WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate economy geopolitics

  1. The new energy challenges: climate, economy, geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil, coal and natural gas, three polluting and non-renewable energies, supply more than 80% of the World daily energy consumption. Today, the scientific community has acknowledged the responsibility of this consumption on the global warming which may have dramatic impacts on physical, economical, social and political equilibria of our planet. Climate has become a public resource which belongs to everybody, the management of which should be done collectively and prospectively. However, the nation-states defend their wealth, their immediate interest without globalization and long-term outlook. This book treats of the new energy challenges under their regional and global aspects. This allows to better understand the dynamics of a multipolar world. Each region of the world has its own specificity, its capital of natural resources, its history, its own level of economic development, and its vulnerability with respect to climate change. For hundreds of million people, priority is given to the economic growth and wealth generation, but such a priority is synonymous of rise of the energy consumption and increase of greenhouse gas emissions. This opposition between 'more energy' and 'less emissions' is source of new economical and geopolitical tensions. Only a reinforcement of the world governance can solve these contradictions by the affirmation of a solidarity between populations, and for the first time, between generations. (J.S.)

  2. The new energy challenges: climate, economy, geopolitics; Les nouveaux defis de l'energie: climat, economie, geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.M. [Paris-Dauphine Univ., 75 - Paris (France); Aoun, M.C.; Campaner, N.; Cruciani, M.; Geoffron, P.; Gubaidullin, A.; Hristova, I.; Keppler, J.H.; Lautier, D.; Mandil, C.; Meritet, S.; Ouedraogo, N.; Rouhier, S.; Salaun, F.; Simon, Y.; Zaleski, C.P

    2009-07-01

    Oil, coal and natural gas, three polluting and non-renewable energies, supply more than 80% of the World daily energy consumption. Today, the scientific community has acknowledged the responsibility of this consumption on the global warming which may have dramatic impacts on physical, economical, social and political equilibria of our planet. Climate has become a public resource which belongs to everybody, the management of which should be done collectively and prospectively. However, the nation-states defend their wealth, their immediate interest without globalization and long-term outlook. This book treats of the new energy challenges under their regional and global aspects. This allows to better understand the dynamics of a multipolar world. Each region of the world has its own specificity, its capital of natural resources, its history, its own level of economic development, and its vulnerability with respect to climate change. For hundreds of million people, priority is given to the economic growth and wealth generation, but such a priority is synonymous of rise of the energy consumption and increase of greenhouse gas emissions. This opposition between 'more energy' and 'less emissions' is source of new economical and geopolitical tensions. Only a reinforcement of the world governance can solve these contradictions by the affirmation of a solidarity between populations, and for the first time, between generations. (J.S.)

  3. Geopolitics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has become an international policy topic. Its stakes go beyond the simple ecological question to encompass the overall global equilibrium, and in particular the North-South relations. This book, with solid references and illustrated with a tenth of color maps, examines the geopolitical dimension of global warming. Who are the countries responsible or considered to be so? Who are those who will be the most impacted? What population migrations have already started or have to be foreseen? What are the international security risks? The author presents also the different international cooperation mechanisms already implemented and takes stock of the present day situation of negotiations. We are entering into the critical phase, and probably into the potentially dramatic phase as well. This book allows to understand its key aspects and driving forces

  4. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  5. Geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The section Geopolitics holds 5 articles, 2 interviews, and 2 columns. The articles are (1) on the EU-Russian relations, (2) the energy diplomacy of the European Union with regard to the Mashreq countries and Iraq, (3) the undermined status of the USA as a result of rising oil prices; (4) oil projects in Kazakhstan, and (5) the future of the world's oil supply. The two one-page interviews concern a board member of Wintershall (Seele) on the Nord Stream pipeline problems, and the role of an Russian energy expert (Litvinenko) in the Russian energy policy. Both columns are on oil prices

  6. The new energy crisis : Climate, Economics and Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Global warming reveals that the current evolution of the world consumption is on an unsustainable path. Humankind's insatiable appetite for energy has sparked a new crisis. In a world where climate change has become a proven reality, there lies a deep uncertainty about the physical, economic and social impacts of this phenomenon. The New Energy Crisis examines the impact of climate change issues into energy economics and geopolitics. Climate is a public resource that needs to be universally m...

  7. THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BACIU Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries to another countries (the producing countries is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world politics is very high due to this situation.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  8. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  9. The Geopolitics of Climate Change: Challenges to the International System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the consequences of climate change and global warming for international politics in general and international security in particular. The report focuses on whether and in what way climate change may alter the conditions of international security. From this perspective, the initial effects of climate change will vary according to existing economic, political and social structures in different world regions. Organised violence is more likely in regions with weak states and conflictual inter-state dynamics than in those characterised by co-operative relations. In the short- to medium term, climate change is unlikely to alter the constitutive structures of international security. However, depending on the severity of climate change, these conditions may change over the long term. Such changes will probably depend on the secondary effects that change has on the world and regional economies. Climate change is unlikely to lead to an increase in conflicts in the short- to medium term, but a long-term development marked by unmitigated climate change could very well have serious consequences for international security. The report argues that, although necessary, mitigation and adaptation measures may have consequences for international politics. These are due to the changes in social and political systems that they entail

  10. The Geopolitics of Climate Change: Challenges to the International System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halden, Peter

    2007-12-15

    This report analyses the consequences of climate change and global warming for international politics in general and international security in particular. The report focuses on whether and in what way climate change may alter the conditions of international security. From this perspective, the initial effects of climate change will vary according to existing economic, political and social structures in different world regions. Organised violence is more likely in regions with weak states and conflictual inter-state dynamics than in those characterised by co-operative relations. In the short- to medium term, climate change is unlikely to alter the constitutive structures of international security. However, depending on the severity of climate change, these conditions may change over the long term. Such changes will probably depend on the secondary effects that change has on the world and regional economies. Climate change is unlikely to lead to an increase in conflicts in the short- to medium term, but a long-term development marked by unmitigated climate change could very well have serious consequences for international security. The report argues that, although necessary, mitigation and adaptation measures may have consequences for international politics. These are due to the changes in social and political systems that they entail.

  11. The geopolitics and geo-strategy of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific consensus on the problems of global warming has taken a long time to emerge: on its extent; on its causes; and on its predicted consequences. It is just about achieved today. The article sets out the history of the negotiations that have led to the current situation, and then the setback (doubtless temporary, but none the less certain for all that) of the Copenhagen conference. It reminds us of what we know about global warming, and evokes its likely consequences: the desertification of entire regions in the centre of our continents and in the Mediterranean region, reductions in biological diversity, rising sea levels, melting polar ice caps, and growing tensions in the energy economy. (author)

  12. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  13. Geopolitics, economy and international solidarity in the new South-South cooperation: the case of Bolivarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele BENZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show an overview of the energy cooperation scheme called PETROCARIBE, proposed in 2005 by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the Caribbean and Central American countries. It argues that the emergence of this project, like other South-South cooperation initiatives, is clearly linked to several strategic foreign policy goals, which basically refer to geopolitical, economic, security and, last but not least, international solidarity parameters. The first section outlines some general characteristics of South-South cooperation and current trends and debates. The following presents the peculiar features of the Bolivarian foreign and energy policies. The next presents a general description of the PETROCARIBE framework, working mechanisms and its most important projects. Finally, after a discussion on PETROCARIBE as a South-South cooperation initiative, by highlighting its scopes, problems and vulnerabilities, some conclusions are drawn.

  14. 气候变化对地缘政治格局的影响路径与效应%Influence path and effect of climate change on geopolitical pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limao; GU Mengchen; LI Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    @@%Marked by the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen 2009,climate change is shaping the new pattern for future geopolitics with unprecedented drive.Climate change-has surpassed the category of pure environment problem and become a focal issue in international relations.Driven by climate change,new changes have taken place in the evolution of geopolitical pattern.(1) Geopolitical contention expands into new fields and regions.(2) Measures and tools of geopolitical contention become more diversified.(3) Main bodies of geopolitical gambling are divided into different groups.With the development of politicization,climate change has become the significant driving force that can influence the evolution of geopolitical pattern.Measures,sphere and contents of geopolitical contention changed dramatically,carbon emission permits,carbon tariff and new energy technology turned into the key points of geopolitical contention.Climate change acts on the evolution of geopolitical pattern through three main paths:"Feedback effect","Trace back effect",and "Ripple effect",and they exert influence on geopolitical pattern with three impacts:"Depression effect","Traceability effect",and "Diffusion effect".We draw several conclusions from the analysis:(1) Climate change gradually becomes one of the most active driving forces to impact on the evolution of geopolitical pattern in the present world and it diversifies the geopolitical targets.(2) Climate change generates new geopolitical tools.The developed countries use climate change as a "Lever" to pry strategic resources like energy and grain and the geopolitical means are in a more secretive way.(3) Low-carbon technology,with new energy technology as the core,becomes the key factor of geopolitical influence and power transition.Those who can take advantage of new energy technologies will occupy the leading position in future's climate change negotiations and geopolitical competition.

  15. Geopolitics: A Guide to the Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Provides overview of how geography influences international relations and international politics including climate change, energy security, international economics, and international security. Introduces key figures in geopolitics development as a discipline such as Alfred Thayer Mahan and Halford Mackinder, covers the geopolitical interests of individuals countries, describes disciplinary divisions within geopolitics, details international geopolitical crisis areas and provides maps of some...

  16. Geopolitics. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters

  17. Geopolitics. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-09-15

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters.

  18. Influence Path and Effect of Climate Change on Geopolitical Pattern%气候变化对地缘政治格局的影响路径与效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王礼茂; 李红强; 顾梦琛

    2012-01-01

    Marked by the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen 2009, climate change is shaping the new pattern for future geopolitics with unprecedented drive. Climate change has surpassed the category of pure environment problem and become a focal issue in international relations. Under the drive of climate change, new changes have taken place in the evolution of geopolitical patterns. (1) Geopolitical contention expands into new fields and regions. (2) Measures and tools of geopolitical contention have become more diversified. (3) Main bodies of geopolitical gambling can be divided into defferent groups. With the development of politicization, climate change has become the driving force to have significant influence on the evolution of geopolitical patterns. Measures, sphere and contents of geopolitical contention changed dramatically, carbon emission permits, carbon tariff, new energy technology turned into the key points of geopolitical contention. Climate change acts on the evolution of geopolitical pattern through three main paths: "Trace back effect", "Feedback effect" and "Ripple effect", and they exert influence on geopolitical pattern in three aspects: "Traceability effect", "Depression effect" and "Diffusion effect". We draw several conclusions from the analysis: (1) climate change tends to be one of the most active driving forces to have impact on the evolution of geopolitical patterns in the present world and it diversifies the geopolitical targets; (2) climate change generates new geopolitical tools. The developed countries use climate change as a "lever" to pry strategic resources such as energy and grain, and the geopolitical means can be used in a more secretive way; (3) low carbon economy, with new energy technology as the core, becomes the key factor of geopolitical influence and power transition. Those who can take advantage of new energy technologies will occupy the leading position in climate change negotiations and geopolitical competition in the

  19. The economy of climatic change. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous article in this magazine by Aalbers and Vollebergh it was concluded that good economic arguments are available for the precautionary principle in the climate control policy. That also pleads for a far-going Dutch climate control policy. It is the opinion of the author that the foundations of their arguments are not good enough. The above-mentioned authors reply with the one-page article 'De economie van Utopia' (The economy of Utopia) to Boot's article. 7 refs

  20. Economy, Geopolitics, environment: the triple gas issue in the relations between the Eu and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the political tinge it has recently acquired, natural gas has taken a central position in the relations between the EU and Russia Besides energy security, the issue has three levels: the first is the opening of markets or the maintaining of monopolies, as much in Russia as in the European Union. The line of fracture is complex, and at present, in spite of rhetoric support on the opening of markets, it is rather their protection which is on the agenda. The second level is that of energy diplomacy Brussels and Moscow come face to face primarily in Central Asia, on the basis of interests and using diametrically opposite instrument. However, their policies are characterised by weighty constraints. The third level is that of the fight against climatic change. Soaring in this field, there are several convergencies between the policies of Brussels and Moscow, particularly in terms of energy efficiency. With this new order, gas could watch itself grow in significance, or otherwise drop, in which case the relation between the EU and Russian would not go uninfluenced. (author)

  1. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  2. Economy of climate policy. Criticism and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of climate policy is characterized by notions as cost-benefit analysis, optimal policy and optimal timing. It is argued that the use of such notions reflects an unjustified optimism with respect to the contribution of economic science to the discussion on climate policy. The complexity of the biosphere and the uncertainty about climatic change, as well as their socio-economic consequences, are extensive. Another economic approach of the climate problem is suggested, based on complexity and historical justice. 12 refs

  3. The geopolitics and geo-strategy of climate change; Geopolitique et geostrategie du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocard, M

    2010-02-15

    Scientific consensus on the problems of global warming has taken a long time to emerge: on its extent; on its causes; and on its predicted consequences. It is just about achieved today. The article sets out the history of the negotiations that have led to the current situation, and then the setback (doubtless temporary, but none the less certain for all that) of the Copenhagen conference. It reminds us of what we know about global warming, and evokes its likely consequences: the desertification of entire regions in the centre of our continents and in the Mediterranean region, reductions in biological diversity, rising sea levels, melting polar ice caps, and growing tensions in the energy economy. (author)

  4. GREEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE CHANGE PREVENTION CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While experts in economics place transition to green economy on two directions - reducing ecological footprint and increasing human welfare - climate change specialists warn that effects of global warming will have a much greater impact in the future. It is natural to join scientific contributions in these two areas because both perspectives recognize the ravages made by industrialization, which triggered a serie of abrupt climate changes. For example, the average temperature in Europe has increased about 1oC. Based on these evidences, this article will show the usefulness of introducing a concept of full cycle to prevent climate change in the new paradigm that seeks to solve problems related to the fundamentals of sustainable development through transition to green economy. Using this method, this approach intends to be a new theoretical contribution which can act as support to efficiency of new clean technologies.

  5. Modeling Water, Climate, Agriculture, and the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Winston; Yang, Yi-chen; Savitsky, Andre; Alford, Donald; Brown, Casey; Wescoat, James; Debowicz, Dario; Robinson, Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Describes two models used in the integrated modeling framework designed to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin: (1) the Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR-1012), a hydro-economic optimization model that takes a variety of inputs (such as agronomic information, irrigation system data, and water inflows) to generate the optimal crop production across the provinces (subject to a variety of physical and political constraints) for every month of the year; and (...

  6. Geopolitical Considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    India is contiguous with Southeast Asia, holding borderlines of more than 2000 kilometers with Burma. India's Andaman-Nicobar Islands situate near the outlet of the Malacca Strait, with their southmost point only 128 kilometers from Indonesia's Sumatra. Given its dominant status and power in South Asia, and its special geographic location neighboring Southeast Asia, India is the only power in South Asia that can interact geopolitically with Southeast Asia in the present and foreseeable future. In fact, its geopolitical connection with the latter has long come into existence.

