentrations under different conditions, i.e. with or without neutron absorbers in the core and with or without water-reflector outside the core. Critical volume and the minimum 235U critical mass for different uranium concentrations are presented. Finally, theoretical analysis is made on the experimental results. (authors)

  16. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  17. Operational experience of gamma radiation processing facility

    Patel, Nilesh

    2014-01-01

    Universal lSO-MED is now proud to announce an extension of its irradiation service for low-dose applications specifically in agriculture commodities, food and healthcare applications with the start of Gujarat Agro Radiation Processing Facility at Village: Bavla, Ahmedabad (A Government Enterprise) Operated, Maintained and Managed by Universal Medicap Ltd. Availability of hygienic, safe and nutritious food commodities is essential for any sustainable human development. Food stability is an important element of economic stability and self-reliance of a nation. Though the need to preserve food has been felt by the mankind since the time immemorial, it is even stronger in today's context. The rising population and increasing gap between demand and supply, agro-climatic conditions, in adequate post-harvest practices, seasonal nature of produce and long distances between production and consumption centers underscore the need to device improved conservation and preservation strategies

  18. Operating experience of steam generator test facility

    Sureshkumar, V.A.; Madhusoodhanan, G.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Nashine, B.K.; Sylvia, J.I.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) is the vital component of a Fast Reactor. It houses both water at high pressure and sodium at low pressure separated by a tube wall. Any damage to this barrier initiates sodium water reaction that could badly affect the plant availability. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) has been set up in Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to test sodium heated once through steam generator of 19 tubes similar to the PFBR SG dimension and operating conditions. The facility is also planned as a test bed to assess improved designs of the auxiliary equipments used in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). The maximum power of the facility is 5.7 MWt. This rating is arrived at based on techno economic consideration. This paper covers the performance of various equipments in the system such as Electro magnetic pumps, Centrifugal sodium pump, in-sodium hydrogen meters, immersion heaters, and instrumentation and control systems. Experience in the system operation, minor modifications, overall safety performance, and highlights of the experiments carried out etc. are also brought out. (author)

  19. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  1. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report August 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information October 2009

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information April 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information January 2010

    JW Voyles

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report September 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-10-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information March 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-04-19

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report May 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-06-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information February 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report June 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information December 2009

    JW Voyles

    2010-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report July 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2010-08-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  13. Material science experiments at the ATLAS facility

    Keinigs, R K; Atchison, W L; Bartsch, R R; Faehl, R J; Flower-Maudlin, E C; Hammerberg, J E; Holtkamp, D B; Kyrala, G A; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Preston, D L; Removsky, R E; Scudder, D W; Sheehey, P T; Shlachter, J S; Taylor, A J; Tonks, D L; Turchi, P J; Chandler, E A

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Three experimental campaigns designed for fielding on the Atlas Pulsed Power Facility are discussed. The foci of these experiments are directed toward a better understanding of three material science issues; (1) strength at high strain and high strain rate, (2) friction at material interfaces moving at high relative velocities, and (3) material failure in convergent geometry. Atlas provides an environment for investigating these problems in parameter regimes and geometries that are inaccessible with standard techniques. For example, flow stress measurements of material strength using conventional Hopkinson bar experiments are limited to strain rates ~10/sup 4/ sec/sup -1/. Atlas will be capable of imploding metal shells to combined strains of 200% and strain rates >10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. Data obtained regimes is used to test different constitutive strength models used in several Los Alamos hydrocodes. Dynamic friction has been investigated for nearly 300 years, but a first...

  14. Operating manual for the critical experiments facility

    1986-01-01

    The operation of the Critical Experiments Facility (CEF) requires careful attention to procedures in order that all safety precautions are observed. Since an accident could release large amounts of radioactivity, careful operation and strict enforcement of procedures are necessary. To provide for safe operation, detailed procedures have been written for all phases of the operation of this facility. The CEF operating procedures are not to be construed to constitute a part ofthe Technical Specifications. In the event of any discrepancy between the information given herein and the Technical Specifications, limits set forth in the Technical Specifications apply. All normal and most emergency operation conditions are covered by procedures presented in this manual. These procedures are designed to be followed by the operating personnel. Strict adherence to these procedures is expected for the following reasons. (1) To provide a standard, safe method of performing all operations, the procedures were written by reactor engineers experienced in supervising the operation of reactors and were reviewed by an organization with over 30 years of reactor operating experience. (2) To have an up-to-date description of operating techniques available at all times for reference and review, it is necessary that the procedures be written

  15. Test facility for rewetting experiments at CDTN

    Rezende, Hugo C.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Santos, Andre A.C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important subjects in nuclear reactor safety analysis is the reactor core rewetting after a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a Light Water Reactor LWR. Several codes for the prediction of the rewetting evolution are under development based on experimental results. In a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the reflooding phase of a LOCA is when the fuel rods are rewetted from the bottom of the core to its top after having been totally uncovered and dried out. Out-of-pile reflooding experiments performed with electrical heated fuel rod simulators show different quench behavior depending the rods geometry. A test facility for rewetting experiments (ITR - Instalacao de Testes de Remolhamento) has been constructed at the Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), with the objective of performing investigations on basic phenomena that occur during the reflood phase of a LOCA in a PWR, using tubular and annular test sections. This paper presents the design aspects of the facility, and the current stage of the works. The mechanical aspects of the installation as its instrumentation are described. Two typical tests are presented and results compered with theoretical calculations using computer code. (author)

  16. Operating manual for the critical experiments facility

    1986-01-01

    The operation of the Critical Experiments Facility (CEF) requires careful attention to procedures in order that all safety precautions are observed. Since an accident could release large amounts of radioactivity, careful operation and strict enforcement of procedures are necessary. To provide for safe operation, detailed procedures have been written for all phases of the operation of this facility. The CEF operating procedures are not to be construed to constitute a part ofthe Technical Specifications. In the event of any discrepancy between the information given herein and the Technical Specifications, limits set forth in the Technical Specifications apply. All normal and most emergency operation conditions are covered by procedures presented in this manual. These procedures are designed to be followed by the operating personnel. Strict adherence to these procedures is expected for the following reasons. (1) To provide a standard, safe method of performing all operations, the procedures were written by reactor engineers experienced in supervising the operation of reactors and were reviewed by an organization with over 30 years of reactor operating experience. (2) To have an up-to-date description of operating techniques available at all times for reference and review, it is necessary that the procedures be written.

  17. Test facility for rewetting experiments at CDTN

    Rezende, Hugo C.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Santos, Andre A.C., E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important subjects in nuclear reactor safety analysis is the reactor core rewetting after a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a Light Water Reactor LWR. Several codes for the prediction of the rewetting evolution are under development based on experimental results. In a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the reflooding phase of a LOCA is when the fuel rods are rewetted from the bottom of the core to its top after having been totally uncovered and dried out. Out-of-pile reflooding experiments performed with electrical heated fuel rod simulators show different quench behavior depending the rods geometry. A test facility for rewetting experiments (ITR - Instalacao de Testes de Remolhamento) has been constructed at the Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), with the objective of performing investigations on basic phenomena that occur during the reflood phase of a LOCA in a PWR, using tubular and annular test sections. This paper presents the design aspects of the facility, and the current stage of the works. The mechanical aspects of the installation as its instrumentation are described. Two typical tests are presented and results compered with theoretical calculations using computer code. (author)

  18. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Satellite

    2003-01-01

    This is a close-up of the NASA-sponsored Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Satellite. The SORCE mission, launched aboard a Pegasus rocket January 25, 2003, will provide state of the art measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation. Critical to studies of the Sun and its effect on our Earth system and mankind, SORCE will provide measurements that specifically address long-term climate change, natural variability and enhanced climate prediction, and atmospheric ozone and UV-B radiation. Orbiting around the Earth accumulating solar data, SORCE measures the Sun's output with the use of state-of-the-art radiometers, spectrometers, photodiodes, detectors, and bolo meters engineered into instruments mounted on a satellite observatory. SORCE is carrying 4 instruments: The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM); the Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE); the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM); and the XUV Photometer System (XPS).

  19. SORCE: Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

    Cahalan, Robert; Rottman, Gary; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Understanding the Sun's influence on the Earth; How the Sun affect Earth's climate; By how much does the Sun's radiation very; Understanding Solar irradiance; History of Solar irradiance observations; The SORCE mission; How do the SORCE instruments measure solar radiation; Total irradiance monitor (TIM); Spectral irradiance monitor (SIM); Solar stellar irradiance comparison experiment (SOLSTICE); XUV photometer system (XPS).

  20. High temperature engineering research facilities and experiments in Russia

    Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sukharev, Y.P.; Chudin, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the characteristics of the experimental facilities and experiments in the Russian Federation: the HTGR neutron-physical investigation facilities ASTRA and GROG; facilities for fuel, graphite and other elements irradiation; and thermal hydraulics experimental facilities. The overview is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets

  1. Laser heated solenoid proof-of-concept experiment (PCX) facility

    DeHart, T.E.; Zumdieck, J.F.; Hoffman, A.L.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Crawford, E.A.; Parry, B.

    1977-01-01

    The total facility, including laser, magnet, focusing optics, instrumentation and control, its design problems, and its current performance are discussed. Preliminary results from plasma heating experiments are discussed

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  3. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  4. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Peppler, RA; Kehoe, KE; Sonntag, KL; Bahrmann, CP; Richardson, SJ; Christensen, SW; McCord, RA; Doty, DJ; Wagener, Richard [BNL; Eagan, RC; Lijegren, JC; Orr, BW; Sisterson, DL; Halter, TD; Keck, NN; Long, CN; Macduff, MC; Mather, JH; Perez, RC; Voyles, JW; Ivey, MD; Moore, ST; Nitschke, DL; Perkins, BD; Turner, DD

    2008-03-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and haracterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented.

  5. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Peppler, R.A.; Kehoe, K.E.; Sonntag, K.L.; Bahramann, C.P.; Richardson, S.J.; Christensen, S.W.; McCord, R.A.; Doty, D.J.; Wagener, R.; Eagan, R.C.; Lijegren, J.C.; Orr, B.W.; Sisterson, D.L.; Halter, T.D.; Keck, N.N.; Long, C.N.; Macduff, M.C.; Mather, J.H.; Perez, R.C.; Voyles, J.W.; Ivey, M.D.; Moore, S.T.; Nitschke, D.L.; Perkins, B.D.; Turner, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and characterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented

  6. Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network

    Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1975-11-01

    A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented

  7. Seafloor weathering buffering climate: numerical experiments

    Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.; Abbot, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Continental silicate weathering is widely held to consume atmospheric CO2 at a rate controlled in part by temperature, resulting in a climate-weathering feedback [Walker et al., 1981]. It has been suggested that weathering of oceanic crust of warm mid-ocean ridge flanks also has a CO2 uptake rate that is controlled by climate [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001; Brady and Gislason, 1997]. Although this effect might not be significant on present-day Earth [Caldeira, 1995], seafloor weathering may be more pronounced during snowball states [Le Hir et al., 2008], during the Archean when seafloor spreading rates were faster [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001], and on waterworld planets [Abbot et al., 2012]. Previous studies of seafloor weathering have made significant contributions using qualitative, generally one-box, models, and the logical next step is to extend this work using a spatially resolved model. For example, experiments demonstrate that seafloor weathering reactions are temperature dependent, but it is not clear whether the deep ocean temperature affects the temperature at which the reactions occur, or if instead this temperature is set only by geothermal processes. Our goal is to develop a 2-D numerical model that can simulate hydrothermal circulation and resulting alteration of oceanic basalts, and can therefore address such questions. A model of diffusive and convective heat transfer in fluid-saturated porous media simulates hydrothermal circulation through porous oceanic basalt. Unsteady natural convection is solved for using a Darcy model of porous media flow that has been extensively benchmarked. Background hydrothermal circulation is coupled to mineral reaction kinetics of basaltic alteration and hydrothermal mineral precipitation. In order to quantify seafloor weathering as a climate-weathering feedback process, this model focuses on hydrothermal reactions that influence carbon uptake as well as ocean alkalinity: silicate rock dissolution, calcium and magnesium leaching

  8. Recent operational experiments at the LANSCE facility

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) consists of a pulsed 800-MeV room-temperature linear accelerator and an 800-MeV accumulator ring. It simultaneously provides H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams to several user facilities that have their own distinctive requirements, e.g. intensity, chopping pattern, duty factor, etc.. This multibeam operation presents challenges both from the standpoint of meeting the individual requirements but also achieving good overall performance for the integrated operation. Various aspects of more recent operations including the some of these challenges will be discussed.

  9. Operational experience at the Sludge Treatment Facility

    Sy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Facility (STF) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been in operation since April 1987. The facility was designed to encapsulate hazardous sludge wastes in a cement matrix. Fixation will allow the waste to meet or exceed applicable compressive strength and leachability requirements. Thus, the grout mixture complies with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines as a nonhazardous waste. The grout mixture is based upon a recipe formulation developed after several years of waste stream characterization and formulation studies. The wastes to be treated at the STF are wastes impounded in two ponds. The ponds have a combined capacity of 4.5 million gallons of sludge. The sludge is transferred from the ponds to a 15,000-gallon capacity storage tank by the use of a dredge. The grout mixture recipe dictates the amount of sludge, cement, fly ash, and admixture required for weighing per batch. All ingredients are weighed and then transferred to a tilt or high energy mixer for mixing. The grout mixture is then transferred to 89- or 96-gallon steel drums. The drums are placed in a storage yard designed for a point source discharge from the yard

  10. Construction of climate change scenarios from transient climate change experiments for the IPCC impacts assessment

    Viner, D.; Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of global climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMS) An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g., equilibrium or transient). The latest generation of climate change experiments has been performed using fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMS. These allow transient simulations of climate change to be performed with respect to a given greenhouse gas forcing scenario. There are, however, a number of problems with these simulations which pose difficulties for the construction of climate change scenarios for use in climate change impacts assessment. The characteristics of the transient climate change experiments which pose difficulties for the construction of climate change scenarios are discussed. Three examples of these problems are: different climate change experiments use different greenhouse gas concentration scenarios; the 'cold-start' problem makes it difficult to link future projections of climate change to a given calendar year; a drift of the climate is noticeable in the control simulations. In order to construct climate change scenarios for impacts assessment a method has therefore to be employed which addresses these problems. At present the climate modeling and climate change impacts communities are somewhat polarized in their approach to spatial scales. Current GCMs model the climate at resolutions larger than 2.5 x 3.75 degree, while the majority of impacts assessment studies are undertaken at scales below 50km (or 0.5 degree). This paper concludes by addressing the problems in bringing together these two different modeling perspectives by presenting a number of regional climate change scenarios. 35 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Construction of new critical experiment facilities in JAERI

    Takeshita, Isao; Itahashi, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Tonoike, Kotaro; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Ken; Izawa, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has promoted the experiment research program on criticality safety since early in 1980s and two types of new critical facilities, Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) were completed on 1994 in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) of JAERI Tokai Research Establishment. STACY was designed so as to obtain critical mass data of low enriched uranium and plutonium solution which is extensively handled in LWR fuel reprocessing plant. TRACY is the critical facility where critical accident phenomenon is demonstrated with low enriched uranium nitrate solution. For criticality safety experiments with both facilities, the Fuel Treatment System is attached to them, where composition and concentration of uranium and plutonium nitrate solutions are widely varied so as to obtain experiments data covering fuel solution conditions in reprocessing plant. Design performances of both critical facilities were confirmed through mock-up tests of important components and cold function tests. Hot function test has started since January of 1995 and some of the results on STACY are to be reported. (author)

  12. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  13. An overview of experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility

    Foster, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The research program of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is a product of many factors. Among these factors are the properties of the beams of charged particles available from the cyclotrons, the facilities and personnel available to support experiments, the guidance of the Program Advisory Committee, the decisions of the directors and the ideas and work of the users of the facility. It is the author's purpose, in this brief overview paper, to provide a summary of features and properties of accelerator operation, beams, experimental facilities and the user interaction of interest to a perspective experimental user and a discussion of recent results of measurements made at IUCF

  14. Testing experience with fast flux test facility

    Noordhoff, B.H.; McGough, C.B.; Nolan, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields. Confirmation of component performance during FFTF service was considered essential before actual FFTF startup, to provide increased assurance against FFTF startup delays or operational difficulties and downtime. Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment. The significance and contribution of these tests to the FFTF and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program are summarized. (U.S.)

  15. Electron beam facility for divertor target experiments

    Anisimov, A.; Gagen-Torn, V.; Giniyatulin, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    To test different concepts of divertor targets and bumpers an electron beam facility was assembled in Efremov Institute. It consists of a vacuum chamber (3m 3 ), vacuum pump, electron beam gun, manipulator to place and remove the samples, water loop and liquid metal loop. The following diagnostics of mock-ups is stipulated: (1) temperature distribution on the mock-up working surface (scanning pyrometer and infra-red imager); (2) temperature distribution over mocked-up thickness in 3 typical cross-sections (thermo-couples); (3) cracking dynamics during thermal cycling (acoustic-emission method), (4) defects in the mock-up before and after tests (ultra-sonic diagnostics, electron and optical microscopes). Carbon-based and beryllium mock-ups are made for experimental feasibility study of water and liquid-metal-cooled divertor/bumper concepts

  16. Technical requirement of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology

    Abdou, M.; Tillak, M.; Gierszwski, P.; Grover, J.; Puigh, R.; Sze, D.K.; Berwald, D.

    1986-06-01

    The technical issues and requirements of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology (FNT) have been investigated. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: a) blanket, b) radiation shield, c) tritium processing system, and d) plasma interactive components. Emphasis has been placed on the important and complex development problems of the blanket. A technical planning process for FNT has been developed and applied, including four major elements: 1) characterization of issues, 2) quantification of testing requirements, 3) evaluation of facilities, and 4) development of a test plan to identify the role, timing, characteristics and costs of major experiments and facilities

  17. Licensing of ''grandfather's'' facilities: Ukrainian experience

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Bogdan, L.; Steinberg, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the former USSR, unlike most countries, radioactive waste management activities including waste disposal needed no license. But after the USSR breakdown the Ukrainian Parliament -- Verkhovna Rada -- invoked the revised Law on Business activities. According to Article 4 of the Law, in order to treat or to dispose radioactive waste every enterprise has to get a special permission or license. In compliance with the Law, the Cabinet of Ministers by its Ordinance of January 13, 1993, authorized the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (UkrSCNRS) to issue special permissions or licenses for waste treatment and disposal. And that requirement was valid not only for future activities but also for existing facilities in operation. Taking into account the undergoing legislative process, SCNRS began to develop its licensing process without waiting for the special nuclear laws to be passed. On the basis of the legislation already in effect, first of all the Law on Enterprises (full responsibility of enterprises for their activities) and Law on Business activities (requirement to have a license for special types of activities), the newly formed national regulatory body had to identify all the enterprises that needed to be licensed, to establish relevant procedures, to develop related regulatory documents, to implement these procedures and documents at operating enterprises, and for each case to make a decision concerning feasibility of issuing a license, period of validity and license conditions

  18. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  19. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume II. Building and facilities

    1975-12-01

    The conceptual design of Safety Research Experiment Facility (SAREF) site system includes a review and evaluation of previous geotechnical reports for the area where SAREF will be constructed and the conceptual design of access and in-plant roads, parking, experiment-transport-vehicle maneuvering areas, security fencing, drainage, borrow area development and restoration, and landscaping

  20. Critical experiments facility and criticality safety programs at JAERI

    Kobayashi, Iwao; Tachimori, Shoichi; Takeshita, Isao; Suzaki, Takenori; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nomura, Yasushi

    1985-10-01

    The nuclear criticality safety is becoming a key point in Japan in the safety considerations for nuclear installations outside reactors such as spent fuel reprocessing facilities, plutonium fuel fabrication facilities, large scale hot alboratories, and so on. Especially a large scale spent fuel reprocessing facility is being designed and would be constructed in near future, therefore extensive experimental studies are needed for compilation of our own technical standards and also for verification of safety in a potential criticality accident to obtain public acceptance. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is proceeding a construction program of a new criticality safety experimental facility where criticality data can be obtained for such solution fuels as mainly handled in a reprocessing facility and also chemical process experiments can be performed to investigate abnormal phenomena, e.g. plutonium behavior in solvent extraction process by using pulsed colums. In FY 1985 detail design of the facility will be completed and licensing review by the government would start in FY 1986. Experiments would start in FY 1990. Research subjects and main specifications of the facility are described. (author)

  1. Economic Assessment of Flood Control Facilities under Climate Uncertainty: A Case of Nakdong River, South Korea

    Kyeongseok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change contributes to enhanced flood damage that has been increasing for the last several decades. Understanding climate uncertainties improves adaptation strategies used for investment in flood control facilities. This paper proposes an investment decision framework for one flood zone to cope with future severe climate impacts. This framework can help policy-makers investigate the cost of future damage and conduct an economic assessment using real options under future climate change scenarios. The proposed methodology provides local municipalities with an adaptation strategy for flood control facilities in a flood zone. Using the proposed framework, the flood prevention facilities in the Nakdong River Basin of South Korea was selected as a case study site to analyze the economic assessment of the investments for flood control facilities. Using representative concentration pathway (RCP climate scenarios, the cost of future flood damage to 23 local municipalities was calculated, and investment strategies for adaptation were analyzed. The project option value was determined by executing an option to invest in an expansion that would adapt to floods under climate change. The results of the case study showed that the proposed flood facilities are economically feasible under both scenarios used. The framework is anticipated to present guidance for establishing investment strategies for flood control facilities of a flood zone in multiple municipalities’ settings.

  2. The Climate Experiences of Students in Introductory Biology

    Ramón S. Barthelemy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding course climate is important for improving students’ experiences and increasing the likelihood of their persistence in STEM fields. This study presents climate survey results from 523 students taking introductory biology at the University of Michigan. Principal component analysis revealed that a student’s climate experience is comprised of five main elements: comfort, school avoidance, relationship to course, academic stress, and discomfort. Of these climate factors, comfort, school avoidance, and relationship to course were significant predictors of course satisfaction, and academic stress was a significant predictor of persistence. The results indicated the importance of a positive climate that is facilitated by the instructor in order to promote a positive student experience. Climate may be an important metric for institutions to track across time and course.

  3. Optimal control of indoor climate in agricultural storage facilities for potatoes and onions

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Maldegem, van J.; Dierkes, E.; Voort, van der A.J.; Kramer-Cuppen, de J.E.; Kolk, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the use of receding horizon optimal control (RHOC) for optimal climate control in storage facilities for potatoes and onions. RHOC is used on a supervisory level above the classical feedback climate controller. Some theoretical issues on RHOC are discussed, amongst which a

  4. Ethical climates in for-profit, nonprofit, and government skilled nursing facilities: managerial implications for partnerships.

    Filipova, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates ethical climates in government, nonprofit, and for-profit nursing homes and determines their similarities and differences. Surveys were collected from 656 (21.4%) licensed nurses who worked in 100 skilled nursing facilities in one Midwestern state. Shared law and code and caring ethical climates were identified across the 3 sector nursing homes. Those climates were also polarized. Important implications were drawn for consideration of ethical perceptions of each sector during negotiations and contract management.

  5. Climatic change science, experience and controversies

    Le Treut, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Hallegatte, St.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The international scientific community, gathered in the framework of the inter-governmental group for climate evolution (Giec), has confirmed the influence of human activities on climate and on the global warming. However, this diagnosis is sometimes questioned in the press. This book, published by the institute of sustainable development, gathers a series of articles written by scientists who make comments on the last Giec reports and who outline the knowledge gained, the remaining uncertainties and the controversies. (J.S.)

  6. Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities (supplement)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Historical water quality data of the Ohio River. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Levine, A., J. Yang , and J. Goodrich. Enhancing climate...

  7. Feedback experience from the decommissioning of Spanish nuclear facilities

    Santiago, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Spain has accumulated significant experience in the field of decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Relevant projects include the remediation of uranium mills and mines, the decommissioning of research reactors and nuclear research facilities and the decommissioning of gas-graphite nuclear power plants. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain is undertaken by ENRESA, who is also responsible for the management of radioactive wastes. The two most notable projects are the decommissioning of the Vandellos I nuclear power plant and the decommissioning of the CIEMAT nuclear research centre. The Vandellos I power plant was decommissioned in about five years to what is known as level 2. During this period, the reactor vessel was confined, most plant systems and components were dismantled, the facility was prepared for a period of latency and a large part of the site was restored for subsequent release. In 2005 the facility entered into the phase of dormancy, with minimum operating requirements. Only surveillance and maintenance activities are performed, among which special mention should be made to the five-year check of the leak tightness of the reactor vessel. After the dormancy period (25 - 30 years), level 3 of decommissioning will be initiated including the total dismantling of the remaining parts of the plant and the release of the whole site for subsequent uses. The decommissioning of the CIEMAT Research Centre includes the dismantling of obsolete facilities such as the research reactor JEN-1, a pilot reprocessing plant, a fuel fabrication facility, a conditioning plant for liquid and a liquid waste storage facility which were shutdown in the early eighties. Dismantling works have started in 2006 and will be completed by 2009. On the basis of the experience gained in the above mentioned sites, this paper describes the approaches adopted by ENRESA for large decommissioning projects. (author)

  8. Calculations of the startup experiments at the Poolside Facility

    Williams, M.L.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Discrete ordinate calculations are made and the results compared with measurements performed in the startup experiment at the Poolside Facility. Because of the physical size of the simulated surveillance capsule used in this experiment, the analytic procedure is more complicated than one adopted in earlier calculations of the PCA-PVF and PSF. The comparisons indicate the pressure vessel fluences in the long-term irradiation experiments still presently going on at the PSF, and which are geometrically identical to the startup experiment, can only be predicted to within about 20%.

  9. Calculations of the startup experiments at the Poolside Facility

    Williams, M.L.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Discrete ordinate calculations are made and the results compared with measurements performed in the startup experiment at the Poolside Facility. Because of the physical size of the simulated surveillance capsule used in this experiment, the analytic procedure is more complicated than one adopted in earlier calculations of the PCA-PVF and PSF. The comparisons indicate the pressure vessel fluences in the long-term irradiation experiments still presently going on at the PSF, and which are geometrically identical to the startup experiment, can only be predicted to within about 20%

  10. Technical specifications for the Pajarito Site Critical Experiments Facility

    Malenfant, R.E.; Paxton, H.C.

    1980-12-01

    This document is to satisfy the requirement for technical specifications spelled out in DOE Manual Chapter 0540, Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors. Technical specifications are defined in Sec. 0540-048, and the requirement for them appears in Sec. 0540-015. The following technical specifications update the document, Technical Specifications for the Pajarito Site Critical Experiments Facility

  11. The Governance of Climate Change Adaptation Through Urban Policy Experiments

    Chu, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly posing risks to infrastructure and public services in cities across the global South. Building on ideas of policy experimentation at the nexus of institutional and transition theories, this paper assesses six climate change adaptation experiments across the cities of

  12. Identifying User Experience Goals for Interactive Climate Management Business Systems

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Barlow, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interpretative phenomenological interviews about the user experience of interactive climate management with six growers and crop consultants. The focus of user experience research has been on quantitative studies of consumers’ initial usage experiences, for example...... of mobile phones or e-commerce websites. In contrast, this empirical paper provides an example of how to capture user experience in work contexts and with a qualitative methodology. We present a model of the essence of the emotional user experience of interactive climate management. Then we suggest...... of interactive climate management in this and other domains. The overall aim with the paper is to take the concept of user experience into the IS community and to describe and understand what are individual workers’ positive emotional use experiences when interacting with workplace systems....

  13. Gravity driven emergency core cooling experiments with the PACTEL facility

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H.; Kouhia, J.

    1996-01-01

    PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop) is an experimental out-of-pile facility designed to simulated the major components and system behaviour of a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during different postulated LOCAs and transients. The reference reactor to the PACTEL facility is Loviisa type WWER-440. The recently made modifications enable experiments to be conducted also on the passive core cooling. In these experiments the passive core cooling system consisted of one core makeup tank (CMT) and pressure balancing lines from the pressurizer and from a cold leg connected to the top of the CMT in order to maintain the tank in pressure equilibrium with the primary system during ECC injection. The line from the pressurizer to the core makeup tank was normally open. The ECC flow was provided from the CMT located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. A total number of nine experiments have been performed by now. 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Gravity driven emergency core cooling experiments with the PACTEL facility

    Munther, R; Kalli, H [University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kouhia, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop) is an experimental out-of-pile facility designed to simulated the major components and system behaviour of a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during different postulated LOCAs and transients. The reference reactor to the PACTEL facility is Loviisa type WWER-440. The recently made modifications enable experiments to be conducted also on the passive core cooling. In these experiments the passive core cooling system consisted of one core makeup tank (CMT) and pressure balancing lines from the pressurizer and from a cold leg connected to the top of the CMT in order to maintain the tank in pressure equilibrium with the primary system during ECC injection. The line from the pressurizer to the core makeup tank was normally open. The ECC flow was provided from the CMT located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. A total number of nine experiments have been performed by now. 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility

    Stinnett, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    These Technical Specifications for the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (CEF) delineate limiting conditions of operation for the facility. The CEF is used primarily for testing the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies. Specifically, the Criticality Testing Unit, Liquid (CTUL), located in the CEF, is used for the HFIR fuel assembly test. The test is performed to satisfy the surveillance requirements of the HFIR Technical Specifications. The test is used to determine the water-submerged shutdown margin for each fuel assembly. 11 refs

  16. UCN-VCN facility and experiments in Kyoto University Reactor

    Kawabata, Yuji; Okumura, Kiyoshi; Utsuro, Masahiko

    1993-01-01

    An ultracold and very cold neutron facility was installed in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The facility consists of a very cold neutron (VCN) guide tube, a VCN bender, a supermirror neutron turbine and experimental equipments with ultracold neutrons (UCN). The properties of each equipments are presented. UCN is generated by a supermirror neutron turbine combined with the cold neutron source operated with liquid deuterium, and the UCN output spectrum was measured by the time-of-flight method. A gravity analyzer for high resolution spectroscopy and a neutron bottle for decay experiments are now developing as the UCN research in KUR. (author)

  17. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed

  18. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  19. A ``Cyber Wind Facility'' for HPC Wind Turbine Field Experiments

    Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Schmitz, Sven; Campbell, Robert; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Nandi, Tarak; Jha, Pankaj; Dunbar, Alex; Motta-Mena, Javier; Craven, Brent; Haupt, Sue

    2013-03-01

    The Penn State ``Cyber Wind Facility'' (CWF) is a high-fidelity multi-scale high performance computing (HPC) environment in which ``cyber field experiments'' are designed and ``cyber data'' collected from wind turbines operating within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) environment. Conceptually the ``facility'' is akin to a high-tech wind tunnel with controlled physical environment, but unlike a wind tunnel it replicates commercial-scale wind turbines operating in the field and forced by true atmospheric turbulence with controlled stability state. The CWF is created from state-of-the-art high-accuracy technology geometry and grid design and numerical methods, and with high-resolution simulation strategies that blend unsteady RANS near the surface with high fidelity large-eddy simulation (LES) in separated boundary layer, blade and rotor wake regions, embedded within high-resolution LES of the ABL. CWF experiments complement physical field facility experiments that can capture wider ranges of meteorological events, but with minimal control over the environment and with very small numbers of sensors at low spatial resolution. I shall report on the first CWF experiments aimed at dynamical interactions between ABL turbulence and space-time wind turbine loadings. Supported by DOE and NSF.

  20. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Lessons learned from international siting experiences of LLW Disposal facilities

    McCabe, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States can gain insight into successfully siting low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities by studying the process in other nations. Siting experiences in France and Sweden are compared to experiences in the United States. Three factors appear to making siting of LLW disposal facilities easier in France and Sweden than in the United States. First, the level of public trust in the government and the entities responsible for siting, developing, and operating a LLW disposal facility is much greater in France and Sweden than in the United States. Second, France and Sweden are much more dependent on nuclear power than is the United States. Third, French and Swedish citizens do not have the same access to the siting process (i.e., legal means to intervene) as do U.S. citizens. To compensate for these three factors, public officials responsible for siting a facility may need to better listen to the concerns of public interest groups and citizen advisory committees and amend their siting process accordingly and better share power and control with the public. If these two techniques are implemented earnestly by the states, siting efforts may be increasingly more successful in the United States

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  3. Tropical-extratropical climate interaction as revealed in idealized coupled climate model experiments

    Yang, Haijun [Peking University, Department of Atmospheric Science and Laboratory for Severe Storm and Flood Disasters, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Zhengyu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Climatic Research and Department of the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Tropical-extratropical climate interactions are studied by idealized experiments with a prescribed 2 C SST anomaly at different latitude bands in a coupled climate model. Instead of focusing on intrinsic climate variability, this work investigates the mean climate adjustment to remote external forcing. The extratropical impact on tropical climate can be as strong as the tropical impact on extratropical climate, with the remote sea surface temperature (SST) response being about half the magnitude of the imposed SST change in the forcing region. The equatorward impact of extratropical climate is accomplished by both the atmospheric bridge and the oceanic tunnel. About two-thirds of the tropical SST change comes from the atmospheric bridge, while the remaining one-third comes from the oceanic tunnel. The equatorial SST increase is first driven by the reduced latent heat flux and the weakened poleward surface Ekman transport, and then enhanced by the decrease in subtropical cells' strength and the equatorward subduction of warm anomalies. In contrast, the poleward impact of tropical climate is accomplished mainly by the atmospheric bridge, which is responsible for extratropical temperature changes in both the surface and subsurface. Sensitivity experiments also show the dominant role of the Southern Hemisphere oceans in the tropical climate change. (orig.)

  4. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    Ando, Masami

    1980-01-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  5. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex

  6. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  7. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA (Spain); Benest, T.G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Willis, A. [VT Nuclear Services (United Kingdom); Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess (Belgium); Jeanjacques, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Seurat, Ph. [AREVA NC, 75 - Paris (France); Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  8. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    Santiago, J.L.; Benest, T.G.; Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph.; Willis, A.; Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.; Jeanjacques, M.; Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C.; Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G.; Seurat, Ph.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  9. The World Climate Exercise: Is (Simulated) Experience Our Best Teacher?

    Rath, K.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Jones, A.; Johnston, E.; Sterman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Meeting the challenge of climate change will clearly require 'deep learning' - learning that motivates a search for underlying meaning, a willingness to exert the sustained effort needed to understand complex problems, and innovative problem-solving. This type of learning is dependent on the level of the learner's engagement with the material, their intrinsic motivation to learn, intention to understand, and relevance of the material to the learner. Here, we present evidence for deep learning about climate change through a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate. The exercise puts participants into the roles of delegates to the United Nations climate negotiations and asks them to create an international climate deal. They find out the implications of their decisions, according to the best available science, through the same decision-support computer simulation used to provide feedback for the real-world negotiations, C-ROADS. World Climate provides an opportunity for participants have an immersive, social experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. Evaluation results so far have shown that the exercise is highly engaging and memorable and that it motivates large majorities of participants (>70%) to take action on climate change. In addition, we have found that it leads to substantial gains in understanding key systems thinking concepts (e.g., the stock-flow behavior of atmospheric CO2), as well as improvements in understanding of climate change causes and impacts. While research is still needed to better understand the impacts of simulation-based role-playing exercises like World Climate on behavior change, long-term understanding, transfer of systems thinking skills across topics, and the importance of social learning during the exercise, our results to date indicate that it is a

  10. The First Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Landen, O L; Glenzer, S; Froula, D; Dewald, E; Suter, L J; Schneider, M; Hinkel, D; Fernandez, J; Kline, J; Goldman, S; Braun, D; Celliers, P; Moon, S; Robey, H; Lanier, N; Glendinning, G; Blue, B; Wilde, B; Jones, O; Schein, J; Divol, L; Kalantar, D; Campbell, K; Holder, J; MacDonald, J; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A; Collins, R; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Gregori, G; Kirkwood, R; Young, B; Foster, J; Hansen, F; Perry, T; Munro, D; Baldis, H; Grim, G; Heeter, R; Hegelich, B; Montgomery, D; Rochau, G; Olson, R; Turner, R; Workman, J; Berger, R; Cohen, B; Kruer, W; Langdon, B; Langer, S; Meezan, N; Rose, H; Still, B; Williams, E; Dodd, E; Edwards, J; Monteil, M; Stevenson, M; Thomas, B; Coker, R; Magelssen, G; Rosen, P; Stry, P; Woods, D; Weber, S; Alvarez, S; Armstrong, G; Bahr, R; Bourgade, J; Bower, D; Celeste, J; Chrisp, M; Compton, S; Cox, J; Constantin, C; Costa, R; Duncan, J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Gautier, C; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hargrove, D; James, T; Kamperschroer, J; Kimbrough, J; Landon, M; Lee, D; Malone, R; May, M; Montelongo, S; Moody, J; Ng, E; Nikitin, A; Pellinen, D; Piston, K; Poole, M; Rekow, V; Rhodes, M; Shepherd, R; Shiromizu, S; Voloshin, D; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Young, P; Arnold, P; Atherton, L J; Bardsley, G; Bonanno, R; Borger, T; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S; Cooper, F; Dixit, S; Erbert, G; Eder, D; Ehrlich, B; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Gardner, S; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Hall, T; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermann, M; Hermes, G; Huber, S; Jancaitis, K; Johnson, S; Kauffman, B; Kelleher, T; Kohut, T; Koniges, A E; Labiak, T; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lund, D; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K R; Marshall, C; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Menapace, J.

    2005-01-01

    A first set of laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and x-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options

  11. `Climate wise` program at the Cosmair, Inc. Clark Manufacturing Facility

    Kraly, K.

    1997-12-31

    Viewgraphs from the conference presentation are reproduced in this paper, which outlines energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions at a hair care products manufacturing facility. Program management focuses on employee involvement in internal audits, utility tracking, public relations, and preventative maintenance. Energy savings, cost savings, and emission reductions are presented for 1996 and projected to the year 2000. Other program aspects outlined include a summary of utility costs; solid waste; chilled water system modifications; lighting modifications; boiler upgrades; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning improvements.

  12. Impact of Experience Corps(®) participation on school climate.

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Ramsey, Christine M; Carlson, Michelle C; Xue, Qian-Li; Huang, Jin; Romani, William A; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Barron, Jeremy; Tan, Erwin J; Gruenewald, Tara L; Diibor, Ike; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W

    2015-07-01

    We examined the impact of the Experience Corps(®) (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 h per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted.

  13. Impact of Experience Corps® Participation on School Climate

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Ramsey, Christine M.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Xue, Qian-Li; Huang, Jin; Romani, William A.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa E.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Tan, Erwin; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Diibor, Ike; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of the Experience Corps® (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 hours per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted. PMID:25708453

  14. Hohlraum modeling for opacity experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Dodd, E. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Martin, M. E.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Perry, T. S.; Heeter, R. F.; Opachich, Y. P.; Moore, A. S.; Kline, J. L.; Johns, H. M.; Liedahl, D. A.; Cardenas, T.; Olson, R. E.; Wilde, B. H.; Urbatsch, T. J.

    2018-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of experiments that measure iron opacity in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) using laser-driven hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A previous set of experiments fielded at Sandia's Z facility [Bailey et al., Nature 517, 56 (2015)] have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between the theory and experiment, casting doubt on the validity of the opacity models. The purpose of the new experiments is to make corroborating measurements at the same densities and temperatures, with the initial measurements made at a temperature of 160 eV and an electron density of 0.7 × 1022 cm-3. The X-ray hot spots of a laser-driven hohlraum are not in LTE, and the iron must be shielded from a direct line-of-sight to obtain the data [Perry et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 5617 (1996)]. This shielding is provided either with the internal structure (e.g., baffles) or external wall shapes that divide the hohlraum into a laser-heated portion and an LTE portion. In contrast, most inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are simple cylinders lacking complex gold walls, and the design codes are not typically applied to targets like those for the opacity experiments. We will discuss the initial basis for the modeling using LASNEX, and the subsequent modeling of five different hohlraum geometries that have been fielded on the NIF to date. This includes a comparison of calculated and measured radiation temperatures.