  7. Geopolitical aspects of energy corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of China, the return of Russia on the world stage and the concentration of large energy reserves in non-market oriented economies makes the geopolitical game more fierce. Who will have access to the main energy corridors? Europe, which is becoming almost completely dependent on foreign oil and gas, is standing on the sideline as an outsider. [mk

  8. Geopolitical Geworfenheit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘greater Nordic space’ between Great Britain, Germany and Russia has over time varied with the balance of power. The Baltic States e.g. have been in and out of the space, rejoining by regaining sovereignty after the end of the Cold War. Russia’s actions in Ukraine and beyond during 2014 mark...... the end of the Post-Cold War period and its aspiration to peaceful integration. The small states of the greater Nordic space are now rediscovering their inescapable geopolitical nearness to Russia. Drawing on RSCT and Nordic-Baltic integration literature, the article contributes to understanding the...

  9. Construction of a novel economy-climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOU JieMing; DONG WenJie; YE DuZheng

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to construct a novel economy-climate model by combining climate change research with agricultural economy research to evaluate the influence of global climate change on grain yields. The insertion of a climate change factor into the economic C-D (Cobb-Dauglas) production function model yields a novel evaluation model, which connects the climate change factor to the economic variation factor, and the performance and reasonableness of the novel evaluation model are also preliminarily simulated and verified.

  10. Climate Change Consequences for Iowa'S Economy, Infrastructure, and Emergency Services

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is Chapter 6 in the state-mandated Regent's institution collaborative report, "Climate Change Impacts on Iowa, 2010: Report to the Governor and the Iowa General Assembly."Iowa's climate is changing, and that means Iowa's economy is changing. A changing Iowa economy will have consequences for agriculture, food production, Iowa's vaunted insurance agency, general energy use, Iowa's households, Iowa governments, and disaster services. This chapter profiles near and longer term consequences ...

  11. The economy of the climatic change; Economie du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, J.

    2011-01-15

    In his introduction, the author recalls that the climatic warming up is admitted by everybody and that the Total firm follows the recommendations of the main point of the scientific community to integrate it in a permanent way in its approach. (O.M.)

  12. Urban Agglomeration Economies in Climate Policy : A Dynamic CGE Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grazi, F.; Waisman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs and solves a theoretical model in the light of the new economic geography to assess the role of urban land use in driving local energy consumption pathways that affect global climate change. To inform on the urban economic sectors of climate pressure we offer new modeling arguments and take the next step of testing them in simulations using computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for international climate policy. The exercise of embedding urban economies in a CGE framewo...

  13. Climate Change and European Union Member Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Margaux Tharin; Alina Gabriela Brezoi; Livia–Irina Olaru

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects us all both global and personal level. In recent years, we have seen an increase in extreme weather phenomena such as floods, droughts, tornadoes, increased shoreline erosion seas and oceans. The phenomenon of climate change that changed the globe is an irreversible process. Due to extreme weather events to human civilization began to be in danger.

  14. Theoretical considerations on the geopolitics of energy transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Energy transitions can have large geopolitical consequences and, vice versa, geopolitics influence transitions. In the current literature on the transition to a hydrogen economy, it has only little attention. This chapter will describe an analytical framework that can be used to describe the evoluti

  15. Implications of Climate Change for Ghana’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channing Arndt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-run economic development in Ghana is potentially vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change given the country’s dependence on rain-fed agriculture, hydropower and unpaved rural roads. We use a computable general equilibrium model, informed by detailed sector studies, to estimate the economy-wide impacts of climate change under four climate projections. Climate change is found to always reduce national welfare, with poor and urban households and the northern Savannah zone being the worst affected. However, there is wide variation across scenarios in the size of climate impacts and in the relative importance of sectoral impact channels, thus underscoring the need for multi-sector approaches that account for climate uncertainty. Our analysis of adaptation options indicates that investing in agricultural research and extension, and improved road surfaces, are potentially cost-effective means of mitigating most of the damages from climate change in Ghana.

  16. The economy of the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his introduction, the author recalls that the climatic warming up is admitted by everybody and that the Total firm follows the recommendations of the main point of the scientific community to integrate it in a permanent way in its approach. (O.M.)

  17. Popular Geopolitics of Japan: Geopolitical Discourses of Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Zorko; Hrvoje Mostarac

    2014-01-01

    Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local prod...

  18. The Geopolitics of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousek, Joseph S.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a geopolitical history of the African continent. Its geography, mineral resources, regional industrial development, and international role are discussed. The impact of African foreign policies on the struggle between China and Taiwan is examined. (AM)

  19. Popular Geopolitics of Japan: Geopolitical Discourses of Anime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zorko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local production and global recognition. The second is their double coding. Although they are a product of the traditional geopolitical culture of Japan’s entertainment industry, they are able to create a contemporary geopolitical culture at the same time. Through an analysis of three anime series, Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, Earth Maiden Arjuna and Mobile Suit Gundam 00, we explore the geographic and geopolitical characteristics of Japan and their influence on the traditional, as well as the contemporary geopolitical discourses.

  20. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

    2004-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

  1. Climate change impacts on the U.S. agricultural economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The most important aggregate measure of the long run health of the productive component of the agricultural economy is agricultural total factor productivity (TFP). Between 1948 and 2011, average annual input growth in US agriculture averaged approximately 0.07% while annual average output growth averaged roughly 1.5%. That translates into an annual average agricultural TFP growth rate of approximately 1.43%. That growth has led to a remarkable expansion of the productive ability of the US agricultural sector. However, climate change poses unprecedented challenges to U.S. agricultural production because of the sensitivity of agricultural productivity and costs to changing climate conditions. Some studies have examined the effect of climate change on U.S. agriculture. But none has investigated how climate affects the overall U.S. agricultural productivity. This study intends to find out climate change impacts on U.S. agricultural TFP change (TFPC). By correlation analysis with data in 1979-2005, we found that precipitation and temperature had significant positive or negative correlations with U.S. agricultural TFPC. Those correlation coefficients ranged from -0.8 to 0.8. And significant correlations, whether positive or negative, existed in different regions and different seasons. This is important information for policy-makers in decisions to support U.S. agriculture sustainability.

  2. The time scales of the climate-economy feedback and the climatic cost of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the perception that the inertia of climate and socio-economic systems are key parameters in the climate change issue. In a first part, it develops and implements a new approach based on a simple integrated model with a particular focus on an innovative transient impact and adaptation modelling. In a second part, a climate-economy feedback is defined and characterized. It is found that: (i) it has a 70-year characteristic time, which is long when compared to the system's other time-scales, and it cannot act as a natural damping process of climate change; (ii) mitigation has to be anticipated since the feedback of an emission reduction on the economy is significant only after a 20-year delay and really efficient after a one-century delay; (iii) the IPCC methodology, that neglects the feedback from impacts to emissions, is acceptable up to 2100, whatever is the level of impacts. This analysis allows also to define a climatic cost of growth as the additional climate change damages due to the additional emissions linked to economic growth. Usefully, this metric for climate change damages is particularly independent of the baseline scenario. (orig.)

  3. The time scales of the climate-economy feedback and the climatic cost of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, Stephane [CIRED - CNRM, Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper is based on the perception that the inertia of climate and socio-economic systems are key parameters in the climate change issue. In a first part, it develops and implements a new approach based on a simple integrated model with a particular focus on an innovative transient impact and adaptation modelling. In a second part, a climate-economy feedback is defined and characterized. It is found that: (i) it has a 70-year characteristic time, which is long when compared to the system's other time-scales, and it cannot act as a natural damping process of climate change; (ii) mitigation has to be anticipated since the feedback of an emission reduction on the economy is significant only after a 20-year delay and really efficient after a one-century delay; (iii) the IPCC methodology, that neglects the feedback from impacts to emissions, is acceptable up to 2100, whatever is the level of impacts. This analysis allows also to define a climatic cost of growth as the additional climate change damages due to the additional emissions linked to economic growth. Usefully, this metric for climate change damages is particularly independent of the baseline scenario. (orig.)

  4. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P. [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  5. An overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate change and the world economy is examined in this paper. In the absence of inter-generational transfers, efficient rates of greenhouse gas emissions abatement rise from 16% in the present to 25% in the long run, while mean global temperature increases by 7.4 deg C relative to the pre industrial norm. A utilitarian optimum, which attaches equal weight to each generation's life-cycle utility, yields abatement rates that rise from 48% to 89%, with a long-run temperature increase of 3.4 deg C. A second-best utilitarian path, in which inter-generational transfers are by assumption institutionally infeasible, also supports stringent abatement measures

  6. Climate Change and Pastoral Economy in Kenya: A Blinking Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julius M. HUHO; Josephine K.W. NGAIRA; Harun O. OGINDO

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the changing climatic scenarios and associated effects on livestock farming (pastoralism) in the arid and semi arid lands (ASAL) of Kenya, which cover over 80% of the country. The study was carried out in the semi arid Mukogodo Division of Laikipia District in Kenya. This division received a mean annual rainfall of approximately 507.8 mm and the main source of livelihood was pastoralism. Questionnaire, structured interview, observation and literature review were the main methods of data collection. Rainfall was used in delineating changes in climate.Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Markov process were used in analyzing drought severity and persistence, respectively. Approximately 38% of all droughts between 1975 and 2005 were prolonged and extremely severe, with cumulative severity indices ranging between -2.54 and -6.49.The probability that normal climatic conditions persisted for two or more consecutive years in Mukogodo Division remained constant at approximately 52%. However, the probability of wet years persisting for two or more years showed a declining trend, while persistence of dry years increased with duration. A drying climatic trend was established. This drying trend in the area led to increased land degradation and encroachment of invasive nonpalatable bushes. The net effect on pastoralism was large-scale livestock loss through starvation, disease and cattle rustling. Proper drought monitoring and accurate forecasts, community participation in all government interventions, infrastructural development in the ASAL and allocation of adequate resources for livestock development are some of the measures necessary for mitigating the dwindling pastoral economy in Kenya and other parts of the world.

  7. The effects of climate and climate change on the economy of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are summarized from a study into the link between climate warming expected from a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the economy of Alberta. Part of the study quantified the impacts of the 1988 temperature anomaly in the province, using actual economic data for the same year. The 1988 temperatures averaged 3 C higher than normal for the year, and thus were similar to those projected (due to climate change) to be the new normals 4-5 decades from the present. In the agricultural sector, the overall economy is less dependent on climate due to the likelihood of offsetting positive and negative regional impacts. Adaptive methods appear to have the potential to mitigate any impacts by changing crop types and farming methods across regions, and by adjusting the mix of farming in any given region. In the forest sector, fire occurrence and frequency depend on seasonal distribution of precipitation; model predictions are probably not reliable enough to estimate the frequency or intensity of future fire occurrences. In the energy sector, total provincial electrical usage is not strongly climate-dependent, but 80% of natural gas consumption is dependent on climate. Under one scenario, the total provincial electrical energy saving is estimated at 0.5% annually and a 20% reduction in natural gas demand. In other sectors, general results suggest climate change would extend the seasonal and geographical range for many summer activities while the effects on winter activities are more uncertain. The links between climate and wildlife or human populations are not well defined. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Vulnerability of freshwater fisheries and impacts of climate change in south Indian states economies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sannadurgappa, D.; Abitha, R.; Sukumaran, S.

    The vulnerability of five states in India national economies to potential climate change impacts on their capture fisheries using an indicator-based approach were compared. The states: Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh, Kerala and Maharashtra were...

  9. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  10. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  11. The importance of CO2 capture and storage: A geopolitical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsson Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 capture and storage (CCS technology is since more than ten years considered one of the key options for the future climate change mitigation. This paper discusses the implications for the further development of CCS, particularly with respect to climate change policy in an international geopolitics context. The rationale for developing CCS should be the over-abundance of fossil fuel reserves (and resources in a climate change context. From a geopolitical point, it can be argued that the most important outcome from the successful commercialisation of CCS will be that fossil fuel-dependent economies with large fossil fuel resources will find it easier to comply with stringent greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets (i.e. to attach a price to CO2 emissions. This should be of great importance since, from a geopolitical view, the curbing on GHG emissions cannot be isolated from security of supply and economic competition between regions. Thus, successful application of CCS may moderate geopolitical risks related to regional differences in the possibilities and thereby willingness to comply with large emission cuts. In Europe, application of CCS will enhance security of supply by fuel diversification from continued use of coal, especially domestic lignite. Introduction of CCS will also make possible negative emissions when using biomass as a fuel, i.e. in so called Biomass Energy CCS (BECCS. Yet, the development of BECCS relies on the successful development of fossil fuelled CCS since BECCS in itself is unlikely to be sufficient for establishing a cost efficient CCS infrastructure for transport and storage and because BECCS does not solve the problem with the abundant resources of fossil fuels. Results from research and development of capture, transport and storage of CO2 indicate that the barriers for commercialization of CCS should not be technical. Instead, the main barriers for implementation of CCS seem to be how to reach public acceptance

  12. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation but...... in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in...... particular after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is...

  13. KlimaCH4. Climate effects of biomethane economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the project ''Climate effects of biomethane economy'' (KlimaCH4) of the German Biomass Research Centre two methods for measurement of direct greenhouse gas emissions were analyzed for their applicability and comparability. In the context of concrete measurements direct emissions, mainly of methane, three biogas plants with methane treatment for feeding into the natural gas grid were quantified. These tests were carried out on the one hand directly on-site by using leak detection, enclosures and ''open chamber'' measurements, but also indirectly by optical remote sensing with tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and reverse dispersion modelling by inverse dispersion modeling. The on-site method offers the possibility, to investigate the influences of plant operation on emissions of known diffuse sources, inter alia, through the balance of the operating status with the timeline of a specific emission source (e.g. as increased release of methane due to stirring intervals). This is particularly useful for deriving appropriate measures to reduce emissions. The quantification of individual, diffuse emission sources is metrologically possibly only very costly to implement. The effort is depending to a considerable extent by the design and the size of the examined biogas plant. In order to detect the influence seasonal changing of environmental conditions recurring emission measurements were realized. The use of optical telemetry showed as an advantageous alternative to on-site method, because it can significantly reduce time required for emission measurements particularly at large biogas plants or plants with numerous individual sources. With only one measurement sequence all emission sources are covered, without consuming individual measurements. In addition, in comparision to the on-site method, the emission situation of the entire system can be better reproduced, since all individual sources are included in

  14. Economy of climatic change. From mitigation to adaptation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change adaptation policies are the subject of this thesis. It has been showed that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the response strategies construction are characteristic of a pollutionist approach. This approach led to envision the question of climate change as a classic pollution and environment issue. As a result, this approach has generated a double bias to the disadvantage of adaptation compared to mitigation policies: adaptation has been confined in a secondary and marginal role in climate policies structuring, and with an inoperative conceptual and methodological framework for its implementation. The thesis proposes a deconstruction of this climate change conceptualization. Moreover, the major limits that characterize mitigation policies call into question the predominance given to them in climate policies construction. The 'pollutionist' approach deconstruction allows at first to show that adaptation policies definition and operationalization need to go beyond (i) the standard analytic framework of climate policies and, (ii) the climate change conceptualization as a classic pollution and environment management issue. The thesis then argues that adaptation has to be integrated in development promoting policies, which means that adaptation needs to be conceptualized no longer as an ad hoc management of pollution effects issue, but as a development issue. Whether in the proper context of adaptation policies, or more largely of climate policies, the thesis leaves open the questions of the viability, but also of the organization and financing modalities, of a climate regime which fits within development promoting. (author)

  15. Romania Toward a Low Carbon and Climate Resilient Economy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report is about agriculture sector of Romania which is endowed with high quality natural resources and tops the European Union (EU) ranking by the share of the agriculture sector in the economy. However, Romanian agriculture has low productivity, and rural areas are disproportionally poor. An important factor in low productivity is the large share of small agricultural holdings. The s...

  16. The geopolitics of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of world energy are largely in the underdeveloped, Third World Countries. Political stability is a critical factor in the geopolitics of energy and especially in under-developed countries. Energy consumers, like the US, the Europeans and the Japanese, whatever indigenous or nearby sources of energy may exist, remain heavily dependent on external oil and natural gas supplies. This situation will continue into the next century. Inevitably, therefore, they will be caught up in internal political and societal problems integral to the producing states. Similarly, issues affecting fossil fuel transportation to refineries and consuming facilities all over the world will affect energy costs and availability. Consumers are at the mercy of indigenous problems in producing states over which they have little or no control. As new production areas are sought throughout the world, intra-regional disputes over ownership of oil or natural gas will undoubtedly arise as efforts are made to find mutually agreeable solutions that assure consumers reasonably guaranteed supplies. (author)

  17. The geopolitics of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilts, H.F. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The sources of world energy are largely in the underdeveloped, Third World Countries. Political stability is a critical factor in the geopolitics of energy and especially in under-developed countries. Energy consumers, like the US, the Europeans and the Japanese, whatever indigenous or nearby sources of energy may exist, remain heavily dependent on external oil and natural gas supplies. This situation will continue into the next century. Inevitably, therefore, they will be caught up in internal political and societal problems integral to the producing states. Similarly, issues affecting fossil fuel transportation to refineries and consuming facilities all over the world will affect energy costs and availability. Consumers are at the mercy of indigenous problems in producing states over which they have little or no control. As new production areas are sought throughout the world, intra-regional disputes over ownership of oil or natural gas will undoubtedly arise as efforts are made to find mutually agreeable solutions that assure consumers reasonably guaranteed supplies. (author)

  18. Lebillon P. (éd.), Geopolitics of resource wars: resource dependence, governance and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeburie, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book is a special issue of Geopolitics, edited by a famous specialist of the links between conflicts and natural resources. Philippe Le Billon introduces this book with a conceptual chapter on geopolitical economy of what he calls “resource wars” where one can read a common view on this topic, sustained by good examples. In a second chapter, Richard Auty develops the links between natural resources exploitation and economic difficulties. These first two chapters can be presented as the t...

  19. Financial Crisis:Its Impacts on International Economic System and Geopolitics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Global financial crisis is ongoing. The crisis has not only impacted the mode of the world economy that further called for reform of international economic system, but also exerted far-reaching impact on the transformation of the international political system and geopolitics. China, undergoing a critical period of reform anddevelopment, is obliged to probe the essence of the crisis and its prospective impacts, to discern the direction of the transforming international political system and geopolitics, and ...

  20. Regionalism and geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of regional features, outlining of the contours of regions, tendency to regionalize ethnic, economic, cultural and state-administrative space, and strengthening the ideology of regionalism in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is Serbia and Montenegro, appear as a practical and political but also as a theoretical problem which includes and combines several scientific disciplines. The phenomenon of regionalism is not contradictory although it is primarily expressed through the numerous conflicts of interests rivalry and antagonisms of political subjects. The problematic side of the phenomenon of regionalism includes the result of an extremely negative and existentially tragic experience of the several years-long disintegration of the complex Yugoslav state. During the partition and disintegration of the second Yugoslavia, there also happened the disintegration of the Serbian ethnic area Growth, support and instigation of regional tendencies occurred in the historical circumstances of secession and did not stop in the post-secession period. Particularization and segmentation of political area, as well as the disintegration of the former state, did not occur in accordance with the norms of internal and international law. Legality was late and was achieved within the transformation of power reflected in the changed territorial policy of the dominant alliance of great powers. The entire past decade was characterized by an extraordinary metamorphosis of political space. Secession trend had the territorial features which included the change of borders and had been long in the focus of the global geopolitical attention. Territories were divided and made smaller. Intensive territorial dynamics within the external silhouette of the de-stated SFR of Yugoslavia resulted in the creation of several state and quasi-state political formations. Former republics became semi-sovereign states. Dispersed and displaced Serbian ethnos was configured

  1. THE GEOPOLITICS OF HELPLESSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The events in Ukraine are in the thick of actuality, at the crossroads of East and West. From a buffer zone it has become an acute space of exhibition of Russia’s interests, on one side, and of the European Union’s, on the other side. As the EU does not have a unique army or a strong political leadership, the presence - as major actors - of NATO and the United States of America is necessary. Huge geostrategic, military, economic, politic, cultural, social and even religious interests are involved. As a neighbour state, member of the EU and NATO, Romania is directly concerned by the present deployments. We wonder if its foreign politics is an appropriate one. Moreover, great stakes aim at the statehood and independence of the Republic of Moldova, but also at the status of the Romanians living in the Cernowits region. Thus, we try to analyse what will happen in Ukraine and with the actors involved, in general. There are several possible scenarios, among which: the success of the elections and the stabilization of Ukraine in integrum; the federation, with the preservation of the frontiers or with the amputation of these ones; Russia’s conquest of the country, taking into account EU’s demonstrated incapacities; a war that can dangerously escalate; the maintenance of a grey situation, whre the two camps explore each other, sanction each other, but not too drastically, elections and referendums are organized, weapons are pacing around, threats are teething, but nothing important is decided, not even a new cold war. The title hints to everyon’s weaknesses (is Ukraine a selfsustainable state?, but especially to EU’s, the geopolitical objectives of which are in complete disagreement with its means. That is why, in a short term, Russia can win. But in a medium and long term...

  2. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  3. Climate change policy in a growing economy under catastrophic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2007-01-01

    Under risk of catastrophic climate change, the occurrence hazard is added to the social discount rate. As a result, the social discount rate (i) increases and (ii) turns endogenous to the global warming policy. The second effect bears profound policy implications that are magnifed by economic growth. In particular, it implies that green- house gases (GHG) emission should gradually be brought to a halt. Due to the public bad nature of the catastrophic risk, the second effect is ignored in a co...

  4. Geopolitics of Kazakhstan: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Ivanov; Vadim Volovoj

    2014-01-01

    Article analyzes geopolitics of Kazakhstan, examines how it should look like in accordance with classic geopolitical theory and howit does look in practice, in particular in case of Kazakhstan membership in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) and Shanghai CooperationOrganization (SCO), which reflects Kazakh geostrategy in relations with Russia and China as the main factors of stabilityin Central Asia. Additional value of the article is that it is purely geopolitical while geopolitical method (t...

  5. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  6. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Help for Small Businesses The government will stop charging administrative fees for sole proprietorships and individual market vendors as of September 1, according to a joint circular recently issued by the Ministry of Finance, National Development and Reform Commission and the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. This move is designed to cut costs for individual business owners as part of the government’s efforts to aid the private economy and increase employment.

  7. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stock Exchange Ties The Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE) of Israel signed a memorandum of understanding onNovember 10 to facilitate cooperation between them.They agreed to mutual visits by stock exchange personnel to increase their respective knowledge of and interest in each other’s bourses, according to a news release. It ishoped that the visits will encourage invest-ments and cooperation in various aspects oftheir respective markets and economies, the statement said.

  8. A climate treaty and the Norwegian economy: A CGE assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the impact of an international climate treaty on a single country-Norway. A disaggregate computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. We discuss the treaty's effects on main macroeconomic indicators, economic growth, distributional impacts, the impact on pollutant emissions other than CO2, and the secondary benefits of this reduction. The results suggest that CO2 emissions will decrease compared to the current level. The distributional impacts are modest. Increases in secondary benefits recoup almost one half of the loss in private consumption. We characterize the uncertainty of this estimate. 21 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  9. The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

    2012-04-01

    Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising

  10. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  11. A Short History of Geopolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Donald S.

    1988-01-01

    Describes geopolitics as the branch of geography that explores the relationship between geographical realities and international affairs. The essential task of the discipline is to identify those geographical circumstances that explain the power interests, the character, and the behavior of nations. Includes a lesson plan that introduces students…

  12. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

    2008-12-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

  13. Economic impact of climate change : simulations with a regionalized climate-economy model

    OpenAIRE

    Deke, Oliver; Hooss, Kurt Georg; Kasten, Christiane; Klepper, Gernot; Springer, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Climate change affects the physical and biological system in many regions of the world. The extent to which human systems will suffer economically from climate change depends on the adaptive capabilities within a region as well as across regions. We use an economic General-Equilibrium model and an Ocean-Atmosphere model in a regionally and sectorally disaggregated framework to analyze adaptation to climate change in different regions of the world. It turns out that vulnerability to climate im...

  14. The Investment Climate for the Informal Economy : A Case of Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Francie; Skinner, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    This investment climate of South Africa's informal economy is investigated with special focus on the regulatory environment (taxes and laws), institutions, services (training, financial services and insurance, access to markets), and access to infrastructure and protection from crime. Durban, South Africa's third largest city, is ahead of other cities in responding to the growth of informal work and has been proactive in seeking out ways of creatively supporting informal enterprises.

  15. Geopolitical warm spots : Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakhstan has become an economic leader in the region of the former Soviet Union. This presentation described the economic transformation of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1991 when it became an independent country and committed to a market economy. The newly formed government developed policies to attract foreign investment and implemented sound fiscal policies, paving the way for strong economic growth. Oil production in Kazakhstan has grown significantly since 1991 and the country has become an important player in world energy markets. Its' importance will continue to grow, given the new discovery of the large Kashagan Oil Field and the oil potential of the Caspian Sea. This presentation also outlined the challenges facing Kazakhstan, with reference to the need for sufficient pipeline capacity and a link to new markets. The need to refine government policies to promote competition and efficiency in the oil industry are two other challenges that will determine the future success of the country. PetroKazakhstan has succeeded in being a leader in the Kazakhstan oil sector. tabs., figs

  16. The geopolitics of mineral supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vital importance of Southern- and Central Africa as far as strategic and critical minerals to the West in the form of chromium, platinum, manganese and cobalt are concerned is the topic of this article. Geopolitics and the role it plays in Southern Africa in terms of adequacy, availability and access is examined in more detail. The mineral industry makes South Africa in terms of value of annual output the third largest mineral producing country in the Western World. Soviet Union and the United States differ indefinetely as far as geopolitics concern, especially the Soviet's control of the mineral resources in Southern Africa. This article deals with this problem and concludes by asking whether a resource war is on it's way or not

  17. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  18. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  19. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  20. Expected utility and catastrophic risk in a stochastic economy-climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikefuji, M. [Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the context of extreme climate change, we ask how to conduct expected utility analysis in the presence of catastrophic risks. Economists typically model decision making under risk and uncertainty by expected utility with constant relative risk aversion (power utility); statisticians typically model economic catastrophes by probability distributions with heavy tails. Unfortunately, the expected utility framework is fragile with respect to heavy-tailed distributional assumptions. We specify a stochastic economy-climate model with power utility and explicitly demonstrate this fragility. We derive necessary and sufficient compatibility conditions on the utility function to avoid fragility and solve our stochastic economy-climate model for two examples of such compatible utility functions. We further develop and implement a procedure to learn the input parameters of our model and show that the model thus specified produces quite robust optimal policies. The numerical results indicate that higher levels of uncertainty (heavier tails) lead to less abatement and consumption, and to more investment, but this effect is not unlimited.

  1. Tomorrow's Mores. The International System, Geopolitical Changes and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to provide an analysis of key geopolitical changes in the international system, with particular attention for energy issues and the EU, and on the basis of this analysis define possible energy futures up until 2020. Four sub-objectives have been identified: (1) to understand the international system and the main actors shaping it; (2) to understand an actor's energy policy and how energy policy is determined; (3) to identify the most important developments within the energy system; and (4) to understand the EU's position in the changing geopolitical landscape. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical and analytical framework used for the study. In this chapter important theoretical notions and assumptions are explained. It starts with a quadrants model combining two axes of uncertainty (multilateral-uni/bilateral and politics-economy). It continues with the foundation, consisting of key factors of analysis and assumptions about an actor's energy policy, underlying the analysis and the positioning of actors in the quadrants. It also contains a section on scenario studies. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the developments in the energy sector, with a focus on challenges, risks and problems with relevance to foreign policy and geopolitics. The chapter is based on the information on energy carriers, EU energy policy and important energy issues that is discussed in further detail in Annex A, B and C, respectively. Chapter 4 analyses the geopolitical landscape, starting with a description of the international system prior to 1989. It contains an analysis of the present situation and presents three possible energy futures towards 2020. Past, present and future are analysed on the basis of the quadrants model. The chapter includes a description of the most important actors. In Chapter 5 the analysis of chapter 4 is used to look at the case of the European Union. The current place and role of the EU is discussed. The implications for the EU of a

  2. Geopolitics of Kazakhstan: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ivanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes geopolitics of Kazakhstan, examines how it should look like in accordance with classic geopolitical theory and howit does look in practice, in particular in case of Kazakhstan membership in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and Shanghai CooperationOrganization (SCO, which reflects Kazakh geostrategy in relations with Russia and China as the main factors of stabilityin Central Asia. Additional value of the article is that it is purely geopolitical while geopolitical method (theory is usually misunderstoodin the discipline of international relations, used rather freely often being confused with realistic paradigm. Also CentralAsia as an object of analysis is not in the centre of global academic discourse and any additional study in the field of CA geopoliticsbroadens understanding of the external and internal political process in the region. The study showed that Kazakh geopolitics ispredetermined to be continental, Heartland oriented, because Kazakhstan is located in the closest neighborhood of Russia and is asteppe land with the conservative identity totally different to the one of see powers. Therefore its geopolitical gravitation towardsstrategic alliance with Moscow is very strong and even more strengthened by its president Nursultan Nazarbayev as a consistent partisanof the Russian geopolitical theory called Eurasism. Kazakhstan membership in EEU, initially initiated by Nazarbayev, supportsthe idea that geopolitical union with Russia is the essence of Kazakh geostrategy. At the same time Kazakhstan has good relationswith China, but they are of secondary importance for Astana in comparison to cooperation with Russia. SCO is a comfortable platformfor Kazakhstan to find its place in geopolitical dialogue of Moscow and Beijing. The problem is that nobody knows how Kazakhforeign policy will look like after Nazarbayev leaves the office, but classic geopolitical theory says that geopolitical orientation ofKazakhstan will hardly

  3. Petroleum and natural gas geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, A.; Boy de la Tour, X.

    1987-01-01

    The main historical points of the petroleum industry in the world are reviewed in the first part of this book. The historical and nowadays evolution of the production and trade of petroleum and natural gas are then analysed precisely from zone to zone with particular emphasis on the production costs, the relative forces evaluation, the economic agent behaviour, the trade strategies and the influence of the technical development in the processes of mining, extraction, refining, transportation and utilization. The rapid evolution of last years petroleum market is demonstrating very well the importance of the geopolitic factors. Some prospective evaluations are given at last.