  15. Climate change: lived experience, policy and public action

    Abbott, Dina; Wilson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of lived experiences, as complementary knowledge to that provided by the sciences, for policy and intervention on climate change.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper draws on several strands within the context of climate change: knowledge and power; human engagement; the meaning of “lived experience” (and its association with “local/indigenous knowledge”); its capture through interdisciplinary and transdiscipl...

  16. The First Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Glenzer, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Suter, L. J.; Jones, O. S.; Schein, J.; Froula, L.; Divol, K.; Campbell, K.; Schneider, M. S.; McDonal, J. W.; Niemann, C.; Mackinnon, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently the first hohlraum and laser propagation experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect dd drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICR) and High Energy Density Physics. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 8 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several drive diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the lase power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. The experiments have validated analytical models and LASNEX calculations of hohlraum plasma filling and coronal hohlraum radiation production. furthermore, the effects of laser beam smooching by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) on the laser beam propagation has been studied in plasmas with sizes that reach for the first time the laser propagation length in indirect-drive gas-filled ignition hohlraum designs. the long scale gas-filled target experiments have shown propagation over 7 mm of low Z plasma without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. The comparison of these results with modeling will be discussed. (Author)

  17. The First Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Glenzer, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Suter, L. J.; Jones, O. S.; Schein, J.; Froula, L.; Divol, K.; Campbell, K.; Schneider, M. S.; McDonal, J. W.; Niemann, C.; Mackinnon, A. J.

    2005-07-01

    Recently the first hohlraum and laser propagation experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect dd drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICR) and High Energy Density Physics. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 8 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several drive diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the lase power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. The experiments have validated analytical models and LASNEX calculations of hohlraum plasma filling and coronal hohlraum radiation production. furthermore, the effects of laser beam smooching by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) on the laser beam propagation has been studied in plasmas with sizes that reach for the first time the laser propagation length in indirect-drive gas-filled ignition hohlraum designs. the long scale gas-filled target experiments have shown propagation over 7 mm of low Z plasma without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. The comparison of these results with modeling will be discussed. (Author)

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Instrument Report Fourth Quarter: October 1–December 30, 2010

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. Operational experience of the fuel cleaning facility of Joyo

    Mukaibo, R.; Matsuno, Y.; Sato, I.; Yoneda, Y.; Ito, H.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel assemblies in 'Joyo', after they are taken out of the core, are taken to the Fuel Cleaning Facility in the reactor service building and sodium removal is done. The cleaning process is done by cooling the assembly with argon gas, steam charging and rinsing by demineralized water. Deposited sodium was 50 ∼ 60 g per assembly. The sodium and steam reaction takes about 15 minutes to end and the total time the fuel is placed in the pot is about an hour. The total number of assemblies cleaned in the facility was 95 as of November 1977. In this report the operational experience together with discussions of future improvements are given. (author)

  1. Operational experience of the fuel cleaning facility of Joyo

    Mukaibo, R; Matsuno, Y; Sato, I; Yoneda, Y; Ito, H [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Spent fuel assemblies in 'Joyo', after they are taken out of the core, are taken to the Fuel Cleaning Facility in the reactor service building and sodium removal is done. The cleaning process is done by cooling the assembly with argon gas, steam charging and rinsing by demineralized water. Deposited sodium was 50 {approx} 60 g per assembly. The sodium and steam reaction takes about 15 minutes to end and the total time the fuel is placed in the pot is about an hour. The total number of assemblies cleaned in the facility was 95 as of November 1977. In this report the operational experience together with discussions of future improvements are given. (author)

  2. Operational experiences and upgradation of waste management facilities Trombay, India

    Chander, Mahesh; Bodke, S.B.; Bansal, N.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Waste Management Facilities Trombay provide services for the safe management of radioactive wastes generated from the operation of non power sources at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The paper describes in detail the current operational experience and facility upgradation by way of revamping of existing processes equipment and systems and augmentation of the facility by way of introducing latest processes and technologies to enhance the safety. Radioactive wastes are generated from the operation of research reactors, fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, research labs. manufacture of sealed sources and labeled compounds. Use of radiation sources in the field of medical, agriculture and industry also leads to generation of assorted solid waste and spent sealed radiation sources which require proper waste management. Waste Management Facilities Trombay comprise of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Decontamination Centre (DC) and Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS). Low level radioactive liquid effluents are received at ETP. Plant has 100 M 3 /day treatment capacity. Decontamination of liquid effluents is effected by chemical treatment method using co- precipitation as a process. Plant has 1800 M 3 of storage capacity. Chemical treatment system comprises of clarifloculator, static mixer and chemical feed tanks. Plant has concentrate management facility where chemical sludge is centrifuged to effect volume reduction of more that 15. Thickened sludge is immobilized in cement matrix. Decontamination Centre caters to the need of equipment decontamination from research reactors. Process used is ultrasonic chemical decontamination. Besides this DC provides services for decontamination of protective wears. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site is responsible for the safe management of solid waste generated at various research reactors, plants, laboratories in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Spent sealed radiation sources are also stored

  3. A PMT mass testing facility for the JUNO experiment

    Tietzsch, Alexander; Alsheimer, Isabell; Blum, David; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Sterr, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Bein, Bosse; Bick, Daniel; Ebert, Joachim; Hagner, Caren; Rebber, Henning; Steppat, Lisa; Wonsak, Bjoern [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) experiment will be one of the big neutrino oscillation experiments starting in the next years. The main goal of JUNO is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. To detect the sub-dominant effects in the oscillation pattern which depend on the mass hierarchy, the JUNO detector is planned with almost 20 kt fiducial volume, high light yield and energy resolution of better than 3%. In order to reach this, roughly 17000 newly developed high QE PMTs for the central detector, and additionally 2000 for the veto will be used. Each PMT has to be tested and characterized before it will be mounted in the experiment. This talk gives an overview on our plans and strategy for the mass test of all PMTs, and on the current status of the experimental test setup and next steps. The testing facility is developed in a cooperation between the Physical Institutes in Tuebingen and Hamburg within the JUNO collaboration.

  4. EXPERIENCE AND PLANS OF THE JLAB FEL FACILITY AS A USER FACILITY

    Michelle D. Shinn

    2007-08-26

    Jefferson Lab's IR Upgrade FEL building was planned from the beginning to be a user facility, and includes an associated 600 m2 area containing seven laboratories. The high average power capability (multikilowatt-level) in the near-infrared (1-3 microns), and many hundreds of watts at longer wavelengths, along with an ultrafast (~ 1 ps) high PRF (10's MHz) temporal structure makes this laser a unique source for both applied and basic research. In addition to the FEL, we have a dedicated laboratory capable of delivering high power (many tens of watts) of broadband THz light. After commissioning the IR Upgrade, we once again began delivering beam to users in 2005. In this presentation, I will give an overview of the FEL facility and its current performance, lessons learned over the last two years, and a synopsis of current and future experiments.

  5. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W. [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  6. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ(TDAQ) community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available ...

  7. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS TDAQ community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available to remote users t...

  8. The first target experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Froula, D.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Suter, L.J.; Schneider, M.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Fernandez, J.C.; Kline, J.L.; Goldman, S.R.; Braun, D.G.; Celliers, P.M.; Moon, S.J.; Robey, H.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Glendinning, S.G.; Blue, B.E.; Wilde, B.H.; Jones, O.S.; Schein, J.; Divol, L.; Kalantar, D.H.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; McDonald, J.W.; Niemann, C.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Collins, G.W.; Bradley, D.K.; Eggert, J.H.; Hicks, D.G.; Gregori, G.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Young, B.K.; Foster, J.M.; Hansen, J.F.; Perry, T.S.; Munro, D.H.; Baldis, H.A.; Grim, G.P.; Heeter, R.F.; Hegelich, M.B.; Montgomery, D.S.; Rochau, G.A.; Olson, R.E.; Turner, R.E.; Workman, J.B.; Berger, R.L.; Cohen, B.I.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Langer, S.H.; Meezan, N.B.; Rose, H.A.; Still, C.H.; Williams, E.A.; Dodd, E.A.; Edwards, M.J.; Monteil, M.C.; Stevenson, R.M.; Thomas, B.R.; Coker, R.F.; Magelssen, G.R.; Rosen, P.A.; Stry, P.E.; Woods, D.; Weber, S.V.; Young, P.E.; Alvarez, S.; Armstrong, G.; Bahr, R.; Bourgade, G.L.; Bower, D.; Celeste, J.; Chrisp, M.; Compton, S.; Cox, J.; Constantin, C.; Costa, R.; Duncan, J.; Ellis, A.; Emig, J.; Gautier, C.; Greenwood, A.; Griffith, R.; Holdner, F.; Holtmeier, G.; Hargrove, D.; James, T.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Landon, M.; Lee, F.D.; Malone, R.; May, M.; Montelongo, S.; Moody, J.; Ng, E.; Nikitin, A.; Pellinen, D.; Piston, K.; Poole, M.; Rekow, V.; Rhodes, M.; Shepherd, R.; Shiromizu, S.; Voloshin, D.; Warrick, A.; Watts, P.; Weber, F.; Young, P.; Arnold, P.

    2007-01-01

    A first set of shock timing, laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and X-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options. The experiments have demonstrated excellent agreement between measured and predicted laser-target coupling in foils and hohlraums, even when extended to a longer pulse regime unattainable at previous laser facilities, validated the predicted effects of beam smoothing on intense laser beam propagation in long scale-length plasmas and begun to test 3-dimensional codes by extending the study of laser driven hydrodynamic jets to 3-dimensional geometries. (authors)

  9. The first target experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Froula, D.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Suter, L.J.; Schneider, M.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Fernandez, J.C.; Kline, J.L.; Goldman, S.R.; Braun, D.G.; Celliers, P.M.; Moon, S.J.; Robey, H.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Glendinning, S.G.; Blue, B.E.; Wilde, B.H.; Jones, O.S.; Schein, J.; Divol, L.; Kalantar, D.H.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; McDonald, J.W.; Niemann, C.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Collins, G.W.; Bradley, D.K.; Eggert, J.H.; Hicks, D.G.; Gregori, G.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Young, B.K.; Foster, J.M.; Hansen, J.F.; Perry, T.S.; Munro, D.H.; Baldis, H.A.; Grim, G.P.; Heeter, R.F.; Hegelich, M.B.; Montgomery, D.S.; Rochau, G.A.; Olson, R.E.; Turner, R.E.; Workman, J.B.; Berger, R.L.; Cohen, B.I.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Langer, S.H.; Meezan, N.B.; Rose, H.A.; Still, C.H.; Williams, E.A.; Dodd, E.A.; Edwards, M.J.; Monteil, M.C.; Stevenson, R.M.; Thomas, B.R.; Coker, R.F.; Magelssen, G.R.; Rosen, P.A.; Stry, P.E.; Woods, D.; Weber, S.V.; Young, P.E.; Alvarez, S.; Armstrong, G.; Bahr, R.; Bourgade, G.L.; Bower, D.; Celeste, J.; Chrisp, M.; Compton, S.; Cox, J.; Constantin, C.; Costa, R.; Duncan, J.; Ellis, A.; Emig, J.; Gautier, C.; Greenwood, A.; Griffith, R.; Holdner, F.; Holtmeier, G.; Hargrove, D.; James, T.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Landon, M.; Lee, F.D.; Malone, R.; May, M.; Montelongo, S.; Moody, J.; Ng, E.; Nikitin, A.; Pellinen, D.; Piston, K.; Poole, M.; Rekow, V.; Rhodes, M.; Shepherd, R.; Shiromizu, S.; Voloshin, D.; Warrick, A.; Watts, P.; Weber, F.; Young, P.; Arnold, P

    2007-08-15

    A first set of shock timing, laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and X-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options. The experiments have demonstrated excellent agreement between measured and predicted laser-target coupling in foils and hohlraums, even when extended to a longer pulse regime unattainable at previous laser facilities, validated the predicted effects of beam smoothing on intense laser beam propagation in long scale-length plasmas and begun to test 3-dimensional codes by extending the study of laser driven hydrodynamic jets to 3-dimensional geometries. (authors)

  10. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Alt, S; Lischke, W [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  11. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W.

    1997-01-01

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA's fourth phase at the original plant

  12. Antares facility for inertial-fusion experiments: status and plans

    Goldstone, P.D.; Allen, G.; Jansen, H.; Saxman, A.; Singer, S.; Thuot, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antares is a large, 30 to 40 kJ CO 2 laser system which will provide a base for experiments to determine the efficiency with which 10 μm light can be used to drive target implosions while maintaining an acceptable level of preheat. Construction of the facility is in the final stages and diagnostics for initial experiments are being designed and constructed with operations scheduled to begin early in FY-84. After an initial shakedown period, we expect to perform a series of measurements to determine the energy scaling of hot electron temperature and target coupling efficiency in selected set of targets including simple spheres. We also expect to continue experiments, now planned for Helios, to determine whether CO 2 -produced ions are appropriate for driving inertial fusion targets with acceptable efficiency (Helios experiments have demonstrated that as much as 40% of the incident light can be converted to fast ions). Details of these experiments, as well as plans for further experiments, are still being defined

  13. Radiological operating experience at FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility

    Bunch, W.L.; Prevo, P.R.

    1986-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has been in operation for approximately five years, including about one thousand days of full power operation of the Fast Test Reactor. During that time the collective dose equivalents received by operating personnel have been about two orders of magnitude lower than those typically received at commercial light water reactors. No major contamination problems have been encountered in operating and maintaining the plant, and release of radioactive gas to the environment has been minimal and well below acceptable limits. All shields have performed satisfactorily. Experience to date indicates an apparent radiological superiority of liquid metal reactor systems over current light water plants

  14. Adaptation to climate extremes: Experiences in the agricultural sector

    Ball, M.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    Various social and economic systems are at risk from variability in weather conditions. A realization of this fact has prompted endogenous adaptations to cope with weather variability. Climate change may overwhelm existing adaptive strategies. These systems would experience this change from the secular trends in first-order and higher order statistics of climate parameters (e.g., mean biotemperature, intensity, and inter-arrival times of extreme events). Historically, different human activities have formally or informally incorporated adaptation to climate conditions. Activities such as agriculture are influenced strongly by weather, yet through a variety of mechanisms, impacts are ameliorated. Taking agriculture as an example of a central and substantive system, the authors' study presents response strategies of oranges production -- a crop currently affected greatly by weather conditions. Understanding the adaptation mechanisms used today can be used to examine the cost and effectiveness of adaptive actions to future climate change

  15. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an EMIC intercomparison

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2012-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE......, are used to assess the contributions of different climate forcings to the overall climate and carbon cycle response. The response of surface air temperature is the linear sum of the individual forcings, while the carbon cycle response shows considerable synergy between land-use change and CO2... and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land-use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures...

  16. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  17. Laser fusion experiments, facilities and diagnostics at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    The progress of the LLL Laser Fusion Program to achieve high gain thermonuclear micro-explosions is discussed. Many experiments have been successfully performed and diagnosed using the large complex, 10-beam, 30 TW Shiva laser system. A 400 kJ design of the 20-beam Nova laser has been completed. The construction of the first phase of this facility has begun. New diagnostic instruments are described which provide one with new and improved resolution, information on laser absorption and scattering, thermal energy flow, suprathermal electrons and their effects, and final fuel conditions. Measurements were made on the absorption and Brillouin scattering for target irradiations at both 1.064 μm and 532 nm. These measurements confirm the expected increased absorption and reduced scattering at the shorter wavelength. Implosion experiments have been performed which have produced final fuel densities over the range of 10x to 100x liquid DT density

  18. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments.

    Murray, Claire A; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J; Baker, Annabelle R; Thompson, Stephen P; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G; Yang, Sihai; Tang, Chiu C

    2017-02-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world's first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation.

  19. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Robey, H F; Celliers, P M; Moody, J D; Sater, J; Parham, T; Kozioziemski, B; Dylla- Spears, R; Ross, J S; LePape, S; Ralph, J E; Hohenberger, M; Dewald, E L; Berzak Hopkins, L; Kroll, J J; Yoxall, B E; Hamza, A V; Landen, O L; Edwards, M J; Boehly, T R; Nikroo, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. (paper)

  20. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  1. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First experiments

    Celliers P.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a re-entrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.

  2. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First Experiments

    Celliers, P.M.; Robey, H.F.; Boehly, T.R.; Alger, E.; Azevedo, S.; Berzins, L.V.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Bowers, M.W.; Brereton, S.J.; Callahan, D.; Castro, C.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Choate, C.; Clark, D.; Coffee, K.R.; Datte, P.S.; Dewald, E.L.; DiNicola, P.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Dzenitis, E.; Edwards, M.J.; Eggert, J.H.; Fair, J.; Farley, D.R.; Frieders, G.; Gibson, C.R.; Giraldez, E.; Haan, S.; Haid, B.; Hamza, A.V.; Haynam, C.; Hicks, D.G.; Holunga, D.M.; Horner, J.B.; Jancaitis, K.; Jones, O.S.; Kalantar, D.; Kline, J.L.; Krauter, K.G.; Kroll, J.J.; LaFortune, K.N.; Pape, S.L.; Malsbury, T.; Maypoles, E.R.; Milovich, J.L.; Moody, J.D.; Moreno, K.; Munro, D.H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R.E.; Parham, T.; Pollaine, S.; Radousky, H.B.; Ross, G.F.; Sater, J.; Schneider, M.B.; Shaw, M.; Smith, R.F.; Thomas, C.A.; Throop, A.; Town, R.J.; Trummer, D.; Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Walters, C.F.; Widmann, K.; Widmayer, C.; Young, B.K.; Atherton, L.J.; Collins, G.W.; Landen, O.L.; Lindl, J.D.; MacGowan, B.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Moses, E.I.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a reentrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.

  3. A review of experiments and results from the TREAT facility

    Deitrich, L.W.; Dickerman, C.E.; Klickman, A.E.; Wright, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and built in the late 1950s at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide a transient reactor for safety experiments on samples of reactor fuels. It first operated in 1959. Throughout its history, experiments conducted in TREAT have been important in establishing the behavior of a wide variety of reactor fuel elements under conditions predicted to occur in reactor accidents ranging from mild off-normal transients to hypothetical core disruptive accidents. For much of its history, TREAT was used primarily to test liquid-metal reactor fuel elements, initially for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), then for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), the British Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), and finally for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Both oxide and metal elements were tested in dry capsules and in flowing sodium loops. The data obtained were instrumental in establishing the behavior of the fuel under off-normal and accident conditions, a necessary part of the safety analysis of the various reactors. In addition, TREAT was used to test light water reactor (LWR) elements in a steam environment to obtain fission product release data under meltdown conditions. Studies are now under way on applications of TREAT to testing of the behavior of high-burnup LWR elements under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions using a high-pressure water loop

  4. Information on the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Test Facility

    Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report provides information related to the design of the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility. Information provided in this report have been pulled from the following information sources: Reference 1: R. Nourgaliev and et.al, 'Summary Report on NGSAC (Next-Generation Safety Analysis Code) Development and Testing,' Idaho National Laboratory, 2011. Note that this is report has not been released as an external report. Reference 2: O. Stevens, Characterization of the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Passive Residual Heat Removal System Heat Exchanger, Master Thesis, June 1996. Reference 3: J. Reyes, Jr., Q. Wu, and J. King, Jr., Scaling Assessment for the Design of the OSU APEX-1000 Test Facility, OSU-APEX-03001 (Rev. 0), May 2003. Reference 4: J. Reyes et al, Final Report of the NRC AP600 Research Conducted at Oregon State University, NUREG/CR-6641, July 1999. Reference 5: K. Welter et al, APEX-1000 Confirmatory Testing to Support AP1000 Design Certification (non-proprietary), NUREG-1826, August 2005.

  5. First experiment on LMJ facility: pointing and synchronisation qualification

    Henry, Olivier; Raffestin, Didier; Bretheau, Dominique; Luttmann, Michel; Graillot, Herve; Ferri, Michel; Seguineau, Frederic; Bar, Emmanuel; Patissou, Loic; Canal, Philippe; Sautarel, Franöise; Tranquille-Marques, Yves

    2017-10-01

    The LMJ (Laser mega Joule) facility at the CESTA site (Aquitaine, France) is a tool designed to deliver up to 1.2 MJ at 351 nm for plasma experiments. The experiment system will include 11 diagnostics: UV and X energy balances, imagers (Streak and stripe camera, CCD), spectrometers, and a Visar/pyrometer. The facility must be able to deliver, within the hour following the shot, all the results of the plasma diagnostics, alignment images and laser diagnostic measurements. These results have to be guaranteed in terms of conformity to the request and quality of measurement. The end of 2016 was devoted to the qualification of system pointing on target and synchronization within and between beams. The shots made with two chains (divided in 4 quads - 8 laser beams) have achieved 50 µm of misalignment accuracy (chain and quad channel) and a synchronization accuracy in the order of 50 ps . The performances achieved for plasma diagnostic (in the order of less 100 µm of alignment and timing accuracy less than 150 ps) comply with expectations. At the same time the first automatic sequences were tested. They allowed a shot on target every 6h:30 and in some case twice a day by reducing preparation actions, leading to a sequence of 4h:00.

  6. Near real time/low latency data collection for climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 SPRUCE experiment

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Riggs, J. S.; Nettles, W. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    Climate change studies are one of the most important aspects of modern science and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. One such experiment is the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE, http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) conducted in in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The SPRUCE experimental mission is to assess ecosystem-level biological responses of vulnerable, high carbon terrestrial ecosystems to a range of climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 atmosphere. This manipulation experiment generates a lot of observational data and requires a reliable onsite data collection system, dependable methods to transfer data to a robust scientific facility, and real-time monitoring capabilities. This presentation shares our experience of establishing near real time/low latency data collection and monitoring system using satellite communication.

  7. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  8. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  9. Polar-Drive Experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Hohenberger, M.

    2014-10-01

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-drive (PD) concept has been proposed. It requires direct-drive-specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments testing the performance of ignition-relevant PD implosions at the NIF have been performed. The goal of these early experiments was to develop a stable, warm implosion platform to investigate laser deposition and laser-plasma instabilities at ignition-relevant plasma conditions, and to develop and validate ignition-relevant models of laser deposition and heat conduction. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Warm, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~ 350 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 60 to 180 TW and peak on-target intensities from 4 ×1014 to 1 . 2 ×1015 W/cm2. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including the level of hot-electron preheat, and implosion symmetry and shell trajectory inferred via self-emission imaging and backlighting. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray trace to model oblique beams, and a model for cross-beam energy transfer (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Steam line rupture experiments with the PPOOLEX test facility

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.

    2008-07-01

    The results of the steam line rupture experiment series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology are reported. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Air was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the initial phase of a postulated steam line break accident inside a BWR containment. Specifically, thermal stratification in the dry well compartment and ejection of water plug from the blowdown pipe were of interest. In addition, the effect of counterpressure on bubble dynamics was studied. A temperature difference of approximately 15 deg. C between the upper and lower part of the dry well was measured. In the wet well gas space, a temperature difference of more than 30 deg. C was registered. These were measured during the compression period of the tests. Towards the end of the tests the temperature differences tended to disappear. To get a more detailed picture of temperature distribution in the wet well, especially close to the water level, a dense net of measurements is required in future experiments. In longer experiments, heat conduction to structures and heat losses to surroundings should also be taken into account. Ejection of water plugs from the blowdown pipe did not cause notable loads to the structures due to the suppressing effect of the dry well compartment. The maximum measured pressure pulse at the pool bottom was only 10 kPa and the maximum strain amplitude at the pool bottom rounding was negligible both in axial and circumferential direction. As the counterpressure of the system increased, but the flow rate remained the same, the maximum size of the air bubbles at the blowdown pipe outlet got smaller and

  11. Steam line rupture experiments with the PPOOLEX test facility

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The results of the steam line rupture experiment series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology are reported. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Air was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the initial phase of a postulated steam line break accident inside a BWR containment. Specifically, thermal stratification in the dry well compartment and ejection of water plug from the blowdown pipe were of interest. In addition, the effect of counterpressure on bubble dynamics was studied. A temperature difference of approximately 15 deg. C between the upper and lower part of the dry well was measured. In the wet well gas space, a temperature difference of more than 30 deg. C was registered. These were measured during the compression period of the tests. Towards the end of the tests the temperature differences tended to disappear. To get a more detailed picture of temperature distribution in the wet well, especially close to the water level, a dense net of measurements is required in future experiments. In longer experiments, heat conduction to structures and heat losses to surroundings should also be taken into account. Ejection of water plugs from the blowdown pipe did not cause notable loads to the structures due to the suppressing effect of the dry well compartment. The maximum measured pressure pulse at the pool bottom was only 10 kPa and the maximum strain amplitude at the pool bottom rounding was negligible both in axial and circumferential direction. As the counterpressure of the system increased, but the flow rate remained the same, the maximum size of the air bubbles at the blowdown pipe outlet got smaller and

  12. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J.; Djekic, S.; Haeffner, H.; Hermanspahn, N.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Moore, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J.; Weber, C.; Werth, G.

    2001-01-01

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy

  13. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an EMIC intercomparison

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2012-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE...... and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land-use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures...... the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age estimated from paleoclimate reconstructions. This in turn could be a result of errors in the reconstructions of volcanic and/or solar radiative forcing used to drive the models or the incomplete representation of certain processes or variability within...

  14. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D{sub 2} gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ∼500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 × 10{sup 14} to 1.2 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2}. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO-FREQUENCY MODULES TEST FACILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R and D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R and D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project

  16. CHARM 2010: Experiment summary and future charm facilities

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    The CHARM 2010 meeting had over 30 presentations of experimental results, plus additional future facilities talks just before this summary talk. Since there is not enough time to even summarize all that has been shown from experiments and to recognize all the memorable plots and results - tempting as it is to reproduce the many clean signals and data vs theory figures, the quantum correlations plots, and the D-mixing plots before and after the latest CLEO-c data is added. So, this review will give only my personal observations, exposing my prejudices and my areas of ignorance, no doubt. This overview will be at a fairly high level of abstraction - no re-showing individual plots or results. I ask the forgiveness of those who will have been slighted in this way - meaning all the presents.

  17. Experience in startup and operation of fast flux facility

    Moffitt, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The testing program was structured to perform all testing under formal testing procedures with a test engineer as the test director and the plant operators operating the systems and equipment. This provided excellent training and experience for the operators in preparation for eventual reactor operation. Operations preparations for the testing and operation activities has consisted of academic training, formal on-the-job training including systems operation and examinations by persons with an expert knowledge on that portion of the plant, training at EBR-II and the High Temperature Sodium Facility for selected senior operators, operating procedure preparation, training on an FFTF Control Room operator training simulator, and formal written, oral and operating examinations

  18. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Goldman, S.R.; Kline, J.L.; Dodd, E.S.; Gautier, C.; Grim, G.P.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.; Schmidt, D.W.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.G.; Dewald, E.L.; Landen, O.L.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments done at the National Ignition Facility laser [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] using gas-filled hohlraums demonstrate a key ignition design feature, i.e., using plasma pressure from a gas fill to tamp the hohlraum-wall expansion for the duration of the laser pulse. Moreover, our understanding of hohlraum energetics and the ability to predict the hohlraum soft-x-ray drive has been validated in ignition-relevant conditions. Finally, the laser reflectivity from stimulated Raman scattering in the fill plasma, a key threat to hohlraum performance, is shown to be suppressed by choosing a design with a sufficiently high ratio of electron temperature to density

  19. Operating experience with superconducting cavities at the TESLA test facility

    Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    A description of the TESLA Test Facility, which has been set up at DESY by the TeV Energy Superconducting Accelerator (TESLA) collaboration, will be given as it is now after five years of installation and operation. The experience with the first three modules, each containing 8 superconducting 9-cell cavities, installed and operated in the TTF-linac will be described. The measurements in the vertical and horizontal cryostats as well as in the modules will be compared. Recent results of the operation at the TESLA design current, macropulses of 800 μsec with bunches of 3.2 nC at a rate of 2.25 MHz are given. New measurement results of the higher order modes (HOM) will be presented. The operation and optimisation of the TTF Free Electron Laser (TTF-FEL) will also be covered in this paper. (author)

  20. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-micros risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001

  1. Management Of Experiments And Data At The National Ignition Facility

    Azevedo, S.; Casey, A.; Beeler, R.; Bettenhausen, R.; Bond, E.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Foxworthy, C.; Hutton, M.; Krammen, J.; Liebman, J.; Marsh, A.; Pannell, T.; Rhodes, J.; Tappero, J.; Warrick, A.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments, or 'shots', conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are discrete events that occur over a very short time frame (tens of nanoseconds) separated by many hours. Each shot is part of a larger campaign of shots to advance scientific understanding in high-energy-density physics. In one campaign, scientists use energy from the 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule pulsed laser in the NIF system to symmetrically implode a hydrogen-filled target, thereby creating conditions similar to the interior of stars in a demonstration of controlled fusion. Each NIF shot generates gigabytes of data from over 30 diagnostics that measure optical, x-ray, and nuclear phenomena from the imploding target. We have developed systems to manage all aspects of the shot cycle. Other papers will discuss the control of the lasers and targets, while this paper focuses on the setup and management of campaigns and diagnostics. Because of the low duty cycle of shots, and the thousands of adjustments for each shot (target type, composition, shape; laser beams used, their power profiles, pointing; diagnostic systems used, their configuration, calibration, settings) it is imperative that we accurately define all equipment prior to the shot. Following the shot, and capture of the data by the automatic control system, it is equally imperative that we archive, analyze and visualize the results within the required 30 minutes post-shot. Results must be securely archived, approved, web-visible and downloadable in order to facilitate subsequent publication. To-date NIF has successfully fired over 2,500 system shots, as well as thousands of test firings and dry-runs. We will present an overview of the highly-flexible and scalable campaign management systems and tools employed at NIF that control experiment configuration of the facility all the way through presentation of analyzed results.

  2. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Large scale FCI experiments in subassembly geometry. Test facility and model experiments

    Beutel, H.; Gast, K.

    A program is outlined for the study of fuel/coolant interaction under SNR conditions. The program consists of a) under water explosion experiments with full size models of the SNR-core, in which the fuel/coolant system is simulated by a pyrotechnic mixture. b) large scale fuel/coolant interaction experiments with up to 5kg of molten UO 2 interacting with liquid sodium at 300 deg C to 600 deg C in a highly instrumented test facility simulating an SNR subassembly. The experimental results will be compared to theoretical models under development at Karlsruhe. Commencement of the experiments is expected for the beginning of 1975

  4. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  6. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Vesela Radovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2016

    Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research observatories (sites) are collected and routed to the ARM Data Center (ADC). The Data Management Facility (DMF), a component of the ADC, executes datastream processing in near-real time. Processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, also a component of the ADC, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, ARM calculates the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the ARM Data Archive to the expected number of data records. DOE requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data.

  8. Summarisation of construction and commissioning experience for nuclear power integrated test facility

    Xiao Zejun; Jia Dounan; Jiang Xulun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    Since the foundation of Nuclear Power Institute of China, it has successively designed various engineering experimental facilities, and constructed nuclear power experimental research base, and accumulated rich construction experiences of nuclear power integrated test facility. The author presents experience on design, construction and commissioning of nuclear power integrated test facility

  9. Facilities as teaching tools: A transformative participatory professional development experience

    Wilson, Eric A.

    Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.

  10. Target designs for energetics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Meezan, N B; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the first hohlraum energetics experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al, Optical Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] is to select the hohlraum design for the first ignition experiments. Sub-scale hohlraums heated by 96 of the 192 laser beams on the NIF are used to emulate the laser-plasma interaction behavior of ignition hohlraums. These 'plasma emulator' targets are 70% scale versions of the 1.05 MJ, 300 eV ignition hohlraum and have the same energy-density as the full-scale ignition designs. Radiation-hydrodynamics simulations show that the sub-scale target is a good emulator of plasma conditions inside the ignition hohlraum, reproducing density n e within 10% and temperature T e within 15% along a laser beam path. Linear backscatter gain analysis shows the backscatter risk to be comparable to that of the ignition target. A successful energetics campaign will allow the National Ignition Campaign to focus its efforts on optimizing ignition hohlraums with efficient laser coupling

  11. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  12. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  13. What is the ARM Climate Research Facility: Is Global Warming a Real Bias or a Statistical Anomaly?

    Egami, Takeshi [U of Tennessee and ORNL; Sisterson, Douglas L.

    2010-03-10

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research national user facility. With multi-laboratory management of distributed facilities worldwide, the ACRF does not fit the mold of a traditional user facility located at a national laboratory. The ACRF provides the world's most comprehensive 24/7 observational capabilities for obtaining atmospheric data specifically for climate change research. Serving nearly 5,000 registered users from 15 federal and state agencies, 375 universities, and 67 countries, the ACRF Data Archive collects and delivers over 5 terabytes of data per month to its users. The ACRF users provide critical information about cloud formation processes, water vapor, and aerosols, and their influence on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. This information is used to improve global climate model predictions of climate change.

  14. Scientific workflow and support for high resolution global climate modeling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Anantharaj, V.; Mayer, B.; Wang, F.; Hack, J.; McKenna, D.; Hartman-Baker, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) facilitates the execution of computational experiments that require tens of millions of CPU hours (typically using thousands of processors simultaneously) while generating hundreds of terabytes of data. A set of ultra high resolution climate experiments in progress, using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), will produce over 35,000 files, ranging in sizes from 21 MB to 110 GB each. The execution of the experiments will require nearly 70 Million CPU hours on the Jaguar and Titan supercomputers at OLCF. The total volume of the output from these climate modeling experiments will be in excess of 300 TB. This model output must then be archived, analyzed, distributed to the project partners in a timely manner, and also made available more broadly. Meeting this challenge would require efficient movement of the data, staging the simulation output to a large and fast file system that provides high volume access to other computational systems used to analyze the data and synthesize results. This file system also needs to be accessible via high speed networks to an archival system that can provide long term reliable storage. Ideally this archival system is itself directly available to other systems that can be used to host services making the data and analysis available to the participants in the distributed research project and to the broader climate community. The various resources available at the OLCF now support this workflow. The available systems include the new Jaguar Cray XK6 2.63 petaflops (estimated) supercomputer, the 10 PB Spider center-wide parallel file system, the Lens/EVEREST analysis and visualization system, the HPSS archival storage system, the Earth System Grid (ESG), and the ORNL Climate Data Server (CDS). The ESG features federated services, search & discovery, extensive data handling capabilities, deep storage access, and Live Access Server (LAS) integration. The scientific workflow enabled on

  15. Technologies for adaptation. Perspectives and practical experiences; Climate change

    Christiansen, Lars; Olhoff, A; Traerup, S

    2011-11-15

    The present report is the second volume of the UNEP Risoe Centre Technology Transfer Perspectives Series. The report is related to the global Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project, financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by UNEP Risoe Centre. The nine articles in this volume discuss issues like: a) the concepts and context of technologies for adaptation; b) assessments of adaptation technology needs; c) practical experiences from working with technologies for adaptation. (LN)

  16. HLM fuel pin bundle experiments in the CIRCE pool facility

    Martelli, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.martelli@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Pisa (Italy); Di Piazza, Ivan; Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The experimental results represent the first set of values for LBE pool facility. • Heat transfer is investigated for a 37-pin electrical bundle cooled by LBE. • Experimental data are presented together with a detailed error analysis. • Nu is computed as a function of the Pe and compared with correlations. • Experimental Nu is about 25% lower than Nu derived from correlations. - Abstract: Since Lead-cooled Fast Reactors (LFR) have been conceptualized in the frame of GEN IV International Forum (GIF), great interest has focused on the development and testing of new technologies related to HLM nuclear reactors. In this frame the Integral Circulation Experiment (ICE) test section has been installed into the CIRCE pool facility and suitable experiments have been carried out aiming to fully investigate the heat transfer phenomena in grid spaced fuel pin bundles providing experimental data in support of European fast reactor development. In particular, the fuel pin bundle simulator (FPS) cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE), has been conceived with a thermal power of about 1 MW and a uniform linear power up to 25 kW/m, relevant values for a LFR. It consists of 37 fuel pins (electrically simulated) placed on a hexagonal lattice with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.8. The FPS was deeply instrumented by several thermocouples. In particular, two sections of the FPS were instrumented in order to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient along the bundle as well as the cladding temperature in different ranks of sub-channels. Nusselt number in the central sub-channel was therefore calculated as a function of the Peclet number and the obtained results were compared to Nusselt numbers obtained from convective heat transfer correlations available in literature on Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM). Results reported in the present work, represent the first set of experimental data concerning fuel pin bundle behaviour in a heavy liquid metal pool, both in forced and

  17. Influence of climate and geography on the occurrence of Legionella and amoebae in composting facilities.

    Conza, Lisa; Casati Pagani, Simona; Gaia, Valeria

    2014-11-24

    The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in southern Switzerland is three times higher than in northern Switzerland. Climatic and geographic factors may be potential causes for this difference.We studied the prevalence of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) in compost and bioaerosol in two Swiss regions to understand the role of climate and geography in the transmission of LD. We also tried to investigate whether or not compost storage duration would influence the composition of Legionella and FLA communities. A larger proportion of compost heaps in facilities from southern Switzerland harbor more diverse Legionella compared to the north (P=0.0146). FLA were isolated from composts in northern facilities at slightly higher rates (88.2% vs. 69.2%) and at lower rates from bioaerosols (6.3% vs. 13%) than in southern Switzerland. The diversity of FLA was higher in northern than in southern Switzerland (80% vs. 65%). A general decrease in the presence and variety of species was observed with decreasing compost storage time length. A discriminant model showed that values of vapour pressure, relative humidity and temperature distinguish the two regions, which were also characterised by different contamination rates by FLA and Legionella. The duration of outdoor storage may favour contamination of the compost by Legionella, and may increase the number and isolation of Legionella naturally occurring in compost. The climate in the south seems to favour higher Legionella contamination of compost heaps: this could explain the higher incidence of LD in southern Switzerland.

  18. Experiment archive, analysis, and visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Hutton, Matthew S.; Azevedo, Stephen; Beeler, Richard; Bettenhausen, Rita; Bond, Essex; Casey, Allan; Liebman, Judith; Marsh, Amber; Pannell, Thomas; Warrick, Abbie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the computing architecture to manage scientific data from NIF experiments. ► NIF laser “shots” generate GBs of data for sub-microsec events separated by hours. ► Results are archived, analyzed and displayed with parallel and scalable code. ► Data quality and pedigree, based on calibration of each part, are tracked. ► Web-based visualization tools present data across shots and diagnostics. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic laser, providing a scientific research center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. A target shot involves over 30 specialized diagnostics measuring critical x-ray, optical and nuclear phenomena to quantify ignition results for comparison with computational models. The Shot Analysis and Visualization System (SAVI) acquires and analyzes target diagnostic data for display within a time-budget of 30 min. Laser and target diagnostic data are automatically loaded into the NIF archive database through clustered software data collection agents. The SAVI Analysis Engine distributes signal and image processing tasks to a Linux cluster where computation is performed. Intermediate results are archived at each step of the analysis pipeline. Data is archived with metadata and pedigree. Experiment results are visualized through a web-based user interface in interactive dashboards tailored to single or multiple shot perspectives. The SAVI system integrates open-source software, commercial workflow tools, relational database and messaging technologies into a service-oriented and distributed software architecture that is highly parallel, scalable, and flexible. The architecture and functionality of the SAVI system will be presented along with examples.