  4. EXECUTIVE VIEWPOINT ON THE GEOPOLITICS OF BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    MUNOZ Mark

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary geopolitical environment has posed new challenges and opportunities for business organizations worldwide. With increasing international economic alignments and political conflict, organizations need to manage with innovative methodologies. These operational changes have an impact on the practice of public administration, finance, and law. With the intent of highlighting a real world case in geopolitical management, Professor Mark Munoz of Millikin University and undergraduate...

  5. The political economy of an energy tax: the United Kingdom's Climate Change Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, D. [University College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2006-03-15

    Energy taxes designed to control energy consumption, and to assist the achievement of climate change control targets under the Kyoto Protocol, are fairly common in European Union countries. Yet many of these taxes bear little resemblance to the design guidance that is given in economics textbooks. Political economy analysis, in which the interaction of economics and political reality is emphasised, explains the gap between theoretical ideals and practical reality. A closer look at the factors that influence real world policy design should help policy-oriented economists in designing measures that have a greater chance of adoption. The end-result may well be nth-best solutions which simply have to be 'lived with'. But there may also be room for design improvements that still honour the political constraints of policy design. This paper illustrates these issues in the context of one tax, the UK Climate Change Levy. (author)

  6. Effects of climate change on the Swiss economy (national influences); Auswirkungen der Klimaaenderung auf die Schweizer Volkswirtschaft (nationale Einfluesse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to estimate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the Swiss economy. The authors state that no grave damage to the Swiss economy that could be caused by climate change are to be expected by the year 2030. Estimates for the year 2050 are presented and a prognosis showing a substantial increase of damage after this date is presented. Tourism and energy installations are noted as being the areas that will be most affected. Other areas affected include infrastructure, human health, water supplies, forestry and the farming economy. The methodologies used in the preparation of the study are described. Scenarios are presented and discussed. An overview of the costs incurred as a result of climate-related change is presented.

  7. Geopolitics and the corporate investment decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of geopolitics in any international oil company's investment decisions, was discussed. Geopolitics in this context was defined as all government policies, be they economic, political strategic or military, that determine national interests, which a company has to take into account in making an investment decision. Geopolitical considerations have taken on added importance with the arrival of the Cold War and its aftermath, to the point where investment decisions based on traditional parameters such as geological productivity, rates of return, net present values, fiscal and contractual provisions frequently take a back seat to investment decisions that were taken with geopolitical impacts foremost in mind. From time to time, geopolitical factors can even pre-empt corporate investment decisions. The nature of geopolitics, its historical antecedents, the emergence of international rivalries following World War I, intensified after World War II, particularly after the formation of OPEC in 1973, the changing forms of resource ownership, and the general impact of geopolitical factors on corporate investment decisions were reviewed

  8. Caucasus Geopolitics: Modern Trends Conflicts and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies major trends of Caucasus geopolitical situation development in terms of modern global politics, indicates major parties, settling conflicts in the region and their immediate interests in the Caucasus.

  9. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO2. • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  10. Geopolitical situation of post-communist Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Levyk, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the current foreign policy of the Russian Federation. Some facts of the reduced geopolitical presence of Russia in the world are presented. Scientific viewpoints of Russian researchers of Eurasian and Neo-Eurasian issues, their commitment to the idea of exceptionality of the Russians are demonstrated. Two alternative forecasts by Western researchers of further geopolitical situation and development of Russia are given. It is pointed out that the RF pursues an aggressive fore...

  11. Quantifying the geopolitical dimension of energy risks: A tool for energy modelling and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy risk and security are topical issues in energy analysis and policy. However, the quantitative analysis of energy risk presents significant methodological difficulties, especially when dealing with certain of its more qualitative dimensions. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively estimate the geopolitical risk of energy supply with the help of a multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis. Four partial energy risk factors were computed for 122 countries, which were subsequently aggregated to form the composite GESRI (Geopolitical Energy Supply Risk Index). The results demonstrate that advanced economies present a lower level of geopolitical energy risk, especially countries with energy resources, while less-developed countries register higher levels of risk regardless of their energy production. Although this indicator is computed for countries, it can be aggregated for regions or corridors, and it could also be applied to model and scenario building. The different uses of the GESRI could eventually lead to practical implications in the energy policy field, as well as in the energy planning and energy management areas. - Highlights: • We quantitatively estimate the multidimensional geopolitical risk of energy supply. • Factor analysis was used to reveal energy risk, a variable not directly observable. • Advanced economies with energy resources present the lowest level of energy risk. • Less-developed countries obtain high risk values even when they are energy producers. • The proposed index can be used for energy planning and energy management purposes

  12. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  13. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaesehage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Organizations (ISOs that communicate climate change knowledges. Over a three-year period we explore why and how these businesses approach the knowledge gap between climate change science and business practice, drawing on a variety of ethnographic research methods: (1 in-depth semi-structured and open interviews; (2 participant observations; and (3 practitioners’ workshops. The results demonstrate that business’ mitigation and adaptation strategies are lay-knowledge-dependent, derived from personal values, space, and place identity. To enhance the number of SMEs engaging with climate change, maximize the potential value of climate change for the econo- my and establish a low carbon economy, climate change communication needs to target personal values of business leaders. The message should highlight local impacts of climate change, the benefits of engagement to (the local society and economy, and possible financial benefits for the business. Climate change communication therefore needs to go beyond thinking about potential financial benefits and scientific evidence and challenge values, cultures, and beliefs to stimulate economic, political, and social frameworks that promote values-based decision-making.

  14. Slovak Economy in the Years 1938/1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mičko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Slovak economy was significantly influenced by the change of geopolitical situation in Europe – pressure of Nazi Germany ended in Munich Agreement (Munich Dictate which determined political and economic future of Slovakia.

  15. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND GEOPOLITICAL RISKS IN MODERN SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    YASKEVICH JA.S.

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of political and socio-cultural risks in the context of globalization is revealed, the formation factors of geopolitical and local risks are described and the content models of contemporary geopolitical scenarios are analyzed.

  16. EXECUTIVE VIEWPOINT ON THE GEOPOLITICS OF BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNOZ Mark

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary geopolitical environment has posed new challenges and opportunities for business organizations worldwide. With increasing international economic alignments and political conflict, organizations need to manage with innovative methodologies. These operational changes have an impact on the practice of public administration, finance, and law. With the intent of highlighting a real world case in geopolitical management, Professor Mark Munoz of Millikin University and undergraduate student Ashlee Colby interviewed Michael W. Ritscdorff, CEO of Dukane Corporation. Dukane Corporation is a global manufacturer and marketer of advanced technology products. Located in St Charles, IL, it has operated as a private corporation for 91 years and distributes products such as audio visual presentation products and ultrasonic thermal and friction assembly systems. The interview captures the company’s geopolitical mindset.

  17. Energy geopolitics moves toward the Great North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the developing political chaos in the Middle-East and of the political problems of Russia (Tchetchenia, North-Ossetia, and more recently in its relations with Ukraine), the geopolitics of petroleum is moving towards the North: Baltic, Barents and Bering seas. This trend will concern in particular the Siberian gas, the Norwegian gas and the petroleum from Alaska. The conclusion of the author is that this northward move is favourable to the interests of the United States which will remain the 'masters of the energy geopolitical game'. (J.S.)

  18. ECONOMY-WIDE ESTIMATES OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: SEA LEVEL RISE

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The economy-wide implications of sea level rise in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. Overall, general equilibrium effects increase the costs of sea level rise, but not necessarily in every sector or region. In the absence of coastal protection, economies that rely most on agriculture are hit hardest. Although energy is substituted for land, overall energy consumption falls with the shrinking economy, hurting energy exporters. With full coastal protection,...

  19. Exploring the energy-water-food-climate nexus for the Indian Economy in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheripour, F.; Hertel, T. W.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The economy of India is expected to face serious environmental challenges over the coming decades. Population growth, coupled with economic growth of nearly 7%/year to 2030 will translate into strong growth in energy demands - particularly electricity. The electricity sector's claim on total available water could grow from 4% to more than 10% in India in 2030, if the use of wet cooling technologies persists (IGES 2013). Water-saving, dry cooling technologies are available for coal-fired power plants, but this requires significant investment and must be done at the time of construction. Growing water demands from electricity generation, when coupled with industrial, residential and commercial demands, are projected to result in water shortages for irrigation in some key river basins such as Indus, Ganges, Subernarekha, Krishna, and Chotanagpui (Rosegrant et al., 2013). The resulting pressure on agricultural production is likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which itself may increase demands for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to higher temperatures and more variable rainfall (AgMIP, 2013). In this paper we examine the impact of water scarcity on economic growth, food, and energy security in India using an enhanced version of the GTAP-AEZ-WATER model. We find that investments in water-saving technology in the electricity sector are less costly than developing new water supply. However, even when these technologies are implemented, we project shortfalls in water available for irrigated agriculture. These shortfalls result in the contraction of irrigated area and diminished food production relative to the unconstrained baseline. However, trade could help India to mitigate a portion of this pressure by importing more food products from water abundant regions. In addition, allowing for the trading of water within river basins helps to alleviate some of the consequences of water scarcity.

  20. From Moscow to Copenhagen. Russian views on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fuel economic recovery and growth Russia will increase oil and gas supplies to the industrialized market economies of the Euro Atlantic in the West and the Asian Pacific growth economies in the East. Despite the post-Soviet economic collapse, Russia is still among the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, after the United States, China and the European Union. Moscow's foreign economic policies are spearheaded by natural gas, a clean burning fossil fuel pivotal to world economic transition to a less carbon intensive 'green' model. Despite the adoption of a new climate-change strategy and Russia's acknowledgement that it must play a responsible role in the run up to the Climate Change Summit in Copenhagen, Moscow's policy position is still aloof, due to geopolitical undercurrents and Russia's particular position in debates on the nature and cost of mitigation measures between industrialized countries and the emerging economies of the developing world.

  1. The political economy of low carbon energy in Kenya:Climate Compatible Development in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Peter; Phillips, Jon; Pueyo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for Kenya to simultaneously tackle energy poverty, contribute to climate change mitigation and reduce exposure to climate vulnerability? There is growing international focus on how to support more integrated approaches to addressing climate change in ways that capture synergies and minimise the trade-offs between climate change mitigation, adaptation and development. These aims are embodied in the concept of climate compatible development (CCD).But what does this look like in p...

  2. Climatic servitude: climate change, business and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is together a contemporary history book and a global dossier about a topic of prime importance in our civilization. It treats of the history of science, of ideas and events put in the modern civilization context, of science situation and scientific controversies, of the media aspects, of carbon economy and its related business, of Al Gore's and Maurice Strong's biographies, and finally, it makes a critical geopolitical analysis and makes proposals for a renovated ecology. In the conclusion, the author shows how climate change has become the hobbyhorse of a new thinking trend, namely the New World Order, aiming at conducting people to the acceptance of constraining policies encompassing the energy security of nations, new taxes, a worldwide economic disruption, the limitation of the World's population, and a World governance supported by the United Nations and not constrained by classical democratic rules. (J.S.)

  3. Climate protection and sustainable economy. For a new development political mission statement; Klimaschutz und nachhaltiges Wirtschaften. Fuer ein neues entwicklungspolitisches Leitbild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofler, Baerbel; Netzer, Nina (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    The book under consideration is devoted to climate protection and sustainable economy. It consists of the following contributions: (1) Climate protection and development policy - New allies in the fight against poverty? (B. Kofler); (2) In preparation for a wormer world - Adjustment to the climatic change using local resources (A. Schroeder); (3) Sustainable economy today - a development political consideration (H.-J. Luhmann); (4) The Clean Development Mechanism - No-Win instead of Win-Win for developing countries?; (5) New market based mechanisms for improving the climate protection in developing countries (K. Wentrup); (6) Global emission trading: market-economy instruments for a development-oriented climate policy? (S. Fischer); (7) The policy is needed - Central strategies for combating climatic change (R. Guenther); (8) Technology transfer: Political controversies, successes and problems of implementation (C. Gerstetter); (9) REDDplus - Forest protection as a chance for development and poverty reduction (K. Gerber); (10) What is climate justice? From the principle to political practice (T. Hirsch); (11) How much are 100 Billion Us-Dollar? Financing of climate protection between adequacy and creative bookkeeping (W. Sterk); (12) No money, no fun - Climate change financing has to be made more concrete (F. Schwabe); (13) Human rights - Common struggle against the climatic change (T. Rathgeber); (14) Climate change adaptation - Handling extreme events and damages: 'Loss and damage' (T. Hirsch); (15) Rio 2012 and the reform of the international environment governance (N. Simon).

  4. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  5. Geopolitical development outside the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passing of the threat of global conflict has been replaced by a world characterised by civil disorder and war in a number of countries which has implications for those engaged in the global energy business. Geopolitical considerations can be expected to be dominated by economic considerations and the slow recovery of the OECD nations from recession. Russian politics are driven by domestic constraints. Their continued decline in the oil industry is not likely to be reversed without massive investment. (author)

  6. Italy and gas: dependence and geopolitical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in world energy demand is making natural gas a leading player, yet its supply in Italy is still inefficient because of internal and external factors of its geopolitical diversification. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position and morphology our Country could represent the major point of gas exchange in central-southern Europe and transform itself from a country at the risk of emergency into one of the greatest gas hub in Europe

  7. Geopolitics and Energy Security in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Flaceliere, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the energy security situation in South America and tries to evaluate why, even though the region possesses important resources, it finds itself today in a rather precarious situation regarding the future. Energy security is approached from a geopolitical perspective, and uses the literature to identify regional energy integration and the development of renewable energy within the energy matrix as two sine qua non conditions to the construction of energy security in ...

  8. The geopolitics of Bolivarian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Schenegoski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article performs a geopolitical analysis of the Bolivarian antissistêmico movement, highlighting especially the formation of Alba while regional alliances system from Venezuela power projection. Thus, the theoretical framework of World-Systems Analysis of Immanuel Wallerstein, is recontextualizado in addition to the categories of Center, outskirts and semiperiferia, and in such a way as to encompass the national power projects peripheral actors or semiperiféricos such as Venezuela.

  9. The geopolitics of Bolivarian foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Schenegoski; Edu Silveira de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    The article performs a geopolitical analysis of the Bolivarian antissistêmico movement, highlighting especially the formation of Alba while regional alliances system from Venezuela power projection. Thus, the theoretical framework of World-Systems Analysis of Immanuel Wallerstein, is recontextualizado in addition to the categories of Center, outskirts and semiperiferia, and in such a way as to encompass the national power projects peripheral actors or semiperiféricos such as Venezuela.

  10. The Household Economy Approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have severe effects on the populations of developing countries because many of these depend heavily on agriculture for income, have large impoverished rural populations which rely on agriculture for subsistence, and are financially and technically least equipped to adapt to changing conditions. Planning to target measures to support adaptation to reduce the impact of climate change on poverty and food insecurity requires methods of identifying vulnerable households. This paper describes an established approach to vulnerability assessment, the ‘Household Economy Approach’ (HEA and its potential application to the management of climate change in developing countries. The HEA is widely used by Governments and others, chiefly in Africa, for the assessment of household vulnerability to poverty and food security. HEA uses a model based on Amartya Sen’s entitlement theory and detailed social and economic data to simulate the impact of weather related, price, policy and other shocks on household income and food access, to provide information for decision making. In developing countries climate change will be experienced in terms of increased climate variability and an increased frequency of extreme events. HEA provides a way of managing the effects of year to year shocks to prevent impoverishment and the erosion of household resilience. It also provides the information needed to develop scenarios to support the design of policies to support longer term adaptation. HEA data has already been collected for large areas of Africa.

  11. Geopolitics of the Islam World and world leadership in the post-Cold War geopolitical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Naji

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clashes of the world's major civilizations and religions are still the main challenge in the post-Cold War geopolitical developments. This is in spite of attempts at reconciling them. In the post-Cold War scenario, there is the US attempt in order to sustain its world leadership. This is the main challenge in the post-Cold War and in this context the rise of the Muslim world has also been quite noticeable in giving the former the challenge to the claim of leadership. The important question here is whether the Islamic World with its disintegrated geopolitics will be able to offer a coherent leadership among many rivalries for the same leadership position. This paper attempts to study the hard and soft power resources of Islamic countries from the global geopolitical perspective in an attempt to situate the Islamic world in this leadership competition.

  12. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Marco [Univ. of Milan-Bicocca (Italy). International Environmental Policy; J. Roberts, Timmons [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Environmental Studies and Sociology; The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  13. The Atlantic Alliance and Geopolitics: New Realities and New Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Kai Olaf

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the hypothesis that the new geopolitical environment for the Atlantic Alliance is mainly influenced by the following five elements: The renaissance of Germany as the central player on the European theater after the collapse of the Soviet Union; the shift of American geopolitical focus from Europe to the Middle East and central Asia; the increasing geopolitical influence of petroleum energy resources; the increasing power of china; and the differing perceptions of politi...

  14. MACKINDER'S HEARTLAND AND THE LOCATION OF THE GEOPOLITICAL TETRAHEDRON

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaka, Ambrish

    2005-01-01

    Sir Halford Mackinder's paper, The Geographical Pivot of History, has retained a power to engage those concerned with the analysis of epochal events in world geopolitics. The end of the Cold War witnessed the geopolitical phoenix rising in the "new world order," to the extent that the legacy of Mackinder has been consistently revisited in geopolitical discourse on Central Asia and, inter alia, Eurasia. If the "age of discovery" had been the prima facie introduction to Europe of new lands and ...

  15. KlimaCH4. Climate effects of biomethane economy; KlimaCH4. Klimaeffekte von Biomethan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerkamp, Tanja; Reinelt, Torsten; Oehmichen, Katja; Ponitka, Jens; Naumann, Karin

    2014-07-01

    Within the project ''Climate effects of biomethane economy'' (KlimaCH4) of the German Biomass Research Centre two methods for measurement of direct greenhouse gas emissions were analyzed for their applicability and comparability. In the context of concrete measurements direct emissions, mainly of methane, three biogas plants with methane treatment for feeding into the natural gas grid were quantified. These tests were carried out on the one hand directly on-site by using leak detection, enclosures and ''open chamber'' measurements, but also indirectly by optical remote sensing with tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and reverse dispersion modelling by inverse dispersion modeling. The on-site method offers the possibility, to investigate the influences of plant operation on emissions of known diffuse sources, inter alia, through the balance of the operating status with the timeline of a specific emission source (e.g. as increased release of methane due to stirring intervals). This is particularly useful for deriving appropriate measures to reduce emissions. The quantification of individual, diffuse emission sources is metrologically possibly only very costly to implement. The effort is depending to a considerable extent by the design and the size of the examined biogas plant. In order to detect the influence seasonal changing of environmental conditions recurring emission measurements were realized. The use of optical telemetry showed as an advantageous alternative to on-site method, because it can significantly reduce time required for emission measurements particularly at large biogas plants or plants with numerous individual sources. With only one measurement sequence all emission sources are covered, without consuming individual measurements. In addition, in comparision to the on-site method, the emission situation of the entire system can be better reproduced, since all individual sources are included in

  16. Europe - The geopolitics of disunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Freire Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are forces which, by acting over a long time frame and by remaining almost unaltered, leave traces in societies and nations that make them more or less prone to certain behaviours. These marks include physical geography, which is like the stage of history and exerts a profound influence on it. Europeans today face challenges that result from their own perceptions and different cultural habits forged by centuries or even thousands of years of conflicts brought about by religion, tribal views or linguistic barriers, reinforced by the compartmentalized division of the territory, by the existence, or lack of it, of large waterways, and by the mildness or rigour of the climate. In fact, the union of Europe, which was often attempted by force, found a new impetus with the end of World War 2, leading to a peaceful construct unprecedented in history. However, as this union expanded and deepened, the aggregating cement that held Europe together has degraded, appearing not to withstand the winds of the crises well. We will only be able to strengthen what unites us when we gain awareness of what divides us. Portugal, a country which is almost one thousand years old and which has validated itself outside Europe from an early age, is facing yet another crisis for survival. Understanding the possible ways-out beyond the “mist of the days” and the politically correct has now become an exercise of citizenship.

  17. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker's address on climate change

  18. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker`s address on climate change.

  19. Energy politics and geopolitics - an analysis of the international tensions in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necessary, unloved, abundant but often polluting, expensive but often wasted, energy remains the indispensable blood which irrigates the world economy, supplies the engine of economic growth, and generates together peace and conflicts. The energy questions have been first technical (resources extraction), economical (resources management) and geopolitical (resources property). Today they have become mainly political. With the development of emerging countries, the worldwide distribution of energy resources has become a worrying geopolitical issue for industrialized countries. These countries have to deal with contradictory political choices: the security of supplies on the one hand, and the sustainable development on the other hand. In this book, the author explains that despite a sustained development of renewable energy sources and an energy capacity in permanent progress, and despite a bad geographical distribution of resources, the fossil fuels still dominate the energy scene today and will do so for a long time. With some precise figures and clear explanations of geopolitical situations, the author shares with us his knowledge gained during several years of energy files management at the European Commission. (J.S.)

  20. The Geopolitics of Ethnic Relations in Russia: ethnic Russian and non-ethnic Russian citizens in Stavropol’skii krai

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Andrew David; Pallot, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic relations are an important feature of contemporary Russia. This is especially true in the North Caucasus where ongoing insecurity combined with a depressed economy has led to growing Russian nationalism, xenophobia, and fears over immigration. In Stavropol’skii krai, the only ethnic Russian dominated territory in the North Caucasus Federal District, the situation is especially acute. In this thesis I investigate how the geopolitics of ethnic relations in Stavropol’skii krai, as p...

  1. Neo-Gramscian Approach and Geopolitics of ICT4D Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunbo Ojo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades, the notion of Information Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D has had significant traction in both praxis and scholarly work of international development. While it has dystopia and utopia dimensions, ICT4D came out of particular history and intellectual climates. The historical and political contexts that shaped the ICT4D agenda deserve examination. Grounded within the canon of neo-Gramscian perspectives, this paper discusses the geopolitical construct of the ICT4D agenda and the agenda-building roles of international institutions in the process. In situating the ICT4D agenda in the geopolitical context, this paper highlights the institutional discursive structure and embedded geometries of power relations in the global communication and international development agenda.

  2. Economy-wide Estimates of the Implications of Climate Change. Sea Level Rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosello, F. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Venice (Italy); Roson, R. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Tol, R.S.J. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The economy-wide implications of sea level rise in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. This allows for a better estimate of the welfare effects of sea level rise than the common direct cost estimates; and for an estimate of the impact of sea level rise on greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, general equilibrium effects increase the welfare costs of sea level rise, but not necessarily in every sector or region. In the absence of coastal protection, economies that rely most on agriculture are hit hardest. Although energy is substituted for land, overall energy consumption falls with the shrinking economy, hurting energy exporters. With full coastal protection, GDP increases, particularly in regions with substantial dike building, but utility falls, least in regions that protect their coasts and export energy. Energy prices rise and energy consumption falls. The costs of full protection exceed the costs of losing land. The results also show direct costs - the usual method for estimating welfare changes due to sea level rise - are a bad approximation of the general equilibrium welfare effects; previous estimates of the economic impact of sea level rise are therefore biased.

  3. Economy-wide Estimates of the Implications of Climate Change. Sea Level Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy-wide implications of sea level rise in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. This allows for a better estimate of the welfare effects of sea level rise than the common direct cost estimates; and for an estimate of the impact of sea level rise on greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, general equilibrium effects increase the welfare costs of sea level rise, but not necessarily in every sector or region. In the absence of coastal protection, economies that rely most on agriculture are hit hardest. Although energy is substituted for land, overall energy consumption falls with the shrinking economy, hurting energy exporters. With full coastal protection, GDP increases, particularly in regions with substantial dike building, but utility falls, least in regions that protect their coasts and export energy. Energy prices rise and energy consumption falls. The costs of full protection exceed the costs of losing land. The results also show direct costs - the usual method for estimating welfare changes due to sea level rise - are a bad approximation of the general equilibrium welfare effects; previous estimates of the economic impact of sea level rise are therefore biased

  4. Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.

  5. The World Geopolitical System in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Saul B.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the geopolitical theory of Halford Mackinder and Derwent Whittlesey is outdated. Applies a developmental approach in general systems theory to geopolitical analysis. Explains that the evolution of superpowers enables gateway states to attain independence, facilitating global equilibrium and allowing an international integrated system…

  6. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  7. Equity in climate-economy scenarios: the importance of subnational income distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that climate change raises equity considerations, and this has been addressed in various explicit and implicit ways in scenario-based climate and climate-policy research. In this paper I look in particular at the IPCC's well-known 'Special Report on Emissions Scenarios', in which equity is primarily quantified as the distribution of income between countries, and highlight the need for more explicit treatment of equity both within and across national borders. I apply an existing method for modeling subnational income distributions and show that this affects the results of welfare calculations of the type used in economic analyses of climate policy. Additionally, I suggest ways in which this kind of equity analysis could be applied to questions that address broader considerations of climate policy and development, such as burden sharing in the allocation of obligations, and conclude with remarks that frame the scenario development process in the context of what I call 'the contested storyline of the present'.

  8. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  9. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change. Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosello, Francesco [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy); Roson, Roberto [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Tol, Richard S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-06-25

    We study the economic impacts of climate-change-induced change in human health, viz. cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis. Changes in morbidity and mortality are interpreted as changes in labour productivity and demand for health care, and used to shock the GTAP-E computable general equilibrium model, calibrated for the year 2050. GDP, welfare and investment fall (rise) in regions with net negative (positive) health impacts. Prices, production, and terms of trade show a mixed pattern. Direct cost estimates, common in climate change impact studies, underestimate the true welfare losses. (author)

  10. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  11. Modeling an emissions peak in China around 2030: Synergies or trade-offs between economy, energy and climate security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Min Chai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved a political consensus around the need to transform the path of economic growth toward one that lowers carbon intensity and ultimately leads to reductions in carbon emissions, but there remain different views on pathways that could achieve such a transformation. The essential question is whether radical or incremental reforms are required in the coming decades. This study explores relevant pathways in China beyond 2020, particularly modeling the major target choices of carbon emission peaking in China around 2030 as China-US Joint Announcement by an integrated assessment model for climate change IAMC based on carbon factor theory. Here scenarios DGS-2020, LGS2025, LBS-2030 and DBS-2040 derived from the historical pathways of developed countries are developed to access the comprehensive impacts on the economy, energy and climate security for the greener development in China. The findings suggest that the period of 2025–2030 is the window of opportunity to achieve a peak in carbon emissions at a level below 12 Gt CO2 and 8.5 t per capita by reasonable trade-offs from economy growth, annually −0.2% in average and cumulatively −3% deviation to BAU in 2030. The oil and natural gas import dependence will exceed 70% and 45% respectively while the non-fossil energy and electricity share will rise to above 20% and 45%. Meantime, the electrification level in end use sectors will increase substantially and the electricity energy ratio approaching 50%, the labor and capital productivity should be double in improvements and the carbon intensity drop by 65% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level, and the cumulative emission reductions are estimated to be more than 20 Gt CO2 in 2015–2030.

  12. Economics of adaptation to climate change; Economie de l'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch.; Hallegatte, St.; Lecocq, F.

    2010-02-15

    This report proposes a general economic framework for the issue of adaptation to climate change in order to help public and private actors to build up efficient adaptation strategies. It proposes a general definition of adaptation, identifies the major stakes for these strategies, and discusses the assessment of global costs of adaptation to climate change. It discusses the role and modalities of public action and gives some examples of possible adaptation measures in some important sectors (building and town planning, energy and transport infrastructures, water and agriculture, ecosystems, insurance). It examines the regional and national dimensions of adaptation and their relationship, and defines steps for implementing an adaptation strategy. It describes and discusses the use of economic tools in the elaboration of an adaptation strategy, i.e. how to take uncertainties into account, which scenarios to choose, how to use economic calculations to assess adaptation policies

  13. The political economy of Australia’s climate change and clean energy legislation: lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Thomas; Carole-Anne, Senit; Anna, Drutschinin

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011, Australia adopted a highly innovative, ambitious and comprehensive climate change policy, the Clean Energy Legislative Package(CELP). This outcome was not self-evident.The CELP embeds an innovative carbon pricing mechanism in a comprehensive and highly generous package of complementary measures designed to increase its public acceptability, and environmental and economic efficiency. It is combined with progressive income tax cuts, increases in government transfer payments, a...

  14. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seebens, H.; Essl, F.; Dawson, W.; Fuentes, N.; Moser, D.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.; Weber, E.; Winter, M.; Blasius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 4128-4140. ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * climate change * trade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.044, year: 2014

  15. Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM2.5), and Sulphur dioxide (SO2). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. - Highlights: → We estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden. → These constitute a sizeable share of total system costs. → The ancillary benefits are highest in the policy scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically.

  16. Demographic Invasion, Assamese Identity and Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendralal Borkakoti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines several dimensions of the Bangladeshi migration to Assam, beginning with the historical background and the factors that led to the Assam Movement. It is argued that the seeds of the apparent failure of deporting illegal Bangladeshis were already implanted in Assam Accord. An analysis of the numbers of the Bangladeshi migrants in Assam and the problems of ascertaining such numbers has been carried out. The impact of large-scale migration on Assamese culture and politics is discussed in view of the balkanisation of the ethnic groups in Assam. Attention has been drawn to the dangers of geopolitics in terms of the proposed North East economic zone. Lastly, a relatively conciliatory and accommodating approach to solve the Bangladeshi issue has been suggested in light of the fact that historical events have overtaken some significant   provisions of the 28-year old Assam Accord.