  19. Risk management for operations of the LANL Critical Experiments Facility

    Paternoster, R.; Butterfield, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) currently operates two burst reactors (Godiva-IV and Skua), one solution assembly [the Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA)], two fast-spectrum benchmark assemblies (Flattop and Big Ten), and five general-purpose remote assembly machines that may be configured with nuclear materials and assembled by remote control. Special nuclear materials storage vaults support these and other operations at the site. With this diverse set of operations, several approaches are possible in the analysis and management of risk. The most conservative approach would be to write a safety analysis report (SAR) for each assembly and experiment. A more cost-effective approach is to analyze the probability and consequences of several classes of operations representative of operations on each critical assembly machine and envelope the bounding case accidents. Although the neutron physics of these machines varies widely, the operations performed at LACEF fall into four operational modes: steady-state mode, approach-to-critical mode, prompt burst mode, and nuclear material operations, which can include critical assembly fuel loading. The operational sequences of each mode are very nearly identical, whether operated on one assembly machine or another. The use of an envelope approach to accident analysis is facilitated by the use of classes of operations and the use of bounding case consequence analysis. A simple fault tree analysis of operational modes helps resolve which operations are sensitive to human error and which are initiated by hardware of software failures. Where possible, these errors and failures are blocked by TSR LCOs. Future work will determine the probability of accidents with various initiators

  20. Virtual neutron scattering experiments - Training and preparing students for large-scale facility experiments

    Julie Hougaard Overgaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dansk Vi beskriver, hvordan virtuelle eksperimenter kan udnyttes i et læringsdesign ved at forberede de studerende til hands-on-eksperimenter ved storskalafaciliteter. Vi illustrerer designet ved at vise, hvordan virtuelle eksperimenter bruges på Niels Bohr Institutets kandidatkursus om neutronspredning. I den sidste uge af kurset, rejser studerende til et storskala neutronspredningsfacilitet for at udføre neutronspredningseksperimenter. Vi bruger studerendes udsagn om deres oplevelser til at argumentere for, at arbejdet med virtuelle experimenter forbereder de studerende til at engagere sig mere frugtbart med eksperimenter ved at lade dem fokusere på fysikken og relevante data i stedet for instrumenternes funktion. Vi hævder, at det er, fordi de kan overføre deres erfaringer med virtuelle eksperimenter til rigtige eksperimenter. Vi finder dog, at læring stadig er situeret i den forstand, at kun kendskab til bestemte eksperimenter overføres. Vi afslutter med at diskutere de muligheder, som virtuelle eksperimenter giver. English We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering. In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred. We proceed to

  1. Long-term agricultural experiments inform the development of climate-smart agricultural practices

    Kristina Wolf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available California's Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are a major source of U.S. fruits and vegetables, and vulnerable to future extremes of precipitation and temperature brought on by climate change, including increased drought and flooding, and more intense and longer heat waves. To develop resilience to these threats, strategies are necessary for climate-smart management of soil and water. Long-term, large-scale, replicated ecological experiments provide unique testbeds for studying such questions. At the UC Davis Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility (RRSAF, the 100-year Century Experiment, initiated in 1992, is investigating the effects of multiple farming practices in a farm-scale replicated study of 10 row crop cropping systems. It includes different fertility management systems: organic, conventional and hybrid (conventional plus winter cover crop systems; different crops: wheat, tomatoes, corn, alfalfa, cover crops and grasslands; and different irrigation systems: rainfed, flood irrigated and drip irrigated. We briefly describe and report on a selection of long-term experiments conducted at RRSAF investigating soil management and irrigation practices, which are an important focus for developing climate-smart strategies in Mediterranean systems. For example, long-term monitoring of soil carbon content revealed that most crop systems have experienced a small increase in soil carbon since 1993, and increases in organically managed plots were substantially higher. As RRSAF continues to build upon this rich dataset from one of a very few long-term row crop experiments in Mediterranean ecosystems, it provides a testbed for identifying climate-smart solutions for these agronomically important ecosystems.

  2. Cosmic rays,Climate and the CERN CLOUD Experiment

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    For more than two centuries, scientists have been puzzled by observations of solar-climate variability yet the lack of any established physical mechanism. Some recent observations, although disputed, suggest that clouds may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind. The CLOUD experiment aims to settle the question of whether or not cosmic rays have a climatically-significant effect on clouds by carrying out a series of carefully-controlled measurements in a large cloud chamber exposed to a beam from the CERN PS. This talk will present the scientific motivation for CLOUD and the first results, which have recently been published in Nature (Kirkby et al. (2011). Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Nature 476, 429-433).

  3. The Pajarito Site operating procedures for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-12-01

    Operating procedures consistent with DOE Order 5480.6, and the American National Standard Safety Guide for the Performance of Critical Experiments are defined for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These operating procedures supersede and update those previously published in 1983 and apply to any criticality experiment performed at the facility. 11 refs

  4. Ownership type and team climate in elderly care facilities: the moderating effect of stress factors.

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study examining the association between ownership type and perceived team climate among older people care staff. In addition, we examined whether work stress factors (time pressure, resident-related stress, role conflicts and role ambiguity) mediated or moderated the above mentioned association. There has been a trend towards contracting out in older people care facilities in Finland and the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Studies suggest that there may be differences in employee well-being and quality of care according to the ownership type of older people care. Cross-sectional survey data was collected during the autumn of 2007 from 1084 Finnish female older people care staff aged 18-69 years were used. Team Climate Inventory was used to measure team climate. Ownership type was divided into four categories: for-profit sheltered homes, not-for-profit sheltered homes, public sheltered homes and not-for-profit nursing homes. Analyses of covariance were used to examine the associations. Team climate dimensions participative safety, vision and support for innovation were higher in not-for-profit organizations (both sheltered homes and nursing homes) compared to for-profit sheltered homes and public sheltered homes. Stress factors did not account for these associations but acted as moderators in a way that in terms of task orientation and participative safety employees working in for-profit organizations seemed to be slightly more sensitive to work-related stress than others. Our results suggest that for-profit organizations and public organizations may have difficulties in maintaining their team climate. In consequence, these organizations should focus more effort on improving their team climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A first experiment on the scavenging of materials by rainfall using a large artificial climate experiment chamber at ACEF in IES

    Kawabata, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Akata, Naofumi; Chikuchi, Yuki; Kondo, Kunio; Inaba, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides in the atmosphere are removed to rough surfaces on the earth through wet or dry removal. According to our past results, the wet deposition flux of sea-salt particles is larger than the dry deposition flux in Rokkasho, Aomori. Therefore, to clarify the mechanism of wet removal of aerosol particles, a laboratory experiment using a large artificial climate experiment chamber at the Artificial Climate Experiment Facility (ACEF) in the Institute for Environmental Sciences was started. We conducted a preliminary experiment on the scavenging of aerosol particles by raindrops. The scavenging coefficient for NaCl particles was larger than that for test powder (JIS Z 8901 No. 11 Kanto loam). The scavenging coefficients for NaCl particles and test powder increased exponentially with the increase of precipitation intensity. (author)

  6. A didactic module for undertaking climate simulation experiments

    Hantsaridou, A P; Theodorakakos, A Th; Polatoglou, H M [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-09-01

    It is a fact that one of the main roles of the university is to present the core concepts in every discipline. However it is often difficult for the students to understand and comprehend the several concepts taught, because of previous lack in relevant knowledge or due to today's information overload. For example, previous research in the physics department in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece) indicated that the graduate students are often not familiar with those factors that determine the Earth's climate, which is a common everyday subject. In this project we describe a multimedia application appropriate for climate simulation experiments (http://dmod.physics.auth.gr/EBMC.html). The application is based on the energy balance model and is appropriate not only for undergraduates, but also for people with a basic scientific knowledge. We have used this model as part of an undergraduate teaching course. The results indicate that it can be a useful educational tool for understanding the factors that determine the Earth's climate.

  7. Utilization of the BARC critical facility for ADS related experiments

    The paper discusses the basic design of the critical facility, whose main pur- ... systems. In addition, it will have a flux mapping system based on 25 fission ... neutron source leads to peaked flux distribution exciting other higher harmonic.

  8. Radiolysis of Fricke solution: initial experiments with the pelletron facility

    Sharma, S.B.; Rao, B.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental details of heavy ion irradiation of aqueous solutions using the Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) pelletron facility and the initial results from the radiolysis of Fricke solution using oxygen-16 ions are reported. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  9. Safety analysis of the Los Alamos critical experiments facility

    Paxton, H.C.

    1975-10-01

    The safety of Pajarito Site critical assembly operations depends upon protection built into the facility, upon knowledgeable personnel, and upon good practice as defined by operating procedures and experimental plans. Distance, supplemented by shielding in some cases, would protect personnel against an extreme accident generating 10 19 fissions. During the facility's 28-year history, the direct cost of criticality accidents has translated to a risk of less than $200 per year

  10. The Benefits of Incorporating Shipping Containers into the Climate Change Adaption Plans at NASA Wallops Flight Facility

    Hamilton, Carl Kenneth Gonzaga

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has several centers and facilities located near the coast that are undoubtedly susceptible to climate change. One of those facilities is Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia which is separated into three areas: Main Base, Mainland, and the Island. Wallops Island has numerous buildings and assets that are vulnerable to flood inundation, intense storms, and storm surge. The shoreline of Wallops Island is prone to beach erosion and is slated for another beach replenishment project in 2019. In addition, current climate projections for NASAs centers and facilities, conducted by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigators, warn of inevitable increases in annual temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme events such as heat waves. The aforementioned vulnerabilities Wallops Island faces in addition to the projections of future climate change reveal an urgency for NASA to adjust how new buildings at its centers and facilities near the coast are built to adapt to the inevitable effects of climate change. Although the agency has made strides to mitigate the effects of climate change by incorporating L.E.E.D. into new buildings that produce less greenhouse gas, the strides for the agency to institute clear climate adaptation policies for the buildings at its centers and facilities near the coast seem to lag behind. As NASA continues to formulate formidable climate change adaptation plans for its centers and facilities, an architectural trend that should be examined for its potential to replace several old buildings at Wallops Island is shipping containers buildings. Shipping containers or Intermodal Steel Building Units offer an array of benefits such as strength, durability, versatility, modular, and since they can be upcycled, they are also eco-friendly. Some disadvantages of shipping containers are they contain harmful chemicals, insulation must be added, fossil fuels must be used to

  11. In-pile experiments and test facilities proposed for fast reactor safety

    Grolmes, M.A.; Avery, R.; Goldman, A.J.; Fauske, H.K.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rose, D.; Wright, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The role of in-pile experiments in support of the resolution of fast breeder reactor safety and licensing issues has been re-examined, with emphasis on key safety issues. Experiment needs have been related to the specific characteristics of these safety issues and to realistic requirements for additional test facility capabilities which can be achieved and utilized within the next ten years. It is found that those safety issues related to the energetics of core disruptive accidents have the largest impact on new facility requirements. However, utilization of existing facilities with modifications can provide for a continuing increase in experiment capability and experiment results on a timely bases. Emphasis has been placed upon maximum utilization of existing facilities and minimum requirements for new facilities. This evaluation has concluded that a new Safety Test Facility, STF, along with major modifications to the EBR II facility, improvement in TREAT capabilities, the existing Sodium Loop Safety Facility and corresponding Support Facilities provide the essential elements of the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) required for resolution of key issues

  12. Material Control and Accountability Experience at the Fuel Conditioning Facility

    Vaden, D.; Fredrickson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electrometallurgical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials. Material accountancy is necessary at FCF for two reasons: 1) it provides a mechanism for detecting a potential loss of nuclear material for safeguards and security, and 2) it provides a periodic check of inventories to ensure that processes and materials are within control limits. Material Control and Accountability is also a Department of Energy (DOE) requirement (DOE Order 474.1). The FCF employs a computer based Mass Tracking (MTG) System to collect, store, retrieve, and process data on all operations that directly affect the flow of materials through the FCF. The MTG System is important for the operations of the FCF because it supports activities such as material control and accountability, criticality safety, and process modeling. To conduct material control and accountability checks and to monitor process performance, mass balances are routinely performed around the process equipment. The equipment used in FCF for pyro-processing consists of two mechanical choppers and two electro-refiners (the Mark-IV with the accompanying element chopper and Mark-V with the accompanying blanket chopper for processing driver fuel and blanket, respectively), and a cathode processor (used for processing both driver fuel and blanket) and casting furnace (mostly used for processing driver fuel). Performing mass balances requires the measurement of the masses and compositions of several process streams and equipment inventories. The masses of process streams are obtained via in-cell balances (i.e., load cells) that weigh containers entering and leaving the process equipment. Samples taken at key locations are analyzed to determine the composition of process streams and equipment inventories. In cases where equipment or containers cannot be

  13. Design of the plutonium facility for animal experiments and its management experience

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    Design and radiation control of authors' facility which was made as a nuclear fuel laboratory for animal experiments were described. Before construction, the animals thought to be used were rats, mice, beagle dogs and monkeys. 239 Pu and certain other radioisotopes were to be used. At present, 200 dogs and 1800 small animals can be maintained. The points for design were tolerability against quake, reduced-pressure management and permanent storage of waste containing Pu. The facility building composed from 2nd, 4th, and 6th laboratory floors and between them, from the so-called mechanical floors which are spaces for ducts. The latter floors are quite useful. The system for reduced pressure is of 3 patterns of rooms without hood, with ordinary hood and with air-curtain hood. For animal maintenance, there are 3 types of maintenance means: Glove box, hood and ordinary animal room. There are drainage equipment where Pu can be removed by precipitation and charcoal adsorption and incineration equipment which is necessary for reducing the waste volume. In the latter, HEPA filters are finally used for releasing the gas. There is no particular problem in the radiation control. For the personnel control, lung-monitoring is performed before and at the end of personnel registration. Environmental monitoring of Pu is optionally performed. Removal of Pu particles generated in the inhalation experiments could be attained by the use of ULPA and HEPA filters to the level less than 1/10 17 times the reference level. Keeping the technology level enough high for facility maintenance and management was considered to be important at present and in future. (K.H.)

  14. An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate

    Yuanshen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date.

  15. Nuclear engineering experiments at experimental facilities of JNC in graduate course of Tokyo Institute of Technology

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Takahashi, Minoru; Aoyama, Takafumi; Onose, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear engineering experiments using outside facilities of the campus have been offered for graduate students in the nuclear engineering course in Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.). The experiments are managed with the collaboration of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). This report presents the new curriculum of the nuclear engineering experiments at JNC since 2002. The change is due to the shutdown of Deuterium Criticality Assembly Facility (DCA) that was used as an experimental facility until 2001. Reactor physics experiment using the training simulator of the experimental fast reactor JOYO is continued from the previous curriculum with the addition of the criticality approach experiment and control rods calibration. A new experimental subject is an irradiated material experiment at the Material Monitoring Facility (MMF). As a result, both are acceptable as the student experiments on the fast reactor. (author)

  16. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. The LPCTrap facility for in-trap decay experiments

    Rodriguez, D.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Duval, F.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The LPCTrap facility is coupled to the low-energy beam line LIRAT of the SPIRAL source at GANIL (France). The facility comprises an RFQ trap for beam preparation and a transparent Paul trap for in-trap decay studies. The system has been tested for several ion species. The Paul trap has been fully characterized for 6 Li + and 23 Na + ions. This characterization together with GEANT4 simulations of the in-trap decay setup (Paul trap and detection system) has permitted to predict the effect of the size of the ion cloud on the decay study of 6 He + .

  18. Discriminative facility and its role in the perceived quality of interactional experiences.

    Cheng, C; Chiu, C Y; Hong, Y Y; Cheung, J S

    2001-10-01

    Discriminative facility refers to an individual's sensitivity to subtle cues about the psychological meaning of a situation. This research aimed at examining (a) the conceptual distinctiveness of discriminative facility, (b) the situation-appropriate aspect of this construct, and (c) the relationship between discriminative facility and interpersonal experiences. Discriminative facility was assessed by a new measure of situation-appropriate behaviors across a variety of novel stressful situations. Results from study 1 showed that discriminative facility had weak positive relationships with cognitive complexity and nonsignificant relationships with self-monitoring and social desirability, indicating that discriminative facility is a unique construct. Results from Study 2 revealed that higher levels of discriminative facility were associated with higher levels of perceived social support and a greater number of pleasant interpersonal events experienced, thus providing support for the theoretical proposition that discriminative facility is an aspect of social intelligence.

  19. Economies of using seismic experience data qualification methods at Department of Energy facilities

    Loceff, F.; Antaki, G.; Goen, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the implementation of the seismic qualification of existing equipment using experience data techniques. The emphasis is on the economies of this approach compared with standard qualification methods of analysis and testing or replacement with qualified equipment. Seismic qualification of existing equipment using experience data is a technical necessity and is the most economically attractive of the options. Representative costs for seismic qualification at two facilities show costs are substantially lower than the costs for qualification using conventional methods. Because of the experience to date, the authors recommend that the Department of Energy continue to sponsor the Existing Facilities Program for applying qualification using experience data techniques at DOE facilities

  20. Ectopic pregnancy experience in a tertiary health facility in South ...

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies in a tertiary health facility. Methods: A retrospective ...

  1. Development of BNL Heat Transfer Facility 1: flashing experiments

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Klein, J.H.; Zimmer, G.A.; Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A major area of interest to reactor safety technology is the prediction of actual vapor generation rates under conditions of thermal nonequilibrium as would be encountered during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor. In support of the development of advanced codes dealing with LOCA induced flashing, analytical models of the nonequilibrium vapor generation processes of interest have been formulated, and an experimental facility has been constructed to provide data to verify these models. This facility is known as BNL Heat Transfer Facility. The experimental facility consists of a flow loop, test section and the data acquisition and analysis system. The main portion of the flow loop is constructed from three inch nominal (7.6 cm) stainless steel pipe. High purity water is circulated through the loop using a centrifugal pump rated 1500 l/min at 600 kPa. Very close and stable control of all loop parameters is required since flashing is sensitive to very small changes in such parameters as flow rate, subcooling, and pressure

  2. Visitor’s Guide to Oliktok Point Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, North Slope of Alaska

    Desilets, Darin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helsel, Fred M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lucero, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dexheimer, Danielle N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of Oliktok Point, Alaska, as a focal point for climate research in the Arctic continues to grow with the addition of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) and the expansion of infrastructure to support airborne measurements. The site hosts a suite of instruments for making multi-year, high-fidelity atmospheric measurements; serves as a base of operations for field campaigns; and contains the only Restricted Airspace and Warning Area in the U.S. Arctic, which enables the use of unmanned aircraft systems. The use of this site by climate researchers involves several considerations, including its remoteness, harsh climate, and location amid the North Slope oilfields. This guide is intended to help visitors to Oliktok Point navigate this unique physical and administrative environment, and thereby facilitate safe and productive operations.

  3. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  4. Experiments on injection performance of SMART ECC facility using SWAT

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Min, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon; Yi, Sung Jae; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), an advanced integrated PWR is now in the under developing stages by KAERI. Such integral PWR excludes large-size piping of the primary system of conventional PWR and incorporates the SGs into RPV, which means no LBLOCA could occur in SMART. Therefore, the SBLOCA is considered as a major DBA (Design Basis Accident) in SMART and it is mainly analyzed by using TASS/SMR computer code. The TASS/SMR code should be validated using experimental data from both Integral Effect Test and Separate Effect Test facilities. To investigate injection performance of the ECC system, on SET facility, named as SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility), has been constructed at KAERI. The SWAT simulates the geometric configurations of the SG-side upper downcomer annulus and ECCSs of those of SMART. It is designed based on the modified linear scaling method with a scaling ratio of 1/5, to preserve the geometrical similarity and minimize gravitational distortion. The purpose of the SWAT tests is to investigate the safety injection performance, such as the ECC bypass in the downcomer and the penetration rate in the core during the SBLOCA, and hence to produce experimental data to validate and the prediction capability of safety analysis codes, TASS/SMR

  5. An Experience of Thermowell Design in RCP Test Facility

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, B. D.; Youn, Y. J.; Jeon, W. J.; Kim, S.; Bae, B. U.; Cho, Y. J.; Choi, H. S.; Park, J. K; Cho, S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Flow rates for the test should vary in the range of 90% to 130% of rated flowrate under prototypic operational conditions, as shown in Table 1. Generally for the flow control, a combination of a control valve and an orifice was used in previous RCP test facilities. From the commissioning startup of the RCP test facility, it was found the combination of valve and orifice induced quite a large vibration for the RCP. As a solution to minimize the vibration and to facilitate the flowrate control, one of KAERI's staff suggested a variable restriction orifice (VRO), which controls most of the required flowrates except highest flowrates, as shown in Fig. 2. For the highest flowrates, e.g., around run-out flowrate (130%), control valves in bypass lines were also used to achieve required flowrates. From a performance test, it was found the VRO is very effective measures to control flowrates in the RCP test facility. During the commissioning startup operation, one of thermowells located at the upstream of the RCP was cracked due to high speed coolant velocity, which was - fortunately - found under a leakage test before running the RCP test loop. The cracked thermowell, whose tapered-shank was detached from the weld collar after uninstalling, is shown in Fig. 3. As can be seen the figure, most of the cross-section at the root of the thermowell shank was cracked. In this paper, an investigation of the integrity of thermowells in the RCP test facility was performed according to the current code and overall aspects on the thermowell designs were also discussed. An RCP test facility has been constructed in KAERI. During the commissioning startup operation, one of thermowells was cracked due to high speed coolant velocity. To complete the startup operation, a modified design of thermowells was proposed and all the original thermowells were replaced by the modified ones. From evaluation of the original and modified designs of thermowells according to the recent PTC code, the

  6. Can Climate Change Enhance Biology Lessons? A Quasi-Experiment

    Monroe, Martha C.; Hall, Stephanie; Li, Christine Jie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a highly charged topic that some adults prefer to ignore. If the same holds true for secondary students, teachers could be challenged to teach about climate change. We structured one activity about the biological concepts of carbon cycle and carbon sequestration in two ways: with and without mention of climate change. Results…

  7. The choice of Park & Ride Facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of Park and Ride facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pap...

  8. Safety research experiment facilities, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Final environmental impact statement

    Liverman, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement was prepared for the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) Project. The purpose of the proposed project is to modify some existing facilities and provide a new test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for conducting fast breeder reactor (FBR) safety experiments. The SAREF Project proposal has been developed after an extensive study which identified the FBR safety research needs requiring in-reactor experiments and which evaluated the capability of various existing and new facilities to meet these needs. The proposed facilities provide for the in-reactor testing of large bundles of prototypical FBR fuel elements under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from those abnormal operating conditions which might be expected to occur during the life of an FBR power plant to the extremely low probability, hypothetical accidents used in the evaluation of some design options and in the assessment of the long-term potential risk associated with wide-acale deployment of the FBR

  9. Assessing users' experience of shared sanitation facilities: A case ...

    In the academic literature, users' feedback and experiences of technologies in the post-implementation phase have received scarce attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate users' experience of sanitation technologies in the early post-implementation phase, when opportunities for remedial intervention are still ...

  10. Experience with the instrumentation tests in large sodium test facilities

    Lauhoff, Th.; Ruppert, E.; Stehle, H.; Vinzens, K.

    1976-01-01

    A facility is described for fast breeder core components (AKB) to test specially instrumented fuel dummies and blanket elements, and also absorber elements under simulated normal and extreme reactor conditions. In addition to endurance testing of a special sodium and high temperature sub-assembly, instrumentation is provided to investigate thermohydraulic and vibrational behaviour of core elements. During tests of > 3000 h at temperatures above 820 K the main sub-assembly characteristics, e.g. pressure drop, leakage flow, vibration and noise spectra can be reproduced. The use of eddy current flow meters, strain gauges, magnetostrictive noise sensors, pressure transducers, thermocouples, and acoustic surveillance devices, are described. (U.K.)

  11. Simulation of photofission experiments at the ELI-NP facility

    Constantin, P.; Balabanski, D.L.; Cuong, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    An extensive experimental program for the study of photofission will take place at the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, where different actinide targets will be exposed to a brilliant gamma beam to produce fission fragments. We report on the implementation within the Geant4 simulation toolkit of the photofission process, of related background processes, and of extended ionic charge parameterization. These developments are used to evaluate the production rates of photofission fragments and their release efficiency from the actinide targets.

  12. Fast Flux Test Facility sodium pump operating experience - mechanical

    Buonamici, R.

    1987-11-01

    The Heat Transport System (HTS) pumps were designed, fabricated, tested, and installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Plant during the period from September 1970 through July 1977. Since completion of the installation and sodium fill in December 1978, the FFTF Plant pumps have undergone extensive testing and operation with HTS testing and reactor operation. Steady-state hydraulic and mechanical performances have been and are excellent. In all, FFTF primary and secondary pumps have operated in sodium for approximately 75,000 hours and 79,000 hours, respectively, to August 24, 1987

  13. Simulation of photofission experiments at the ELI-NP facility

    Constantin, P., E-mail: paul.constantin@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Balabanski, D.L. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Cuong, P.V. [Centre of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-04-01

    An extensive experimental program for the study of photofission will take place at the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, where different actinide targets will be exposed to a brilliant gamma beam to produce fission fragments. We report on the implementation within the Geant4 simulation toolkit of the photofission process, of related background processes, and of extended ionic charge parameterization. These developments are used to evaluate the production rates of photofission fragments and their release efficiency from the actinide targets.

  14. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10 -14 m/√Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/ν. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz

  15. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z

    2004-02-23

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10{sup -14} m/{radical}Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/{nu}. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz.

  16. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  17. Swedish spent fuel management systems, facilities and operating experiences

    Vogt, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 50% of the electricity in Sweden is generated by means of nuclear power from 12 LWR reactors located at four sites and with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The four utilities have jointly created SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, which has been given the mandate to manage the spent fuel and radioactive waste from its origin at the reactors to the final disposal. SKB has developed a system for the safe handling of all kinds of radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants. The keystones now in operation of this system are a transport system, a central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CLAB), a final repository for short-lived, low and intermediate level waste (SFR). The remaining, system components being planned are an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and a deep repository for encapsulated spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Diamond Ordinance Radiation Facility (DORF) reactor operating experiences

    Gieseler, Walter

    1970-01-01

    The Diamond Ordnance Radiation Facility Mark F Reactor is described and some of the problems encountered with its operation are discussed. In a period from reactor startup in September 1961 to June 1964, when the aluminum-clad core was changed to a stainless-steel clad core, a total of 30 fuel elements were removed from reactor service because of excessive growth. One leaking fuel element was detected during the lifetime of the aluminum- clad core. In June 1964, the core was changed to the stainless-steel-clad high hydride fuel elements. Since the installation of the stainless-steel-clad fuel element core, there has been a gradual decline of excess reactivity. Various theories were discussed as the cause but the investigations have resulted in no definitive conclusion that could account for the total reactivity loss

  19. Diagnosing and controlling mix in National Ignition Facility implosion experiments

    Hammel, B. A.; Scott, H. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Suter, L. J.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Peterson, K.

    2011-01-01

    High mode number instability growth of ''isolated defects'' on the surfaces of National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] capsules can be large enough for the perturbation to penetrate the imploding shell, and produce a jet of ablator material that enters the hot-spot. Since internal regions of the CH ablator are doped with Ge, mixing of this material into the hot-spot results in a clear signature of Ge K-shell emission. Evidence of jets entering the hot-spot has been recorded in x-ray images and spectra, consistent with simulation predictions [Hammel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 6, 171 (2010)]. Ignition targets have been designed to minimize instability growth, and capsule fabrication improvements are underway to reduce ''isolated defects.'' An experimental strategy has been developed where the final requirements for ignition targets can be adjusted through direct measurements of mix and experimental tuning.

  20. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    Sotelo, G G; Dias, D H J N; De Oliveira, R A H; Ferreira, A C; De Andrade, R Jr; Stephan, R M

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  1. Status of Wakefield Monitor Experiments at the CLIC Test Facility

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Aftab, Namra; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Grudiev, Alexej; Javeed, Sumera; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    For the very low emittance beams in CLIC, it is vital to mitigate emittance growth which leads to reduced luminosity in the detectors. One factor that leads to emittance growth is transverse wakefields in the accelerating structures. In order to combat this the structures must be aligned with a precision of a few um. For achieving this tolerance, accelerating structures are equipped with wakefield monitors that measure higher-order dipole modes excited by the beam when offset from the structure axis. We report on such measurements, performed using prototype CLIC accelerating structures which are part of the module installed in the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. Measurements with and without the drive beam that feeds rf power to the structures are compared. Improvements to the experimental setup are discussed, and finally remaining measurements that should be performed before the completion of the program are summarized.

  2. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    Sotelo, G. G.; Dias, D. H. J. N.; de Oliveira, R. A. H.; Ferreira, A. C.; De Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2014-05-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  3. First experiments at the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility

    Kovalenko, D V; Klimov, N S; Podkovyrov, V L; Muzichenko, A D; Zhitlukhin, A M; Khimchenko, L N; Kupriyanov, I B; Giniyatulin, R N

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the erosion of beryllium under hydrogen plasma flow. Two samples made of two types of beryllium, TGP-56PS and S-65C, were exposed to plasma heat loads up to 1 MJ m - 2 and a pulse duration of 0.5 ms at the QSPA-Be facility in Bochvar Institute, Russia. The melting threshold for both beryllium types was experimentally determined to be 0.5 MJ m - 2. The dependence of the specific mass loss and erosion rate on pulse number for both beryllium types was measured. The possibility of generating radiation fluxes with parameters corresponding to mitigated ITER disruptions by means of plasma flow shock braking on a solid bar is shown.

  4. First experiments at the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility

    Kovalenko, D. V.; Klimov, N. S.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Khimchenko, L. N.; Kupriyanov, I. B.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the erosion of beryllium under hydrogen plasma flow. Two samples made of two types of beryllium, TGP-56PS and S-65C, were exposed to plasma heat loads up to 1 MJ m-2 and a pulse duration of 0.5 ms at the QSPA-Be facility in Bochvar Institute, Russia. The melting threshold for both beryllium types was experimentally determined to be 0.5 MJ m-2. The dependence of the specific mass loss and erosion rate on pulse number for both beryllium types was measured. The possibility of generating radiation fluxes with parameters corresponding to mitigated ITER disruptions by means of plasma flow shock braking on a solid bar is shown.

  5. Microscope-Based Fluid Physics Experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on ISS

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Malarik, Diane C.

    2000-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program is planning to conduct a large number of experiments on the International Space Station in both the Fluid Physics and Combustion Science disciplines, and is developing flight experiment hardware for use within the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility. Four fluids physics experiments that require an optical microscope will be sequentially conducted within a subrack payload to the Fluids Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility called the Light Microscopy Module, which will provide the containment, changeout, and diagnostic capabilities to perform the experiments. The Light Microscopy Module is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of experiments within International Space Station resources. This paper will focus on the four microscope-based experiments, specifically, their objectives and the sample cell and instrument hardware to accommodate their requirements.

  6. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Criticality experiments with fast flux test facility fuel pins

    Bierman, S.R.

    1990-11-01

    A United States Department of Energy program was initiated during the early seventies at the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory to obtain experimental criticality data in support of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The criticality experiments program was to provide basic physics data for clean well defined conditions expected to be encountered in the handling of plutonium-uranium fuel mixtures outside reactors. One task of this criticality experiments program was concerned with obtaining data on PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods containing 20--30 wt % plutonium. To obtain this data a series of experiments were performed over a period of about twelve years. The experimental data obtained during this time are summarized and the associated experimental assemblies are described. 8 refs., 7 figs

  8. Multisensory experiments and data acquisition systems on the meson facilities

    Bystritskij, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some of the multisensory experiments performed or being performed at the meson factories PSI (Switzerland), TRIUMF (Canada), LAMPF (USA), KEK (Japan), RAL (England) in order to investigate the fundamental processes in elementary particle physics. Designs of various detectors are briefly reviewed, the organizational ideology and the structure of the recording electronics and data acquisition systems for these experiments are considered. The ideology underlying the off-line analysis software is touched upon and the most important results of the investigations at meson factories are given

  9. High temperature engineering research facilities and experiments in China

    Xu, Yuanhui; Liu, Meisheng; Yao, Huizhong; Ju, Huaiming

    1998-01-01

    June 14, 1995, the construction of a pebble bed type high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) started in China. It is a test reactor with 10 MW thermal power output (termed HTR- 10). The test reactor is located on the site of Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University in the northwest suburb of Beijing, about 40 km away from the city. Design of the HTR-10 test reactor represents the features of HTR-Modular design: 'side-by-side' arrangement, spherical fuel elements with 'multi-pass' loading scheme, completely passive decay heat removal, reactor shutdown systems in the side reflector, etc. However, in the HTR-10 design some modifications from the HTR-Module were made to satisfy Chinese conditions. For example, the steam generator is composed of a number of modular helical tubes with small diameter, pulse pneumatic discharging apparatus are used in the fuel handling system and step motor driving control rods are designed. These modifications would cause some uncertainty in our design. It is necessary to do engineering experiments to prove these new or modified ideas. Therefore, a program of engineering experiments for HTR-10 key technologies is being conducted at INET. The main aims of these engineering experiments are to verify the designed characteristics and performance of the components and systems, to feedback on design and to obtain operational experiences. Those engineering experiments are depressurization test of the hot gas duct at room temperature and operating pressure, performance test of the hot gas duct at operating helium temperature and pressure, performance test of the pulse pneumatic fuel handling system, test of the control rods driving apparatus, two phase flow stability test for the once through steam generator and cross mixture test at the bottom of the reactor core

  10. Summary review of Mound Facility's experience in decontamination of concrete

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the current concrete decontamination work at Mound Facility involves surfaces that are contaminated with plutonium-238. Approximately 60,000 sq. ft. of concrete floors will have to be decontaminated in Mound's current Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project. Although most of these surfaces are partially protected by a barrier (tile or paint), contaminated water and acid have penetrated these barriers. The technique for decontaminating these floors is desribed. The initial cleaning of the floor involes standard water and detergent. Acids are not used in cleaning as they tend to drive the contamination deeper into the concrete surface. Next, the floor tile is manually removed inside a temporary enclosure under negative and filtered ventilation. Finally, layers of contaminated concrete are mechanically removed inside the ventilated enclosure. The suspected depth and surface area of contamination determines the type of mechanical tool used. In summary, several generic methods of concrete decontamination can be utilized: chemical, such as water, detergent, acids, paint remover, strippable paints, etc.; rotary using sanders, grinders, scarifiers, etc.; impact such as pressure washers (hydrolasers), particle blasters, scabblers, needlers, spallers, paving and rock breakers, ram hoes, etc. The particular method used depends on several factors: surface and area involved; depth of contamination; cost and availability of equipment; usage safety and radiological control; and waste generated

  11. Considerations on collected data with the Low Frequency Facility experiment

    Di Virgilio, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Cella, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Dattilo, V [EGO, European, Gravitational Observatory, Cascina (Italy); Frasconi, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Gennai, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Penna, P La [EGO, European, Gravitational Observatory, Cascina (Italy); Losurdo, G [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pasqualetti, A [EGO, European, Gravitational Observatory, Cascina (Italy); Passuello, D [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Piergiovanni, F [Universita di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Porzio, A [Coherentia, CNR-INFM Napoli (Italy); Raffaelli, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Ed. C, via F. Buonarrori 2, Pisa (Italy); Rapagnani, P [Universita di Roma, Roma1, Rome (Italy); Ricci, F [Universita di Roma, Roma1, Rome (Italy); Solimeno, S [Coherentia, CNR-INFM Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' (Italy); Zhang, Z [EGO, European, Gravitational Observatory, Cascina (Italy)

    2006-03-02

    The Low Frequency Facility consists of a 1 cm Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to a single SuperAttenuator, which is the mechanical system adopted to isolate the test masses of the Virgo interferometer. In this paper we present the preliminary results of measurements performed with a cavity of finesse 4000 and lasting 1-2 hours in different working conditions. The analysis presented here is focused mainly on the region below 100 Hz, and uses data collected with longitudinal control bandwidth below 150 Hz. A calibration test confirmed that the collected data are in good agreement with the model of the longitudinal control loop based on the open loop measurements. In addition to this, above 2 Hz the power spectrum of the two mirrors relative displacement shows a stationary noise floor and few peaks with high mechanical quality factor. Studying these peaks in the time domain, it has been observed that the energy associated with a single peak is Boltzman distributed, whether the oscillations are not excited. The measured upper limit of the seismic noise contamination at 10 Hz is around 2 x 10{sup -14} m/{radical}Hz.

  12. CLIMAITE - a three factor climate change ecosystem manipulation experiment.

    Mikkelsen, T. N.; Beier, C.; Albert, K.; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Danish multi factorial climate change effects on vegetation experiment (Climaite) have now been conducted for two years on semi-natural grassland. The day time [CO2], night time temperature and precipitation (drought) have been altered, according to a regional climate change model for the year 2075, in a full factorial split plot design. The manipulated area for each treatment is 7 m2 and it is replicated 6 times. The CO2 and temperature treatments have been conducted continuously except for periods with snow cover. The CO2 is enhanced to 510 ppm via a FACE system based on concentrated CO2 released upwind under pressure. The control of the [CO2] varies with wind speed and irradiation, but during 50 percent of the fumigation period the target concentration was kept within +/-5 percent. The temperature treatment is conducted via infrared reflective curtains covering the plots during night time, and the warming of plants and soil depends of the day irradiation, night time wind speed and factors related to seasonality. In general, the air temperature is increased during night time with 1-2 C° and negligible during the day. The soil temperature in 5 cm depth is enhanced to 0.3 - 0.6 C° during night and day. The artificial summer droughts lasted about one month and differences in soil water content were developed over time. By the end of the treatment the èv content in the soil was as low as 0.06 m3 m-3 compared to 0.20 m3 m-3 in the control. Numerous physical and biological parameters in the grassland ecosystem have been measured and several are responding to the changed environment. After 9 months of exposure enhanced [CO2] stimulated the net photosynthesis (based on dry weight) in both of the domination plant species Calluna Vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. When the plants were exposed to short term saturated [CO2] during gasexchange measurements the long term CO2 treated plants also had the highest photosynthesis rate, meaning that the plants were not

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  14. Experience in the decontamination and dismantling of alpha facilities

    Charamathieu, A.

    1988-01-01

    Experience in dismantling alpha-containing radiochemical installations in France is described. The dismantling programme undertaken by the Societe des Techniques en Milieu Ionisant since 1977 is tabulated. This includes the dismantling of CALCIO and FLUO (plutonium metal), the dismantling of a slag processing plant, the dismantling of part of a medium activity plutonium mine and the dismantling of rooms 82-100 at Marcoule, France. (author)

  15. What makes or mars the facility-based childbirth experience: thematic analysis of women's childbirth experiences in western Kenya.

    Afulani, Patience A; Kirumbi, Leah; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-12-29

    Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for approximately 66% of global maternal deaths. Poor person-centered maternity care, which emphasizes the quality of patient experience, contributes both directly and indirectly to these poor outcomes. Yet, few studies in low resource settings have examined what is important to women during childbirth from their perspective. The aim of this study is to examine women's facility-based childbirth experiences in a rural county in Kenya, to identify aspects of care that contribute to a positive or negative birth experience. Data are from eight focus group discussions conducted in a rural county in western Kenya in October and November 2016, with 58 mothers aged 15 to 49 years who gave birth in the preceding nine weeks. We recorded and transcribed the discussions and used a thematic approach for data analysis. The findings suggest four factors influence women's perceptions of quality of care: responsiveness, supportive care, dignified care, and effective communication. Women had a positive experience when they were received well at the health facility, treated with kindness and respect, and given sufficient information about their care. The reverse led to a negative experience. These experiences were influenced by the behavior of both clinical and support staff and the facility environment. This study extends the literature on person-centered maternity care in low resource settings. To improve person-centered maternity care, interventions need to address the responsiveness of health facilities, ensure women receive supportive and dignified care, and promote effective patient-provider communication.