  17. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  18. Geopolitics and Post-Structuralism: Th e Prospects for Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kuchinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quite recently in Great Britain “post-giddensian” sociology has been mentioned as one of the latest development trends of contemporary sociological theory. Nevertheless, the spread of contemporary British post-structuralist theories is rather limited in Russia. Nowadays geopolitics has retreated from outdated sociological theories such as naturalistic reductionism, but the tendency to employ sociological theories in geopolitics exists. Th is article seeks to understand the possible ways of implementing contemporary British post-structuralism in geopolitical research.

  19. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  20. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again

  1. Climate Changes and the Role of Recent Droughts on Agricultural Economy of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional economy is usually affected by the operation and interaction of environment and human beings in geographical spaces. Warm and dry areas create special economic conditions, which have particular functions, quite different from the characteristics of humid and cold hilly areas or those of the Mediterranean areas. The Sistan Region is located in South East of Iran. Until recent droughts (1999-2005, agriculture sector was the basis of all economic activities in Sistan area, a major share of rural as well as urban income came directly and indirectly from agricultural activities. In accordance with the latest census before the drought period (1996, about 55 percent of the rural population directly depended on the agriculture sector for their income and employment. In addition, almost 24 percent of rural population was depended to cottage and rural industries for their employments. In urban areas, 70 percent of population was linked to service sector as a source of employment. The results of this research show that the environmental changes resulting from drought in Sistan area have had deep impacts on the socio-economic factors in the region. It is clearer in the Hamoon Lake area, which, before the onset drought, had produced crops like fodders, mat, bird meat and fish. The livestock sector also suffered to a great extent. Out of the total of 1.6 million livestock units in the area, more than 0.5 million remained in the production cycle nowadays. The production of these crops reduced to zero with drought. The total direct loss resulted from the drought amounts to 14,057,332 million Rails or 1,561 billion US$. To sum up, the environmental changes resulting from drought caused more than 80 percent of agricultural and livestock activities in the region come to halt, which, in turn, due to a reduced income multiplier effect of agriculture sector resulted in greater damage to socio-economic factors in rural, as well as in urban areas.

  2. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  3. US Forest Service Geopolitical Units adjusted within Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting geopolitical data for the entire area of the United States and territories. This includes States, Counties or Boroughs,...

  4. Borders, Boundaries and Frontiers : Notes on Jerusalem's Present Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Yacobi, Haim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of geopolitics to the study of urban space in contested territories, with a specific focus on Jerusalem's colonial geographies. The main theoretical argument is that the geopolitics of cities have to do with a crossing of scales - from the neighbourhood scale to the city level and then to the colonial apparatuses of the state. This is related to the fact that the consequences and impacts of borders and territoriality are not diminishing. Instead we should p...

  5. THE POLITICS OF USING MACKINDER'S GEOPOLITICS: THE EXAMPLE OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Megoran, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a development of the author's earlier exploratory application of a critical geopolitical perspective on the contemporary use of Mackinder to analyze Central Asia. Whereas that introduced the ideas of both Mackinder and critical geopolitics in general, this will develop these in more depth. Furthermore, the former article surveyed a wider field of writing on the international relations of Central Asia, but the present one will explore the work of two authors in a more sustained e...

  6. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    technologies photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in REMIND confirms the dominant role of these variable renewable energies for the decarbonization of the power sector. Recent cost reductions have brought PV to cost-competitiveness in regions with high midday electricity demand and high solar irradiance. The representation of system integration costs in REMIND is found to have significant impact on the competition between PV and CSP in the model: the low integration requirements of CSP equipped with thermal storage and hydrogen co-firing make CSP competitive at high shares of variable renewable energies, which leads to substantial deployment of both PV and CSP in low stabilization scenarios. A cross-model study of transport sector decarbonization confirms the earlier finding that the transport sector is not very reactive to intermediate carbon price levels: Until 2050, transport decarbonization lags 10-30 years behind the decarbonization of other sectors, and liquid fuels dominate the transport sector. In the long term, however, transportation does not seem to be an insurmountable barrier to stringent climate targets: As the price signals on CO{sub 2} increase further, transport emissions can be reduced substantially - if either hydrogen fuel cells or electromobility open a route to low-carbon energy carriers, or second generation biofuels (possibly in combination with CCS) allow the use of liquid-based transport modes with low emissions. The last study takes up the fundamental question of this thesis and analyses the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and the resulting techno-economic requirements and costs. We find that transforming the global energy-economy system to keep a two-thirds likelihood of limiting global warming to below 2 C is achievable at moderate economic implications. This result is contingent on the near-term implementation of stringent global climate policies and full availability of several technologies that are still in

  7. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    technologies photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in REMIND confirms the dominant role of these variable renewable energies for the decarbonization of the power sector. Recent cost reductions have brought PV to cost-competitiveness in regions with high midday electricity demand and high solar irradiance. The representation of system integration costs in REMIND is found to have significant impact on the competition between PV and CSP in the model: the low integration requirements of CSP equipped with thermal storage and hydrogen co-firing make CSP competitive at high shares of variable renewable energies, which leads to substantial deployment of both PV and CSP in low stabilization scenarios. A cross-model study of transport sector decarbonization confirms the earlier finding that the transport sector is not very reactive to intermediate carbon price levels: Until 2050, transport decarbonization lags 10-30 years behind the decarbonization of other sectors, and liquid fuels dominate the transport sector. In the long term, however, transportation does not seem to be an insurmountable barrier to stringent climate targets: As the price signals on CO2 increase further, transport emissions can be reduced substantially - if either hydrogen fuel cells or electromobility open a route to low-carbon energy carriers, or second generation biofuels (possibly in combination with CCS) allow the use of liquid-based transport modes with low emissions. The last study takes up the fundamental question of this thesis and analyses the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and the resulting techno-economic requirements and costs. We find that transforming the global energy-economy system to keep a two-thirds likelihood of limiting global warming to below 2 C is achievable at moderate economic implications. This result is contingent on the near-term implementation of stringent global climate policies and full availability of several technologies that are still in the

  8. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  9. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  10. Geopolitics of the energy; Energy no chiseigaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J. [Energy and Environmental Programme, (United Kingdom)

    1996-02-01

    In the study of the geopolitics of energy, oil production of the world was taken up, with reference made to Middle East, East Asia, Russia, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. The oil production of the world is divided into three categories, the OPEC, the now-defunct Soviet Union, and the others (NOPCIS). Production in the now-defunct Soviet Union will begin to increase when political troubles are settled. The NOPCIS countries are making a remarkable progress in the production of oil. The progress is attributable to the increase in production in the North Sea and Latin Americas because of taxation system changes and reduction in exploration and exploitation costs thanks to the employment of new technologies. Looking into the future, it is supposed that the share of the OPEC will remain approximately 45% even in 2010, with no sharp increase expected in other countries` dependence upon the OPEC. In the Middle East region, although it is afraid there may be a short-term cartel in view of the unstable political situation, yet such will not last, with oil supply increasing to develop competition among the suppliers. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  12. The Rebirth of Geopolitics in Post-Communist Romania: Ideas, Role and Collective Imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Cioculescu, Șerban Filip

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the historical developments of the controversial scientific discipline of geopolitics in Romania and the aim of our contribution is exactly to clarify the status and role of the geopolitics as a possible branch of social sciences, the main schools of thought, authors, and topics. If the interwar tradition of Romanian geopolitics is generally well popularized in universities and research institutions, the contemporary autochthonous geopolitical discourse is largely ignored b...

  13. THE KEY PROBLEMS TO ATTRACT FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Y. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems that inhibit the influx of foreign investments into the Russian market, including geopolitical factors. We have analyzed the pattern of other-countries, investment in the Russian economy, for comparison, of the given data according to their size in the EU and China. The article focuses on the relationship of foreign investment to the competitiveness of the economy

  14. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." PMID:12157827

  15. GEOPOLITICAL STRATEGIES AND MODERNITY: MULTIPOLAR WORLD OF NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenko Scekic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The political map of the planet has transformed substantially during the last century. Former colonial powers had to be satisfied with the perfidious forms of political and economic control. The last decades were marked by the global dominance of the US and its allies, as well as the military superiority of the NATO pact. The beginning of the new millennium was filled with military and financial crises. On the global stage have appeared new economic and military powers and organizations such as the BRICS, the Eurasian Union, the economic power of China, and Russia's comeback in the geopolitical games. The former geopolitical theories become topical again.

  16. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  17. Education for a Green and Resilient Economy: An Educator Framework for Teaching Climate and Energy Literacy for K-12 Teachers Across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Ledley, T. S.; Lockwood, J.; Youngman, E.; Manning, C. L. B.; Sullivan, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. is embarking on a major transition to a green and resilient economy, a monumental change requiring all sectors and segments of the population to pull together. Transforming our nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to in this way will require a sustained level of expertise, innovation, and cooperative effort unseen since the 1940s to meet the challenges involved. Education can - and must - help people understand the true connections, the linkages and interdependencies, between the environment, our energy sources and the economy which underpin and form the very foundation of the concept of a green and resilient economy. To produce such a literate future workforce and citizenry, the United States will need to make major new investments in our educational systems. Teachers across the nation are helping to increase science-based understanding and awareness of current and future climate change, enhancing climate and energy literacy in K-12 classrooms, on college and university campuses. There has been tremendous progress to date, but there is still more work to be done. The new academic standards in mathematics and science (the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)) represent a sea change from the nation's previous sets of standards. Addressing these standards in the currently over 40 percent of the nation's classrooms that have adopted or adapted the NGSS will demand that we prepare new and current teachers, who can effectively address the interdisciplinary nature of climate change and societal responses. To address this opportunity and need a collaboration between NOAA, TERC and CIRES has been established to develop an Educator Framework for Teaching Climate and Energy Literacy for K-12 teachers across the curriculum based on the NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. This collaboration is developing an effective way to frame the use of

  18. Sovereign Gold Reserves. Geopolitics or economic calculation?

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Mionel; Oana Mionel; Alexandra Moraru

    2015-01-01

    Gold has had a special course; it has influenced history and has triggered enrichment fantasies. Beyond the value given by its scarcity and its physic-chemical properties, gold has many other uses. Yet we tend to imagine it in the form of large ingots. Thinking thus, we associate it with wealth and with the general idea of abundance. Thus, all countries, together with the desire to boost national economies, are trying to diversify the portfolio by creating economic sovereign gold reserves. Bu...

  19. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions. PMID:26857170

  20. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  1. World and energy. Geopolitical stakes. 1 - the clues to understand. 2 - the maps in hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy domain, globalization has become a visible reality since several decades, in particular since the first petroleum shock of 1974/1975, but in reality since the first world war when petroleum started to play a key role. The aim of this book is to explain geopolitics and to foresee the Earth's future at the time of a major energy turn. In the first volume, the author explores the different eras of the energy world. A large part is devoted to the main energy resources with some precision about reserves, exploitation means and their impacts on the environment and on the climatic change. The second volume describes the main energy markets and their foreseeable evolution through a geopolitical analysis of maps. A large part is devoted to the European supplies and to the East-West relations which control them, in particular because of the huge gas reserves of Russia and of its former satellite countries. Another part is devoted to the big wold consumers, the present day ones (the USA) and the new ones (China and India), who stake both on North-South relations (Middle East and South America for the USA and Africa for China and India), and on areas which were traditionally of Europe's interests. (J.S.)

  2. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Kaesehage; Michael Leyshon; Chris Caseldine

    2014-01-01

    The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Orga...

  3. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  4. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  5. Pedagogical Reflections on Internalizing Geopolitical Representations in Print Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Jabbar, Wisam Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores how print media conceals implicit hegemonic texts that common readers unsuspectingly tend to internalize. These geopolitically infused texts are set to appropriate the reader's worldviews by sublimating the kind of perceptions and notions they want to promote. This paper raises questions and awareness about how academia…

  6. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts

  7. Climatic servitude: climate change, business and politics; La servitude climatique: Changement climatique, Business et Politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belouve, J.M.

    2009-07-01

    This book is together a contemporary history book and a global dossier about a topic of prime importance in our civilization. It treats of the history of science, of ideas and events put in the modern civilization context, of science situation and scientific controversies, of the media aspects, of carbon economy and its related business, of Al Gore's and Maurice Strong's biographies, and finally, it makes a critical geopolitical analysis and makes proposals for a renovated ecology. In the conclusion, the author shows how climate change has become the hobbyhorse of a new thinking trend, namely the New World Order, aiming at conducting people to the acceptance of constraining policies encompassing the energy security of nations, new taxes, a worldwide economic disruption, the limitation of the World's population, and a World governance supported by the United Nations and not constrained by classical democratic rules. (J.S.)

  8. Cobenefits of climate and air pollution regulations. The context of the European Commission Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Eerens, H.; Van Velze, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Colette, A.; Schucht, S.; Pere, J.C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Mellios, G. [EMISIA, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    In 2011, the European Commission published its roadmap towards a competitive low-carbon economy for 2050. For this roadmap the possibilities of a far-reaching reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe were assessed (a decrease of 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels). This report was written at the request of the European Environment Agency and examines the effects of such a reduction on air quality. Analysis of several existing scenarios indicates that climate policy, in general, leads to a decrease in air pollution in Europe.

  9. China and Central Asian Energy Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Javed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available China is immediate neighbour of Central Asian States and has very long history of engagement with the region. A brief history of Chinese engagementis discussed in given paper. China is world largest economy and dependent of imported oil and gas form different part of world and this oiland gas supply is expensive and vulnerable because of various reasons, therefore China is focusing on Central Asia as this region has vast amountof hydrocarbons. Chinese policies and strategies to grab Central Asian oil and gas are also examined in given paper.

  10. Mobilizing climate finance - A road-map to finance a low-carbon economy. Report of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the conclusions of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission and proposes to the President of the French Republic paths of action to mobilize increased public and private funding in the fight against climate change. It also forwards proposals on how the French government could advance the 'innovative climate finance agenda' in the various international forums in which it participates (G7, G20, IMF, OECD, etc.). The present report covers the financial instruments identified more than a decade ago as 'innovative' (financial transaction tax, carbon market auctions revenues, etc.). It, however, goes further to also look at the means of finding 'innovative' ways of using existing tools in the 'toolboxes' of both private and public actors to scale-up financial flows for the low-carbon economy. (authors)

  11. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  12. An 'agenda for change': Quantifying climate change impacts on natural resource-based economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, James; Reid, Hannah; Sahlen, Linda

    2006-10-15

    For climate change adaptation to be beneficial to developing countries, it must begin quickly and this will require domestic political will. The third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made clear that even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, inertia in climatic systems means that some level of climate change is unavoidable. The countries most vulnerable to CC include many developing nations; while those better-able to adapt and less willing to mitigate are those most guilty of past pollution, including many developed nations.

  13. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  14. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  15. On study of global warming influence on natural resources and Kazakstan economy and adaption activity under possible climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of study of anthropogenic climate changes and its potential influence on economics and natural resources of Kazakhstan are generalized. Possible measures on adaptation and weakening of greenhouse effect impact in power engineering, agriculture and water recourses management are discussed. Further actions related with fulfillment of Republic of Kazakhstan obligations within Framework Convention of United Nations on Climate Change are proposed. (author)

  16. Will climate change capitalism? The major change of the X XI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introduction and an interview with an historian on the Little Ice Age of the 17. century, this collective book gathers several contributions. A first set discusses the possible change of capitalism under the influence of the carbon market. The authors discuss the political economy of global warming, the relationship between climate negotiation and carbon price, the ways companies take the carbon price into account in their decisions, and the energy and economic transitions. The second set of contributions discusses the influence of climate on the logics of political choices. The authors address the relationship between natural resources and growth, the macro-economic consequences of climate disruption, how to finance the climate, the virtuous relationships between finance and climate, and why it seems so difficult to act for the climate when considering political ambition and economic lucidity. The third and last set of contributions addresses the possible influence of climate change on geopolitics. The authors address and comment the situation of southern countries with respect to climate change, the American leadership challenged by climate issues, the threat China could be for climate more than for anything else, and the European energy strategy with respect to the COP21. A last article discusses the relationship between global warming and the evolution of the Arctic area

  17. INDIA, SCO AND BRICS IN MODERN GEOPOLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. Shaumyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the third millennium has witnessed the formation of newly forged associations, a substantial growth of regional organizations, an upsurge in their activity and also their increasing adaptability to globalization processes. A keen interest to participate in such regional alliances has been displayed by nations representing diverse structural systems, differing sizes of economy and various natural, economic, human and military potentials. Among these are both developed and developing states, great powers, neighboring states as well as those located on separate continents (India-Brazil-South Africa, Brazil-Russia-India-China-plus South Africa. The same state may decide to join one or several regional and sub-regional organizations as well as non-institutionalized groups. India has participated in such organizations and associations as SCO, SAARC, RIC, BIMSTEC and BRICS. Indian participation in the activities of regional and global organizations does not damage its independent foreign policy; its growing assertiveness as a world economic power occupies a special place in global politics. India determines its foreign policy and its relations with other world powers, with developed and developing countries alike, based on its national interests

  18. The Geopolitical Audience: Watching Quantum of Solace (2008) in London

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmer, J; Dodds, K.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for the intersection of popular geopolitics and audience studies in audience power. This is demonstrated through a survey of viewers attending the James Bond film Quantum of Solace (QoS) at three theatres in the greater London area. Geography emerged as relevant to audiences in three forms. First, geography was understood as a catalyst for resource-based wars, providing an opportunity to reflect on these conflicts and their future likelihood. Second, geography serves as a ...

  19. GEOPOLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE CAUCASIAN-CASPIAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dobaev, Igor; Dugin, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Geopolitics, the major theoretical propositions of which were formulated in detail in the 19th-20th centuries by its founding fathers (Ratzel, Kjellen, Mackinder, Mahan, Spykeman, Haushoffer, Schmitt, and others), is based on the fundamental dualism of Tellurocracy (Land) and Thalassocracy (Sea) as two opposing ontological and epistemological concepts. "Land," "Tellurocracy," or "Supremacy on the Land" as a paradigmatic matrix of a wide variety of civilizations is associated with stable space...

  20. Point Climat no. 14 'Financing the transition to a green economy: their word is their (green) bond?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Responding to climate change involves the implementation of initiatives that require significant up-front capital investment. At a time when bank lending is squeezed, green bonds offer an alternative financing for initiatives with an environmental goal. Lately, the Ile-de-France Region's issuance of environmentally and socially responsible bonds on March 20 2012 demonstrates that an increasing number of players are taking interest in this tool. But green bonds are not, however, the panacea to access to finance issues that mainly depend on the bond issuer's characteristics

  1. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  2. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. PMID:26455783

  3. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Multilateralism after the Failure of the DDR and Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the two most important current efforts to devise new rules binding all nations; the negotiations in the WTO of trade rules and the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to devise rules restricting the annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Both negotiations have failed after several years of intensive effort. There are remarkable parallels in these negotiations. Both have used the same approach to negotiations; consensus decision-taking, a bottom-up approach and differential treatment of Developing Countries, and complex modalities. These features have made the negotiations tortuous. Major changes in international relations have made agreement impossible to date: large global market imbalances and changes in geopolitical balances have produced a general distrust among major parties and an absence of leadership. What is needed most of all is a common or shared vision of the gains from binding multilateral rules for the world economy.

  5. Reply to Comment on ``Abandoned Mines, Mountain Sports, and Climate Variability: Implications for the Colorado Tourism Economy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew; McKnight, Diane; Wyatt, Lane

    2004-02-01

    Our article focused on the complex interactions among climate variability, hydrology, chemical weathering reactions, and stream ecology that influence water resource availability for recreation in watersheds of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In responding to our article, our colleagues at Hydrosphere Resource Consultants provide additional detailed information about snow-making approaches at ski resorts. However, they make other assertions that warrant comment and clarification. We disagree with the statement that the ski industry may not be the appropriate tourism sector for illustrating the impacts of climate variations. The success of the ski industry hinges on a variety of climate-related variables (for example, temperature, precipitation quantity, precipitation as snow versus rain) that are expected to change in an uncertain climatic future. A new study launched by the United Nations Environment Programme provides a wide-ranging, international evaluation of the climate change and vulnerability of winter sports issue. Contrary to Hydrosphere Resource Consultants' assertion, we did not suggest that the droughts of 1977 and 2002 were similar or that they have had similar impacts on the Colorado ski industry. As they noted, the timing of the 2002 drought resulted in significant impacts to summer tourist activities, through decreased stream flows and increased fire danger. Rather, we utilized the 1977 event to illustrate that drought occurs frequently in Colorado and has affected the ski industry in the past.

  6. Was Geopolitics Born 60 Years Before Mahan and Mackinder? The Forgotten Contribution of Friedrich List

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio, Juan Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the geopolitical dimension of Friedrich List’s thinking. It explores his interest in geographical factors, his vision and forecast of the world order, and his strategy proposal for nations willing to reach independence, wealth, and power. Further, the article shows that beyond his economic theory, the mid-19th century German economist developed geopolitical ideas that could be considered part of the tradition of imperialist geopolitics, besides Kjellén, Mahan, Ratzel, Ma...

  7. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: A joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigano, A. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ricerche per l' Economia e la Finanza, Milan (Italy); Bosello, F.; Roson, R. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ca' Foscari Univ. of Venice (Italy); Tol, R.S.J. [Hamburg Univ. and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germay). Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change]|[Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies]|[Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Climate change impacts of human life have well defined and different origins. Nevertheless in the determination of their final effects, especially those involving social-economic responses, interactions among impacts are likely to play an important role. This paper is one of the first attempts to disentangle and highlight the role of these interactions. It focuses on the economic assessment of two specific climate change impacts: sea-level rise and changes in tourism flows. By using a CGE model the two impacts categories are first analyzed separately and then jointly. Comparing the results it is shown that, even though qualitatively joint effects follow the outcomes of the disjoint exercises, quantitatively impact interaction do play a significant role. Moreover it has also been possible to disentangle the relative contribution of each single impact category to the final result. In the case under scrutiny demand shocks induced by changes in tourism flows outweigh the supply side shock induced by the loss of coastal land.

  8. The new role of Brazil in energy geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to its efficient petroleum framework, Brazil has just found some very large deep off-shore fields (pre-halite layers), which, if confirmed, will allow the country to become a major international oil producer. There will be significant repercussions on Brazil. On the one hand, the prospect of high economic rents encourages it to assign its hydrocarbon industry a more social and national calling; on the other hand, this huge potential offers Brazil a new geopolitical dimension. This article examines both these avenues. (author)

  9. Geopolitics of the High North and its consequences1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarny Ryszard M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in the Arctic by global players is generated by new economic opportunities related to commercial maritime transport, development of oil and gas deposits, mining, fisheries, and tourism. The natural results are closer economic and geopolitical relations between the Arctic and the rest of the world. Many observers perceive this development as a source of growing conflict because of competition related to control over the natural resources of the region. It seems also quite clear that the Arctic cannot follow its own original way of development which would be independent from the global power system.

  10. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses the global climate-economy-biosphere (CoCEB) model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume - as in Part 1 - that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i) low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii) enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i) is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less sensitive.

  11. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  12. Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the emission reduction proposals (pledges) that countries made for 2020. The analysis shows that domestic policies of India, China and Russia are projected to lead to lower emission levels than the pledged levels. Australia's and the EU's nationally legally binding policy framework is likely to deliver their unconditional pledges, but not the conditional ones. The situation is rather unclear for Japan, South Korea, Brazil and Indonesia. We project that policies of Canada and the USA will reduce 2020 emission levels, but additional policies are probably needed to deliver their pledges in full. The analysis also shows that countries are implementing policies or targets in various areas to a varying degree: all major countries have set renewable energy targets; many have recently implemented efficiency standards for cars, and new emission trading systems are emerging. - Highlights: • Many countries have pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. • There are upward revisions of greenhouse gas emission projections in many developing countries. • Higher emissions expected from pledged mitigation action plans of developing countries. • Achieving the 2 °C climate goal becomes more difficult. • The expected emission levels resulting from the pledges are surrounded with large uncertainties

  13. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  14. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  15. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. PMID:23849285

  16. The Dynamic of Geopolitics in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a complex, dynamic and turbulent world the main confrontation is between fundamentally different values, between democracy and totalitarianism, and it is determined by the major aggression of international terrorism, of religious extremist origin. The objective of the paper is the presentation of geopolitical changes in the Middle East and the factors that influence them. In an increasingly globalized world one cannot stand by and be indifferent to what happens so close to Europe. In this environment, no country can stay isolated or stay neutral, no country is immune and no one should remain out of the global processes. As a result, the international security tends more and more to show its indivisible feature, and the international community is increasingly aware of its global responsibilities. In the undertaken study we conclude that the major tendencies, that govern the global developments in the post bipolar era, create legitimate concerns, posing new challenges, offering opportunities and presenting risks to national values and interests. This paper is intended to focus on: the reconfiguration of the area in the Asian West in the early 21st century; the Muslim world with its issues (see the Iran's geopolitical position; globalization, major factor in determining the behavior of key international actors.

  17. Geopolitical understanding of South Korea: development, tendencies and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Celaya Figueroa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of South Korea must be understood to the light of the environmental theories that insist on the paper of environment, including the geography and the culture, like conditioners of the political relations. The history of South Korea is confined in the history of the nations that from the opening from East to the West in the middle of century XIX play a important role like scene and reason for conflicts between the regional powers and, after 2ª World War, like scene of the conflict between the two superpowers. The objective of the present work is present Korea like a typical scene of the game of powers that represent geopolitics, for such effect is divided in three approaches: first it has to do with the geography of Korea like a strategic zone disputed by China, Japan and Russia in the middle of century XIX? the second approach talks about to the location of Korea like a geopolitical space where the two great triumphant ideologies of 2ª World War, Communism and Capitalism, and where a fight by this territory like political flag would be carried out? finally, the third approach talks about to the situation of two Coreas after the cold war locating the possible context of a possible reunification as well as scenes.

  18. Geopolitical Issues of Natural Gas Trade in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kovsh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was supported by the Academy of Korean Studies of the Republic of Korea in year 2012-2013 (AKS-2010-CAA-2101 Energy security has assumed newfound geopolitical importance at the outset of XXI century (Moran and Russell, 2008. Diminishing fossil fuel supplies have led to fears of energy shortages, while rapid economic and population growth have fuelled the demand for cheap, clean and secure sources of energy. The provision of reliable and affordable energy, once the domain of domestic policy, has emerged as a key concern of policymakers. To ensure energy security, leaders confront a complex set of economic, political, and environmental issues that transcend national boundaries. Should they fail to meet this challenge, energy is one of the few issues in today’s international system with a distinct possibility to incite conflict between major powers. At the same time, trade in energy resources has the potential to usurp pre-existing economic or cultural ties – and overcome deep-seated distrust – to create new geopolitical alignments and alliances.

  19. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    . Participatory modeling places a greater emphasis on understanding processes, rather than just focusing on outcomes. The process facilitated the detailed exploration of local realities through the creation and playing of a board game that modeled their local fishing economy. Participants were able to look closely at the causal relations between several potential development interventions such as a cooperative-owned fish businesses and local ice production, gaining insights into possible costs and benefits.

  20. Engineering economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written for engineer and manager who is working for analysis of propriety of project. It gives descriptions of basic of engineering economy, compare principle of engineering economy, application of compare principle, evaluation of capital project, value of time of funds and evaluation of investment, engineering economy analysis of an alternative idea, depreciation, determination and principle analysis of uncertain prospect, analysis of propriety of project, profitable plan in product progress, quality, cost and profit and analysis of complex investment project.

  1. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  2. COLOMBIA Y GEOPOLITICA HOY. COLOMBIA AND GEOPOLITICS TODAY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Vega Cantor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito de investigación, esboza los aspectos centrales que pueden ayudar a comprender la importancia geopolítica del territorio colombiano en la guerra mundial por los recursos, el punto de partida indispensable para entender las guerras de agresión contra los pueblos que hoy adelantan las potencias imperialistas, encabezadas por los Estados Unidos.This research brief outlines the core aspects that can help understand the geopolitical importance of the Colombian territory in the world war for the natural resources, being the essential starting point to understand the wars of aggression against the peoples today, by the imperialist powers, led by the United States.

  3. Geopolitics of petroleum. A new market. New risks. New worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this book is to shade light on a complex world in complete evolution, the stakes of which for today's societies being proportional to the energy and economical importance of petroleum. The big petroleum fear of consuming countries and the reactions linked with oil shocks are now old stories. The producing countries are today at least as vulnerable to price variations and fluxes restrictions as the consumers of developed countries. Two countries, USA and Saudi Arabia, and one organisation, the OPEC, play a key role in the regulation of this system, the equilibrium of which is now threatened by the reinforcement of preoccupations like environment and human rights protection. New challenges occur: the increase of demand, the concentration of offer, some technological changes that would limit the petroleum needs in the future, and the increasing insecurity of key oil-producing regions. At a shorter term, the geopolitical context of Middle-East is the most worrying. (J.S.)

  4. Bilateral engagement amid geopolitics: A case of India and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available India’s engagement with West Asia including Iran has always been a balancing act hovering between economic necessities and strategic pursuits. The paper briefly traces the evolution of Indo-Iran engagements and also analyses their respective macroeconomic parameters. It also outlines and discusses three major geopolitical and geo-economic influences including sanctions on Iran, payment mechanism, and Iran’s business environment. Moreover, the issues pertaining to access to oil, transit route through Afghanistan and other trade facilitation measures have also been discussed. The paper also uses the revealed comparative advantage index to identify some potential areas of cooperation. Also, it argues that India needs to be more cautious and pragmatic in its strategic endeavours.