  16. Fuel-Coolant Interaction Experiments in the TROI Facility

    Min, B. T.; Hong, S. W.; Hong, S. H.; Park, I. K.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. D

    2006-03-15

    A steam explosion has long been a concern in case of severe accidents in a nuclear reactor, since it might threaten the integrity of the containment. Although many studies have been performed on a steam explosion, there are still some remaining unsolved issues such as the explosivity of the real core material (corium) and the estimation of the energy conversion ratio. At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the TROI steam explosion experiments were performed, in order to investigate the explosivity of corium. The TROI experiments were carried out to provide the experimental data for a proper estimation of a structural loading resulting from a steam explosion. These experiments were performed with prototypic materials such as ZrO{sub 2} melt and a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} melt (corium). Total 46 tests were conducted in the TROI test series from year 2000 to the end of year 2004. The main test parameters were the variations on the composition of the melt, geometry of the interaction vessel, sub-cooling, ambient pressure, and amount of melt. Additionally the effects of an external trigger and argon environment were investigated. The main findings are that the composition, geometry, and inert gas had dominant effects on energetic steam explosions. In addition, the strength of the steam explosion was not that much strong compared to that of alumina, such as KROTOS-44. Even though efforts were made to maximize the strength of a steam explosion by increasing the amount of melt mass in water (increasing water depth), and fuel fraction (using a narrow test section), it did not work. The test results suggest that the melt of pure zirconia or eutectic corium in a wide test section leads to energetic spontaneous or triggered steam explosions, while the melt of other compositions does not.

  17. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  18. Soft x-ray laser experiments at Novette Laser Facility

    Matthews, D.; Hagelstein, P.; Rosen, M.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the results of and future plans for experiments to study the possibility of producing an x-ray laser. The schemes we have investigated are all pumped by the Novette Laser, operated at short pulse (tau/sub L/ approx. 100 psec) and an incident wavelength of lambda /sub L/ approx. 0.53 μm. We have studied the possibility of lasing at 53.6, 68.0 to 72.0, 119.0, and 153.0 eV, using the inversion methods of resonant photo-excitation, collisional excitation, and three-body recombination

  19. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  20. Co-exploratory climate risk workshops: Experiences from urban Africa

    A. Steynor

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the context for a place-based co-exploratory analysis of climate risks, the elements and steps incorporated in the approach, reflections on the effectiveness of this approach in addressing multi-stressor, place-based decision-making and the challenges that still remain in further refining the approach. The co-exploration approach is complementary to the objectives of the Global Framework for Climate Services and provides lessons for uptake of climate information into urban adaptation planning in Africa.

  1. Radon Reduction Experience at a Former Uranium Processing Facility

    Eger, K. J.; Rutherford, L.; Rickett, K.; Fellman, R.; Hungate, S.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 6,200 cubic meters of waste containing about 2.0E8 MBq of radium-226 are stored in two large silos at the Fernald Site in southwest Ohio. The material is scheduled for retrieval, packaging, off site shipment and disposal by burial. Air in the silos above the stored material contained radon-222 at a concentration of 7.4 E5 Bq/L. Short-lived daughters formed by decay in these headspaces generated dose rates at contact with the top of the silos up to 1.05 mSv/hr and there complicate the process of retrieval. A Radon Control System (RCS) employing carbon adsorption beds has been designed under contract with the Fluor Fernald to remove most of the radon in the headspaces and maintain lower concentrations during periods when work on or above the domes is needed. Removing the radon also removes the short-lived daughters and reduces the dose rate near the domes to 20 to 30 μSv/hr. Failing to remove the radon would be costly, in the exposure of personnel needed to work extended periods at these moderate dose rates, or in dollars for the application of remote retrieval techniques. In addition, the RCS minimizes the potential for environmental releases. This paper describes the RCS, its mode of operation, and early experiences. The results of the test described herein and the experience gained from operation of the RCS during its first phase of continuous operation, will be used to determine the best air flow, and air flow distribution, the most desirable number and sequence number and sequence of adsorption beds to be used and the optimum application of air recycle within the RCS

  2. Seeing climate vulnerabilities through lived experience in Madagascar

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... ... both vulnerability and strategies for reducing risk, and the project is in the process of producing a range ... of the team's effort to paint a composite map of climate vulnerability and risk to agrarian systems. ... Feeling stressed?

  3. Computer experiments with a coarse-grid hydrodynamic climate model

    Stenchikov, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    A climate model is developed on the basis of the two-level Mintz-Arakawa general circulation model of the atmosphere and a bulk model of the upper layer of the ocean. A detailed model of the spectral transport of shortwave and longwave radiation is used to investigate the radiative effects of greenhouse gases. The radiative fluxes are calculated at the boundaries of five layers, each with a pressure thickness of about 200 mb. The results of the climate sensitivity calculations for mean-annual and perpetual seasonal regimes are discussed. The CCAS (Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences) climate model is used to investigate the climatic effects of anthropogenic changes of the optical properties of the atmosphere due to increasing CO 2 content and aerosol pollution, and to calculate the sensitivity to changes of land surface albedo and humidity

  4. Benchmark experiments at ASTRA facility on definition of space distribution of 235U fission reaction rate

    Bobrov, A. A.; Boyarinov, V. F.; Glushkov, A. E.; Glushkov, E. S.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Moroz, N. P.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Nosov, V. I.; Smirnov, O. N.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Zimin, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of critical experiments performed at five ASTRA facility configurations modeling the high-temperature helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactors are presented. Results of experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate performed at four from these five configurations are presented more detail. Analysis of available information showed that all experiments on criticality at these five configurations are acceptable for use them as critical benchmark experiments. All experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate are acceptable for use them as physical benchmark experiments. (authors)

  5. Future facilities for light quark spectroscopy: A perspective based on the LASS experience

    Ratcliff, B.N.

    1991-10-01

    Some desirable design features of a future facility for the study of light meson spectroscopy in hadroproduction are described and compared with what has been achieved by the LASS spectrometer. A few aspects of next-generation experiments using such a facility are also discussed, including final state sample sizes and performance requirements. The need for complementary production modes and decay channels, and the importance of a broad programmatic approach to the physics are stressed

  6. Ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) mobile ignition test reactor facility concept study

    Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Piscitella, R.R.; Sekot, J.P.; Drexler, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the use of an existing nuclear test complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the assembly, testing, and remote maintenance of the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) compact reactor. The portable reactor concept is described and its application to OHTE testing and maintenance requirements is developed. Pertinent INEL facilities are described and several test system configurations that apply to these facilities are developed and evaluated

  7. Health physics experience with nondestructive X-radiation facilities in the US Air Force

    Stencel, J.R.; Piltingsrud, H.V.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation safety experience in the construction and use of enclosed nondestructive inspection (NDI) facilities in the US Air Force, has reaffirmed the constant need for the health physicist to continually monitor and assit in upgrading these facilities. Health physics contributions include evaluation of initial shielding requirements, proper selection of construction material, insuring that adequate safety devices are installed and adequate personnel dosimetry devices are available, surveying the facility, and assisting in the safety education program. There is a need to better define NDI warning/safety devices, using the National Bureau of Standards, (NBS) Handbook 107 as the most applicable guide

  8. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility External Data Center Operations Plan Located At Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Cialella, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gregory, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lazar, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liang, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ma, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tilp, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The External Data Center (XDC) Operations Plan describes the activities performed to manage the XDC, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), for the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. It includes all ARM infrastructure activities performed by the Data Management and Software Engineering Group (DMSE) at BNL. This plan establishes a baseline of expectation within the ARM Operations Management for the group managing the XDC.

  9. Climate Change and Impacts Research Experiences for Urban Students

    Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peteet, D. M.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Moshary, F.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Howard, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Johnson, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and impacts research for undergraduate urban students is the focus of the Center for Global Climate Research (CGCR). We describe student research and significant results obtained during the Summer 2011. The NSF REU site, is a collaboration between the City University of New York (CUNY) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The research teams are mentored by NASA scientists and CUNY faculty. Student projects include: Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin; Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth and Angstrom Exponent Retrieved by AERONET, MISR, and MODIS Measurements; White Roofs to the Rescue: Combating the Urban Heat Island Effect; Tropospheric Ozone Investigations in New York City; Carbon Sequestration with Climate Change in Alaskan Peatlands; Validating Regional Climate Models for Western Sub-Sahara Africa; Bio-Remediation of Toxic Waste Sites: Mineral Characteristics of Cyanide-Treated Mining Waste; Assessment of an Ocean Mixing Parameterization for Climate Studies; Comparative Wind Speed through Doppler Sounding with Pulsed Infrared LIDAR; and Satellite Telemetry and Communications. The CGCR also partners with the New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) at GISS. The center is supported by NSF ATM-0851932 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA).

  10. Food for Thought: Frequent Interracial Dining Experiences as a Predictor of Students' Racial Climate Perceptions

    Lowe, Maria R.; Byron, Reginald A.; Ferry, Griffin; Garcia, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored factors which influenced undergraduate students' perceptions of the racial climate at a predominantly white liberal arts university in the South. Mixed methods results suggest that race, aspects of the institutional climate, and frequent interracial dining experiences in the campus cafeteria…

  11. W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance

    Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment

  12. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities

    Stenzel, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  13. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  14. First start-up of nuclear criticality safety experiment facility for uranyl nitrate solution

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Shen Leisheng; Hu Dingsheng; Zhao Shouzhi; He Tao; Sun Zheng; Lin Shenghuo; Yao Shigui

    2005-01-01

    The uranyl nitrate solution experiment facility for the research on nuclear criticality safety is described. The nuclear fuel loading steps in the first start-up for water-reflected core are presented. During the experiments, the critical volume of uranyl nitrate solution was determined as 20479.62 mL with count rate inverse extrapolation method, reactivity interpolation method, and steady power method. By calculation, critical mass of 235 U was derived as 1579.184 g from experimental data. The worth of control rods was also calibrated in the first start-up of the facility. (authors)

  15. Criticality experiment for No.2 core of DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility

    Yang Lijun; Liu Zhenhua; Yan Fengwen; Luo Zhiwen; Chu Chun; Liang Shuhong

    2007-01-01

    At the completion of the DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility, its core changed, and it was restarted and a series of experiments and measurements were made. According to the data from 29 criticality experiments, the criticality element number and mass were calculated, the control rod reactivity worth were measured by period method and rod compensate method, reactivity worth of safety rod and safety block were measured using reactivity instrument; the reactivity worth of outer elements and radial distribution of elements were measured too. Based on all the measurements mentioned above, safety operation parameters for core 2 in DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility were conformed. (authors)

  16. Discussion of the use of the Dragon reactor as a facility for integral reactor physics experiments

    Gutmann, H

    1972-06-05

    The purpose and use of the Dragon Reactor Experiment (DRE) has changed considerably during the years of its operation. The original purpose was to show that the principle of a High Temperature Reactor is sound and demonstrate its operation. After this achievement, the purpose of the Dragon reactor changed to the use as a fuel testing facility. During recent years, a new use of the DRE has been added to its use as a fuel testing facility, namely Fuel Element Design Testing. The current report covers reactor physics experiments aspects.

  17. Operation databook of the fuel treatment system of the Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). JFY 2004 to JFY 2008

    Kokusen, Junya; Sumiya, Masato; Seki, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Ishii, Junichi; Umeda, Miki

    2013-02-01

    Uranyl nitrate solution fuel used in the Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) is adjusted in the Fuel Treatment System, in which such parameters are varied as concentration of uranium, free nitric acid, soluble neutron poison, and so on. Operations for concentration and denitration of the solution fuel were carried out with an evaporator from JFY 2004 to JFY 2008 in order to adjust the fuel to the experimental condition of the STACY and the TRACY. In parallel, the solution fuel in which some kinds of soluble neutron poison were doped was also adjusted in JFY 2005 and JFY 2006 for the purpose of the STACY experiments to determine neutron absorption effects brought by fission products, etc. After these experiments in the STACY, a part of the solution fuel including the soluble neutron poison was purified by the solvent extraction method with mixer-settlers in JFY 2006 and JFY 2007. This report summarizes operation data of the Fuel Treatment System from JFY 2004 to JFY 2008. (author)

  18. Safety Research Experiment Facilities, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Draft environmental statement

    1977-01-01

    This environmental statement was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) in support of the Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) proposal for legislative authorization and appropriations for the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) Project. The purpose of the proposed project is to modify some existing facilities and provide a new test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for conducting fast breeder reactor (FBR) safety experiments. The SAREF Project proposal has been developed after an extensive study which identified the FBR safety research needs requiring in-reactor experiments and which evaluated the capability of various existing and new facilities to meet these needs. The proposed facilities provide for the in-reactor testing of large bundles of prototypical FBR fuel elements under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from those abnormal operating conditions which might be expected to occur during the life of an FBR power plant to the extremely low probability, hypothetical accidents used in the evalution of some design options and in the assessment of the long-term potential risk associated with wide-scale deployment of the FBR

  19. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The first part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  20. Means and extremes: building variability into community-level climate change experiments.

    Thompson, Ross M; Beardall, John; Beringer, Jason; Grace, Mike; Sardina, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies assessing climatic effects on ecological communities have typically applied static warming treatments. Although these studies have been informative, they have usually failed to incorporate either current or predicted future, patterns of variability. Future climates are likely to include extreme events which have greater impacts on ecological systems than changes in means alone. Here, we review the studies which have used experiments to assess impacts of temperature on marine, freshwater and terrestrial communities, and classify them into a set of 'generations' based on how they incorporate variability. The majority of studies have failed to incorporate extreme events. In terrestrial ecosystems in particular, experimental treatments have reduced temperature variability, when most climate models predict increased variability. Marine studies have tended to not concentrate on changes in variability, likely in part because the thermal mass of oceans will moderate variation. In freshwaters, climate change experiments have a much shorter history than in the other ecosystems, and have tended to take a relatively simple approach. We propose a new 'generation' of climate change experiments using down-scaled climate models which incorporate predicted changes in climatic variability, and describe a process for generating data which can be applied as experimental climate change treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Rugby and elliptical-shaped hohlraums experiments on the OMEGA laser facility

    Tassin, Veronique; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Depierreux, Sylvie; Masson-Laborde, Paul-Edouard; Philippe, Franck; Seytor, Patricia; Fremerye, Pascale; Villette, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    We are pursuing on the OMEGA laser facility indirect drive implosions experiments in gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums in preparation for implosion plateforms on LMJ. The question of the precise wall shape of rugby hohlraum has been addressed as part of future megajoule-scale ignition designs. Calculations show that elliptical-shaped holhraum is more efficient than spherical-shaped hohlraum. There is less wall hydrodynamics and less absorption for the inner cone, provided a better control of time-dependent symmetry swings. In this context, we have conducted a series of experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. The goal of these experiments was therefore to characterize energetics with a complete set of laser-plasma interaction measurements and capsule implosion in gas-filled elliptical-shaped hohlraum with comparison with spherical-shaped hohlraum. Experiments results are discussed and compared to FCI2 radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  2. Record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Guidelines and experience

    2002-01-01

    This report covers record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Nuclear facilities include large commercial facilities such as nuclear power plants or chemical nuclear facilities (e.g. for fabrication and reprocessing), but also include smaller facilities such as research reactors and medical, industrial and other research facilities. Special attention may be needed for these small facilities owing to factors such as the low priority given to decommissioning by research teams and the possibility of poorly recorded structural and operational changes. A focus on research reactors is also important because of their widespread distribution. Two IAEA TECDOCs address record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities, and therefore these areas are not covered in this report. The objective of this report is to provide information, experience and assistance on how to identify, update as needed and maintain records to assist in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including for the decommissioning plan. This report is intended to be useful to policy makers, regulators, owners, operators, decommissioning contractors and other interested parties. Record keeping is an integral part of overall QA or quality management programmes, and this is emphasized in this report. This report also indicates the possible consequences of not maintaining adequate records. This report describes the needs and the sources of the records for decommissioning (Section 3) and the process of identifying and selecting these records (Section 4). Section 5 considers the records from the decommissioning process itself and their retention, while Section 6 deals with QA, organization and responsibilities. The Records Management System (RMS) is dealt with in Section 7 and the management of new records in Section 8. A summary of observations is included in Section 9. The report is complemented by an appendix and annexes that describe case histories

  3. How to understand our willingness-to-pay to fight climate change? A choice experiment approach

    De Chaisemartin , Clément; Mahé , Thuriane

    2009-01-01

    We explore the willingness-to-pay (WTP) to fight climate change in a choice experiment. Since tree planting prevents climate change, subjects are offered to choose between receiving a high amount of money or receiving a lower amount of money plus participating to tree planting action. This allows us to get an individual interval of the WTP to prevent climate change. We also set the experiment to control for framing effects: we measure whether subjects WTP is higher not to prevent a tree plant...

  4. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume III. Utilities

    1975-12-01

    The SAREF Electric Power System supplies and distributes power from the EBR-II switchgear for operation of all normal facilities on the site, from an on-site Experiment Diesel Generator for operation of all experiment related loads, and from an emergency engine generator and/or an uninterruptible power supply for operation of all essential and critical loads during a failure of both of the other two systems

  5. Improvement in performance and operational experience of 14 UD Pelletron accelerator facility, BARC-TIFR

    Bhagwat, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    14 UD Pelletron accelerator facility at Mumbai has been operational since 1989. The project MEHIA (Medium Energy Heavy Ion Accelerator) started in 1982 and was formally inaugurated on 30th December 1988. Since then the accelerator has been working round the clock. Improvement in accelerator performance and operational experience are described. (author)

  6. Opportunities for parity violating electron scattering experiments at the planned MESA facility

    Aulenbacher, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    We suggest to start an accelerator physics project called the Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) as an extension to our experimental facilities. MESA may allow to introduce an innovative internal target regime based on the ERL principle. A second mode of operation will be to use an external polarized electron beam for parity violating experiments.

  7. Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments

    Batzer, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Significant progress in plasma confinement and temperature has been achieved in the 2XIIB facility at Livermore. These encouraging results, and their theoretical corroboration, have provided a firm basis for the design of a new generation of magnetic mirror experiments, adding support to the mirror concept of a fusion reactor. Two new mirror experiments have been proposed to succeed the currently operating 2XIIB facility. The first of these called TMX (Tandem Mirror Experiment) has been approved and is currently under construction. TMX is designed to utilize the intrinsic positive plasma potential of two strong, and relatively small, minimum B mirror cells to enhance the confinement of a much larger, magnetically weaker, centrally-located mirror cell. The second facility, MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), is currently in preliminary design with line item approval anticipated for FY 78. MFTF is designed primarily to exploit the experimental and theoretical results derived from 2XIIB. Beyond that, MFTF will develop the technology for the transition from the present small mirror experiments to large steady-state devices such as the mirror FERF/FTR. The sheer magnitude of the plasma volume, magnetic field, neutral beam power, and vacuum pumping capacity, particularly in the case of MFTF, has placed new and exciting demands on engineering technology. An engineering overview of MFTF, TMX, and associated MFE activities at Livermore will be presented

  8. OA Experimental Results - Species response experiments on the effects of ocean acidification, climate change, and deoxygenation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWFSC Ocean Acidification (OA) team will conduct a series of species-exposure experiments in the acidification research facility on N. Pacific species of...

  9. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper

  10. Experience in the Application of INES scale to events in the Spanish Radioactive facilities

    Ramirez, M. L.; Alvarez, C.

    2002-01-01

    In February 2001, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) published a new edition of the INES User's Manual for the classification of nuclear events. One of the new developments introduced with respect to the scope of the former Manual was the inclusion within the INES of any event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation. This would include events occurred in radioactive facilities so the INES would apply not only to events in nuclear facilities. During the publication process some doubts rose about the applicability of INES to other non nuclear types of events. The IAEA was open to the future development of more practical guidance for the application of the scale. Since the beginning of 2001 the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) has been using INES to test the applicability of the system to classify events in radioactive facilities. A total of 31 events occurred at Spanish radioactive facilities has been classified applying INES scale and a report was sent to IAEA to publish our experience. The objective of this presentation is to introduce the experience obtained by the application of the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) to classify events in radioactive facilities in Spain and to present several issues raised during its application that may need further development in a practical guidance. (Author)

  11. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility

    T. Schietinger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free-Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including a transverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunches of up to 200 pC charge and up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of an FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measurements performed during the operation of the test facility, including the results of the test of an in-vacuum undulator prototype generating radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and optical range.

  12. Safety Research Experiment Facility project. Conceptual design report. Volume IX. Experiment handling

    1975-01-01

    Information on the SAREF Reactor experiment handling system is presented concerning functions and design requirements, design description, operation, casualty events and recovery procedures, and maintenance

  13. Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response.

    Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system.

  14. Beam studies and experimental facility for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    Bracco, Chiara; Gschwendtner, Edda; Petrenko, Alexey; Timko, Helga; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Bartosik, Hannes; Bohl, Thomas; Esteban Müller, Juan; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Pardons, Ans; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Velotti, Francesco M.; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment has been proposed as an approach to eventually accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy range in a single plasma section. To verify this novel technique, a proof of principle R and D experiment, AWAKE, is planned at CERN using 400 GeV proton bunches from the SPS. An electron beam will be injected into the plasma cell to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the CNGS facility profiting from existing infrastructure where only minor modifications need to be foreseen. The design of the experimental area and the proton and electron beam lines are shown. The achievable SPS proton bunch properties and their reproducibility have been measured and are presented. - Highlights: • A proton driven plasma wakefield experiment using the first time protons as drive beam is proposed. • The integration of AWAKE experiment, the proton, laser and electron beam line in an existing CERN facility is demonstrated. • The necessary modifications in the experimental facility are presented. • Proton beam optics and a new electron beam line are adapted to match with the required beam parameters. • Short high-intensity bunches were studied in the SPS to guide the design parameters of the AWAKE project

  15. Czech interim spent fuel storage facility: operation experience, inspections and future plans

    Fajman, V.; Bartak, L.; Coufal, J.; Brzobohaty, K.; Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the situation in the spent fuel management in the Czech Republic. The interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) at Dukovany, which was commissioned in January 1997 and is using dual transport and storage CASTOR - 440/84 casks, is briefly described. The authors deal with their experience in operating and inspecting the ISFSF Dukovany. The structure of the basic safety document 'Limits and Conditions of Normal Operation' is also mentioned, including the experience of the performance. The inspection activities focused on permanent checking of the leak tightness of the CASTOR 440/84 casks, the maximum cask temperature and inspections monitoring both the neutron and gamma dose rate as well as the surface contamination. The results of the inspections are mentioned in the presentation as well. The operator's experience with re-opening partly loaded and already dried CASTOR-440/84 cask, after its transport from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice to the NPP Dukovany is also described. The paper introduces briefly the concept of future spent fuel storage both from the NPP Dukovany and the NPP Temelin, as prepared by the CEZ. The preparatory work for the Central Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (CISFSF) in the Czech Republic and the information concerning the planned storage technology for this facility is discussed in the paper as well. The authors describe the site selection process and the preparatory steps concerning new spent fuel facility construction including the Environmental Impact Assessment studies. (author)

  16. Physics issues related to the confinement of ICF experiments in the US National Ignition Facility

    Tobin, M.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.

    1995-04-01

    ICF experiments planned for the proposed US National Ignition Facility (NIF) will produce emissions of neutrons, x rays, debris, and shrapnel. The NIF Target Area (TA) must acceptably confine these emissions and respond to their effects to allow an efficient rate of experiments, from 600 to possibly 1500 per year, and minimal down time for maintenance. Detailed computer code predictions of emissions are necessary to study their effects and impacts on Target Area operations. Preliminary results show that the rate of debris shield transmission loss (and subsequent periodicity of change-out) due to ablated material deposition is acceptable, neutron effects on optics are manageable, and preliminary safety analyses show a facility rating of low hazard, non-nuclear. Therefore, NIF Target Area design features such as fused silica debris shields, refractory first wall coating, and concrete shielding are effective solutions to confinement of ICF experiment emissions

  17. Summary of 2016 Light Microscopy Module (LMM) Physical Science Experiments on ISS. Update of LMM Science Experiments and Facility Capabilities

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Meyer, William V.; Foster, William M.; Fletcher, William A.; Williams, Stuart J.; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will feature a series of short, entertaining, and informative videos that describe the current status and science support for the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) facility on the International Space Station. These interviews will focus on current experiments and provide an overview of future capabilities. The recently completed experiments include nano-particle haloing, 3-D self-assembly with Janus particles and a model system for nano-particle drug delivery. The videos will share perspectives from the scientists, engineers, and managers working with the NASA Light Microscopy program.

  18. Relationship between the Quality of Educational Facilities, School Climate, and School Safety of High School Tenth Graders in the United States

    Bell, Darnell Brushawn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the relationships among facility conditions, school climate, and school safety of high school tenth graders in the United States. Previous research on the quality of educational facilities influence on student achievement has varied. Recent research has suggested that the quality of educational facilities…

  19. Proton therapy detector studies under the experience gained at the CATANA facility

    Cuttone, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Di Rosa, F.; Lojacono, P.A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Marino, C.; Mongelli, V.; Patti, I.V.; Pittera, S.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Sabini, M.G.; Salamone, V.; Valastro, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Proton therapy represents the most promising radiotherapy technique for external tumor treatments. At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN-LNS), Catania (I), a proton therapy facility is active since March 2002 and 140 patients, mainly affected by choroidal and iris melanoma, have been successfully treated. Proton beams are characterized by higher dose gradients and linear energy transfer with respect to the conventional photon and electron beams, commonly used in medical centers for radiotherapy. In this paper, we report the experience gained in the characterization of different dosimetric systems, studied and/or developed during the last ten years in our proton therapy facility

  20. Proton therapy detector studies under the experience gained at the CATANA facility

    Cuttone, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Di Rosa, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Lojacono, P.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S.; Marino, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Mongelli, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Patti, I.V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Pittera, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [A.O.U. Policlinico, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Russo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [A.O. Cannizzaro, Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy); Salamone, V.; Valastro, L.M. [A.O.U. Policlinico, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Proton therapy represents the most promising radiotherapy technique for external tumor treatments. At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN-LNS), Catania (I), a proton therapy facility is active since March 2002 and 140 patients, mainly affected by choroidal and iris melanoma, have been successfully treated. Proton beams are characterized by higher dose gradients and linear energy transfer with respect to the conventional photon and electron beams, commonly used in medical centers for radiotherapy. In this paper, we report the experience gained in the characterization of different dosimetric systems, studied and/or developed during the last ten years in our proton therapy facility.

  1. Proton therapy detector studies under the experience gained at the CATANA facility

    Cuttone, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Di Rosa, F.; Lojacono, P. A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Marino, C.; Mongelli, V.; Patti, I. V.; Pittera, S.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Salamone, V.; Valastro, L. M.

    2007-10-01

    Proton therapy represents the most promising radiotherapy technique for external tumor treatments. At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN-LNS), Catania (I), a proton therapy facility is active since March 2002 and 140 patients, mainly affected by choroidal and iris melanoma, have been successfully treated. Proton beams are characterized by higher dose gradients and linear energy transfer with respect to the conventional photon and electron beams, commonly used in medical centers for radiotherapy.In this paper, we report the experience gained in the characterization of different dosimetric systems, studied and/or developed during the last ten years in our proton therapy facility.

  2. Status report of the low frequency facility experiment, Virgo R and D

    Di Virgilio, A.; Ballardin, G.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Calamai, G.; Casciano, C.; Cavalieri, R.; Cecchi, R.; Cella, G.; Chen, Sheng-Jui; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Dominici, P.; Fabbroni, L.; Fazzi, M.; Frasca, S.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Gennaro, G.; Giazotto, A.; Guidi, G.; Holloway, L.; La Penna, P.; Lomtadze, T.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Martelli, F.; Mazzoni, M.; Nenci, F.; Ni, Wei-Tou; Lelli, F.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Perciballi, M.; Poggiani, R.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Taddei, R.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Zhang, Z

    2003-11-10

    The low frequency facility, a Virgo R and D experiment, is composed by a Fabry-Perot cavity attached and controlled by the Virgo suspension; the goal is to measure the thermal noise of the apparatus above 10 Hz, with a displacement sensitivity as high as 10{sup -18} m/{radical}Hz. Since September 2001 the apparatus, located inside the INFN-Pisa experimental area, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the control loops have been set up. Transfer functions, necessary to control the cavity, absolute test mass displacement and the first demonstration of the cavity locking are reported.

  3. The safety climate of a Department of Energy nuclear facility: A sociotechnical analysis

    Johnson, A.E.; Harbour, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Government- and public-sponsored groups are increasingly demanding greater accountability by the Department of Energy's weapons complex. Many of these demands have focused on the development of a positive safety climate, one that not only protects workers onsite, but also the surrounding populace and environment as well. These demands are, in part, a response to findings which demonstrate a close linkage between actual organizational safety performance and the organization's safety climate, i.e., the collective attitudes employees hold concerning the level of safety in their organization. This paper describes the approach taken in the systematic assessment of the safety climate at EG ampersand G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP)

  4. The role of forests in climate change: Nordic experience

    Portin, A.; Barua, S.; Clarke, M.; Camargo, M.; Viding, J.; Pekkanen, M.

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this project is to discuss the role of forests in Nordic countries in climate change mitigation and discuss the possible roles of forests as a part of a cost-effective climate policy. The report aims to provide a comprehensive and easily digestible way to better understand the issue. The report includes a discussion on the role of forests for enhancing carbon stocks and carbon sinks in the Nordic countries. The extent of above- and below-ground biomass and their role as forests carbon sinks in Nordic forests is analysed. The use of wood in products, buildings and as bioenergy is examined. Finally the report presents emissions trading schemes from around the globe that allow offsets and credits from forest projects on them and provides an analysis on the feasibility of such a scheme for the Nordic region. The report has been commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economics under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The study was carried out by Indufor. (Author)

  5. CO2-induced climate change in northern Europe: comparison of 12 CMIP2 experiments

    Raeisaenen, Jouni

    2000-01-01

    The results of 12 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2) are studied with focus on the area of northern Europe. The variables considered are surface air temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure. The 80-year control simulations are first compared with observational estimates of the present climate. Several aspects of the simulated CO 2 -induced climate changes, defined by subtracting the control run seasonal or annual means from 20-year perturbation run means around the transient doubling of CO 2 , are then studied. The common features and individual variations in the simulated climate change are documented. Particular attention is put on expressing the inter experiment agreement in quantitative terms and on estimating the relative contribution of model-simulated internal variability to the inter experiment variance. For that purpose, a new statistical framework is developed. Finally, an attempt is made to statistically relate the inter experiment differences in the simulated climate change in northern Europe to aspects of the control climates, global climate change and some of the basic model characteristics. A summary of the main findings is given in the last section of the report

  6. CO{sub 2}-induced climate change in northern Europe: comparison of 12 CMIP2 experiments

    Raeisaenen, Jouni

    2000-01-01

    The results of 12 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2) are studied with focus on the area of northern Europe. The variables considered are surface air temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure. The 80-year control simulations are first compared with observational estimates of the present climate. Several aspects of the simulated CO{sub 2}-induced climate changes, defined by subtracting the control run seasonal or annual means from 20-year perturbation run means around the transient doubling of CO{sub 2}, are then studied. The common features and individual variations in the simulated climate change are documented. Particular attention is put on expressing the inter experiment agreement in quantitative terms and on estimating the relative contribution of model-simulated internal variability to the inter experiment variance. For that purpose, a new statistical framework is developed. Finally, an attempt is made to statistically relate the inter experiment differences in the simulated climate change in northern Europe to aspects of the control climates, global climate change and some of the basic model characteristics. A summary of the main findings is given in the last section of the report.

  7. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Europe and the experience of TUV SUD

    Hummel, Lothar; Kim, Duill; Ha, Taegun; Yang, Kyunghwa

    2012-01-01

    Many commercial nuclear facilities of the first generation will be taken out of operation in the near future. As of January 2012, total 19 prototype and commercial nuclear reactors have been decommissioned or are under dismantling in Germany. Most of decommissioning projects were successfully performed and a great deal of experience has been accumulated. Selecting a decommissioning strategy is a very important step at the beginning of the decision making process. According to IAEA requirements immediate dismantling is chosen as a preferred option in many countries today. It is associated with less uncertainty, positive political and social effect, and it can make use of existing operational experience and know-how. The availability of funds and final repository is of high importance for a decommissioning strategy selection. The time frame for the dismantling of nuclear facilities depends on the type, size and complexity of the individual project. TUV SUD, which is supervising most of nuclear power plants in Germany, has accumulated lots of experience by taking parts in decommissioning projects. It direct dismantling is chosen, actual light water reactor in Germany decommissioned to green field in approx. 10 years. The activities of TUV SUD cover from establishing the decommissioning concept to the clearance of the sites. This provides an overview of decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities in Europe, including a detail illustration of the German situation. Finally, some recommendations are suggested for the first decommissioning project based on the lessons and experiences derived from many decommissioning works in Europe

  9. PMK-2 the Hungarian integral type test facility. Documentations, publications and archivations of experiments

    Perneczky, L.; Guba, A.; Ezsoel, G.; Toth, I.; Szabados, L.

    2002-01-01

    The PMK-2 experimental facility at the KFKI-AEKI, Budapest, is a full pressure, scaled down model of the primary and partly the secondary circuit of the Paks NPP, which is equipped with four VVER-440/213-type reactors. Since the start-up of the facility altogether 48 experiments have been performed for groups of transients as follows: one- and two-phase natural circulation, loss of coolant accidents, special plant transients and experiments in support of accident management procedures. The results have been used for the validation of thermal-hydraulic system codes for VVER applications. Following the experiments a detailed documentation and archiving activity - using an optimised data storage - was required to preserve the essential information and to assure these for a widely utilisation for the international nuclear community. In the publication list related to the facility and the experiments for the moment altogether 280 items - documents, articles in periodicals, papers in proceedings and research reports - in six languages were collected. The paper gives an overview on this activity including the participation in the EU CERTA-TN programme, where AEKI introduced representative databases of two PMK-2 tests in the STRESA Network.(author)

  10. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  11. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector test Facility

    Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, Bernd; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-26

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including atransverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunchesof up to200 pC chargeand up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of a FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measureme...

  12. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (HRIBF) - getting ready to do experiments

    Shapira, D.; Lewis, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion of the HHIRF facility to a Radioactive Ion Beam facility started in 1994. In this ISOL type facility the Cyclotron has been re-fitted as a driver providing high intensity proton beams which react with the target from which the radioactive products are extracted and then accelerated in the Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator to the desired energy for nuclear science studies. Facilities for nuclear physics experiments are at different stages of development: A Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) with a complement of detectors at the focal plane and around the target is used primarily for nuclear structure studies. A large recoil separator combining velocity and momentum selection, with its complement of focal plane detectors, will be dedicated to measurements relevant to nuclear astrophysics. The Enge Split Pole spectrograph is being re-fitted for operation in a gas filled mode, making it a more versatile tool for nuclear reaction studies. With the new experimental equipment being commissioned and the prospects of running experiments with low intensity radioactive beams a significant effort to develop equipment for beam diagnostics is underway. Some of the efforts and results in developing beam diagnostic tools will be described

  13. 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Experiments At The CEA Valduc SILENE Facility

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Dunn, Michael E.; Wagner, John C.; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Piot, Jerome; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Masse, Veronique; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Lenain, Richard; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Several experiments were performed at the CEA Valduc SILENE reactor facility, which are intended to be published as evaluated benchmark experiments in the ICSBEP Handbook. These evaluated benchmarks will be useful for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data, particularly those that are used in the analysis of CAASs. During these experiments SILENE was operated in pulsed mode in order to be representative of a criticality accident, which is rare among shielding benchmarks. Measurements of the neutron flux were made with neutron activation foils and measurements of photon doses were made with TLDs. Also unique to these experiments was the presence of several detectors used in actual CAASs, which allowed for the observation of their behavior during an actual critical pulse. This paper presents the preliminary measurement data currently available from these experiments. Also presented are comparisons of preliminary computational results with Scale and TRIPOLI-4 to the preliminary measurement data.

  14. Earth Systems Questions in Experimental Climate Change Science: Pressing Questions and Necessary Facilities

    Osmond, B.

    2002-05-20

    Sixty-four scientists from universities, national laboratories, and other research institutions worldwide met to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Biosphere2 Laboratory (B2L) as an inclusive multi-user scientific facility (i.e., a facility open to researchers from all institutions, according to agreed principles of access) for earth system studies and engineering research, education, and training relevant to the mission of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and

  16. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024

  17. Calibration of the SphinX experiment at the XACT facility in Palermo

    Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Varisco, S.; Calderone, G.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Trzebinski, W.; Plocieniak, S.; Kordylewski, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Three of the four detectors of the SphinX experiment to be flown on the Russian mission Coronas-Photon have been measured at the XACT Facility of the Palermo Observatory at several wavelengths in the soft X-ray band. We describe the instrumental set-up and report some measurements. The analysis work to obtain the final calibration is still in progress.

  18. Experiences of a newspaper journalist with the official information policy of nuclear facilities

    Koppelstaetter, H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the biggest problems for a newspaper journalist is to communicate highly specialist statements about technical matters to the reader in comprehensible form. This calls for total confidence in the information at the nuclear facility, i.e. the press spokesman. A number of impressions of experiences as a newspaper editor attempting to obtain information following an accident, i.e. the extent and background of Chernobyl, are outlined. (DG)

  19. Nurses experiences with deaf patient and recommendations for an effective communication with deaf in medical facility

    Boukalová, Naděžda

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis whose name is Nurses experiences with deaf patient and recommendations for an effective communication with deaf in medical facility was conceived as pilot research. This thesis consists of two parts, theoretical and experimental. Theoretical part has several chapters, which deal with anatomy of ear, physiology of hearing, deaf in Czech Republic and communication. The last part of this chapter describes certain situations, where is possible to meet the deaf at medical faci...

  20. A facility for liquid-phase radiation experiments on heavy ion beams

    Stuglik, Z; Zvara, I; Yakushev, A B; Timokhin, S N [Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation). Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research

    1994-05-01

    The facility for liquid-phase radiation experiments installed on the beam line of the U-400 cyclotron in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, is described. The accelerator provides intermediate energy (some 10 MeV/nucleon) beams of ions ranging from Li to Xe. Preliminary results on the radiolysis of the Fricke solution and malachite green in ethanol by {sup 11}B, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 40}Ca ions are presented. (author).

  1. Climate Action Gaming Experiment: Methods and Example Results

    Clifford Singer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An exercise has been prepared and executed to simulate international interactions on policies related to greenhouse gases and global albedo management. Simulation participants are each assigned one of six regions that together contain all of the countries in the world. Participants make quinquennial policy decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, recapture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and/or modification of the global albedo. Costs of climate change and of implementing policy decisions impact each region’s gross domestic product. Participants are tasked with maximizing economic benefits to their region while nearly stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by the end of the simulation in Julian year 2195. Results are shown where regions most adversely affected by effects of greenhouse gas emissions resort to increases in the earth’s albedo to reduce net solar insolation. These actions induce temperate region countries to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. An example outcome is a trajectory to the year 2195 of atmospheric greenhouse emissions and concentrations, sea level, and global average temperature.

  2. Meeting the Next Generation Science Standards Through "Rediscovered" Climate Model Experiments

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.; Zhou, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the Educational Global Climate Model (EdGCM) Project made its debut in January 2005, over 150 institutions have employed EdGCM software for a variety of uses ranging from short lab exercises to semester-long and year-long thesis projects. The vast majority of these EdGCM adoptees have been at the undergraduate and graduate levels, with few users at the K-12 level. The K-12 instructors who have worked with EdGCM in professional development settings have commented that, although EdGCM can be used to illustrate a number of the Disciplinary Core Ideas and connects to many of the Common Core State Standards across subjects and grade levels, significant hurdles preclude easy integration of EdGCM into their curricula. Time constraints, a scarcity of curriculum materials, and classroom technology are often mentioned as obstacles in providing experiences to younger grade levels in realistic climate modeling research. Given that the NGSS incorporates student performance expectations relating to Earth System Science, and to climate science and the human dimension in particular, we feel that a streamlined version of EdGCM -- one that eliminates the need to run the climate model on limited computing resources, and provides a more guided climate modeling experience -- would be highly beneficial for the K-12 community. This new tool currently under development, called EzGCM, functions through a browser interface, and presents "rediscovery experiments" that allow students to do their own exploration of model output from published climate experiments, or from sensitivity experiments designed to illustrate how climate models as well as the climate system work. The experiments include background information and sample questions, with more extensive notes for instructors so that the instructors can design their own reflection questions or follow-on activities relating to physical or human impacts, as they choose. An added benefit of the EzGCM tool is that, like EdGCM, it helps

  3. Set of thermal neutron-scattering experiments for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility

    Brugger, R.M.

    1975-12-01

    Six classes of experiments form the base of a program of thermal neutron scattering at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. Three classes are to determine the average microscopic positions of atoms in materials and three are to determine the microscopic vibrations of these atoms. The first three classes concern (a) powder sample neutron diffraction, (b) small angle scattering, and (c) single crystal Laue diffraction. The second three concern (d) small kappa inelastic scattering, (e) scattering surface phonon measurements, and (f) line widths. An instrument to couple with the WNR pulsed source is briefly outlined for each experiment

  4. Verification of the Korsar code on results of experiments executed on the PSB-VVER facility

    Roginskaya, V.L.; Pylev, S.S.; Elkin, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper represents some results of computational research executed within the framework of verification of the KORSAR thermal hydraulic code. This code was designed in the NITI by A.P. Aleksandrov (Russia). The general purpose of the work was development of a nodding scheme of the PSB-VVER integral facility, scheme testing and computational modelling of the experiment 'The PSB-VVER Natural Circulation Test With Stepwise Reduction of the Primary Inventory'. The NC test has been performed within the framework of the OECD PSB-VVER Project (task no. 3). This Project is focused upon the provision of experimental data for codes assessment with regard to VVER analysis. Paper presents a nodding scheme of the PSB-VVER facility and results of pre- and post-test calculations of the specified experiment, obtained with the KORSAR code. The experiment data and the KORSAR pre-test calculation results are in good agreement. A post-test calculation of the experiment with KORSAR code has been performed in order to assess the code capability to simulate the phenomena relevant to the test. The code showed a reasonable prediction of the phenomena measured in the experiment. (authors)

  5. Verification of the Korsar code on results of experiments executed on the PSB-VVER facility

    Roginskaya, V.L.; Pylev, S.S.; Elkin, I.V. [NSI RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper represents some results of computational research executed within the framework of verification of the KORSAR thermal hydraulic code. This code was designed in the NITI by A.P. Aleksandrov (Russia). The general purpose of the work was development of a nodding scheme of the PSB-VVER integral facility, scheme testing and computational modelling of the experiment 'The PSB-VVER Natural Circulation Test With Stepwise Reduction of the Primary Inventory'. The NC test has been performed within the framework of the OECD PSB-VVER Project (task no. 3). This Project is focused upon the provision of experimental data for codes assessment with regard to VVER analysis. Paper presents a nodding scheme of the PSB-VVER facility and results of pre- and post-test calculations of the specified experiment, obtained with the KORSAR code. The experiment data and the KORSAR pre-test calculation results are in good agreement. A post-test calculation of the experiment with KORSAR code has been performed in order to assess the code capability to simulate the phenomena relevant to the test. The code showed a reasonable prediction of the phenomena measured in the experiment. (authors)

  6. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    Brogli, R.; Bucher, K.H.; Chawla, R.; Foskolos, K.; Luchsinger, H.; Mathews, D.; Sarlos, G.; Seiler, R.

    1990-01-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  7. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    Brogli, R; Bucher, K H; Chawla, R; Foskolos, K; Luchsinger, H; Mathews, D; Sarlos, G; Seiler, R [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Technology Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1990-07-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  8. Natural circulation in a VVER reactor geometry: Experiments with the PACTEL facility and Cathare simulations

    Raussi, P.; Kainulainen, S. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kouhia, J. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    There are some 40 reactors based on the VVER design in use. Database available for computer code assessment for VVER reactors is rather limited. Experiments were conducted to study natural circulation behaviour in the PACTEL facility, a medium-scale integral test loop patterned after VVER pressurized water reactors. Flow behaviour over a range of coolant inventories was studied with a small-break experiment. In the small-break experiments, flow stagnation and system repressurization were observed when the water level in the upper plenum fell below the entrances to the hot legs. The cause was attributed to the hot leg loop seals, which are a unique feature of the VVER geometry. At low primary inventories, core cooling was achieved through the boiler-condenser mode. The experiment was simulated using French thermalhydraulic system code CATHARE.

  9. Results of 15 years experiments in the PMK-2 integral-type facility for VVERs

    Szabados, L.; Ezsoel, G.; Perneczky, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    2001-07-01

    Due to the specific features of the VVER-440/213-type reactors the transient behaviour of such a reactor system is different from the usual PWR system behaviour. To provide an experimental database for the transient behaviour of VVER systems the PMK integral-type facility, the scaled down model of the Paks NPP was designed and constructed in the early 1980's. Since the start-up of the facility 48 experiments have been performed. It was confirmed through the experiments that the facility is a suitable tool for the computer code validation experiments and to the identification of basic thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during plant accidents. High international interest was shown by the four Standard Problem Exercises of the IAEA and by the projects financed by the EU-PHARE. A wide range of small- and medium-size LOCA sequences have been studied to know the performance and effectiveness of ECC systems and to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic safety of the core. Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the one- and two-phase natural circulation, the effect of disturbances coming from the secondary circuit and to validate the effectiveness of accident management measures like bleed and feed. The VVER-specific case, the opening of the SG collector cover was also extensively investigated. Examples given in the report show a few results of experiments and the results of calculation analyses performed for validation purposes of codes like RELAP5, ATHLET and CATHARE. There are some other white spots in Cross Reference Matrices for VVER reactors and, therefore, further experiments are planned to perform tests primarily in further support of accident management measures at low power states of plants to facilitate the improved safety management of VVER-440-type reactors. (authors)

  10. Results of 15 years experiments in the PMK-2 integral-type facility for VVERs

    Szabados, L.; Ezsoel, G.; Perneczky, L.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the specific features of the VVER-440/213-type reactors the transient behaviour of such a reactor system is different from the usual PWR system behaviour. To provide an experimental database for the transient behaviour of VVER systems the PMK integral-type facility, the scaled down model of the Paks NPP was designed and constructed in the early 1980's. Since the start-up of the facility 48 experiments have been performed. It was confirmed through the experiments that the facility is a suitable tool for the computer code validation experiments and to the identification of basic thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during plant accidents. High international interest was shown by the four Standard Problem Exercises of the IAEA and by the projects financed by the EU-PHARE. A wide range of small- and medium-size LOCA sequences have been studied to know the performance and effectiveness of ECC systems and to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic safety of the core. Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the one- and two-phase natural circulation, the effect of disturbances coming from the secondary circuit and to validate the effectiveness of accident management measures like bleed and feed. The VVER-specific case, the opening of the SG collector cover was also extensively investigated. Examples given in the report show a few results of experiments and the results of calculation analyses performed for validation purposes of codes like RELAP5, ATHLET and CATHARE. There are some other white spots in Cross Reference Matrices for VVER reactors and, therefore, further experiments are planned to perform tests primarily in further support of accident management measures at low power states of plants to facilitate the improved safety management of VVER-440-type reactors. (authors)

  11. Climate and atmosphere simulator for experiments on ecological systems in changing environments.

    Verdier, Bruno; Jouanneau, Isabelle; Simonnet, Benoit; Rabin, Christian; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Delpierre, Nicolas; Clobert, Jean; Abbadie, Luc; Ferrière, Régis; Le Galliard, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges in global change research and environmental science raise the need for replicated experiments on ecosystems subjected to controlled changes in multiple environmental factors. We designed and developed the Ecolab as a variable climate and atmosphere simulator for multifactor experimentation on natural or artificial ecosystems. The Ecolab integrates atmosphere conditioning technology optimized for accuracy and reliability. The centerpiece is a highly contained, 13-m(3) chamber to host communities of aquatic and terrestrial species and control climate (temperature, humidity, rainfall, irradiance) and atmosphere conditions (O2 and CO2 concentrations). Temperature in the atmosphere and in the water or soil column can be controlled independently of each other. All climatic and atmospheric variables can be programmed to follow dynamical trajectories and simulate gradual as well as step changes. We demonstrate the Ecolab's capacity to simulate a broad range of atmospheric and climatic conditions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, and to support the growth of a model terrestrial plant in two contrasting climate scenarios. The adaptability of the Ecolab design makes it possible to study interactions between variable climate-atmosphere factors and biotic disturbances. Developed as an open-access, multichamber platform, this equipment is available to the international scientific community for exploring interactions and feedbacks between ecological and climate systems.

  12. Poverty and Climate Change. Part 2. Adaptation Lessons from Past Experience

    Abeygunawardena, P. [Asian Development Bank ADB, Tokyo (Japan); Vyas, Y. [African Development Bank AfDB, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Knill, P. [Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ, Bonn (Germany); Foy, T.; Harrold, M.; Steele, P.; Tanner, T. [Department for International Developmen DFID, London (United Kingdom); Hirsch, D.; Oosterman, M.; Rooimans, J. [Development Cooperation DGIS, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Den Haag (Netherlands); Debois, M.; Lamin, M. [Directorate-General for Development, European Commission EC, Brussels (Belgium); Liptow, H.; Mausolf, E.; Verheyen, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, Eschborn (Germany); Agrawala, S.; Caspary, G.; Paris, R. [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Kashyap, A. [United Nations Development Programme UNDP, New York, NY (United States); Sharma, R. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya); Mathur, A.; Sharma, M.; Sperling, F. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Adaptation is successful if it reduces the vulnerability of poor countries and poor people to existing climate variability, while also building in the potential to anticipate and react to further changes in climate in the future. The evidence from past experience suggests that this is best achieved through mainstreaming and integrating climate responses into development and poverty eradication processes, rather than by identifying and treating them separately. In this document, mainstreaming is used to describe the consideration of climate issues in decision making processes such as planning and budgeting. Integration is used when specific adaptation measures are added to design and implementation strategies. Thus, integration occurs in instances where adaptation is deemed to be a priority in order to effectively achieve development goals. The rationale for integrating adaptation in development strategies and practices is underlined by the fact that many of the interventions required to increase resilience to climatic changes generally benefit development objectives. Adaptation requires the development of human capital, strengthening of institutional systems, and sound management of public finances and natural resources. Such processes build the resilience of countries, communities, and households to all shocks and stresses, including climate variability and change, and are good development practice in themselves. Mainstreaming climate issues into national development policies ensures consistency between the needs of adaptation and poverty eradication. Separation of the two runs the risk of adaptation policies inadvertently conflicting with development and poverty policies, or conversely, development policies inadvertently increasing vulnerability to climatic factors. Accordingly, this issue is critical to the successful eradication of poverty and needs to be placed at the core of national development processes. The experiences described in this section show how

  13. Drought, Endurance and Climate Change 'Pioneers': Lived Experience in the Production of Rural Environmental Knowledge

    Deb Anderson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the politicisation of environmental knowledge on rural Australia, in an analysis of discourse on the lived experience of drought. It draws on research conducted in dryland farm communities in the Mallee wheat-belt of Victoria – where rural histories have presented spirited sagas of community perseverance in ‘battling’ a harsh climate – during a period of marked shift in public awareness of climate change (2004-07. Indeed climate change projections have intensified debate over rural futures in Australia, where droughts have played a powerful role in the mythologizing of rural battlers and landscapes, and where drought discourse has been dominated by the language of war. Cultural engagement with climate is, however, under constant renegotiation, as rural cultural research is apt to reveal.

  14. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    Stevnsbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate4 can be expected to influence above–belowground interactions. Here, we use...... a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms.We use an insect herbivore...... a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground–belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability....

  15. LOCA assessment experiments in a full-elevation, CANDU-typical test facility

    Ingham, P.J.; McGee, G.R.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The RD-14 thermal-hydraulics test facility, located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, is a full-elevation model representative of a CANDU primary heat transport system. The facility is scaled to accommodate a single, full-scale (5.0 MW, 21 kg/s), electrically heated channel per pass. The steam generators, pumps, headers, feeders and heated channels are arranged in a typical CANDU figure-of-eight geometry. The loop has an emergency coolant injection system (ECI) that may be operated in several modes, including typical features of the various ECI systems found in CANDU reactors. A series of experiments has been performed in RD-14 to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour during the blowdown and injection phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The tests were designed to cover a full range of break sizes from feeder-sized breaks to guillotine breaks in either an inlet or an outlet header. Breaks resulting in channel flow stagnation were also investigated. This paper reviews the results of some of the LOCA tests carried out in RD-14, and discusses some of the behaviour observed. Plans for future experiments in a multiple-channel RD-14 facility, modified to contain multiple flow channels, are outlined. (orig.)

  16. SBLOCA AND LOFW EXPERIMENTS IN A SCALED-DOWN IET FACILITY OF REX-10 REACTOR

    YEON-GUN LEE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA and the loss-of-feedwater accident (LOFW in a scaled integral test facility of REX-10. REX-10 is a small integral-type PWR in which the coolant flow is driven by natural circulation, and the RCS is pressurized by the steam-gas pressurizer. The postulated accidents of REX-10 include the system depressurization initiated by the break of a nitrogen injection line connected to the steam-gas pressurizer and the complete loss of normal feedwater flow by the malfunction of control systems. The integral effect tests on SBLOCA and LOFW are conducted at the REX-10 Test Facility (RTF, a full-height full-pressure facility with reduced power by 1/50. The SBLOCA experiment is initiated by opening a flow passage out of the pressurizer vessel, and the LOFW experiment begins with the termination of the feedwater supply into the helical-coil steam generator. The experimental results reveal that the RTF can assure sufficient cooldown capability with the simulated PRHRS flow during these DBAs. In particular, the RTF exhibits faster pressurization during the LOFW test when employing the steam-gas pressurizer than the steam pressurizer. This experimental study can provide unique data to validate the thermal-hydraulic analysis code for REX-10.

  17. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  18. First laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; Holder, J; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J; Hammel, B A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Recently the first laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive inertial confinement fusion designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the intense (2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}) beam propagation in gas-filled tubes has been studied at up to 7 mm plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. These experiments have shown the expected full propagation without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. In addition, vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the Nova and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment using in analytical models and radiation hydrodynamics calculations with the code LASNEX has been proven in these studies. The comparison of these results with modelling will be discussed.

  19. Simulation of power maneuvering experiment of MASLWR test facility by MARS-KS code

    Park, Ju Yeop [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the present study, KINS simulation result by the MARS-KS code (KS-002 version) for the SP-3 experiment is presented in detail and conclusion on MARS-KS code performance drawn through this simulation is described. Performance of the MARS-KS code is evaluated through the simulation of the power maneuvering experiment of the MASLWR test facility. Steady run shows the helical coil specific heat transfer model of the code is reasonable. However, identified discrepancy of the primary mass flowrate at transient run shows code performance for pressure drop needs to be improved considering sensitivity of the flowrate to the pressure drop at natural circulation. Since 2009, IAEA has conducted a research program entitled as ICSP (International Collaborative Standard Problem) on integral PWR design to evaluate current the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic code in simulating natural circulation flow within integral type reactor. In this ICSP, experimental data obtained from MASLWR (Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor) test facility located at Oregon state university in the US have been simulated by various thermal-hydraulic codes of each participant of the ICSP and compared among others. MASLWR test facility is a mock-up of a passive integral type reactor equipped with helical coil steam generator. Since SMART reactor which is currently being developed in Korea also adopts a helical coil steam generator, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has joined this ICSP to assess the applicability of a domestic regulatory audit thermal-hydraulic code (i. e. MARS-KS code) for the SMART reactor including wall-to-fluid heat transfer model modification based on independent international experiment data. In the ICSP, two types of transient experiments have been focused and they are loss of feedwater transient with subsequent ADS operation and long term cooling (SP-2) and normal operating conditions at different power levels (SP-3)

  20. Simulation of power maneuvering experiment of MASLWR test facility by MARS-KS code

    Park, Ju Yeop [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this ICSP, experimental data obtained from MASLWR (Mulit-Application Small Light Water Reactor) test facility located at Oregon state university in the US have been simulated by various thermal-hydraulic codes of each participant of the ICSP and compared among others. MASLWR test facility is a mock-up of a passive integral type reactor equipped with helical coil steam generator. Since SMART reactor which is currently being developed in Korea also adopts a helical coil steam generator, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has joined this ICSP to assess the applicability of a domestic regulatory audit thermal-hydraulic code (i. e. MARS-KS code) for the SMART reactor including wall-to-fluid heat transfer model modification based on independent international experiment data. In the ICSP, two types of transient experiments have been focused and they are 1) loss of feedwater transient with subsequent ADS operation and long term cooling (SP-2) and normal operating conditions at different power levels. In the present study, KINS simulation result by the MARS-KS code (KS-002 version) for the SP-3 experiment is presented in detail and conclusion on MARS-KS code performance drawn through this simulation is described. Performance of the MARS-KS code is evaluated through the simulation of the power maneuvering experiment of the MASLWR test facility. Steady run shows the helical coil specific heat transfer model of the code is reasonable. However, identified discrepancy of the primary mass flowrate at transient run shows code performance for pressure drop needs to be improved considering sensitivity of the flowrate to the pressure drop at natural circulation.

  1. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  2. Monte Carlo validation experiments for the gas Cherenkov detectors at the National Ignition Facility and Omega

    Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J. [Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; McEvoy, A.; Caldwell, S. E. [Plasma Physics Department, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Grafil, E.; Stoeffl, W. [Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Milnes, J. S. [Photek Limited UK, 26 Castleham Road, St. Leonards-on-sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    The gas Cherenkov detectors at NIF and Omega measure several ICF burn characteristics by detecting multi-MeV nuclear γ emissions from the implosion. Of primary interest are γ bang-time (GBT) and burn width defined as the time between initial laser-plasma interaction and peak in the fusion reaction history and the FWHM of the reaction history respectively. To accurately calculate such parameters the collaboration relies on Monte Carlo codes, such as GEANT4 and ACCEPT, for diagnostic properties that cannot be measured directly. This paper describes a series of experiments performed at the High Intensity γ Source (HIγS) facility at Duke University to validate the geometries and material data used in the Monte Carlo simulations. Results published here show that model-driven parameters such as intensity and temporal response can be used with less than 50% uncertainty for all diagnostics and facilities.

  3. First radioactive beams at ACCULINNA-2 facility and first proposed experiment

    Bezbakh, A. A.; Beekman, W.; Chudoba, V.; Fomichev, A. S.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Kaminski, G.; Krupko, S. A.; Mentel, M.; Nikolskii, E. Yu.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Plucinski, P.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Slepnev, R. S.; Sharov, P. G.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Zalewski, B.

    2018-04-01

    New fragment separator ACCULINNA-2 was installed at the primary beam line of the U-400M cyclotron in 2016. Recently, first radioactive ion beams were obtained. The design parameters of new facility were experimentally confirmed. Intensity, purity and transverse profile of several secondary beams at the final focal plane were studied. The intensities obtained for the secondary beams of 14B, 12Be, 9;11Li, 6;8He in the fragmentation reaction 15N (49.7 AMeV) + Be (2 mm) are in average 15 times higher in comparison to the ones produced at its forerunner ACCULINNA separator. The ACCULINNA-2 separator will become a backbone facility at the FLNR for the research in the field of light exotic nuclei in the vicinity of the nuclear drip lines. The planned first experiment, aimed for the observation of the 7H nucleus at ACCULINNA-2, is outlined.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment facility (OMRE)

    Hine, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) facility performed from October 1977 through September 1979. This D and D project included removal of all the facilities and as much contaminated soil and rock as practical. Removal of the reactor pressure vessel was an unusually difficult problem, and an extraordinary, unexpected amount of activated rock and soil was removed. After removal of all significantly contaminated material, the site consisted of a 20-ft deep excavation surrounded by backfill material. Before this excavation was backfilled, it and the backfill material were radiologically surveyed and detailed records made of these surveys. After the excavation was backfilled and graded, the site surface was surveyed again and found to be essentially uncontaminated

  5. CJSC ECOMET-S facility for reprocessing and utilisation of radioactive metal waste: operating experience

    Gelbutovsky, A.B.; Kishkin, S.A.; Mochenov, M.I.; Troshev, A.V.; Cheremisin, P.I.; Chernichenko, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of the paper is to present operating experience in management of radioactive metal waste, originating at nuclear power facilities of the Russian Federation. Issues of radioactive metal waste recycling by melting, with the purpose of unrestricted re-use in industry, or restricted re-use within the nuclear industry, have been considered. The necessity for using a method of melting at the final stage of radioactive metal waste recycling has been proved. Priority measures to be taken and results achieved in the implementation of the Governmental purpose-oriented programme 'Radioactive Metal Waste Reprocessing and Utilization' have been considered, the CJSC ECOMET-S being the main contractor on the Programme. Main specifications and results of operating a commercial melting facility, owned by CJSC 'ECOMET-S' and used to recycle low-level radioactive metal waste originated at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, have been presented. (author)

  6. Tourist Perceptions On Supporting Infrastructure Facilities And Climate-Based Visiting Time Of Ngebel Lake, Ponorogo

    Ardhila Ayu Prasetyowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the tourists’ perception about the importance and satisfaction on the product of fisheries tourism, and to assess the visiting time of tourist based on climate conditions. The research was conducted in May to June 2013 in Ngebel Lake, Ponorogo. We used descriptive quantitative approach, with 45 respondents. Data collected from interview, questionnaire and observation. Analytical methods were used to determine the perception of tourists on the satisfaction and interest in fisheries tourism products, i.e. Importance Performance Analysis (IPA. We also used Tourism Climate Index (TCI to determine the visiting time of tourist. The results show the value of satisfaction and tourist interest is low, therefore the improvement of several aspects become important. It is encompasses: a the existence of parking area; b the condition of Ngebel Lake; c planning and management system, the condition of the local community; and d activities of fish course restaurant and fish farming system of floating net cages. TCI value indicates ideal conditions for tourists traveled in Ngebel Lake is in November (convenience index value of 106, in December (97 and in April (94. This appropriate time to visit Ngebel Lake is expected to create a good impression for the tourists and enjoy the various fisheries activities in Ngebel Lake. Keywords: Importance Performance Analysis, Ngebel Lake, Tourist Climate Index

  7. Safety requirements and safety experience of nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Schnurer, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Peaceful use of nuclear energy within the F.R.G. is rapidly growing. The Energy Programme of the Federal Government forecasts a capacity of up to 50.000 MW in 1985. Whereas most of this capacity will be of the LWR-Type, other activities are related to LMFBR - and HTGR - development, nuclear ships, and facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. Safety of nuclear energy is the pacemaker for the realization of nuclear programmes and projects. Due to a very high population - and industrialisation density, safety has the priority before economical aspects. Safety requirements are therefore extremely stringent, which will be shown for the legal, the technical as well as for the organizational area. They apply for each nuclear facility, its site and the nuclear energy system as a whole. Regulatory procedures differ from many other countries, assigning executive power to state authorities, which are supervised by the Federal Government. Another particularity of the regulatory process is the large scope of involvement of independent experts within the licensing procedures. The developement of national safety requirements in different countries generates a necessity to collaborate and harmonize safety and radiation protection measures, at least for facilities in border areas, to adopt international standards and to assist nuclear developing countries. However, different nationally, regional or local situations might raise problems. Safety experience with nuclear facilities can be concluded from the positive construction and operation experience, including also a few accidents and incidents and the conclusions, which have been drawn for the respective factilities and others of similar design. Another tool for safety assessments will be risk analyses, which are under development by German experts. Final, a scope of future problems and developments shows, that safety of nuclear installations - which has reached a high performance - nevertheless imposes further tasks to be solved

  8. Beam studies and experimental facility for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    Bracco, Chiara; Petrenko, Alexey; Timko, Helga; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Bartosik, Hannes; Bohl, Thomas; Esteban Müller, Juan; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Pardons, Ans; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Velotti, Francesco M; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment has been proposed as an approach to eventually accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy range in a single plasma section. To verify this novel technique, a proof of principle R&D experiment, AWAKE, is planned at CERN using 400 GeV proton bunches from the SPS. An electron beam will be injected into the plasma cell to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the CNGS facility profiting from existing infrastructure where only minor modifications need to be foreseen. The design of the experimental area and the proton and electron beam lines are shown. The achievable SPS proton bunch properties and their reproducibility have been measured and are presented.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC POLICY IN CREATING BUSINESS CLIMATE, BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FACILITIES TOWARDS BUSINESS EMPOWERMENT ON SMALL MEDIUM CRAFT ENTERPRISES IN AMBON INDONESIA

    Josef Papilaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing and explaining whether there was the influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities towards empowerment on small and medium enterprises as well as whether there is synchronously influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities for business empowerment on small and medium scale enterprises through a survey in the city of Ambon. The results show, that there is a positive and significant effect of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate to empower small and medium enterprises. There is a positive and significant effect on the business environment toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive and significant effect of providing support facilities toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, and there is a positive and significant simultaneously effect in business climate, business environment and support facilities for business towards the empowerment of small business in Ambon city. Empowerment programs are conducted to maintain a conducive business climate, including: 1. the innovation promotion, 2. enhancing human resources through training development; 3. providing financial support, 4. giving support to the marketing strategy, 5. opening the business partnership. While the supporting facilities granted to small and medium enterprises including: 1. giving the fishing boat for the Fishermen, 2. providing the workshop (machine shop service facilities to small crafts business Enterprises, 3. establish vendors for small enterprises, 4. provide the area for street vendors, 5. provide tents for merchants culinary who work at night. Providing the assistance to encourage the business climate and create conducive business environment.

  10. The choice of park and ride facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    Ilona D M Bos; Rob E C M Van der Heijden; Eric J E Molin; Harry J P Timmermans

    2004-01-01

    Park and ride (P & R) facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are underused. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of P & R facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pape...

  11. Educational Experiences Associated with International Students' Learning, Development, and Positive Perceptions of Campus Climate

    Glass, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    This research project uses the constructive-developmental tradition, in the self-authorship framework of intercultural maturity (King & Baxter Magolda, 2005), to examine the extent to which 12 specific educational experiences may be associated with international undergraduates' learning, development, and perception of campus climate. The study…

  12. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  13. Signal and noise in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed surface mass variations

    Schrama, E.J.O.; Wouters, B.; Lavallée, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) product used for this study consists of 43 monthly potential coefficient sets released by the GRACE science team which are used to generate surface mass thickness grids expressed as equivalent water heights (EQWHs). We optimized both the smoothing

  14. Low-energy house in Arctic climate - 5 years of experience

    Vladyková, Petra; Rode, Carsten; Kragh, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present and disseminate the experience gained from a low‐energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, over the 5 years of operation since its inauguration in April 2005. The house was designed to test and present new low‐energy technologies in the Arctic climate and to impro...

  15. Experiments to determine the migration potential for water and contaminants in shallow land burial facilities design, emplacement, and preliminary results

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Leaching and transport of radionuclides by water has been a primary mode of radioactive contamination from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Similarly, the infiltration of water into nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal facilities has resulted in the movement of contaminants out of these disposal facilities. Although there have been many laboratory studies on water movement and contaminant transport, there is a need for more large scale field experiments. Large scale field experiments are necessary to (1) measure hydraulic conductivities on a scale typical of actual shallow land burial facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities, (2) allow comparisons to be made between full scale and laboratory measurements, (3) verify the applicability of calculational methods for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivities from water retention curves, and (4) for model validation. Experiments that will provide the information to do this are described in this paper

  16. Coaching small communities towards a climate stretegy plan -- experiences from Sweden

    Gormsen, D. [City of Malmoe (Sweden). Environment Dept.

    2008-07-01

    the work continues after the completion of the climate strategy developed for the community. This talk focuses on the experiences that were gained from the project in Sweden, and how these can be transferred to other municipalities around Europe.

  17. Bringing a Realistic Global Climate Modeling Experience to a Broader Audience

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.; Zhou, J.

    2010-12-01

    EdGCM, the Educational Global Climate Model, was developed with the goal of helping students learn about climate change and climate modeling by giving them the ability to run a genuine NASA global climate model (GCM) on a desktop computer. Since EdGCM was first publicly released in January 2005, tens of thousands of users on seven continents have downloaded the software. EdGCM has been utilized by climate science educators from middle school through graduate school levels, and on occasion even by researchers who otherwise do not have ready access to climate model at national labs in the U.S. and elsewhere. The EdGCM software is designed to walk users through the same process a climate scientist would use in designing and running simulations, and analyzing and visualizing GCM output. Although the current interface design gives users a clear view of some of the complexities involved in using a climate model, it can be daunting for users whose main focus is on climate science rather than modeling per se. As part of the work funded by NASA’s Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) program, we will begin modifications to the user interface that will improve the accessibility of EdGCM to a wider array of users, especially at the middle school and high school levels, by: 1) Developing an automated approach (a “wizard”) to simplify the user experience in setting up new climate simulations; 2) Produce a catalog of “rediscovery experiments” that allow users to reproduce published climate model results, and in some cases compare model projections to real world data; and 3) Enhance distance learning and online learning opportunities through the development of a web-based interface. The prototypes for these modifications will then be presented to educators belonging to an EdGCM Users Group for feedback, so that we can further refine the EdGCM software, and thus deliver the tools and materials educators want and need across a wider range of learning environments.

  18. French experience of regulation and operation on reprocessing facilities of LWR spent fuels

    Mercier, J P [DES/SESUL (France)

    1992-02-01

    This presentation describes the French experience of regulation and operation on reprocessing facilities: how the safety assessment was made of UP3-A plant of the La Hague establishment for the building permit and operating license within the context of French nuclear regulations and the national debate on the need for reprocessing. Other factors discussed are how the public was involved, how the regulations were improved in the process and what the different stages of commissioning consisted of. In the design studies of a reprocessing facility, three complementary approaches are used: - observance of regulations born of technical considerations, and good practice, - analysis of the hazards, using deterministic and probabilistic methods, within the framework of a safety report, - review of experience feedback from such a facility or like plants. The design of the facility must permit the prevention of accidents and limit their consequences. Moreover, during all foreseeable cases (normal operating, incidents and accidents), the safety of the staff, the public and the environment with regard to consequences of radioactive releases and ionising radiations must be ensured. In the evaluation of these consequences, the approach used is voluntarily pessimistic in order to take into account every possible case. It is based on the main following principles: definition of the events considered for the dimensioning of the facility; redundancy and diversification; defense in depth which consists of the multiplication of the barriers. The experience feedback comes, on the one hand from operator's findings aiming at improving its facility, on the other hand from incidents, the lessons of which being taken into account after careful analysis. These incidents are analyzed by the Safety Authority upon presentation of the data by the operator and on site findings of inspections. In other respects, the aim of inspections is to check that the plant and its operating practices are

  19. Simulation of hydrogen deflagration experiments in the ENACCEF facility using ASTEC code

    Povilaitis, Mantas; Urbonavicius, Egidijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas

    2011-01-01

    During a hypothetic severe accident in the NPP involving degradation of the core of a light water reactor, hydrogen could be generated and released into the containment atmosphere posing a deflagration or even a detonation risk. In the case of deflagration, the integrity of the containment would be threatened by the increase of the containment atmosphere pressure and temperature. Other risks of containment damage due to turbulent flames exist, caused by high pressure pulses, shock waves and etc. For the simulation of such processes a reliable numerical codes are needed. Despite flame acceleration being largely studied for homogeneous hydrogen - air mixtures, there are still unresolved issues in this research area, e.g., the effect of turbulence level on flame acceleration and quenching. This paper presents simulations of hydrogen deflagration experiments in the ENACCEF facility using ASTEC code, performed in the frames of International Standard Program No. 49 and SARNET2 project. Experiments and simulations were performed with the aim of evaluating the codes' (a number of participants with various codes participated in the project) capabilities to simulate hydrogen combustion. ASTEC code is an integral lumped-parameter approach based nuclear safety analysis code. For the presented simulations, ASTEC modules CPA (containment thermohydromechanics) and FRONT (hydrogen deflagration) were used. Paper present ENACCEF test facility, its nodalisation schemes developed for the calculations, simulated experiments and simulations' results. Brief description of FRONT module is also presented. Calculations' results are compared with experimental results and analyzed. (author)

  20. Safety Evaluation for the Impact of Strom Surges on Nuclear Facilities considering the Climate Change

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Jin, So Beom

    2012-01-01

    Twenty one units of Nuclear Power Plants(hereinafter NPPs) are operating and five units are under construction in Korea. In particular, Kori unit 1 has been operating for over 30 years. All of the interior NPPs are located in coastal areas and use the sea water for the cooling system. Therefore, the change of sea level seem to affect the safety of NPPs in case of a flood(Hyun et al., 2009). The IPCC 4 th Report(2007) showed that the climate change induced by the high CO 2 effluent scenario results in rise of the sea level (+ 26 to 59 cm), increase in wind strength and more increase of typhoon intensity in the period between 2090 and 2099 and the rate of global mean sea level rise was up to 1.8 ± 0.5 mm/yr from 1961 to 2003. Kang et al.(2005) reported that the rise rate of sea level was 5.4 ± 0.3 mm/yr at the entire East Sea and was 6.6 ± 0.4 mm/yr for the southern part of East Sea from 1992 to 2002. These results are approximately four times greater than the results of the IPCC 4 th Report. The IAEA recommends that some safety margin related with climate change should be taken into consideration in the design basis flood for constructing new NPPs considering the entire plant lifetime and for periodic safety reviewing of operating NPPs referring to the interval between two consecutive reviews(2003). This paper, therefore, summarized the current regulatory activities related with the safety assessment of the impact of storm surge on the NPPs with climate change

  1. Safety Evaluation for the Impact of Strom Surges on Nuclear Facilities considering the Climate Change

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Jin, So Beom [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Twenty one units of Nuclear Power Plants(hereinafter NPPs) are operating and five units are under construction in Korea. In particular, Kori unit 1 has been operating for over 30 years. All of the interior NPPs are located in coastal areas and use the sea water for the cooling system. Therefore, the change of sea level seem to affect the safety of NPPs in case of a flood(Hyun et al., 2009). The IPCC 4{sup th} Report(2007) showed that the climate change induced by the high CO{sub 2} effluent scenario results in rise of the sea level (+ 26 to 59 cm), increase in wind strength and more increase of typhoon intensity in the period between 2090 and 2099 and the rate of global mean sea level rise was up to 1.8 {+-} 0.5 mm/yr from 1961 to 2003. Kang et al.(2005) reported that the rise rate of sea level was 5.4 {+-} 0.3 mm/yr at the entire East Sea and was 6.6 {+-} 0.4 mm/yr for the southern part of East Sea from 1992 to 2002. These results are approximately four times greater than the results of the IPCC 4{sup th} Report. The IAEA recommends that some safety margin related with climate change should be taken into consideration in the design basis flood for constructing new NPPs considering the entire plant lifetime and for periodic safety reviewing of operating NPPs referring to the interval between two consecutive reviews(2003). This paper, therefore, summarized the current regulatory activities related with the safety assessment of the impact of storm surge on the NPPs with climate change

  2. Structuring the Environmental Experience Design Research Framework through Selected Aged Care Facility Data Analyses in Victoria

    Nan Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans relate to the living environment physically and psychologically. Environmental psychology has a rich developed history while experience design emerged recently in the industrial design domain. Nonetheless, these approaches have barely been merged, understood or implemented in architectural design practices. This study explored the correlation between experience design and environmental psychology. Moreover, it conducted literature reviews on theories about emotion, user experience design, experience design and environmental psychology, followed by the analyses of spatial settings and environmental quality data of a selected aged care facility in Victoria, Australia, as a case study. Accordingly, this study led to proposing a research framework on environmental experience design (EXD. It can be defined as a deliberate attempt that affiliates experience design and environmental psychology with creation of the built environment that should accommodate user needs and demands. The EXD research framework proposed in this study was tailored for transforming related design functions into the solutions that contribute to improving the built environment for user health and wellbeing.

  3. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  4. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume VII. Reactor cooling

    1975-12-01

    The Reactor Cooling System (RCS) will provide the required cooling during test operations of the Safety Research Experiment Facility (SAREF) reactor. The RCS transfers the reactor energy generated in the core to a closed-loop water storage system located completely inside the reactor containment building. After the reactor core has cooled to a safe level, the stored heat is rejected through intermediate heat exchangers to a common forced-draft evaporative cooling tower. The RCS is comprised of three independent cooling loops of which any two can remove sufficient heat from the core to prevent structural damage to the system components

  5. Experiences in the development of an emergency response facility (ERF) system for a nuclear power plant

    Seisdedos, A.; Sanchez-Fornie, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident gave rise to a series of new requirements with which Nuclear Power Plants must comply and amongst which the implementation of emergency response facilities, particularly the SPDS, has received special attention. This paper covers the experience and problems encountered in the developing of the engineering necessary for the detailed definition of the ERF in a Nuclear Power Plant in the commercial operation phase. Also, a real example is provided for the case of a plant in the last phase of construction and installation. This will serve to illustrate each of the topics covered. (author)

  6. ATLAS experience with HEP software at the Argonne leadership computing facility

    Uram, Thomas D; LeCompte, Thomas J; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  7. ATLAS Experience with HEP Software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    LeCompte, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  8. Spin spectrometer at the holified heavy-ion research facility and some planned experiments

    Sarantites, D.G.; Jaaskelainen, M.; Hood, J.T.; Woodward, R.; Barker, J.H.; Hensley, D.C.; Halbert, M.L.; Chan, Y.D.

    1980-01-01

    The 4π multidetector γ-ray spectrometer at the Holified Heavy-ion Research Facility (HHIRF) is described in some detail. The following important features of this spectrometer are discussed: (a) the geometric arrangement, (b) the actual performance of the individual detector elements, (c) the associated electronics and data acquisition system, and (d) the response of the system to input γ-cascades including the effect of crystal-to-crystal scattering and the response to neutrons. The first few experiments to be performed are briefly described

  9. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Dewald, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (T ion >5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~10 16 ), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  10. Results of the critical experiments concerning OTTO loading at the critical HTR-test facility KAHTER

    Drueke, V.; Litzow, W.; Paul, N.

    1982-12-01

    Critical experiments concerning OTTO loading are described. In the KAHTER facility an OTTO loading has been simulated, therefore the original KAHTER assembly was reconstructed. The determination of critical masses and reactivity worths of control rods and of additional absorber rods in the top reflector and in the upper cavity was of main interest for comparison with reactor following calculations. Besides this, reaction rates in different energy regions were measured in the upper part of the core, in the cavity and top reflector. (orig.) [de

  11. Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University

    Shigemori, K.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results on the hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) laser facility at ILE, Osaka University. We measured the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate on the HIPER laser. Also measured were all parameters that determine the RT growth rate. We focused on the measurements of the ablation density of laser-irradiated targets, which had not been experimentally measured. The experimental results were compared with calculations with one dimensional simulation coupled with Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport. (author)

  12. Equipment experience in a radioactive LFCM [liquid-fed ceramic melter] vitrification facility

    Holton, L.K. Jr.; Dierks, R.D.; Sevigny, G.J.; Goles, R.W.; Surma, J.E.; Thomas, N.M.

    1986-11-01

    Since October 1984, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has operated a pilot-scale radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter (RLFCM) vitrification process in shielded manipulator hot cells. This vitrification facility is being operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) to remotely test vitrification equipment components in a radioactive environment and to develop design and operation data that can be applied to production-scale projects. This paper summarizes equipment and process experience obtained from the operations of equipment systems for waste feeding, waste vitrification, canister filling, canister handling, and vitrification off-gas treatment

  13. Climate

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  14. Fire simulation in nuclear facilities: the FIRAC code and supporting experiments

    Burkett, M.W.; Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    The fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC was designed to estimate radioactive and nonradioactive source terms and predict fire-induced flows and thermal and material transport within the ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRAC maintains its basic structure and features and has been expanded and modified to include the capabilities of the zone-type compartment fire model computer code FIRIN developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The two codes have been coupled to provide an improved simulation of a fire-induced transient within a facility. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC has been retained and includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, material transport, and fire and radioactive source terms also can be simulated. Also, a sample calculation has been performed to illustrate some of the capabilities of the code and how a typical facility is modeled with FIRAC. In addition to the analytical work being performed at Los Alamos, experiments are being conducted at the New Mexico State University to support the FIRAC computer code development and verification. This paper summarizes two areas of the experimental work that support the material transport capabiities of the code: the plugging of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by combustion aerosols and the transport and deposition of smoke in ventilation system ductwork

  15. Fire simulation in nuclear facilities--the FIRAC code and supporting experiments

    Burkett, M.W.; Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC was designed to estimate radioactive and nonradioactive source terms and predict fire-induced flows and thermal and material transport within the ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRAC maintains its basic structure and features and has been expanded and modified to include the capabilities of the zone-type compartment fire model computer code FIRIN developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The two codes have been coupled to provide an improved simulation of a fire-induced transient within a facility. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC has been retained and includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, gas dynamics, material transport, and fire and radioactive source terms also can be simulated. Also, a sample calculation has been performed to illustrate some of the capabilities of the code and how a typical facility is modeled with FIRAC. In addition to the analytical work being performed at Los Alamos, experiments are being conducted at the New Mexico State University to support the FIRAC computer code development and verification. This paper summarizes two areas of the experimental work that support the material transport capabilities of the code: the plugging of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by combustion aerosols and the transport and deposition of smoke in ventilation system ductwork

  16. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes

    1999-01-01

    The scope of this research project is to use the past seismic experience of similar components from power and industrial facilities to establish the generic seismic resistance of nuclear power plant safe shutdown equipment. The first part of the project provide information about the Vrancea. earthquakes which affect the Romanian territory and also the Kozloduy NPP site as a background of the investigations of the seismic performance of mechanical and electrical equipment in the industrial facilities. This project has the following, objectives: collect and process all available seismic information about Vrancea earthquakes; perform probabilistic hazard analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes; determine attenuation low, correlation between the focal depth, earthquake power, soil conditions and frequency characteristics of the seismic ground motion; investigate and collect information regarding seismic behavior during the 1977, 1986 and 1990 earthquakes of mechanical and electrical components from industrial facilities. The seismic database used for the analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes includes digitized triaxial records as follows: March 4, 1977 - I station, Aug, 30 1986 - 42 stations, May 1990 - 54 stations. A catalogue of the Vrancea earthquakes occurred during the period 1901-1994, is presented as well

  17. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  18. The effects of crew resource management on teamwork and safety climate at Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    Schwartz, Miriam E; Welsh, Deborah E; Paull, Douglas E; Knowles, Regina S; DeLeeuw, Lori D; Hemphill, Robin R; Essen, Keith E; Sculli, Gary L

    2017-11-09

    Communication failure is a significant source of adverse events in health care and a leading root cause of sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission. The Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety established Clinical Team Training (CTT) as a comprehensive program to enhance patient safety and to improve communication and teamwork among health care professionals. CTT is based on techniques used in aviation's Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. The aviation industry has reached a significant safety record in large part related to the culture change generated by CRM and sustained by its recurrent implementation. This article focuses on the improvement of communication, teamwork, and patient safety by utilizing a standardized, CRM-based, interprofessional, immersive training in diverse clinical areas. The Teamwork and Safety Climate Questionnaire was used to evaluate safety climate before and after CTT. The scores for all of the 27 questions on the questionnaire showed an increase from baseline to 12 months, and 11 of those increases were statistically significant. A recurrent training is recommended to maintain the positive outcomes. CTT enhances patient safety and reduces risk of patient harm by improving teamwork and facilitating clear, concise, specific and timely communication among health care professionals. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  19. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    McDonald, Colin F.

    2012-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  20. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    BERLIN, G.T.; ORGILL, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the preparation, operations, innovative work practices, and lessons learned associated with demolition of the 2334 Plutonium Concentration Facility. This project represented the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent the first plutonium facility in the US. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to have been demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contaminated structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially available equipment, materials, and services, this project demonstrated that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or to construct large enclosures. This project utilized an excavator with concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, commercially available fixatives and dust suppressants, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Following a significant amount of preparation, actual demolition of the 233-S Facility began in October 2003 and was completed in late April 2004. The knowledge and experience gained on this project are important to the Hanford Site as additional plutonium processing facilities are scheduled for demolition in the near future. Other sites throughout the DOE Complex may also be faced with similar challenges. Numerous innovations and effective work practices were implemented on this project. Accordingly, a series of ''Lessons Learned and Innovative Practices Fact Sheets'' were developed and are included as an appendix to this report. This collection of fact sheets is not intended to capture every innovative work practice and lesson learned, but rather

  1. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    BERLIN, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the preparation, operations, innovative work practices, and lessons learned associated with demolition of the 2334 Plutonium Concentration Facility. This project represented the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent the first plutonium facility in the US. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to have been demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contaminated structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially available equipment, materials, and services, this project demonstrated that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or to construct large enclosures. This project utilized an excavator with concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, commercially available fixatives and dust suppressants, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Following a significant amount of preparation, actual demolition of the 2333 Facility began in October 2003 and was completed in late April 2004. The knowledge and experience gained on this project are important to the Hanford Site as additional plutonium processing facilities are scheduled for demolition in the near future. Other sites throughout the DOE Complex may also be faced with similar challenges. Numerous innovations and effective work practices were implemented on this project. Accordingly, a series of ''Lessons Learned and Innovative Practices Fact Sheets'' were developed and are included as an appendix to this report. This collection of fact sheets is not intended to capture every innovative work practice and lesson learned, but rather to

  2. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda

    Gertrude Namazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective: This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design: This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST, aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results: Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with

  3. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2013-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE...... and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures, overall 20...

  4. Fluxes at experiment facilities in HEU and LEU designs for the FRM-II

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime(50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 -s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues that were raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-3. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses four additional issues that have been raised in several forums, including Ref 4: heat generation in the cold neutron source (CNS), the gamma and fast neutron fluxes which are components of the reactor noise in neutron scattering experiments in the experiment hall of the reactor, a fuel cycle length difference, and the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities. The results show that: (a) for the same thermal neutron flux, the neutron and gamma heating in the CNS is smaller in the LEU design than in the HEU design, and cold neutron fluxes as good or better than those of the HEU design can be obtained with the LEU design; (b) the gamma and fast neutron components of the reactor noise in the experiment hall are about the same in both designs; (c) the fuel cycle length is 50 days for both designs; and (d) the absolute value of the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities is smaller in the LEU design, allowing its fuel cycle length to be increased to 53 or 54 days. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical

  5. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume V. Reactor vessel and closure

    1975-12-01

    The Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) will serve as the primary pressure retaining structure for the Safety Research Experiment Facility (SAREF) reactor. The reactor core, control rod drive room, primary heat exchangers, and gas circulators will be located in cavities within the PCRV. The orientation of these cavities, except for the control rod drive room, will be similar to the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs that are currently proposed or under design. Due to the nature of this type of structure, all biological and radiological shielding requirements are incorporated into the basic vessel design. At the midcore plane there are three radially oriented slots that will extend from the outside surface of the PCRV to the reactor core liner. These slots will accommodate each of the fuel motion monitoring systems which will be part of the observation apparatus used with the loop experiments

  6. Field-reversal experiments in the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF)

    Shearer, J.W.; Condit, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed consideration of several aspects of a field-reversal experiment was begun in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF): Model calculations have provided some plausible parameters for a field-reversed deuterium plasma in the MFTF, and a buildup calculation indicates that the MFTF neutral-beam system is marginally sufficient to achieve field reversal by neutral injection alone. However, the many uncertainties indicate the need for further research and development on alternate buildup methods. A discussion of experimental objectives is presented and important diagnostics are listed. The range of parameter space accessible with the MFTF magnet design is explored, and we find that with proper aiming of the neutral beams, meaningful experiments can be performed to advance toward these objectives. Finally, it is pointed out that if we achieve enhanced n tau confinement by means of field reversal, then quasi-steady-state operation of MFTF is conceivable

  7. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

  8. Indirect-drive ablative Rayleigh-Taylor growth experiments on the Shenguang-II laser facility

    Wu, J. F.; Fan, Z. F.; Zheng, W. D.; Wang, M.; Pei, W. B.; Zhu, S. P.; Zhang, W. Y. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Miao, W. Y.; Yuan, Y. T.; Cao, Z. R.; Deng, B.; Jiang, S. E.; Liu, S. Y.; Ding, Y. K. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H., E-mail: ye-wenhua@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this research, a series of single-mode, indirect-drive, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability experiments performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility [X. T. He and W. Y. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 227 (2007)] using planar target is reported. The simulation results from the one-dimensional hydrocode for the planar foil trajectory experiment indicate that the energy flux at the hohlraum wall is obviously less than that at the laser entrance hole. Furthermore, the non-Planckian spectra of x-ray source can strikingly affect the dynamics of the foil flight and the perturbation growth. Clear images recorded by an x-ray framing camera for the RT growth initiated by small- and large-amplitude perturbations are obtained. The observed onset of harmonic generation and transition from linear to nonlinear growth regime is well predicted by two-dimensional hydrocode simulations.

  9. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin

  10. Laser performance upgrade for precise ICF experiment in SG-Ⅲ laser facility

    Wanguo Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SG-Ⅲ laser facility (SG-Ⅲ is the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF researches in China, which has 48 beamlines and can deliver 180 kJ ultraviolet laser energy in 3 ns. In order to meet the requirements of precise physics experiments, some new functionalities need to be added to SG-Ⅲ and some intrinsic laser performances need upgrade. So at the end of SG-Ⅲ's engineering construction, the 2-year laser performance upgrade project started. This paper will introduce the newly added functionalities and the latest laser performance of SG-Ⅲ. With these function extensions and performance upgrade, SG-Ⅲ is now fully prepared for precise ICF experiments and solidly paves the way towards fusion ignition.

  11. Progress on establishing guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments to extend debris shield lifetime

    Tobin, M.; Eder, D.; Braun, D.; MacGowan, B.

    2002-01-01

    The survivability of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4-8 J/cm 2 laser fluences indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed suggested guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance suggests a target mass quantity that as particulate on the debris shields (300 mg) may be within current operating budgets. It also suggests the amount of material that should become shrapnel on a shot (10 mg). Finally, it suggests the level of non-volatile residue (NVR) that would threaten the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields (1 μg/cm 2 ). We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of X-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this X-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community

  12. A review of experiments and results from the transient reactor test (TREAT) facility

    Deitrich, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    The TREAT Facility was designed and built in the late 1950s at Argonne National Laboratory to provide a transient reactor for safety experiments on samples of reactor fuels. It first operated in 1959. Throughout its history, experiments conducted in TREAT have been important in establishing the behavior of a wide variety of reactor fuel elements under conditions predicted to occur in reactor accidents ranging from mild off normal transients to hypothetical core disruptive accidents. For much of its history, TREAT was used primarily to test liquid-metal reactor fuel elements, initially for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), then for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), the British Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), and finally, for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Both oxide and metal elements were tested in dry capsules and in flowing sodium loops. The data obtained were instrumental in establishing the behavior of the fuel under off-normal and accident conditions, a necessary part of the safety analysis of the various reactors. In addition, TREAT was used to test light-water reactor (LWR) elements in a steam environment to obtain fission-product release data under meltdown conditions. Studies are now under way on applications of TREAT to testing of the behavior of high-burnup LWR elements under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions using a high-pressure water loop

  13. A Facility for Long-Term Mars Simulation Experiments: The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH)

    Jensen, Lars Liengaard; Merrison, Jonathan; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Nørnberg, Per; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Finster, Kai

    2008-06-01

    We describe the design, construction, and pilot operation of a Mars simulation facility comprised of a cryogenic environmental chamber, an atmospheric gas analyzer, and a xenon/mercury discharge source for UV generation. The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH) consists of a double-walled cylindrical chamber. The double wall provides a cooling mantle through which liquid N2 can be circulated. A load-lock system that consists of a small pressure-exchange chamber, which can be evacuated, allows for the exchange of samples without changing the chamber environment. Fitted within the MESCH is a carousel, which holds up to 10 steel sample tubes. Rotation of the carousel is controlled by an external motor. Each sample in the carousel can be placed at any desired position. Environmental data, such as temperature, pressure, and UV exposure time, are computer logged and used in automated feedback mechanisms, enabling a wide variety of experiments that include time series. Tests of the simulation facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to produce temperature cycles and maintain low temperature (down to -140°C), low atmospheric pressure (5 10 mbar), and a gas composition like that of Mars during long-term experiments.

  14. Summary of facility and operating experience on helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL)

    Ouchi, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Ota, Yukimaru; Watanabe, Syuji; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mogi, Haruyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1996-07-01

    The HENDEL is a test facility to perform full scale demonstration tests on the core internals and high temperature components for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR). The main systems consist of Mother(M) and Adapter(A), fuel stack Test(T{sub 1}) and in-core structure Test(T{sub 2}) sections. The (M+A) section can supply high temperature helium gas to the test section. The M+A section completed in March 1982 has been operated for about 22900 hours till February 1995. The T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} sections, completed in March 1983 and June 1986, have been operated for about 19400 and 16700 hours, respectively. In this period, a large number of tests have been conducted to verify the performance and safety features of the HTTR components. The results obtained from these tests have been effectively applied to the detailed design, licensing procedures and construction of the HTTR. The operating experience of the HENDEL for more than 10 years also brought us establishment of the technique of operation of a large scale helium gas loop, handling of helium gas and maintenance of high temperature facilities. The technique will be available for the operation of the HTTR. This paper mainly describes the summary of plant facirities, operating experience and maintenance on the HENDEL. (author)

  15. First experiment on LMJ facility: pointing and synchronisation qualification, sequences qualification

    Henry, Olivier; Bretheau, Dominique; Luttmann, Michel; Graillot, Herve; Ferri, Michel; Seguineau, Frederic; Bar, Emmanuel; Patissou, Loic; Canal, Phillipe; Sautarel, Françoise; Tranquille Marques, Yves; Raffestin, Didier

    2016-10-01

    The LMJ (Laser mega Joule) facility at the CESTA site (Aquitaine, France) is a tool designed to deliver up to 1.2 MJ at 351 nm for plasma experiments. The experiment system will include 11 diagnostics: UV and X energy balances, imagers (Streak and stripe camera, CCD), spectrometers, and a Visar/pyrometer. The facility must be able to deliver, within the hour following the shot, all the results of the plasma diagnostics, alignment images and laser diagnostic measurements. These results have to be guaranteed in terms of conformity to the request and quality of measurement. The end of 2014 was devoted to the qualification of system pointing on target and synchronization within and between beams. The shots made with one chain (divided in 2 quads - 8 laser beams) have achieved 50 µm of misalignment accuracy (chain and quad channel) and a synchronization accuracy in the order of 50 ps. The performances achieved for plasma diagnostic (in the order of less 100 µm of alignment and timing accuracy less than 150 ps) comply with expectations. At the same time the first automatic sequences were tested. They allowed a shot on target every 6h:30 and in some case twice a day by reducing preparation actions, leading to a sequence of 4h:00. These shooting sequences are managed by an operating team of 7 people helped by 3 people for security aspects.

  16. Experience with agreements as an instrument in the climate policy; Erfaringer med avtaler som klimapolitisk virkemiddel

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    This report discusses the experience with the use of agreements between industry and authorities in the climate and energy conservation policies in selected countries. The main purpose is to survey agreements in selected OECD countries and to evaluate the experience gained with this political instrument. Special emphasis is placed on Denmark and the Netherlands. The agreements are mainly aiming at energy conservation. In Norway, the agreements are at present primarily of relevance for emissions from the processing industries. But the experience gained in other countries on the practical realization of the agreements are relevant to Norway. 5 refs.

  17. Gas-grain simulation experiment module conceptual design and gas-grain simulation facility breadboard development

    Zamel, James M.; Petach, Michael; Gat, Nahum; Kropp, Jack; Luong, Christina; Wolff, Michael

    1993-12-01

    This report delineates the Option portion of the Phase A Gas-Grain Simulation Facility study. The conceptual design of a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM) for Space Shuttle Middeck is discussed. In addition, a laboratory breadboard was developed during this study to develop a key function for the GGSEM and the GGSF, specifically, a solid particle cloud generating device. The breadboard design and test results are discussed and recommendations for further studies are included. The GGSEM is intended to fly on board a low earth orbit (LEO), manned platform. It will be used to perform a subset of the experiments planned for the GGSF for Space Station Freedom, as it can partially accommodate a number of the science experiments. The outcome of the experiments performed will provide an increased understanding of the operational requirements for the GGSF. The GGSEM will also act as a platform to accomplish technology development and proof-of-principle experiments for GGSF hardware, and to verify concepts and designs of hardware for GGSF. The GGSEM will allow assembled subsystems to be tested to verify facility level operation. The technology development that can be accommodated by the GGSEM includes: GGSF sample generation techniques, GGSF on-line diagnostics techniques, sample collection techniques, performance of various types of sensors for environmental monitoring, and some off-line diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of several LEO platforms available for GGSEM applications are identified and discussed. Several of the anticipated GGSF experiments require the de-agglomeration and dispensing of dry solid particles into an experiment chamber. During the GGSF Phase A study, various techniques and devices available for the solid particle aerosol generator were reviewed. As a result of this review, solid particle de-agglomeration and dispensing were identified as key undeveloped technologies in the GGSF design. A laboratory breadboard version of a solid

  18. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research

  19. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  20. LMFBR source term experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility

    Petrykowski, J.C.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) aerosol through liquid sodium was studied in a series of ten experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The experiments were designed to provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the radiological source term associated with a postulated, energetic core disruptive accident (CDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Aerosol was generated by capacitor discharge vaporization of UO 2 pellets which were submerged in a sodium pool under an argon cover gas. Measurements of the pool and cover gas pressures were used to study the transport of aerosol contained by vapor bubbles within the pool. Samples of cover gas were filtered to determine the quantity of aerosol released from the pool. The depth at which the aerosol was generated was found to be the most critical parameter affecting release. The largest release was observed in the baseline experiment where the sample was vaporized above the sodium pool. In the nine ''undersodium'' experiments aerosol was generated beneath the surface of the pool at depths varying from 30 to 1060 mm. The mass of aerosol released from the pool was found to be a very small fraction of the original specimen. It appears that the bulk of aerosol was contained by bubbles which collapsed within the pool. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  1. An Overview of the GOLD Experiment Between the ETS-6 Satellite and the Table Mountain Facility

    Wilson, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration is a demonstration of optical communications between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-VI) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain Facility in Wrightwood, California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed for approximately 4 hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain. The experiment requires the coordination of resources at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), JPL, the National Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (NASDA) Tsukuba tracking station, and NASA's Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California, to generate and transmit real-time commands and receive telemetry from the ETS-VI. Transmissions to the ETS-VI began in November 1995 and are scheduled to last into the middle of January 1996, when the satellite is expected to be eclipsed by the Earth's shadow for a major part of its orbit. The eclipse is expected to last for about 2 months, and during this period there will be limited electrical power available on board the satellite. NASDA plans to restrict experiments with the ETS-VI during this period, and no laser transmissions are planned. Posteclipse experiments are currently being negotiated. GOLD is a joint NASA-CRL experiment that is being conducted by JPL in coordination with CRL and NASDA.

  2. Subsonic Constant-Area MHD Generator Experiments with the CNEN Blow-Down Loop Facility

    Bertolini, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)

    1968-11-15

    The design of the facility, described at the Salzburg Symposium, was somewhat modified following the results of the commissioning tests; the changes were mainly concerned with the thermal insulation, duct materials and caesium recovery system. The facility went into full operation in March 1967 and since then two series of MHD experiments, a total of twenty-six runs, have been performed. During the MHD runs the facility has been working mostly under the following operating conditions: stagnation temperature 1500 to 1800 Degree-Sign K; stagnation pressure-1 to 3 atm. abs.; mass How 50 to 150 g/sec; seeding 2 to 5 at.%- ; magnetic field 0 to 45 k G; Mach number 0.4 to 0.8; Hall parameter up to 6. The main purpose of the experiments was to study the performance of relatively small generators (cross-section 3 x 5 cm{sup 2}, length 8-20 cm) both when the non-equilibrium ionization is expected to be negligible and when it should be, in a very idealized model, relevant. As a first step, efforts were made to ascertain whether any of the unsatisfactory results reported in Salzburg, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium generators, stemmed not from the basic functioning principle of an MHD small-scale generator but rather from some inadequacy of the experimental apparatus. Therefore particular attention was paid to: ceasium vaporization and mixing with helium; plasma insulation from ground; electrical insulation from ground and from each other of those electrically conductive parts of the facility which may, during the functioning, come into contact with the plasma; temperature control of the duct; purity level; duct materials; measurement system and control. In the equilibrium regime the Faraday field measured is very close to the ideal value and it reaches 80 V/cm (400 volts between electrodes); the Hall field still remains below the ideal value uB{beta}L (50% at {beta} = 3). The maximum Hall field was about 35 V/cm for a corresponding voltage of 600 V. Preionization

  3. Experiments on natural circulation of lead-bismuth in the TALL test facility

    Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a potential candidate coolant for next generation liquid metal reactors due to its favorable properties such as being chemical inert and low melting point, in comparison with sodium and lead considered as coolants in FBRs. Having a high atomic number of LBE allows it be well suited as a spallation target for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) which have been proposed for the transmutation of nuclear waste. Due to its strong buoyancy, the LBE-cooled system should also have significant natural circulation, which is desirable for so-called Generation IV nuclear reactors, which like to employ passive safety and reliability. But so far, very little experimental data have been published on the natural circulation thermal-hydraulics of LBE-cooled systems. Motivated by the increasing interest in LBE-cooled fast reactors and ADS, a test facility called Thermal-hydraulic ADS Lead-bismuth Loop (TALL) was designed and constructed at KTH to investigate the thermalhydraulic characteristics of liquid LBE. The facility consists of a primary loop (LBE loop) and a secondary loop (oil loop). The LBE loop consists of sump tank, core tank, expansion tank, heat exchanger, EM pump, EM flowmeter, electric heaters and instrumentation. The heating of LBE in the core tank and its cooling in the heat exchanger allows natural convection flows as should occur in the prototypic vessel. Recently, our experimental study on natural circulation was performed on the TALL test facility. This paper will present the experimental results and analysis. The facility is of 6.8 m height which is comparable to the full height of the LBE heat exchange circuit in the ANSALDO ADS reactor vessel design, and has been scaled for prototypic (power/volume) ratio to represent the main components. Their LBE volume, flow velocity and heating rates correspond to one tube of the heat exchanger design chosen. During the experiments, the main adjustable

  4. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  5. Boil-off experiments with the EIR-NEPTUN Facility: Analysis and code assessment overview report

    Aksan, S.N.; Stierli, F.; Analytis, G.T.

    1992-03-01

    The NEPTUN data discussed in this report are from core uncovery (boil-off) experiments designed to investigate the mixture level decrease and the heat up of the fuel rod simulators above the mixture level for conditions simulating core boil-off for a nuclear reactor under small break loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The first series of experiments performed in the NEPTUN test facility consisted of ten boil-off (uncovery) and one adiabatic heat-up tests. In these tests three parameters were varied: rod power, system pressure and initial coolant subcooling. The NEPTUN experiments showed that the external surface thermocouples do not cause a significant cooling influence in the rods to which they are attached under boil-off conditions. The reflooding tests performed later on indicated that the external surface thermocouples have some effect during reflooding for NEPTUN electrically heated rod bundle. Peak cladding temperatures are reduced by about 30--40C and quench times occur 20--70 seconds earlier than rods with embedded thermocouples. Additionally, the external surface-thermocouples give readings up to 20 K lower than those obtained with internal surface thermocouples (in the absence of external thermocouples) in the peak cladding temperature zone. Some of the boil-off data obtained from the NEPTUN test facility are used for the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic transient computer codes. These calculations were performed extensively using the frozen version of TRAC-BD1/MOD1 (version 22). A limited number of assessment calculations were done with RELAP5/MOD2 (version 36.02). In this report the main results and conclusions of these calculations are presented with the identification of problem areas in relation to models relevant to boil-off phenomena. On the basis of further analysis and calculations done, changing some of the models such as the bubbly/slug flow interfacial friction correlation which eliminate some of the problems are recommended

  6. Integrating supervision, control and data acquisition—The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility experience

    Luchetta, A., E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Simionato, P.; Zampiva, E.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the experience gained in the integration of different systems for the control and data acquisition system of the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility. • It describes the way the different frameworks have been integrated. • It reports some lessons learnt during system integration. • It reports some authors’ considerations about the development the ITER CODAC. - Abstract: The ITER Neutral Beam (NBI) Test Facility, under construction in Padova, Italy consists in the ITER full scale ion source for the heating neutral beam injector, referred to as SPIDER, and the full size prototype injector, referred to as MITICA. The Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) for SPIDER has been developed and is going to be in operation in 2016. The system is composed of four main components: Supervision, Slow Control, Fast Control and Data Acquisition. These components interact with each other to carry out the system operation and, since they represent a common pattern in fusion experiments, software frameworks have been used for each (set of) component. In order to reuse as far as possible the architecture developed for SPIDER, it is important to clearly define the boundaries and the interfaces among the system components so that the implementation of any component can be replaced without affecting the overall architecture. This work reports the experience gained in the development of SPIDER components, highlighting the importance in the definition of generic interfaces among component, showing how the specific solutions have been adapted to such interfaces and suggesting possible approaches for the development of other ITER subsystems.

  7. Conceptual design of initial opacity experiments on the national ignition facility

    Heeter, R. F.; Bailey, J. E.; Craxton, R. S.; Devolder, B. G.; Dodd, E. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Huffman, E. J.; Iglesias, C. A.; King, J. A.; Kline, J. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Opachich, Y. P.; Rochau, G. A.; Ross, P. W.; Schneider, M. B.; Sherrill, M. E.; Wilson, B. G.; Zhang, R.; Perry, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative-convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures eV and electron densities 21~\\text{cm}-3$ . The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a ps, diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design, of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.

  8. Integrating supervision, control and data acquisition—The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility experience

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Simionato, P.; Zampiva, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the experience gained in the integration of different systems for the control and data acquisition system of the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility. • It describes the way the different frameworks have been integrated. • It reports some lessons learnt during system integration. • It reports some authors’ considerations about the development the ITER CODAC. - Abstract: The ITER Neutral Beam (NBI) Test Facility, under construction in Padova, Italy consists in the ITER full scale ion source for the heating neutral beam injector, referred to as SPIDER, and the full size prototype injector, referred to as MITICA. The Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) for SPIDER has been developed and is going to be in operation in 2016. The system is composed of four main components: Supervision, Slow Control, Fast Control and Data Acquisition. These components interact with each other to carry out the system operation and, since they represent a common pattern in fusion experiments, software frameworks have been used for each (set of) component. In order to reuse as far as possible the architecture developed for SPIDER, it is important to clearly define the boundaries and the interfaces among the system components so that the implementation of any component can be replaced without affecting the overall architecture. This work reports the experience gained in the development of SPIDER components, highlighting the importance in the definition of generic interfaces among component, showing how the specific solutions have been adapted to such interfaces and suggesting possible approaches for the development of other ITER subsystems.

  9. Territories climate plans: territories in action 21 collectivities involved in the climatic change challenge. 1. experiences collection 2007

    2007-01-01

    The climate plan invites the collectivities to implement actions of greenhouse reduction. This collection presents the first collectivities involved in a climate approach: towns, natural parks, syndicates, general and regional council. (A.L.B.)

  10. IRPhE/RRR-SEG, Reactor Physics Experiments from Fast-Thermal Coupled Facility

    Weiss, Frank-Peter; Dietze, Klaus; Jacqmin, Robert; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description: The RRR-SEG-experiments have been performed to check neutron data of the most important reactor materials, especially of fission product nuclides, fuel isotopes and structural materials. The measured central reactivity worths (CRW) of small samples were compared with calculated values. These C/E-ratios have been used then for data corrections or in adjustment procedures. The reactor RRG-SEG (at RC Rossendorf / Germany) was a fast-thermal coupled facility of zero power. The annular thermal drivers were filled by fuel assemblies and moderated by water. The inner insertion lattices were loaded with pellets of fuel and other materials producing the fast neutron flux. The characteristics of the neutron and adjoint spectra were obtained by special arrangements of these pellets in unit cells. In this way, a hard or soft neutron spectrum or a special energy behavior of the adjoint function could be reached. The samples were moved by means of tubes to the central position (pile-oscillation technique). The original information about the facility and measurements is compiled in Note Technique SPRC/LEPh/93-230 (SEG) The SEG experiments are considered 'clean' integral experiments, simple and clear in geometry and well suited for calculation. In all SEG configurations only a few materials were used, most of these were standards. Due to the designed adjoint function (energy-independent or monotonously rising), the capture or scattering effect was dominant, convenient to check separately capture or scattering data. At first, analyses of the experiments have been performed in Rossendorf. Newer analyses were done later in Cadarache / CEA France using the European scheme for reactor calculation JEF-2.2 / ECCO / ERANOS (see Note Techniques and JEF/DOC-746). Furthermore, re-analyses were performed in O-arai / JNC Japan with the JNC standard route JENDL-3.2 / SLAROM / CITATION / PERKY. Results obtained with both code systems and different data evaluations (JEF-2.2 and

  11. Seismic experience in power and industrial facilities as it relates to small magnitude earthquakes

    Swan, S.W.; Horstman, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    The data base on the performance of power and industrial facilities in small magnitude earthquakes (M = 4.0 - 5.5) is potentially very large. In California alone many earthquakes in this magnitude range occur every year, often near industrial areas. In 1986 for example, in northern California alone, there were 76 earthquakes between Richter magnitude 4.0 and 5.5. Experience has shown that the effects of small magnitude earthquakes are seldom significant to well-engineered facilities. (The term well-engineered is here defined to include most modern industrial installations, as well as power plants and substations.) Therefore detailed investigations of small magnitude earthquakes are normally not considered worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to review the tendency toward seismic damage of equipment installations representative of nuclear power plant safety systems. Estimates are made of the thresholds of seismic damage to certain types of equipment in terms of conventional means of measuring the damage potential of an earthquake. The objective is to define thresholds of damage that can be correlated with Richter magnitude. In this manner an earthquake magnitude might be chosen below which damage to nuclear plant safety systems is not considered credible

  12. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  13. Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment

    Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

  14. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended

  15. Dosimetry at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility: Past, present, and future

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    Although the primary reason for the existence of the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility is to provide basic data on the physics of systems of fissile material, the physical arrangements and ability to provide sources of radiation have led to applications for all types of radiation dosimetry. In the broad definition of radiation phenomena, the facility has provided sources to evaluate biological effects, radiation shielding and transport, and measurements of basic parameters such as the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters. Within the last 15 years, many of the radiation measurements have been directed to calibration and intercomparison of dosimetry related to nuclear criticality safety. Future plans include (1) the new applications of Godiva IV, a bare-metal pulse assembly, for dosimetry (including an evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray room return); (2) a proposal to relocate the Health Physics Research Reactor from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Los Alamos, which will provide the opportunity to continue the application of a primary benchmark source to radiation dosimetry; and (3) a proposal to employ SHEBA, a low-enrichment solution assembly, for accident dosimetry and evaluation

  16. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  17. Transgenerational plasticity and climate change experiments: Where do we go from here?

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Salinas, Santiago; Munday, Philip L; Shama, Lisa N S

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, both within and across generations, is an important mechanism that organisms use to cope with rapid climate change. While an increasing number of studies show that plasticity across generations (transgenerational plasticity or TGP) may occur, we have limited understanding of key aspects of TGP, such as the environmental conditions that may promote it, its relationship to within-generation plasticity (WGP) and its role in evolutionary potential. In this review, we consider how the detection of TGP in climate change experiments is affected by the predictability of environmental variation, as well as the timing and magnitude of environmental change cues applied. We also discuss the need to design experiments that are able to distinguish TGP from selection and TGP from WGP in multigenerational experiments. We conclude by suggesting future research directions that build on the knowledge to date and admit the limitations that exist, which will depend on the way environmental change is simulated and the type of experimental design used. Such an approach will open up this burgeoning area of research to a wider variety of organisms and allow better predictive capacity of the role of TGP in the response of organisms to future climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Aerosol Effects on Radiation and Climate: Column Closure Experiments with Towers, Aircraft, and Satellites

    Russell, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    Many theoretical studies have shown that anthropogenic aerosol particles can change the radiation balance in an atmospheric column and might thereby exert a significant effect on the Earth's climate. In particular, recent calculations have shown that sulfate particles from anthropogenic combustion may already exert a cooling influence on the Earth that partially offsets the warming caused by the greenhouse gases from the same combustion. Despite the potential climatic importance of anthropogenic aerosols, simultaneous measurements of anthropogenic aerosol properties and their effect on atmospheric radiation have been very rare. Successful comparisons of measured radiation fields with those calculated from aerosol measurements - now referred to as column closure comparisons - are required to improve the accuracy and credibility of climate predictions. This paper reviews the column closure experiment performed at the Mt. Sutro Tower in San Francisco in 1975, in which elevated radiometers measured the change in Earth-plus-atmosphere albedo caused by an aerosol layer, while a lidar, sunphotometer, nephelometer, and other radiometers measured properties of the responsible aerosol. The time-dependent albedo calculated from the measured aerosol properties agreed with that measured by the tower radiometers. Also presented are designs for future column closure studies using radiometers and aerosol instruments on the ground, aircraft, and satellites. These designs draw upon algorithms and experience developed in the Sutro Tower study, as well as more recent experience with current measurement and analysis capabilities.

  19. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    Katzenberger, John [Aspen Global Change Inst., Basalt, CO (United States); Arnott, James [Aspen Global Change Inst., Basalt, CO (United States); Wright, Alyson [Aspen Global Change Inst., Basalt, CO (United States)

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  20. Ground-facilities at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine for preparation of flight experiments

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Hauslage, Jens; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Baerwalde, Sven; Schuber, Marianne

    In order to investigate the influence of altered gravity on biological systems and to identify gravisensitive processes, various experimental platforms have been developed, which are useful to simulate weightlessness or are able to produce hypergravity. At the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR Cologne, a broad spectrum of applications is offered to scientists: clinostats with one rotation axis and variable rotation speeds for cultivation of small objects (including aquatic organisms) in simulated weightlessness conditions, for online microscopic observations and for online kinetic measurements. Own research concentrates on comparative studies with other kinds of methods to simulate weightlessness, also available at the institute: Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) for aquatic studies, Random Positioning Machine (RPM; manufactured by Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands). Correspondingly, various centrifuge devices are available to study different test objects under hypergravity conditions -such as NIZEMI, a slow rotating centrifuge microscope, and MUSIC, a multi-sample centrifuge. Mainly for experiments with human test subjects (artificial gravity), but also for biological systems or for testing various kinds of (flight-) hardware, the SAHC, a short arm human centrifuge -loaned by ESA -was installed in Cologne and completes our experimental scenario. Furthermore, due to our specific tasks such as providing laboratories during the German Parabolic Flight Experiments starting from Cologne and being the Facility Responsible Center for BIOLAB, a science rack in the Columbus module aboard the ISS, scientists have the possibility for an optimal preparation of their flight experiments.

  1. Elastic extension of a local analysis facility on external clouds for the LHC experiments

    Ciaschini, V.; Codispoti, G.; Rinaldi, L.; Aiftimiei, D. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Calligola, P.; Dal Pra, S.; De Girolamo, D.; Di Maria, R.; Grandi, C.; Michelotto, D.; Panella, M.; Taneja, S.; Semeria, F.

    2017-10-01

    The computing infrastructures serving the LHC experiments have been designed to cope at most with the average amount of data recorded. The usage peaks, as already observed in Run-I, may however originate large backlogs, thus delaying the completion of the data reconstruction and ultimately the data availability for physics analysis. In order to cope with the production peaks, the LHC experiments are exploring the opportunity to access Cloud resources provided by external partners or commercial providers. In this work we present the proof of concept of the elastic extension of a local analysis facility, specifically the Bologna Tier-3 Grid site, for the LHC experiments hosted at the site, on an external OpenStack infrastructure. We focus on the Cloud Bursting of the Grid site using DynFarm, a newly designed tool that allows the dynamic registration of new worker nodes to LSF. In this approach, the dynamically added worker nodes instantiated on an OpenStack infrastructure are transparently accessed by the LHC Grid tools and at the same time they serve as an extension of the farm for the local usage.

  2. The Shock/Shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Doss, F. W., E-mail: fdoss@lanl.gov; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (∼ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  3. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  4. Report on Beryllium Strength Experiments Conducted at the TA-55 40 mm Impact Test Facility, Fiscal Year 2017

    Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollowell, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Todd P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Owens, Charles Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Joseph Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments is currently in progress at eth 40 mm Impact Test Facility (ITF), located at TA-55, to understand the strength behavior of Beryllium metal at elevated temperature and pressure. In FY 2017, three experiments were conducted as a part of this project.

  5. Searches for exotic pentaquark baryons with hidden strangeness in experiments at the SPHINX facility

    Landsberg, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The results obtained by experimentally studying the reactions of diffractive particle production with the SPHINX facility have been discussed. The experiments have been performed in a proton beam from the 70-GeV accelerator installed at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, Protvino, Russia). Searches for exotic pentaquark baryons with hidden stangeness in diffractive production processes have been considered. Basic results have been obtained for the reaction p+N→[Σ 0 K + ]+N, where the effective-mass spectrum M(Σ 0 K + ) has been found to be dominated by a peak with parameters M=1989±6 MeV and Γ=91±20 MeV. The anomalous properties of this state render it a serious candidate for exotic baryons. Additional data supporting the existence of this baryon have been discussed

  6. Results of a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS neutrino facility

    T. Hansl

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available We report results from a beam dump experiment that has been performed at the CERN SPS neutrino facility using the CDHS neutrino counter detector. Limits on dimuon and trimuon production by new penetrating neutral particles are given. A new source of prompt electron and muon neutrinos has been observed giving (1.2±0.4× 10−7 νe or νμ per incident proton with neutrino angle smaller than 1.85 mrad and Eν > 20 GeV. If these prompt neutrinos are attributed to charmed meson pair production, the inclusive DD production cross section could be of the order of 30 ωb. If axions are existing their production rate relative to π0 mesons is found to be less than 0.5 × 10−8.

  7. Data acquisition for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment P4

    Baldwin, R.D.; Kraimer, M.R.; Wilson, R.E.; Gilbert, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 used three computers for the continuous collection of data and two computers for the routing and displaying of data. Four of these computer systems were located at the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) site, in Idaho, to access sensor signals from the analog to digital interfaces. The fifth system was located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in Illinois, and was used mainly for display and storage of data. All display computers were connected together using the DECNET software package. The transmission of data was managed over a dedicated phone line using 9600 baud long distance modems. A stand-alone high speed data acquisition system was also used to record data during planned reactor transients

  8. Oregon state university's advanced plant experiment (APEX) AP1000 integral facility test program

    Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Woods, B.G.; Young, E.; Abel, K.; Wu, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) has recently completed a three year study of the thermal hydraulic behavior of the Westinghouse AP1000 passive safety systems. Eleven Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with technical support from Westinghouse Electric, were simulated in OSU's Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX)-1000. The OSU test program was conducted within the purview of the requirements of 10CFR50 Appendix B, NQA-1 and 10 CFR 21 and the test data was used to provide benchmarks for computer codes used in the final design approval of the AP1000. In addition to the DOE certification testing, OSU conducted eleven confirmatory tests for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the test program objectives, a description of the APEX-1000 test facility and an overview of the test matrix that was conducted in support of plant certification. (authors)

  9. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Fournier, K. B., E-mail: fournier2@llnl.gov; Brown, C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.; Compton, S.; Holdener, F. R.; Kemp, G. E.; Blue, B. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Gilliam, R. P.; Froula, N. [Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., 14040 Camden Circle, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States); Seiler, S. W.; Davis, J. F.; Lerch, MAJ. A. [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-6201 (United States); Hinshelwood, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lilly, M. [Dynasen, Inc., 20 Arnold Pl., Goleta, California 93117 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built-in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight. The measured accuracy of sample responses as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette is discussed.

  10. The Toshiba Blow-Down MHD Test Facility, and Experiments on Non-Equilibrium Ionization

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ogiwara, H.; Shioda, S.; Miyata, M.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, E.

    1968-01-01

    The Toshiba blow-down MHD test facility, which was constructed in 1966 and has operated successfully in many experiments, is described. Operating conditions achieved are: the working gas is helium seeded with potassium, the maximum mass flow being 80 g/sec, the maximum seed fraction 0.1%; the gas static lies between temperature 1200 and 1700°K, the static pressure between 2.0 ∼ 1.2 atm, the velocity of gas in the generator channel between 1000 and 200 m/sec; the duration is up to 30 sec; the magnetic field is 2.7 T; the impurity of working gas is below 150 ppm. (author)

  11. Designs for highly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Jacquet, L.; Loiseau, P.; Poujade, O.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Igumenshchev, I.; Chicanne, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present two designs relevant to ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008)]. The sensitivity of nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability physics to ablation velocity is addressed with targets driven by indirect drive, with stronger ablative stabilization, and by direct drive, with weaker ablative stabilization. The indirect drive design demonstrates the potential to reach a two-dimensional bubble-merger regime with a 20 ns duration drive at moderate radiation temperature. The direct drive design achieves a 3 to 5 times increased acceleration distance for the sample in comparison to previous experiments allowing at least 2 more bubble generations when starting from a three-dimensional broadband spectrum.

  12. Experimental results from magnetized-jet experiments executed at the Jupiter Laser Facility

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rasmus, A. M.; Klein, S. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Trantham, M. R.; Fein, J. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Hazi, A. U.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility investigated magnetization effects on collimated plasma jets. Laser-irradiated plastic-cone-targets produced collimated, millimeter-scale plasma flows as indicated by optical interferometry. Proton radiography of these jets showed no indication of strong, self-generated magnetic fields, suggesting a dominantly hydrodynamic collimating mechanism. Targets were placed in a custom-designed solenoid capable of generating field strengths up to 5 T. Proton radiographs of the well-characterized B-field, without a plasma jet, suggested an external source of trapped electrons that affects proton trajectories. The background magnetic field was aligned with the jet propagation direction, as is the case in many astrophysical systems. Optical interferometry showed that magnetization of the plasma results in disruption of the collimated flow and instead produces a hollow cavity. This result is a topic of ongoing investigation.

  13. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Guler Nevzat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT filled cryogenic plastic (CH capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13–15 MeV and downscattered (10–12 MeV neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  14. Designs for highly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Jacquet, L.; Loiseau, P.; Poujade, O. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Smalyuk, V. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Igumenshchev, I. [Laboratory of Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Chicanne, C. [CEA, DAM, VALDUC, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-08-15

    We present two designs relevant to ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008)]. The sensitivity of nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability physics to ablation velocity is addressed with targets driven by indirect drive, with stronger ablative stabilization, and by direct drive, with weaker ablative stabilization. The indirect drive design demonstrates the potential to reach a two-dimensional bubble-merger regime with a 20 ns duration drive at moderate radiation temperature. The direct drive design achieves a 3 to 5 times increased acceleration distance for the sample in comparison to previous experiments allowing at least 2 more bubble generations when starting from a three-dimensional broadband spectrum.

  15. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Guler, Nevzat; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, David D.; Clark, Deborah J.; Danly, Chris R.; Day, Robert D.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garcia, Felix P.; Grim, Gary; Hsu, Albert H.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Loomis, Eric N.; Mares, Danielle; Martinson, Drew D.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Munson, Carter; Murphy, Thomas J.; Oertel, John A.; Polk, Paul J.; Schmidt, Derek W.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Volegov, Petr L.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Wilde, Carl H.; Wilke, Mark D.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Atkinson, Dennis P.; Bower, Dan E.; Drury, Owen B.; Dzenitis, John M.; Felker, Brian; Fittinghoff, David N.; Frank, Matthias; Liddick, Sean N.; Moran, Michael J.; Roberson, George P.; Weiss, Paul; Buckles, Robert A.; Cradick, Jerry R.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lutz, Steve S.; Malone, Robert M.; Traille, Albert

    2013-11-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic (CH) capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (10-12 MeV) neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  16. Activity of safety review for the facilities using nuclear material (2). Safety review results and maintenance experiences for hot laboratories

    Amagai, Tomio; Fujishima, Tadatsune; Mizukoshi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Naoki; Ohmori, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the site of O-arai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), five hot laboratories for post-irradiation examination and development of plutonium fuels are operated more than 30 years. A safety review method for preventive maintenance on these hot laboratories includes test facilities and devices are established in 2003. After that, the safety review of these facilities and devices are done and taken the necessary maintenance based on the results in each year. In 2008, 372 test facilities and devices in these hot laboratories were checked and reviewed by this method. As a results of the safety review, repair issues of 38 facilities of above 372 facilities were resolved. This report shows the review results and maintenance experiences based on the results. (author)

  17. One year's experience of the WA medical cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical production facility

    DeRoach, J.; Tuchyna, T.; Jones, C.; Price, R.

    2004-01-01

    9 days owing to scheduled maintenance, and a total of 35 (1.6%) patients were cancelled owing to unscheduled maintenance on 7 days. The following major initiatives are now in place for the further development of this facility: 1. Development of a solid targetry facility for the production of 123 I, 124 I, 64 Cu, and other isotopes. Two prototype external beam lines have been developed and trialled. Experiments designed to measure the beam profile at the end of the external beam line are underway. 2. A synthesis module for the production of 18 FMISO and 18 FLT is being developed in-house in collaboration with the cyclotron manufacturer. 3. A module for the synthesis of 18 F-Choline has been installed. 4. A prototype synthesis module is under development which will allow experimentation in the production of novel radiopharmaceuticals based on isotopes produced from liquid targetry. Normalised over 12 months, production staff received on average 3.28 mSv whole body effective dose, with the worst case being 8.46 mSv. Finger doses were 35.6 mSv on average, 70.6 mSv worst case. (Note that production staff also dispense patient doses into individual syringes). Similarly, maintenance staff received 1.41 mSv (avg), 2.56 mSv (max) whole body effective dose, and 33.0 mSv (avg), 124.3 mSv (max) finger dose. A facility for the production and development of short-lived PET radiopharmaceuticals has been created with a capacity that is expected to satisfy Western Australian demands for the next ten years. This facility reliably and routinely produces FDG, and incorporates a well supported and vigorous radiopharmaceutical development function. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. IRPhE/STEK, Reactor Physics Experiments from Fast-Thermal Coupled Facility

    Dietze, Klaus; Klippel, Henk Th.; Koning, Arjan; Jacqmin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description: The STEK-experiments have been performed to check neutron data of the most important reactor materials, especially of fission product nuclides, fuel isotopes and structural materials. The measured central reactivity worths (CRW) of small samples were compared with calculated values. These C/E-ratios have been used then for data corrections or in adjustment procedures. The reactors STEK (ECN Petten/ Netherlands) was a fast-thermal coupled facility of zero power. The annular thermal drivers were filled by fuel assemblies and moderated by water. The inner insertion lattices were loaded with pellets of fuel and other materials producing the fast neutron flux. The characteristics of the neutron and adjoint spectra were obtained by special arrangements of these pellets in unit cells. In this way, a hard or soft neutron spectrum or a special energy behavior of the adjoint function could be reached. The samples were moved by means of tubes to the central position (pile-oscillation technique). The original information about the facility and measurements is compiled in RCN-209, ECN-10 The 5 STEK configurations cover a broad energy range due to their increasing softness. The experiments are very valuable because of the extensive program of sample reactivity measurements with many fission product nuclides important in reactor burn-up calculations. At first, analyses of the experiments have been performed in Petten. Newer analyses were done later in Cadarache / CEA France using the European scheme for reactor calculation JEF-2.2 / ECCO / ERANOS (see Note Techniques and JEF/DOC-746). Furthermore, re-analyses were performed in O-arai / JNC Japan with the JNC standard route JENDL-3.2 / SLAROM / CITATION / PERKY. Results obtained with both code systems and different data evaluations (JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2) are compared in JEF/DOC-861. It contains the following documents: 31 Reports, 2 publications, 5 JEF documents, 4 conferences. 2 - Related or auxiliary programs

  19. Earth Experiments in a Virtual World: Introducing Climate & Coding to High School Girls

    Singh, H. A.; Twedt, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    In our increasingly technologically-driven and information-saturated world, literacy in STEM fields can be crucial for career advancement. Nevertheless, both systemic and interpersonal barriers can prevent individuals, particularly members of under-represented groups, from engaging in these fields. Here, we present a high school-level workshop developed to foster basic understanding of climate science while exposing students to the Python programming language. For the past four years, the workshop has been a part of the annual Expanding Your Horizons conference for high school girls, whose mission is to spark interest in STEM fields. Moving through current events in the realm of global climate policy, the fundamentals of climate, and the mathematical representation of planetary energy balance, the workshop culminates in an under-the-hood exploration of a basic climate model coded in the Python programming language. Students interact directly with the underlying code to run `virtual world' experiments that explore the impact of solar insolation, planetary albedo, the greenhouse effect, and meridional energy transport on global temperatures. Engagement with Python is through the Jupyter Notebook interface, which permits direct interaction with the code but is more user-friendly for beginners than a command-line approach. We conclude with further ideas for providing online access to workshop materials for educators, and additional venues for presenting such workshops to under-represented groups in STEM.

  20. WINCO's experience with environmental compliance at 1950's vintage DOE nuclear facilities

    Porter, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1950's numerous nuclear facilities were built under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). One such facility, a nuclear fuels reprocessing facility located in Idaho has operated over the past 40 years. In the late 1980's federal facilities became subject to the same environmental regulations as commercial facilities. Since the Department of Energy's mission called for continued reprocessing at the Idaho facility, compliance with current environmental standards became necessary. Certified compliance was achieved with a minimum of modifications by capitalizing upon existing building features that resulted from original AEC design criteria

  1. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  2. Preparations for decontamination and disposition of the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) and other ERDA facilities at AI

    Heine, W.F.; Graves, A.W.

    1975-01-01

    The program plan for the decontamination and disposition of facilities at the Sodium Reactor Experiment and other ERDA-owned, AI-operated, radioactive facilities is described. The program objective along with a description of each of the subject facilities is presented. A description of the organizational structure within supporting the program is given. The elements of planning required to prepare for the task are detailed, including the requirements for cost and schedule control. Progress to date and the future plans are presented. The available technology utilized in the program is described

  3. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). Geological Waste Disposal Unit

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  4. Performance of high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    MacKinnon, Andy

    2013-10-01

    A series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been performed to measure high-density carbon (HDC) ablator performance for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). HDC is a very promising ablator material; being 3x denser than plastic, it absorbs more hohlraum x-rays, leading to higher implosion efficiency. For the HDC experiments the NIF laser generated shaped laser pulses with peak power up to 410 TW and total energy of 1.3 MJ. Pulse shapes were designed to drive 2, 3 or 4 shocks in cryogenic layered implosions. The 2-shock pulse, with a designed fuel adiabat of ~3 is 6-7ns in duration, allowing use of near vacuum hohlraums, which greatly increases the coupling efficiency due to low backscatter losses. Excellent results were obtained for 2,3 and 4 shock pulses. In particular a deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsule driven by a 4-shock pulse in a gas-filled hohlraum produced a neutron yield of 1.6 × 1015, a record for a non-cryogenically layered capsule driven by a gas-filled hohlraum. The first 2-shock experiment used a vacuum hohlraum to drive a DD gas filled HDC capsule with a 6.5 ns, laser pulse. This hohlraum was 40% more efficient than the gas-filled counterpart used for 3 and 4 shock experiments, producing near 1D performance at 11 x convergence ratio, peak radiation temperature of 317 eV, 98% laser-hohlraum coupling, and DD neutron yield of 2.2e13, a record for a laser driven DD implosion. The HDC campaigns will be presented, including options for pushing towards the alpha dominated regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollisterd; Anna Maria Fosaa; William A. Gould; Luise Hermanutz; Annika Hofgaard; Ingibjorg I. Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Esther Levesque; Borgbor Magnusson; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Christian Rixen; Craig E. Tweedie; Marilyn Walkers

    2015-01-01

    Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along...

  6. Atmospheric statistical dynamic models. Climate experiments: albedo experiments with a zonal atmospheric model

    Potter, G.L.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Luther, F.M.

    1978-06-01

    The zonal model experiments with modified surface boundary conditions suggest an initial chain of feedback processes that is largest at the site of the perturbation: deforestation and/or desertification → increased surface albedo → reduced surface absorption of solar radiation → surface cooling and reduced evaporation → reduced convective activity → reduced precipitation and latent heat release → cooling of upper troposphere and increased tropospheric lapse rates → general global cooling and reduced precipitation. As indicated above, although the two experiments give similar overall global results, the location of the perturbation plays an important role in determining the response of the global circulation. These two-dimensional model results are also consistent with three-dimensional model experiments. These results have tempted us to consider the possibility that self-induced growth of the subtropical deserts could serve as a possible mechanism to cause the initial global cooling that then initiates a glacial advance thus activating the positive feedback loop involving ice-albedo feedback (also self-perpetuating). Reversal of the cycle sets in when the advancing ice cover forces the wave-cyclone tracks far enough equatorward to quench (revegetate) the subtropical deserts

  7. Experiences in planning and response for the radiological emergencies in a radioactive facility

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Torres B, M.B.; Ayra P, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    It is internationally recognized the importance of the planning and the assurance for the effective response to the radiological emergencies. In the work those experiences on this thematic one in the Isotopes Center (CENTIS), the radioactive facility where the biggest radioactive inventory is manipulated in Cuba are presented. Due to CENTIS is also the sender and main transport of radioactive materials, it is included this practice. The revision of the abnormal situations during the years 1997 at the 2005, starting from the classification adopted by the Regulatory Authority of the country is carried out. Its are register the details of these occurrences in the Radiological Events Database (BDSR). A correspondence among the radiological impact evaluated in the Emergency Plan for the possible events and that of the registered ones is obtained. The complete training programs and realization of the exercises are carried out. Those results of 3 mockeries made to full scale are picked up. It was concluded that the operational experience and the maintained infrastructure, determine the answer capacity for radiological emergencies in the CENTIS. (Author)

  8. First Results from the LUX Dark Matter Experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; Curioni, A.; Dazeley, S.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Dragowsky, E. M.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C.; Hanhardt, M.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kastens, L.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Kyre, S.; Lander, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lyashenko, A.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Morii, M.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Nikkel, J. A.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Skulski, W.; Sofka, C. J.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stiegler, T.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Svoboda, R.; Sweany, M.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; White, D.; Witherell, M. S.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota). The LUX cryostat was filled for the first time in the underground laboratory in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search data set, taken during the period from April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of 7.6×10-46 cm2 at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c2. We find that the LUX data are in disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  9. The National Analysis Facility at DESY - status and use cases by the participating experiments

    Aplin, S.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Haupt, A.; Kemp, Y.; Langenbruch, C.; Leffhalm, K.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.; Stadie, H.

    2011-12-01

    The German National Analysis Facility (NAF) was set up at DESY, starting end of 2007 in the context of the Helmholtz Alliance "Physics at the Terascale". The NAF complements the DESY and the German Grid resources, and hence offers users from the German HEP institutes the best possible environment for data analysis. In the first part, the key aspects and components of the NAF are briefly presented with an emphasis on recent improvements. In the second part, the use cases of the three participating LHC experiments, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, will be presented. Differences and commonalities in the usage of the NAF will be shown. Special emphasis will be placed on the usage of PROOF, whose usage on the NAF has been pioneered by CMS. It is now adapted by ATLAS. The third part will concentrate on how the NAF was used for detector optimisation studies in the preparation of one of the ILC Lol's (ILD 2009), as well as how CALICE uses the NAF for the analysis of their data taken in several test beam experiments performed for detector R & D. Finally, future developments of the NAF are presented.

  10. Modeling and experiments of x-ray ablation of National Ignition Facility first wall materials

    Anderson, A.T.; Burnham, A.K.; Tobin, M.T.; Peterson, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses results of modeling and experiments on the x-ray response of selected materials relevant to NIF target chamber design. X-ray energy deposition occurs in such small characteristic depths (on the order of a micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion significantly affect the material response, even during the typical 10-ns pulses. The finite-difference ablation model integrates four separate processes: x-ray energy deposition, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and surface vaporization. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser facility in Livermore on response of various materials to NIF-relevant x-ray fluences. Fused silica, Si nitride, B carbide, B, Si carbide, C, Al2O3, and Al were tested. Response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with SEM and atomic force microscopes. Judgements were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material; relative importances of these processes were also studied with the x-ray response model

  11. The National Analysis Facility at DESY - status and use cases by the participating experiments

    Aplin, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Haupt, A; Kemp, Y; Leffhalm, K; Lucaci-Timoce, A; Langenbruch, C; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The German National Analysis Facility (NAF) was set up at DESY, starting end of 2007 in the context of the Helmholtz Alliance 'Physics at the Terascale'. The NAF complements the DESY and the German Grid resources, and hence offers users from the German HEP institutes the best possible environment for data analysis. In the first part, the key aspects and components of the NAF are briefly presented with an emphasis on recent improvements. In the second part, the use cases of the three participating LHC experiments, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, will be presented. Differences and commonalities in the usage of the NAF will be shown. Special emphasis will be placed on the usage of PROOF, whose usage on the NAF has been pioneered by CMS. It is now adapted by ATLAS. The third part will concentrate on how the NAF was used for detector optimisation studies in the preparation of one of the ILC Lol's (ILD 2009), as well as how CALICE uses the NAF for the analysis of their data taken in several test beam experiments performed for detector R and D. Finally, future developments of the NAF are presented.

  12. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] fuel handling experience (1979--1986)

    Romrell, D.M.; Art, D.M.; Redekopp, R.D.; Waldo, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)is a 400 MW (th) sodium-cooled fast flux test reactor located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The FFTF is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the United States Department of Energy. The FFTF is a three loop plant designed primarily for the purpose of testing full-scale core components in an environment prototypic of future liquid metal reactors. The plant design emphasizes features to enhance this test capability, especially in the area of the core, reactor vessel, and refueling system. Eight special test positions are provided in the vessel head to permit contact instrumented experiments to be installed and irradiated. These test positions effectively divide the core into three sectors. Each sector requires its own In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) to access all the core positions. Since the core and the in-vessel refueling components are submerged under sodium, all handling operations must be performed blind. This puts severe requirements on the positioning ability are reliability of the refueling components. This report addresses the operating experience with the fuel handling system from initial core loading in November, 1979 through 1986. This includes 9 refueling cycles. 2 refs., 8 figs

  13. Results from colliding magnetized plasma jet experiments executed at the Trident laser facility

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Rasmus, A. M.; Kurnaz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Davis, J. S.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Adams, C. S.; Pollock, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of high-velocity plasma flows in a background magnetic field has applications in pulsed-power and fusion schemes, as well as astrophysical environments, such as accretion systems and stellar mass ejections into the magnetosphere. Experiments recently executed at the Trident Laser Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory investigated the effects of an expanding aluminum plasma flow into a uniform 4.5-Tesla magnetic field created using a solenoid designed and manufactured at the University of Michigan. Opposing-target experiments demonstrate interesting collisional behavior between the two magnetized flows. Preliminary interferometry and Faraday rotation measurements will be presented and discussed. This work is funded by the U.S Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  14. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford underground research facility.

    Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Coffey, T; Currie, A; Curioni, A; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Dragowsky, E M; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Morii, M; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Sofka, C J; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stiegler, T; O'Sullivan, K; Sumner, T J; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; White, D; Witherell, M S; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-03-07

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota). The LUX cryostat was filled for the first time in the underground laboratory in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search data set, taken during the period from April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of 7.6 × 10(-46) cm(2) at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c(2). We find that the LUX data are in disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  15. LOFT facility PSS experiments: analysis of wet well vertical loads resulting from transient initiation

    Berta, V.T.

    1977-05-01

    Fourteen experiments on the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility pressure suppression system (PSS) are analyzed in relation to the vertical load generated on the suppression tank in the first 0.5 sec of the transient. Variations in principle parameters affecting the generation of vertical loads were included in the experiments. The internal and external vent submergences are identified from the analysis as being parameters which are first order in influencing the magnitude of the vertical load. These parameters are geometric in nature and depend only on PSS design. Physical parameters of total energy input and rate of energy input to the dry well, which influence the dry well pressurization, also are identified as being first order in influencing the magnitude of the vertical loads. The vertical load magnitude is a direct function of these geometric and physical parameters. The analysis indicates that a small value in any one of the parameters will cause the vertical load to be small and to have little dependence on the magnitude of the other parameters. In addition, the phenomena of nonuniform nonsynchronized vent inlet pressures, which have origins that are either geometric, physical, or a combination of both, act as a significant vertical load reduction mechanism

  16. A spheromak ignition experiment reusing Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) equipment

    Fowler, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    Based on available experimental results and theory, a scenario is presented to achieve ohmic ignition in a spheromak by slow (∼ 10 sec.) helicity injection using power from the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) substation. Some of the other parts needed (vacuum vessel, coils, power supplies, pumps, shielded building space) might also be obtained from MFTF or other salvage, as well as some components needed for intermediate experiments for additional verification of the concept (especially confinement scaling). The proposed ignition experiment would serve as proof-of-principle for the spheromak DT fusion reactor design published by Hagenson and Krakowski, with a nuclear island cost about ten times less than a tokamak of comparable power. Designs at even higher power density and lower cost might be possible using Christofilos' concept of a liquid lithium blanket. Since all structures would be protected from neutrons by the lithium blanket and the tritium inventory can be reduced by continuous removal from the liquid blanket, environmental and safety characteristics appear to be favorable

  17. Impact assessment of climate change on tourism in the Pacific small islands based on the database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments

    Watanabe, S.; Utsumi, N.; Take, M.; Iida, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new approach to assess the impact of climate change on the small oceanic islands in the Pacific. In the new approach, the change of the probabilities of various situations was projected with considering the spread of projection derived from ensemble simulations, instead of projecting the most probable situation. The database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) is a database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments, which has the results of 100 ensemble simulations. We utilized the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF), which was (a long-term and high-resolution database) composed of results of 100 ensemble experiments. A new methodology, Multi Threshold Ensemble Assessment (MTEA), was developed using the d4PDF in order to assess the impact of climate change. We focused on the impact of climate change on tourism because it has played an important role in the economy of the Pacific Islands. The Yaeyama Region, one of the tourist destinations in Okinawa, Japan, was selected as the case study site. Two kinds of impact were assessed: change in probability of extreme climate phenomena and tourist satisfaction associated with weather. The database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments and the questionnaire survey conducted by a local government were used for the assessment. The result indicated that the strength of extreme events would be increased, whereas the probability of occurrence would be decreased. This change should result in increase of the number of clear days and it could contribute to improve the tourist satisfaction.

  18. 15 years of The Hungarian integral type test facility: horizontal SG related PMK-2 experiments

    Perneczky, L.; Ezsoel, G.; Guba, A.; Szabados, L.

    2001-01-01

    support of accident management (AM) procedures. During the 15 operational years - from May 1986 onwards with the first of four IAEA Standard Problem Exercise tests - 48 different experiments, including cold and hot leg break LOCA, primary-to-secondary leakage (PRISE), loss of flow, loss of feedwater, disturbances of natural circulation, etc. tests were performed on this integral type test facility. An overview on 11 experiments related to the operational behaviour of horizontal steam generators performed in framework of national research projects IAEA Technical Co-operation Project RER/9/004 (Standard Problem Exercises) and three EU PHARE projects (in co-operation with AEAT, FRAMATOM, SIEMENS, IPSN, GRS, FZR and VVER owner countries) is given in the first part of paper. In the second part results of two types of tests in shutdown condition with RELAP5 post-test analysis may be of interest to the computer simulation of the horizontal SG too - are summarised. (orig.)

  19. Regional climate projections for Northeast India: an appraisal from CORDEX South Asia experiment

    Kumar, D.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    An appraisal of the recent changes in the present climate (1970-2005) followed by the possible future (2006-2100) changes in the climate has been carried out in the current study using the observations and regional climate model (REMO) over the Northeast Indian region. The regional climate model simulation has been used from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) South Asia framework. A consistent warming for the winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) and post-monsoon (October and November (ON)) has been observed for the present climate especially in the northern and eastern parts of the region. The changes in the near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) temperature climatology suggest a rise in temperature by 3-8 °C across different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The rate of long-term (1970-2099) increase in temperature has been found ranging between 0.01 and 0.07 °C/year across the region in the least emission (RCP2.6) to strongest emission (RCP8.5) scenarios. The daily mean precipitation statistics suggests an overall increasing trends of precipitation during the pre-monsoon (March, April, and May (MAM)) for the present across the region with a mixed trend in other seasons. A change in daily mean precipitation ranging from - 60% (during winter) to + 40% during post-monsoon has been projected by the model across different RCPs. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a strong deficit in precipitation in the warmer climate across the region as compared to RCP2.6. This fact is also confirmed from the long-term trend of precipitation where a consistent decreasing trend dominates in the RCP4.5- and RCP8.5-simulated precipitations by the end of the twenty-first century. A large model bias in temperature and precipitation along with high amount of uncertainty is associated with the model simulations; thus, in order to use the projections, a more careful approach to improve the utility of downscaled product should be adopted.

  20. First implosion experiments with cryogenic thermonuclear fuel on the National Ignition Facility

    Glenzer, Siegfried H; Spears, Brian K; Edwards, M John; Berger, Richard L; Bleuel, Darren L; Bradley, David K; Caggiano, Joseph A; Callahan, Debra A; Castro, Carlos; Choate, Christine; Clark, Daniel S; Cerjan, Charles J; Collins, Gilbert W; Dewald, Eduard L; Di Nicola, Jean-Michel G; Di Nicola, Pascale; Divol, Laurent; Dixit, Shamasundar N; Alger, Ethan T; Casey, Daniel T

    2012-01-01

    Non-burning thermonuclear fuel implosion experiments have been fielded on the National Ignition Facility to assess progress toward ignition by indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. These experiments use cryogenic fuel ice layers, consisting of mixtures of tritium and deuterium with large amounts of hydrogen to control the neutron yield and to allow fielding of an extensive suite of optical, x-ray and nuclear diagnostics. The thermonuclear fuel layer is contained in a spherical plastic capsule that is fielded in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 1.3 MJ of energy delivered by 192 laser beams produces a soft x-ray drive spectrum with a radiation temperature of 300 eV. The radiation field produces an ablation pressure of 100 Mbar which compresses the capsule to a spherical dense fuel shell that contains a hot plasma core 80 µm in diameter. The implosion core is observed with x-ray imaging diagnostics that provide size, shape, the absolute x-ray emission along with bangtime and hot plasma lifetime. Nuclear measurements provide the 14.1 MeV neutron yield from fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei along with down-scattered neutrons at energies of 10–12 MeV due to energy loss by scattering in the dense fuel that surrounds the central hot-spot plasma. Neutron time-of-flight spectra allow the inference of the ion temperature while gamma-ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity. The fusion yield from deuterium–tritium reactions scales with ion temperature, which is in agreement with modeling over more than one order of magnitude to a neutron yield in excess of 10 14 neutrons, indicating large confinement parameters on these first experiments. (paper)

  1. Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Moisseev, Dmitri [University of Helsinki

    2016-04-01

    The snowfall measurement campaign took place during deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Finland. The campaign focused on understanding snowfall microphysics and characterizing performance of surface-based snowfall measurement instruments. This was achieved by combining triple frequency (X, Ka, W-band) radar observations of vertical structure of the precipitation, microwave radiometer observations of liquid water path (LWP), and lidar measurements of supercooled water layers with surface-based observations of snowfall rate and particle size distributions. To facilitate accurate surface measurements of snowfall properties, a double-fence intercomparison reference wind protection for the weighing precipitation gauge and two-dimensional (2D)-video disdrometer was built on site. Due to the duplication of some instruments, namely the 2D-video disdrometer and the weighing gauge, we were able to characterize their measurement errors as a function of wind speed, thus aiming at providing a correction procedure for the other ARM sites.

  2. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    Cao, Mingde [China Univ. of Political Science and Law, Peking (China). Climate Change and Natural Resources Law Center

    2014-07-01

    This essay summarizes Chinese experiences from environmental law relating to climate change legislation and puts forward certain constructive advices, by a comprehensive and systematic examination of China's laws and policies in addressing the issue of climate change, and evaluation on their legal effects. On the basis of analysis and empirical research of this essay, it could be found that, there are many successful institutions in the existing policy systems and practices of China in respect of greenhouse gas emission reduction, including the planning and scheduling institution, the target responsibility institution, and the compulsory standard institution. These institutions should be amended, confirmed and fixed down in the laws, so as to bring their functions into full play. Simultaneously, climate change legislation should bring in and focus on promoting new institutions such as the institution of climate change environmental impact evaluation on construction projects, planning and policy strategies, carbon capture and storage technology promotion institution, carbon sinks trading or indemnification institution. Local governments have urgent demand for climate change legislation as well as obvious limitations, as a result, it is imperative for the launch of state-level comprehensive mode of climate change legislation. The basic principles of legislation may incorporate policy principles and introduce specific principles in the field. Furthermore, building a perfect administrative system and nailing down the legal responsibilities for addressing climate change are crucial for safeguarding the smooth implementation of laws. This study aims at providing early-stage preparations for China's climate change legislation, and a research foundation for drafting climate change laws. Research findings of this study involve three aspects, i.e. laws, policies and practice, by studying more than thirty resolutions of the general assembly of the United Nations

  3. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    Cao, Mingde

    2014-01-01

    This essay summarizes Chinese experiences from environmental law relating to climate change legislation and puts forward certain constructive advices, by a comprehensive and systematic examination of China's laws and policies in addressing the issue of climate change, and evaluation on their legal effects. On the basis of analysis and empirical research of this essay, it could be found that, there are many successful institutions in the existing policy systems and practices of China in respect of greenhouse gas emission reduction, including the planning and scheduling institution, the target responsibility institution, and the compulsory standard institution. These institutions should be amended, confirmed and fixed down in the laws, so as to bring their functions into full play. Simultaneously, climate change legislation should bring in and focus on promoting new institutions such as the institution of climate change environmental impact evaluation on construction projects, planning and policy strategies, carbon capture and storage technology promotion institution, carbon sinks trading or indemnification institution. Local governments have urgent demand for climate change legislation as well as obvious limitations, as a result, it is imperative for the launch of state-level comprehensive mode of climate change legislation. The basic principles of legislation may incorporate policy principles and introduce specific principles in the field. Furthermore, building a perfect administrative system and nailing down the legal responsibilities for addressing climate change are crucial for safeguarding the smooth implementation of laws. This study aims at providing early-stage preparations for China's climate change legislation, and a research foundation for drafting climate change laws. Research findings of this study involve three aspects, i.e. laws, policies and practice, by studying more than thirty resolutions of the general assembly of the United Nations, more than

  4. Experiences of registered nurses as managers and leaders in residential aged care facilities: a systematic review.

    Dwyer, Drew

    2011-12-01

    The phenomenon of an ageing population is being experienced globally, as countries struggle to change and improve residential models of care and provide services to the elderly. The role of the registered nurse (RN) is considered crucial to the clinical governance and management of care given. To date, however, no systematic review has examined the RN's experience in leadership and management. The objective of this review is to critically appraise, synthesise and present best available evidence on the experiences of RNs as clinical leaders and managers in residential aged care facilities. This review considered qualitative research papers that addressed the experiences of RNs as clinical leaders and managers in residential aged care facilities. Participants of interest were RNs, nurse leaders, nurses holding registration and or regulation under a board of nursing, nurses working in residential aged care and long-term care facilities. The diversity and use of language to describe nurses' roles and models of care for the elderly care environment were considered in the review. The search strategy sought to find both published studies and papers, limited to the English language and published between January 1997 and February 2011. An initial limited search was done in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases to identify the key words contained in the title or abstract and index terms used to describe the relevant terms in the article. A second extensive search was undertaken and extended to other relevant databases using all identified keywords and index terms. The third step involved searching reference lists and bibliographies of chosen articles for additional studies. Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management

  5. Fabrication Facilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  6. Experiments in LEENA facility with modified wire type leak detector layout in large sodium pipelines

    Vijayakumar, G.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.; Rajan, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • FBR large horizontal secondary pipeline were simulated and five sodium leak experiments were conducted by providing modified wire type leak detector layout at 550 °C. • Early detection of sodium leak is needed for minimizing the sodium leaked out and consequent damages. • PFBR leak detector layout on large horizontal pipelines can detect a leak rate of 200 g/h within 6 h. • By reducing the distance between leak point and detector to half, detection time was reduced to 1/6th and found that a leak rate of 200 g/h can be detected in one hour. • A relationship between leak rate and detection time was established based on experimental results. - Abstract: Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (SFRs) are envisaged in the second phase of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in the SFRs due to its favourable nuclear properties and excellent heat transfer properties. Leaks in sodium systems have the potential of being exceptionally hazardous due to the reaction of liquid sodium with oxygen and water vapour in the air. When a sodium leak occurs, the sodium leak rate, the total quantity of sodium leaked and leak detector layout governs the detection time. Other factors to be considered are insulation material packing condition, distance between the leak point and detector, heater layout, pipe geometry, temperature etc. Potential regions of leakage in Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) sodium circuits are near welds, high stress areas and regions subjected to thermal striping. Early detection of leak is needed for minimizing the quantity of sodium leaked to outside and consequent damages. Three wire type leak detectors (WLDs positioned at 90°, 180° and 270°) working on conductivity principle are used for detecting sodium leak in the large horizontal secondary sodium pipelines of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). It was found from the upper boundary curve based on LEENA (LEak Experiments in NAtrium) facility experimental

  7. Developing an approach to effectively use super ensemble experiments for the projection of hydrological extremes under climate change

    Watanabe, S.; Kim, H.; Utsumi, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new approach which projects hydrology under climate change using super ensemble experiments. The use of multiple ensemble is essential for the estimation of extreme, which is a major issue in the impact assessment of climate change. Hence, the super ensemble experiments are recently conducted by some research programs. While it is necessary to use multiple ensemble, the multiple calculations of hydrological simulation for each output of ensemble simulations needs considerable calculation costs. To effectively use the super ensemble experiments, we adopt a strategy to use runoff projected by climate models directly. The general approach of hydrological projection is to conduct hydrological model simulations which include land-surface and river routing process using atmospheric boundary conditions projected by climate models as inputs. This study, on the other hand, simulates only river routing model using runoff projected by climate models. In general, the climate model output is systematically biased so that a preprocessing which corrects such bias is necessary for impact assessments. Various bias correction methods have been proposed, but, to the best of our knowledge, no method has proposed for variables other than surface meteorology. Here, we newly propose a method for utilizing the projected future runoff directly. The developed method estimates and corrects the bias based on the pseudo-observation which is a result of retrospective offline simulation. We show an application of this approach to the super ensemble experiments conducted under the program of Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI). More than 400 ensemble experiments from multiple climate models are available. The results of the validation using historical simulations by HAPPI indicates that the output of this approach can effectively reproduce retrospective runoff variability. Likewise, the bias of runoff from super ensemble climate

  8. Using a qualitative approach for understanding hospital-affiliated integrated clinical and fitness facilities: characteristics and members' experiences.

    Yang, Jingzhen; Kingsbury, Diana; Nichols, Matthew; Grimm, Kristin; Ding, Kele; Hallam, Jeffrey

    2015-06-19

    With health care shifting away from the traditional sick care model, many hospitals are integrating fitness facilities and programs into their clinical services in order to support health promotion and disease prevention at the community level. Through a series of focus groups, the present study assessed characteristics of hospital-affiliated integrated facilities located in Northeast Ohio, United States and members' experiences with respect to these facilities. Adult members were invited to participate in a focus group using a recruitment flyer. A total of 6 focus groups were conducted in 2013, each lasting one hour, ranging from 5 to 12 participants per group. The responses and discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then analyzed independently by research team members. Major themes were identified after consensus was reached. The participants' average age was 57, with 56.8% currently under a doctor's care. Four major themes associated with integrated facilities and members' experiences emerged across the six focus groups: 1) facility/program, 2) social atmosphere, 3) provider, and 4) member. Within each theme, several sub-themes were also identified. A key feature of integrated facilities is the availability of clinical and fitness services "under one roof". Many participants remarked that they initially attended physical therapy, becoming members of the fitness facility afterwards, or vice versa. The participants had favorable views of and experiences with the superior physical environment and atmosphere, personal attention, tailored programs, and knowledgeable, friendly, and attentive staff. In particular, participants favored the emphasis on preventive care and the promotion of holistic health and wellness. These results support the integration of wellness promotion and programming with traditional medical care and call for the further evaluation of such a model with regard to participants' health outcomes.

  9. Acoustic detection of boiling in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility in-reactor experiment P1

    Carey, W.M.; Anderson, T.T.; Bobis, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    Acoustic data were obtained from two high-temperature lithium niobate microphones on the loop background noise and transient pressure pulses during the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) P1 in-reactor experiment. This experiment simulated an LMFBR loss-of-piping-integrity (LOPI) transient on a nineteen element, end-of-life, enriched-UO 2 fuel assembly. The microphones were exposed to liquid sodium at a distance 4.85 meters above the reactor core at temperatures between 315 0 and 590 0 C. The distance and location of the microphones in the P1 Test Train provided an attenuative transmission path which was undesirable for optimum acoustic detection of sodium boiling and fuel failure. The data gathered on the loop background noise was observed to be dominated by pump and electrical noise at frequencies below 1.5 KHz and appeared to be dominated by flow induced local turbulence noise at higher frequencies. During the period of time that the sodium in the fuel assembly was at its saturation temperature 943 0 C (1730 0 F), as indicated by the wire wrap thermocouples, several discrete pulses were observed with peak-to-peak pressure between 3.3 kPa and 7.9 kPa and center frequencies between 360 and 550 Hz. The pulses occurred at two separate gradually increasing repetition rates. These observations appear to be consistent with the result of an impulsive forcing function interacting with a band passed Helmholtz resonator. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sodium boiling occurred in the P1 fuel assembly, resulting in the formation of individual voids that collapsed upon reaching the subcooled sodium. These data provide pertinent information regarding the feasibility of sodium boiling detection and may provide additional insight into the dynamics of the void behavior

  10. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  11. Risk management for operations of the Los Alamos critical experiments facility

    Paternoster, R.; Butterfield, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) currently operates two burst reactors (Godiva-IV and Skua), one solution assembly (SHEBA 2--Solution high-Energy Burst Assembly), two fast-spectrum benchmark assemblies (Flattop and Big Ten), and five general-purpose remote assembly machines which may be configured with nuclear materials and assembled by remote control. SNM storage vaults support these and other operations at the site. With this diverse set of operations, several approaches are possible in the analysis and management of risk. The most conservative approach would be to write a safety analysis report (SAR) for each assembly and experiment. A more cost-effective approach is to analyze the probability and consequences of several classes of operations representative of operations on each critical assembly machine and envelope the bounding case accidents. Although the neutron physics of these machines varies widely, the operations performed at LACEF fall into four operational modes: steady-state mode, approach-to-critical mode, prompt burst mode, and nuclear material operations which can include critical assembly fuel loading. The operational sequences of each mode are very nearly the same, whether operated on one assembly machine or another. The use of an envelope approach to accident analysis is facilitated by the use of classes of operations and the use of bounding case consequence analysis. A simple fault tree analysis of operational modes helps resolve which operations are sensitive to human error and which are initiated by hardware of software failures. Where possible, these errors and failures are blocked by TSR LCOs

  12. The Non-Proliferation Experiment recorded at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    Carr, D.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment was recorded by five different seismic stations operated by Sandia National Laboratories at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility, approximately 7.6{degrees} from the Nevada Test Site. Two stations are different versions of the Deployable Seismic Verification System developed by the Department of Energy to provide seismic data to verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Vault and borehole versions of the Designated Seismic Stations also recorded the event. The final station is test instrumentation located at depths of 10, 40 and 1200 feet. Although the event is seen clearly at all the stations, there are variations in the raw data due to the different bandwidths and depths of deployment. One Deployable Seismic Verification System has been operating at Pinedale for over three years and in that time recorded 14 nuclear explosions and 4 earthquakes from the Nevada Test Site, along with numerous other western U.S. earthquakes. Several discriminants based on the work by Taylor et al. (1989) have been applied to this data. First the discriminants were tested by comparing the explosions only to the 4 earthquakes located on the Test Site. Only one discriminant, log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}), did not show clear separation between the earthquakes and nuclear explosions. When other western U.S. events are included, only the M{sub b} vs. M{sub s} discriminant separated the event. In all cases where discrimination was possible, the Non-Proliferation Experiment was indistinguishable from a nuclear explosion.

  13. Nuclear techniques for the study of environmental pollution and control: experience and facilities at PINSTECH

    Rajput, M.U.; Butt, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem. Developed countries have already gone in the clutches of pollution. Now the rapid industrialization and modernization process has also started in the developing countries. This is posing a serious threat to their own environment. One of the important factors in the pollution control measures is to investigate the levels of environmental pollution, from time to time, by effective and reliable methods. Nuclear techniques due to their high sensitivities play an important role in this regard. These techniques have the potential to determine the concentration of pollutants in trace level quantities (ppm and ppb) and for locating the possible pollution sources such as power plants, refineries, municipal waste, industries etc. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) has qualified and experienced scientists and has nearly all the major nuclear facilities that are needed for environmental research such as mass spectrometry, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) etc. This paper discusses the importance of environmental pollution with a particular reference to the pollution aspects in Pakistan and the associated environmental research experience based on nuclear methods available at PINSTECH. 308 refs. (author)

  14. The Atlas pulsed power facility for high energy density physics experiments

    Miller, R B; Barr, G W; Bowman, D W; Cochrane, J C; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Griego, J R; Hicks, R D; Hinckley, W B; Hosack, K W; Nielsen, K E; Parker, J V; Parsons, M O; Rickets, R L; Salazar, H R; Sánchez, P G; Scudder, D W; Shapiro, C; Thompson, M C; Trainor, R J; Valdez, G A; Vigil, B N; Watt, R G; Wysocki, F J; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. Here, the authors describe how the primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently- removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the Marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-ys risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line compo...

  15. HEROICA: a test facility for the characterization of BEGe detectors for the Gerda experiment

    Falkenstein, Raphael [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. It uses bare, enriched Germanium diodes that are operated in liquid argon. Currently, Phase I is running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. For Phase II, ∝20 kg of Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge at 86% level will be additionally deployed. These detectors allow for advanced pulse shape discrimination techniques, to suppress the background, which will be necessary to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the Region of Interest. The HEROICA project aims for acceptance tests and the characterization of the BEGe detectors. In this talk, the infrastructure of the Belgian HADES underground test facility, as well as the full test protocol for the characterization campaign of the enrBEGe detectors, is described. This test protocol includes the determination of important detector parameters, such as energy resolution, depletion voltage, dead-layer thickness and uniformity, active volume, as well as pulse shape discrimination parameters.

  16. Long Duration Exposure Facility experiment M0003 deintegration observation data base

    Gyetvay, S. R.; Coggi, J. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The four trays (2 leading edge and 2 trailing edge) of the M0003 materials experiment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) contained 1274 samples from 20 subexperiments. The complete sample complement represented a broad range of materials, including thin film optical coatings, paints, polymer sheets and tapes, adhesives, and composites, for use in various spacecraft applications, including thermal control, structures, optics, and solar power. Most subexperiments contained sets of samples exposed on both the leading and trailing edge trays of LDEF. Each individual sample was examined by high resolution optical microscope during the deintegration of the subexperiments from the M0003 trays. Observations of the post-flight condition of the samples made during this examination were recorded in a computer data base. The deintegration observation data base is available to requesters on floppy disk in 4th Dimension for the Macintosh format. Over 3,000 color macrographs and photomicrographs were shot to complement the observation records and to document the condition of the individual samples and of the M0003 trays. The photographs provide a visual comparison of the response of materials in leading and trailing edge LDEF environments. The Aerospace Corporate Archives is distributing photographs of the samples and hard copies of the database records to the general public upon request. Information on obtaining copies of the data base disks and for ordering photographs and records of specific samples or materials are given.

  17. First Octahedral Spherical Hohlraum Energetics Experiment at the SGIII Laser Facility

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xufei; Ren, Guoli; Cao, Hui; Li, Shu; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Li, Yongsheng; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Wang, Zhebin; Deng, Keli; Wang, Qiangqiang; Deng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qianqian; He, Zhibing; Du, Kai; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Liquan; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yuancheng; Hu, Dongxia; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-04-01

    The first octahedral spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished at the SGIII laser facility. For the first time, the 32 laser beams are injected into the octahedral spherical hohlraum through six laser entrance holes. Two techniques are used to diagnose the radiation field of the octahedral spherical hohlraum in order to obtain comprehensive experimental data. The radiation flux streaming out of laser entrance holes is measured by six flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) and four M -band x-ray detectors, which are placed at different locations of the SGIII target chamber. The radiation temperature is derived from the measured flux of FXRD by using the blackbody assumption. The peak radiation temperature inside hohlraum is determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraum radiation temperature is in the range of 170-182 eV with drive laser energies of 71 kJ to 84 kJ. The radiation temperature inside the hohlraum determined by the shock wave technique is about 175 eV at 71 kJ. For the flat-top laser pulse of 3 ns, the conversion efficiency of gas-filled octahedral spherical hohlraum from laser into soft x rays is about 80% according to the two-dimensional numerical simulation.

  18. Hydrodynamic instability growth and mix experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Barrios, M.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Parham, T.; Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF Directorate, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth and its effects on implosion performance were studied at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Implosion performance and mix have been measured at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and containing embedded localized carbon-deuterium diagnostic layers in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the tritium-tritium fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits for yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role. In addition, spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure instability growth in the acceleration phase of the implosions. The capsules were imploded using ignition-relevant laser pulses, and ablation-front modulation growth was measured using x-ray radiography for a shell convergence ratio of ∼2. The measured growth was in good agreement with that predicted, thus validating simulations for the fastest growing modulations with mode numbers up to 90 in the acceleration phase. Future experiments will be focused on measurements at higher convergence, higher-mode number modulations, and growth occurring during the deceleration phase.

  19. Development and Operation of Experiment Course using Research Reactor and Associated Facilities

    Shin, B. C.; Hwang, I. A.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Nam, J. S.; Seo, K. W.; Kim, H. N.

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of present research is to offer a specialized educational opportunity by developing specific curriculum for potential users, mainly university students majoring in related with nuclear engineering and radiation field, on site at KAERI, exploiting the diverse offering of HANARO and ancillary facilities. The specific items of this research accomplished are: First, Development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO. Second, Continuous operation of research reactor related experimental training programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. Third, through the site experimental training for new coming nuclear engineering students, support future potential users to the nuclear research fields, as well as enlarge or broaden the base. Finally, it is hoped that these experiments broadens public awareness and acceptance of the present and potential future contribution of the reactor technology, there by bring positive impacts to policy making. As a whole, 108 students offered and 88 students from 6 universities have completed the course of the programs developed by this project. Also, 1 textbook and 1 teaching aid, a questionnaire have been developed to support the program.

  20. Problems and Concerns Regarding Access Control System Construction in Radiation Facilities Based on the NIFS Experience

    Kawano, T.; Inoue, N.; Sakuma, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 1998, access control system for the large helical device (LHD) experimental hall was constructed and put into operation at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Toki, Japan. Since then, the system has been continuously improved. It now controls access into the LHD controlled area through four entrances. The system has five turnstile gates and enables control of access at the four entrances. The system is always checking whether the shielding doors are open or closed at eight positions. The details pertaining to the construction of the system were reported at IRPA-10 held in Hiroshima, Japan, in 2000. Based on our construction experience of the NIFS access control system, we will discuss problems related to software and operational design of the system. We will also discuss some concerns regarding the use of the system in radiation facilities. The problems we will present concern, among other thing, individual registration, time control, turnstile control, interlock signal control, data aggregation and transactions, automatic and manual control, and emergency procedures. For example, in relation to the time control and turnstile control functions, we will discuss the gate-opening time interval for an access event, the timing of access data recording, date changing, turn bar control, double access, and access error handling. (author)

  1. Experiments on two-step heating of a dense plasma in the GOL-3 facility

    Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Koidan, V.S.; Mekler, K.I.; Mel'nikov, P.I.; Postupaev, V.V.; Shcheglov, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments on two-stage heating of a dense plasma by a relativistic electron beam in the GOL-3 facility. A dense plasma with a length of about a meter and a hydrogen density up to 10 17 cm -3 was created in the main plasma, whose density was 10 15 cm -3 . In the process of interacting with the plasma, the electron beam (1 MeV, 40 kA, 4 μs) imparts its energy to the electrons of the main plasma through collective effects. The heated electrons, as they disperse along the magnetic field lines, in turn reach the region of dense plasma and impart their energy to it by pairwise collisions. Estimates based on experimental data are given for the parameters of the flux of hot plasma electrons, the energy released in the dense plasma, and the energy balance of the beam-plasma system. The paper discusses the dynamics of the plasma, which is inhomogeneous in density and temperature, including the appearance of pressure waves

  2. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  3. Operating experience of an automated TLD dispensing system at CORAL facility

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Arun, R.; Yuvaraj, N.; Karthikeyan, D.; Dheeraj, R.; Akila, R.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Kumar, Amudhu Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of exposures to occupational workers on individual basis is a regulatory requirement to demonstrate compliance that the dose to the workers is well within the dose limit. Over three decades for monitoring of external exposures, CaSO 4 based Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs), which exhibit the required accuracy, reliability and ruggedness have been employed. TLD cards with unique identification number are loaded in plastic cassettes along with photographs are placed in wooden racks at the entry of the controlled area of the plant. However, there is always a chance that a TLD may be misplaced, used by others or there could be a deliberate act of misuse or abuse. To circumvent this it was decided to install an automated TLD dispensing system with individual TLD tracking as well as locking arrangement. CORAL reprocessing facility at IGCAR was the first to install one such system at Kalpakkam and the operating experience of the system for the last two years is brought out in this paper

  4. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume IV

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This volume contains the following chapters (1) neutronics tests, (2) fluence considerations, (3) instrumentation and test matrix, (4) non-neutron test stands, (5) accelerator-based point neutron sources, (6) utilization of fission reactors, (7) tandem mirror test facilities, (8) tokamak fusion test facilities, (9) reliability development testing impacts on fusion reactor availability, and (10) fusion development scenarios. In addition, the following appendices are included: (1) evaluation of experience from fast breeder reactors, (2) observations of experts from the fission field, (3) evaluation of experience from the aerospace industry, (4) characterization of fusion nuclear systems operating environment, (5) modelling of MFTF-α+T high gamma mode performance, and (6) small-scale, multiple effects testing at US/DOE breeder reactor in-pile facilities

  5. 38 CFR 21.299 - Use of Government facilities for on-job training or work experience at no or nominal pay.

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities for on-job training or work experience at no or nominal pay. 21.299 Section 21.299 Pensions... Selection § 21.299 Use of Government facilities for on-job training or work experience at no or nominal pay.... L. 100-689) (b) Employment status of veterans. (1) While pursuing on-job training or work experience...

  6. Ten years operating experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility: A decade of excellence

    Swaim, D.J.; Waldo, J.B.; Farabee, O.A.

    1991-07-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW(t) fast reactor cooled by three sodium loops. The Fast Flux Test Facility is managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The Fast Flux Test Facility was designed and constructed to provide irradiation testing of fuels and materials for the US Department of Energy Liquid Metal Reactor research program. Facility activities have increased to include fusion power materials testing, passive safety testing, isotope production, and international collaboration. 5 figs

  7. Conceptual design of initial opacity experiments on the national ignition facility

    Heeter, R.  F.; Bailey, J.  E.; Craxton, R.  S.; DeVolder, B.  G.; Dodd, E.  S.; Garcia, E.  M.; Huffman, E.  J.; Iglesias, C.  A.; King, J.  A.; Kline, J.  L.; Liedahl, D.  A.; McKenty, P.  W.; Opachich, Y.  P.; Rochau, G.  A.; Ross, P.  W.; Schneider, M.  B.; Sherrill, M.  E.; Wilson, B.  G.; Zhang, R.; Perry, T.  S.

    2017-01-09

    Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures${\\geqslant}150$ eV and electron densities${\\geqslant}7\\times 10^{21}~\\text{cm}^{-3}$. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a${\\sim}200$ ps,${\\sim}200~\\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\\text{m}$diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design

  8. Reactor physics experiments in PURNIMA sub critical facility coupled with 14 MeV neutron source

    Kumar, Rajeev; Degweker, S.B.; Patel, Tarun; Bishnoi, Saroj; Adhikari, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems (ADSS) are attracting increasing worldwide attention due to their superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinide and fission product waste and energy production. A number of countries around the world have drawn up roadmaps/programs for development of ADSS. Indian interest in ADSS has an additional dimension, which is related to the planned utilization of our large thorium reserves for future nuclear energy generation. A programme for development of ADSS is taken up at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in India. This includes R and D activities for high current proton accelerator development, target development and Reactor Physics studies. As part of the ADSS Reactor Physics research programme, a sub-critical facility is coming up in BARC which will be coupled with an existing D-D/D-T neutron generator. Two types of cores are planned. In one of these, the sub-critical reactor assembly consists of natural uranium moderated by high density polyethylene (HDP) and reflected by BeO. The other consists of natural uranium moderated by light water. The maximum neutron yield of the neutron source with tritium target is around 10 10 neutron per sec. Various reactor physics experiments like measurement of the source strength, neutron flux distribution, buckling estimation and sub-critical source multiplication are planned. Apart from this, measurement of the total fission power and neutron spectrum will also be carried out. Mainly activation detectors will be used in all in-core neutron flux measurement. Measurement of the degree of sub-criticality by various deterministic and noise methods is planned. Helium detectors with advanced data acquisition card will be used for the neutron noise experiments. Noise characteristics of ADSS are expected to be different from that of traditional reactors due to the non-Poisson statistical features of the source. A new theory incorporating these features has been

  9. Measuring safety climate in a nuclear power plant - an experience sharing

    Vincy, M.U.; Varshney, Aloke; Khot, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the experience gained in safety climate measurement of an Indian nuclear power plant. Safety performance is increasingly part of an organization's sustainable development. Nuclear power stations are falling under the category 'high reliability' industries in the world as far as work safety is concerned. Both the research and the practical experience continually point to two underlying factors that drive safety outcomes: the quality of an organisation's leadership and the resulting culture. After years of development in safety technology and safety management system in the industry, management of nuclear industry world over has come to recognize that safety culture has to be addressed if high standards of health and safety are to be maintained. Therefore, nuclear industries in India have been carrying out measurement of safety climate for more than ten years. The objectives of the study are to examine people's values, attitude, perception, competencies, and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and effectiveness of health and safety management in the industry based on a questionnaires survey and their analysis

  10. Safety climate mapping in a nuclear power plant - an experience sharing

    Vincy, M.U.; Varshney, Aloke; Khot, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the experience gained in safety climate measurement of an Indian nuclear power plant. Safety performance is increasingly part of an organisation's sustainable development. Nuclear power stations are falling under the category 'high reliability' industries in the world as far as work safety is concerned. Both the research and the practical experience continually point to two underlying factors that drive safety outcomes: the quality of an organisation's leadership and the resulting culture. After years of development in safety technology and safety management system in the industry, management of nuclear industry world over has come to recognize that safety culture has to be addressed if high standards of health and safety are to be maintained. Therefore, nuclear industries in India have been carrying out measurement of safety climate for more than ten years. The objectives of the study are to examine people's values, attitude, perception, competencies, and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and effectiveness of health and safety management in the industry based on questionnaires survey and their analysis. A questionnaire, consists of 66 statements with 11 attributes, was designed to seek the views of managers, supervisors and front line workers on key aspects of the safety culture. Each of the discrete group was also classified according to their role in the organisation

  11. The choice of Park & Ride Facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of

  12. The choice of park & ride facilities : an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    Bos, D.M.; vd Heijden, R.E.C.M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of

  13. Soil and crop management experiments in the Laboratory Biosphere: An analogue system for the Mars on Earth ® facility

    Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.

    During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation of "Hoyt" Soy Beans, (experiment #1) USU Apogee Wheat (experiment #2) and TU-82-155 sweet potato (experiment #3) using a 5.37 m 2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching, returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment and increasing soil biota by introducing worms, soil bacteria and mycorrhizae fungi. High soil pH of the original soil appeared to be a factor affecting the first two experiments. Hence, between experiments #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. This resulted in lowering the initial pH of 8.0-6.7 at the start of experiment #3. At the end of the experiment, the pH was 7.6. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus has been adequate, but some chlorosis was evident in the first two experiments. Aphid infestation was the only crop pest problem during the three experiments and was handled using an introduction of Hyppodamia convergens. Experimentation showed there were environmental differences even in this 1200 cubic foot ecological system facility, such as temperature and humidity gradients because of ventilation and airflow patterns which resulted in consequent variations in plant growth and yield. Additional humidifiers were added to counteract low humidity and helped optimize conditions for the sweet potato experiment. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth ® facility (Silverstone et al., Development and research program for a soil

  14. Does identity shape leadership and management practice? Experiences of PHC facility managers in Cape Town, South Africa

    Daire, Judith; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere, Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are managed by professional nurses. Little is known about the dimensions and challenges of their job, or what influences their managerial practice. Drawing on leadership and organizational theory, this study explored what the job of being a PHC manager entails, and what factors influence their managerial practice. We specifically considered whether the appointment of professional nurses as facility managers leads to an identity transition, from nurse to manager. The overall intention was to generate ideas about how to support leadership development among PHC facility managers. Adopting case study methodology, the primary researcher facilitated in-depth discussions (about their personal history and managerial experiences) with eight participating facility managers from one geographical area. Other data were collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, document review and researcher field notes/journaling. Analysis involved data triangulation, respondent and peer review and cross-case analysis. The experiences show that the PHC facility manager’s job is dominated by a range of tasks and procedures focused on clinical service management, but is expected to encompass action to address the population and public health needs of the surrounding community. Managing with and through others, and in a complex system, requiring self-management, are critical aspects of the job. A range of personal, professional and contextual factors influence managerial practice, including professional identity. The current largely facility-focused management practice reflects the strong nursing identity of managers and broader organizational influences. However, three of the eight managers appear to self-identify an emerging leadership identity and demonstrate related managerial practices. Nonetheless, there is currently limited support for an identity transition towards leadership in this context. Better

  15. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald [eds.; Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the Japanese

  16. Revisiting the generation and interpretation of climate models experiments for adaptation decision-making (Invited)

    Ranger, N.; Millner, A.; Niehoerster, F.

    2010-12-01

    -making first. Such an approach forces one to focus on the information of greatest value for the specific decision. We suggest that such an approach will help to accommodate the uncertainties in the chain and facilitate robust decision-making. Initial findings of these case studies will be presented with the aim of raising open questions and promoting discussion of the methodology. Finally, we reflect on the implications for the design of climate model experiments.

  17. Applications and results of X-ray spectroscopy in implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Epstein, R.; Regan, S. P.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Scott, H. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Döppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Golovkin, I. E.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Key, M. H.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mancini, R. C.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Nikroo, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Town, R. P. J.; Tucker, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    Current inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] are attempting to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using x-ray drive by imploding spherical targets containing hydrogen-isotope fuel in the form of a thin cryogenic layer surrounding a central volume of fuel vapor [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)]. The fuel is contained within a plastic ablator layer with small concentrations of one or more mid-Z elements, e.g., Ge or Cu. The capsule implodes, driven by intense x-ray emission from the inner surface of a hohlraum enclosure irradiated by the NIF laser, and fusion reactions occur in the central hot spot near the time of peak compression. Ignition will occur if the hot spot within the compressed fuel layer attains a high-enough areal density to retain enough of the reaction product energy to reach nuclear reaction temperatures within the inertial hydrodynamic disassembly time of the fuel mass [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)]. The primary purpose of the ablator dopants is to shield the ablator surface adjacent to the DT ice from heating by the hohlraum x-ray drive [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Simulations predicted that these dopants would produce characteristic K-shell emission if ablator material mixed into the hot spot [B. A. Hammel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 6, 171 (2010)]. In NIF ignition experiments, emission and absorption features from these dopants appear in x-ray spectra measured with the hot-spot x-ray spectrometer in Supersnout II [S. P. Regan et al., "Hot-Spot X-Ray Spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility," to be submitted to Review of Scientific Instruments]. These include K-shell emission lines from the hot spot (driven primarily by inner-shell collisional ionization and dielectronic recombination) and photoionization edges, fluorescence, and absorption lines caused by the absorption of the

  18. Cause finding experiments and environmental analysis on the accident of the fire and explosion in TRP bituminization facility

    Fujine, Sachio; Murata, Mikio; Abe, Hitoshi

    1999-09-01

    This report is the summary of the cause finding experiments and environmental analysis on the accident of the fire and explosion occurred at March 11th, 1997, in TRP bituminization facility of PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation). Regarding the cause finding experiments, chemical components have been analyzed for the effluent samples taken from PNC's facility, bituminized mock waste has been produced using the simulated salt effluent prepared according to the results of chemical analysis, thermal analysis and experiment of runaway exothermic reaction have been conducted using the mock waste, and the component of flammable gases emitted from the heated waste have been collected and analyzed. Regarding environmental analysis on the accident, the amount of radioactive cesium released by the accident has been calculated by the comparative analysis using the atmospheric dispersion simulation code SPEEDI with the data of environmental monitoring and the public dose has been assessed. (author)

  19. Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in General Electric's nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in a variety of forms and containers and incorporation of the assay devices into the accountability measurement system for General Electric's Wilmington Fuel Fabrication Facility measurement control programme is detailed. Description of the purpose and related operational requirements of each non-destructive assay system is also included. In addition, the accountability data acquisition and processing system is described in relation to its interaction with the various non-destructive assay devices and scales used for accountability purposes within the facility. (author)

  20. The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

  1. The Racial School Climate Gap: Within-School Disparities in Students' Experiences of Safety, Support, and Connectedness.

    Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas; O'Malley, Meagan; Adekanye, Latifah

    2015-12-01

    This study used student and teacher survey data from over 400 middle schools in California to examine within-school racial disparities in students' experiences of school climate. It further examined the relationship between a school's racial climate gaps and achievement gaps and other school structures and norms that may help explain why some schools have larger or smaller racial disparities in student reports of climate than others. Multilevel regression results problematized the concept of a "school climate" by showing that, in an average middle school, Black and Hispanic students have less favorable experiences of safety, connectedness, relationships with adults, and opportunities for participation compared to White students. The results also show that certain racial school climate gaps vary in magnitude across middle schools, and in middle schools where these gaps are larger, the racial achievement gap is also larger. Finally, the socioeconomic status of students, student-teacher ratio, and geographic location help explain some cross-school variation in racial climate gaps. These findings have implications for how school climate in conceptualized, measured, and improved.

  2. The CNEN Helium-Caesium Blow-Down MPD Facility and Experiments with a Prototype Duct

    Bertolini, E.; Toschi, R. [CNEN, Frascati (Italy); Lindley, B. C. [C.A. Parsons and Co. Ltd (United Kingdom); Brown, R.; McNab, I. R. [International Research and Development Co. Ltd., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    caesium with flowing helium at 2000 Degree-Sign K, with blow-down tests. Generator duct experiments, (a) Wall duct heating system, with long duration tests at 1800 Degree-Sign K using tantalum heating elements and boron nitride walls; (b) Feasibility of windows in the duct for spectroscopic and microwave diagnostics. A third series of experiments concerning the behaviour of the working channel as an MPD generator has been performed with the IRD closed-loop facility using a scale constant cross-section duct. Over 60 hours of high-temperature operation with helium, and 63 individual caesium-seeded runs (duration 30 sec to 2 min) were performed. The results, with temperatures from 1460 Degree-Sign to 1740 Degree-Sign K. magnetic field from 0.35 to 1.03 Wb/m{sup 2}, seed fraction from 0.009 to 0.178 at % indicated the satisfactory operation of the channel in the following respects: Disassembly after the experiments showed the materials not appreciably changed from their initial condition (no significant transverse inter-electrode leakage was observed during the experiments); Complete reproducibility of the plasma conditions indicated excellent reliability of the electrical results; The electrical results obtained from the generated voltage-current characteristics of the plasma indicated thermal equilibrium ionization, as expected from the conditions of the experiments; The varying of the inner channel wall temperature by use of the wall heaters was reflected in the increased electrical conductivity of the plasma. This is a clear indication of the importance of wall temperature conditions in performing sensible MPD experiments. At present the loop is under the final assembly and the pebble bed storage heater has been successfully thermally cycled at 2000 Degree-Sign K under vacuum. (author)

  3. Severe accident experiments on PLINIUS platform. Results of first experiments on COLIMA facility related to VVER-440. Presentation of planned VULCANO and KROTOS tests

    Piluso, P.; Boccaccio, E.; Bonnet, J.-M.; Journeau, C.; Fouquart, P.; Magallon, D.; Ivanov, I.; Mladenov, I.; Kalchev, S.; Grudev, P.; Alsmeyer, H.; Fluhrer, B.; Leskovar, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the hypothetical case of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the reactor core could melt and form a mixture of nuclear fuel (UO 2 + Fission Products), metallic or oxidized cladding + steel, called c orium , of highly refractory oxides (UO 2 , ZrO 2 ) and metallic or oxidized steel, that could eventually flow out of the vessel and mix with the substrate decomposition products (generally oxides such as SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 ). The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has launched a R and D programme aimed at providing the tools for improving the mastering of severe accidents. It encompasses the development of models and codes, performance of experiments in simulant and prototypic materials and the analysis of international experiments. The experiments with prototypic corium (i.e. material containing depleted UO 2 ) are performed in the PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache. It comprises the VULCANO facility for 50-100 kg tests (corium-material interactions, corium solidification etc.), the COLIMA facility for smaller scale (∼1 kg) experiments, the VITI facility for corium properties measurement and the KROTOS facility for corium-water interaction (a few kg). In the framework of the 5 th European Framework Programme, free trans-national access to these facilities has been offered to EU and Associated States researchers. For the first PLINIUS access, COLIMA experiments have been conducted with a Bulgarian Team (TU/SOFIA, BAS/INRNE and NPP/KOZLODUY). This series of tests was devoted to experimental studies on fission products release and corium behaviour in the late phase in a hypothetic case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440. The COLIMA experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels (VERCORS, PHEBUS) with small differences for some fission products and show new results for the remaining corium. For the second visit, scientific users from FZK in Germany were selected to validate the COMET core

  4. Maritime Continent seasonal climate biases in AMIP experiments of the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble

    Toh, Ying Ying; Turner, Andrew G.; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Holloway, Christopher E.

    2018-02-01

    The fidelity of 28 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models in simulating mean climate over the Maritime Continent in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiment is evaluated in this study. The performance of AMIP models varies greatly in reproducing seasonal mean climate and the seasonal cycle. The multi-model mean has better skill at reproducing the observed mean climate than the individual models. The spatial pattern of 850 hPa wind is better simulated than the precipitation in all four seasons. We found that model horizontal resolution is not a good indicator of model performance. Instead, a model's local Maritime Continent biases are somewhat related to its biases in the local Hadley circulation and global monsoon. The comparison with coupled models in CMIP5 shows that AMIP models generally performed better than coupled models in the simulation of the global monsoon and local Hadley circulation but less well at simulating the Maritime Continent annual cycle of precipitation. To characterize model systematic biases in the AMIP runs, we performed cluster analysis on Maritime Continent annual cycle precipitation. Our analysis resulted in two distinct clusters. Cluster I models are able to capture both the winter monsoon and summer monsoon shift, but they overestimate the precipitation; especially during the JJA and SON seasons. Cluster II models simulate weaker seasonal migration than observed, and the maximum rainfall position stays closer to the equator throughout the year. The tropics-wide properties of these clusters suggest a connection between the skill of simulating global properties of the monsoon circulation and the skill of simulating the regional scale of Maritime Continent precipitation.

  5. A simple irradiation facility for radiobiological experiments with low energy protons from a cyclotron

    Mukherjee, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental facility for irradiation of small biological targets with low-energy protons has been developed. The depth-dose distribution in soft-tissue is calculated from the proton energy spectrum. (orig.)

  6. Performance of the first Japanese large-scale facility for radon inhalation experiments with small animals

    Ishimori, Y.; Mitsunobu, F.; Yamaoka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kataoka, T.; Sakoda, A.

    2011-01-01

    A radon test facility for small animals was developed in order to increase the statistical validity of differences of the biological response in various radon environments. This paper illustrates the performances of that facility, the first large-scale facility of its kind in Japan. The facility has a capability to conduct approximately 150 mouse-scale tests at the same time. The apparatus for exposing small animals to radon has six animal chamber groups with five independent cages each. Different radon concentrations in each animal chamber group are available. Because the first target of this study is to examine the in vivo behaviour of radon and its effects, the major functions to control radon and to eliminate thoron were examined experimentally. Additionally, radon progeny concentrations and their particle size distributions in the cages were also examined experimentally to be considered in future projects. (authors)

  7. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  8. Operating experience and radiation protection problems in the working of the radio-metallurgy hot cell facilities at BARC

    Janardhanan, S.; Watamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K.; Pillai, P.M.B.; John, Jacob; Kutty, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay has six hot cell facilities for radiometallurgical investigations of irradiated/failed fuel elements. The hot cell facilities have been provided with certain built-in safety features, a ventilation system, radiation monitoring instruments for various purposes, a centralised air monitoring system and a central panel for display of various alarms. Procedures adopted for radiation protection and contamination control include : (1) radiation leak test for cells and filter efficiency evaluation before cell activation, (2) practices to be followed by frog suit personnel while working in hot cell areas, (3) receipt and handling of irradiated fuel elements, (4) cell filter change operation, (5) checks on high level drains and (6) effluent discharge and waste shipments. Operating experience in the working of these facilities along with radiation accident incidents is described. Data regarding release of activity during normal cell operations, dose rates during various metallurgical operations and personnel exposures are presented. (M.G.B.)

  9. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  10. Commissioning and early operating experience with the Fermilab horizontal test facility

    Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.; Rowe, A.; Theilacker, J.; Votava, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    Fermilab has constructed a facility for testing dressed superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cavities at 1.8 K with high-power pulsed RF. This test stand was designed to test both 9-cell 1.3 GHz TESLA-style cavities and 9-cell 3.9 GHz cavities being built by Fermilab for DESY's TTF-FLASH facility. An overview of the test stand and a description of its initial commissioning is described here.

  11. Status and future program of reactor physics experiments in JAERI Critical facilities, FCA and TCA

    Okajima, Shigeaki; Osugi, Toshitaka; Nakajima, Ken; Suzaki, Takenori; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1999-01-01

    The critical facilities in JAERI, FCA (Fast Critical Assembly) and TCA (Tank-type Critical Assembly), have been used to provide integral data for evaluation of nuclear data as well as for development of various types of reactor since they went critical in 1960's. In this paper a review is presented on the experimental programs in both facilities. And the experimental programs in next 5 years are also shown. (author)

  12. Climate change effects on shallow lakes: design and preliminary results of a cross-European climate gradient mesocosm experiment

    Landkildehus, F.; Søndergaard, M.; Beklioglu, M.; Adrian, R.; Angeler, D.G.; Hejzlar, Josef; Papastergiadou, E.; Zingel, P.; Çakiroğlu, A.I.; Scharfenberger, U.; Drakare, S.; Nõges, T.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Trigal, C.; Mahdy, A.; Papadaki, C.; Tuvikene, L.; Larsen, S.E.; Kernan, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 71-89 ISSN 1736-602X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * nutrient enrichment * water level effects * macroecology * REFRESH project * macrophytes * metabolism Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. The National Criticality Experiments Research Center at the Device Assembly Facility, Nevada National Security Site: Status and Capabilities, Summary Report

    Bragg-Sitton, S.; Bess, J.; Werner, J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) was officially opened on August 29, 2011. Located within the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the NCERC has become a consolidation facility within the United States for critical configuration testing, particularly those involving highly enriched uranium (HEU). The DAF is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that is operated by the National Nuclear Security Agency/Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). User laboratories include the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Personnel bring their home lab qualifications and procedures with them to the DAF, such that non-site specific training need not be repeated to conduct work at DAF. The NNSS Management and Operating contractor is National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and the NNSS Safeguards and Security contractor is Wackenhut Services. The complete report provides an overview and status of the available laboratories and test bays at NCERC, available test materials and test support configurations, and test requirements and limitations for performing sub-critical and critical tests. The current summary provides a brief summary of the facility status and the method by which experiments may be introduced to NCERC.

  14. Assessment of the MARS Code Using the Two-Phase Natural Circulation Experiments at a Core Catcher Test Facility

    Dong Hun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A core catcher has been developed to maintain the integrity of nuclear reactor containment from molten corium during a severe accident. It uses a two-phase natural circulation for cooling molten corium. Flow in a typical core catcher is unique because (i it has an inclined cooling channel with downwards-facing heating surface, of which flow processes are not fully exploited, (ii it is usually exposed to a low-pressure condition, where phase change causes dramatic changes in the flow, and (iii the effects of a multidimensional flow are very large in the upper part of the core catcher. These features make computational analysis more difficult. In this study, the MARS code is assessed using the two-phase natural circulation experiments that had been conducted at the CE-PECS facility to verify the cooling performance of a core catcher. The code is a system-scale thermal-hydraulic (TH code and has a multidimensional TH component. The facility was modeled by using both one- and three-dimensional components. Six experiments at the facility were selected to investigate the parametric effects of heat flux, pressure, and form loss. The results show that MARS can predict the two-phase flow at the facility reasonably well. However, some limitations are obviously revealed.

  15. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.

    2017-01-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ~6.1×10"2"0 p/cm"2 and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ~10"2"0 cm"-"2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  16. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zhong, Z.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.; Misek, J.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Kotsina, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140-180 MeV, to peak fluence of ˜6.1 ×1020 p /cm2 and irradiation temperatures between 120 - 200 °C . The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young's modulus. The proton fluence level of ˜1020 cm-2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  17. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  18. Cleanup of a Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility: Experience at the Los Alamos National Laboratory High Pressure Tritium Laboratory

    Horak, H.L.

    1995-01-01

    On October 25, 1990, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ceased programmatic operations at the High Pressure Tritium Laboratory (HPTL). Since that time, LANL has been preparing the facility for transfer into the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. LANL staff now has considerable operational experience with the cleanup of a 40-year-old facility used exclusively to conduct experiments in the use of tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Tritium and its compounds have permeated the HPTL structure and equipment, have affected operations and procedures, and now dominate efforts at cleanup and disposal. At the time of shutdown, the HPTL still had a tritium inventory of over 100 grams in a variety of forms and containers

  19. Experience on implementation of the Integrated Safeguards approach for the MOX facility from the operator's point of view

    Nomi, Takayoshi; Nagatani, Taketeru; Ninagawa, Junichi; Nakajima, Shinji; Maruyama, Hajime; Asano, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    The IS approach for the JNC-1 site was implemented in August 2008, and this was the first experience in the world. This IS approach aimed not only to improve efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards but also to reduce burden of the plant operation by improvement of efficiency of the inspection activity. It was planned to review effectiveness of this new approach after three years from implementation. And JAEA also evaluated effects by application of the IS approach for two MOX fuel facilities in the JNC-1 site based on the three years experiences from the operator's view point. As the result of evaluation, it was confirmed that there were some difference of benefits by application of the IS approach depending on features of the facility, automation level of equipment and advance level of safeguards systems. (author)

  20. The Ophidia Stack: Toward Large Scale, Big Data Analytics Experiments for Climate Change

    Fiore, S.; Williams, D. N.; D'Anca, A.; Nassisi, P.; Aloisio, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Ophidia project is a research effort on big data analytics facing scientific data analysis challenges in multiple domains (e.g. climate change). It provides a "datacube-oriented" framework responsible for atomically processing and manipulating scientific datasets, by providing a common way to run distributive tasks on large set of data fragments (chunks). Ophidia provides declarative, server-side, and parallel data analysis, jointly with an internal storage model able to efficiently deal with multidimensional data and a hierarchical data organization to manage large data volumes. The project relies on a strong background on high performance database management and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems to manage large scientific datasets. The Ophidia analytics platform provides several data operators to manipulate datacubes (about 50), and array-based primitives (more than 100) to perform data analysis on large scientific data arrays. To address interoperability, Ophidia provides multiple server interfaces (e.g. OGC-WPS). From a client standpoint, a Python interface enables the exploitation of the framework into Python-based eco-systems/applications (e.g. IPython) and the straightforward adoption of a strong set of related libraries (e.g. SciPy, NumPy). The talk will highlight a key feature of the Ophidia framework stack: the "Analytics Workflow Management System" (AWfMS). The Ophidia AWfMS coordinates, orchestrates, optimises and monitors the execution of multiple scientific data analytics and visualization tasks, thus supporting "complex analytics experiments". Some real use cases related to the CMIP5 experiment will be discussed. In particular, with regard to the "Climate models intercomparison data analysis" case study proposed in the EU H2020 INDIGO-DataCloud project, workflows related to (i) anomalies, (ii) trend, and (iii) climate change signal analysis will be presented. Such workflows will be distributed across multiple sites - according to the