  5. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard;

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  6. Strategic Orientation and Measures of Energy Geopolitics in China%中国能源地缘政治的战略定位与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎一环; 王礼茂; 李红强

    2012-01-01

    The sustaining high-speed growth of China's economy and increasing demand from the outside has made significant shock on global energy geopolitics. It is of urgency and necessity to establish effective and definite energy geopolitics strategy for China. The orientation and principle of China's energy geopolitics are put forward, and four key missions are identified:(1) formulate safe and reliable domestic energy supply system, so as to strengthen the advantage of China's energy geopolitics and cooperation with foreign countries; (2) establish the energy resources supply system to use diversified foreign resources;(3) construct the safe oil & gas transportation system, including the seaborne lines and landlines, connecting resources from different direction;(4) establish the Asian energy trade and cooperation system, in concerns of exporting & importing energy products orderly. The paper finally proposes several countermeasures to implement China's energy geopolitics strategy.%中国经济持续高速增长和对国外能源需求的不断增加,对全球能源政治格局产生重要冲击,进而使得构建清晰和有效的中国能源地缘政治战略显得迫切而必要.本文界定了中国能源地缘政治战略的定位和原则,并提出了四大战略任务:(1)建立安全可靠的国内能源供应体系,增强我国能源地缘政治优势,在对外交往合作中处于有利地位;(2)建立多元化利用全球资源的国外能源供应体系;(3)建设海陆并举、贯穿东西南北的油气安全运输体系;(4)建立亚洲能源贸易与国际合作体系,实现能源产品的有序进出口.在此基础上,探讨未来中国能源地缘政治的战略对策.

  7. [The geopolitics of tropical diseases: a geo-epidemiological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2005-12-01

    The objective of my article is to investigate how the West had strong interest in tropical diseases and developed tropical medicine and hygiene from the 1870s through the 1910s. Its focus is to identify the geopolitical conditions in which the West constructed 'tropical diseases' to extend its imperial interests into non-Western tropical regions. The article has several specific research tasks: first, I attempt to explore the way in which European people transformed their attitudes toward tropical diseases from the sixteenth century to the 1860s. A variety of writings by European physicians are discussed; the second part shows European change in its domestic sanitary situation in relation to its imperial interests in tropical regions. Sanitary hygiene in metropole and colonies are not separate, but interconnected; third, the paper illuminates how the West responded to the spread of 'Asiatic cholera' in the nineteenth century. Cholera provides a typical example for the West to perceive Asian origin of tropical diseases; finally, the article demonstrates that hygienic governance of tropical diseases is the key to imperial dominion over colonies by taking the Panama Canal as an example. Although several European countries such as Spain, Britain, Germany, and France had strong imperial interests in the Panama Canal that might facilitate trade between the Atlantic and the Pacific, they failed to occupy the canal because of their inability to control high prevalence of malaria and yellow fever. Taking advantage of 'tropical medicine,' the United States succeeded in taking up the canal by eradicating tropical diseases in the canal. It was owing to the scientific development of tropical hygiene and medicine that the West transformed its pessimistic into optimistic position about the colonization of tropical regions. Tropical diseases became the geopolitical reference for Western conceptualization of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific. PMID:17144195

  8. Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a context of resource scarcity and political instability, new energy sources and technologies are being explored in many parts of the world and exploited in some. One of these new energy sources is shale gas and one of the countries seeking to decrease its energy dependence and increase its energy security is Poland which is largely dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia. This article presents the results of a thematic content analysis of articles reporting on shale gas/fracking published in Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita, two leading Polish newspapers, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Findings suggest that in media reporting the geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension and that representations are overwhelmingly positive. Positive representations are bolstered through particular linguistic framings. It is argued that the Polish press has polarized the debate on fracking in a particular (positive) direction, which has silenced an open and constructive debate concerning energy policy in Poland and constructed criticism of fracking as counter-normative and “un-Polish.” The potential socio-political and policy implications of these media representations are discussed. - Highlights: • The general tone of Polish media reporting is positive and emphatic about the benefits of fracking. • The geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension. • The implementation of fracking is constructed as a national priority. • Opposition to fracking is constructed as counter-normative and “anti-Polish”. • Representations impede open and constructive dialogue about energy policy

  9. The Knowledge Economy, Gender and Stratified Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Kofman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of knowledge economies and societies, equated with the mobile subject as bearer of technological, managerial and cosmopolitan competences, on the one hand, and insecurities about social order and national identities, on the other, have in the past few years led to increasing polarisation between skilled migrants and those deemed to lack useful skills. The former are considered to be bearers of human capital and have the capacity to assimilate seamlessly and are therefore worthy of citizenship; the latter are likely to pose problems of assimilation and dependency due to their economic and cultural ‘otherness’ and offered a transient status and partial citizenship by receiving states. In the European context this trend has been reinforced by the redrawing of European geopolitical space creating new boundaries of exclusion and social justice. The emphasis on the knowledge economy also generates gender inequalities and stratifications based on skills and types of knowledge with implications for citizenship and social justice.

  10. The Knowledge Economy, Gender and Stratified Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Kofman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of knowledge economies and societies, equated with the mobile subject as bearer of technological, managerial and cosmopolitan competences, on the one hand, and insecurities about social order and national identities, on the other, have in the past few years led to increasing polarisation between skilled migrants and those deemed to lack useful skills. The former are considered to be bearers of human capital and have the capacity to assimilate seamlessly and are therefore worthy of citizenship; the latter are likely to pose problems of assimilation and dependency due to their economic and cultural ‘otherness’ and offered a transient status and partial citizenship by receiving states. In the European context this trend has been reinforced by the redrawing of European geopolitical space creating new boundaries of exclusion and social justice. The emphasis on the knowledge economy also generates gender inequalities and stratifications based on skills and types of knowledge with implications for citizenship and social justice.

  11. Territorial'no-politicheskie i regional'nye geopoliticheskie sistemy: sootnoshenie ponjatij [Territorial-political and regional geopolitical systems: correlation of concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelatskov Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the notions of ‘territorial political system’ and ‘regional geopolitical system' as well as a correlation between them from the viewpoint of the socalled activity-based geospatial approach. A regional geopolitical system includes geopolitical relations between the states within the region and those with powerful external actors. A geopolitical region itself can be characterized by integration, autonomization or a permanent geopolitical conflict. A territorial political system is studied in a broad sense (all political phenomena of a certain territory and in a narrow context (geopolitical relations of a certain territory. The latter is considered to be a subsystem of regional geopolitical system. The research results can be applied in the study of geopolitical regions and geopolitical systems. The article develops a methodology for regional geopolitical and political geographical studies. The author wishes to thank his colleagues from Saint Petersburg State University for their comments on earlier versions.

  12. Geographers meet in National Capital Region to discuss, debate geopolitical challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Geographers from around the world gathered in Old Town Alexandria recently to attend "The Ridenour Symposium: Geopolitics at Virginia Tech," sponsored by the School of Public and International Affairs in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies.

  13. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-01-01

    Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements) geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organiz...

  14. Self-fulfilling geopolitics? Or: the social production of foreign policy expertise in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzini, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    This paper sketches the very first research hypotheses and methodological framework for exploring the puzzle why at the peaceful end of the Cold War, more militarist versions of realism and decidedly geopolitical thought have known a comeback in different European countries while not in others. It proposes a constructivism-inspired analysis which, in a sequence, explores geopolitics as an intellectual tradition, an expression of state interests, and of identity politics. It proposes to analys...

  15. Geopolitical Tensions, OPEC News, and Oil Price: A Granger Causality Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Medel, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    To what extent geopolitical tensions in major oil-producer countries and unexpected news related to the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) affect oil price? What are the effects of non-market externalities in oil price? Are oil price forecasters aware or affected by such externalities when making their predictions? In this article, I analyse the influence of these events on oil price by means of Granger causality, using a unique measure of geopolitical events accounting ...

  16. Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Karl Kresl

    2014-01-01

    In a call for papers, for the special issue to be devoted to “Urban Economy†late in 2015, that the Economies editors issued recently, I noted the increased attention that has been given to urban economies during the past quarter century. This is concomitant with the increased importance and role in policy that cities have attained. This is, in part, due to the diminished capacity of national and sub-national governments to find the funds needed for urban projects and services, and in part...

  17. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  18. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  19. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  20. Human economy and natural economy

    OpenAIRE

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same ...

  1. Middle East geopolitics and the great new game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of supply and demand of OPEC oil was the focus of this presentation. The geopolitics involved in moving crude oil from land-locked Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan was also discussed, along with the constraints imposed by the lack of adequate means to move land-locked crude oil and natural gas, and the reality of additional investments of $8 billion to $20 billion that will be needed over the next 10 to 20 years to establish a pipeline network. A look at U.S. crude oil imports shows that OPEC's share reached a high at 85 per cent of total imports in 1977, but declined steadily to bottom out at 41 per cent in 1985. Issues of supply security have been invoked in avoiding overdependence on Middle East (Gulf) oil imports, based on concern over the region's political instability, including inter-state conflicts. The heavy reliance of governments in the Gulf states on oil exports for much of their revenue, the implications of current demographics in the region, and the probability of unmet expectations leading to rising discontent, have important implications for future oil supply and demand from the Middle East. Much of the paper is devoted to the exploration of these implications. 6 tabs

  2. China at the beginning of 3rd millennium: geopolitical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and briefly examines the main geohistorical, geoeconomic and geostrategic advantages of China, related to this attempt to become a regional hegemonic power and, in special circumstances, a worldwide superpower. First, is presented a historical background of the country, a source of self-confidence and rise of the so-called “Chinese mentality”, different of Western mentality. Further is shown the essence of the Chinese contemporary naval strategy (Haijun Zhanlue, currently an essential element of geostrategy of this country. Policies and economic resources of the country – the fundamental elements of its geopolitics – are more detailed presented. The final part of the article reviews and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of strategic policy towards Central Asia and China’s fundamental goal – gaining of the regional hegemonic power status.In conclusion, the authors consider that in order to become the first superpower of the world in the next 2-3 decades, China needs a mixture of brilliant leadership, economic growth, modernization (not Westernization!, Chinese mentality and “Chinese way of life” (last two based on Tao. If a single element of this combination will not work properly, this “Chinese dream” will not be achieved.

  3. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modeling with a Focus on Climate Change Issue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, S.H.; Chang, K.G.; Kim, Y.G.; Kang, S.I. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Rob, D. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In this study, the economic cost; of carbon taxes imposed on fossil fuels associated with climate change issue in Korea were analyzed based on the model of a small open-economy forward-looking dynamic CGE over the years 1998-2047. As a primary policy instrument, carbon taxes are imposed on coal, oil, and gas from year 2013 through 2047 from 100,000 Korean Won/ton of Carbon (TC) to KW400,000. The primary findings through this study are as follows: First, the primary economic indicators reflecting the results of sensitivity analysis through the study estimated that in the year 2025 at a carbon tax rate of 100,000KW/TC, the EVs span from -0.217% to -0.167% and the GDP changes from -0.195% to -0.432%, while the results from a rate of 400,000KW/TC were found to be -0.472% to -0.575% for EVs and -0.708% to - 1.525% for GDPs. Second, the reduction of emissions attributed to carbon tax rates of 100,000KW/TC equal 17(25) million TC which is 1.19(1.78) times the 2000 level in the year 2015(2035). In terms of GDP, the corresponding economic costs of the abatement are 1,261 billion Korean Won in 2015 and 4,551 KW in 2035. Third, the changes in GDP, resulting from sensitivity analysis, are almost identical with a tax rate of 100,000KW/TC and annual growth rate or 2{approx}3%. Thus, the change in GDP with a 3%(2%) growth rate were calculated to be -0.025%(-0.023%) in 2005, -0.176%(-0.176%) in 2015, -0.292%(-0.294%) in 2025, -0.347%(-0.350%) in 2035, and -0.371%(-0.374%) in 2045. In comparison to other Korean studies on carbon tax simulations, the results of this study found that there was no significant difference of the economic cost assessments in terms of GDP loss, overall; however, with increasing tax rates, the reduction in emissions in the present study were found to be less than those of previous ones. The following policy recommendations are suggested based on the results from this study: First, the carbon tax approach should be utilized to a limited extent. In the

  4. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  5. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  6. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and then the geopolitics involved in it

  7. Energy politics and geopolitics - an analysis of the international tensions in the 21. century; Politique et geopolitique de l'energie - Une analyse des tensions internationales au 21eme siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2012-02-01

    Necessary, unloved, abundant but often polluting, expensive but often wasted, energy remains the indispensable blood which irrigates the world economy, supplies the engine of economic growth, and generates together peace and conflicts. The energy questions have been first technical (resources extraction), economical (resources management) and geopolitical (resources property). Today they have become mainly political. With the development of emerging countries, the worldwide distribution of energy resources has become a worrying geopolitical issue for industrialized countries. These countries have to deal with contradictory political choices: the security of supplies on the one hand, and the sustainable development on the other hand. In this book, the author explains that despite a sustained development of renewable energy sources and an energy capacity in permanent progress, and despite a bad geographical distribution of resources, the fossil fuels still dominate the energy scene today and will do so for a long time. With some precise figures and clear explanations of geopolitical situations, the author shares with us his knowledge gained during several years of energy files management at the European Commission. (J.S.)

  8. Pedagogical Reflections on Internalizing Geopolitical Representations in Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Khalid Abdul-Jabbar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how print media conceals implicit hegemonic texts that common readers unsuspectingly tend to internalize. These geopolitically infused texts are set to appropriate the reader’s worldviews by sublimating the kind of perceptions and notions they want to promote. This paper raises questions and awareness about how academia responds to these acts of internalization. These geopolitical texts, which dominate most of the print media and other resources, function at an imperceptible level to legitimize presuppositions and mould the world based on its own political imaginaries. To decode and interpret these largely shrewd texts requires a literacy skill that students need to acquire in different academic disciplines. This essay, therefore, explores how print media, such as newspapers and comics, attempts to legitimize knowledge through reports and stories that work at the subliminal level. Since all readers, students, instructors or researchers are vulnerable observers (Behar, 1996, because of our fallible human nature, the act of internalizing mediascaped knowledge becomes alarmingly simple and crucially effective on the way we are directed to perceive the world. By analogy, geopolitical texts are these id-instigated drives that the superego often suppresses and filters into dreams and fiction and yet they ominously somehow found their way out; they stealthily found expression and now they paint reality with their own biased colors. Can readers in the context be dream catchers? Cet article explore la manière dont les médias écrits dissimulent les textes hégémoniques implicites que les lecteurs ordinaires semblent assimiler à leur insu. Ces textes géopolitiquement insufflés sont appelés à approprier la vision du monde des lecteurs en sublimant le type de perceptions et de notions qu’ils souhaitent promouvoir. Cet article soulève des questions et sensibilise l’opinion sur la manière dont le monde universitaire r

  9. Overall Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  10. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  11. Kinetic Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan Abdullah; Sidiq Mohamad Khidzir

    2007-01-01

    We study a minimalist kinetic model for economies. A system of agents with local trading rules display emergent demand behaviour. We examine the resulting wealth distribution to look for non-thermal behaviour. We compare and contrast this model with other similar models.

  12. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analyse...

  13. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  14. Specific concerns of Pakistan in the context of energy security issues and geopolitics of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global and regional energy security in future is not likely to be threatened as much by the shortage of resources as it is likely to be endangered by the disruption of supplies and availability of tradable resources: threatened by growing terrorism and geopolitical conflicts. Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its importance act to both influence and undermine its energy security issues. It has the potential to provide a corridor for regional energy trade but it is ranked among the top nations exposed to potential threat of terrorist attacks because of the consequences of its role in the major geopolitical expeditions of the recent past. The paper examines the concerns of Pakistan emanating from the regional and global geopolitics of energy from Pakistan's viewpoint

  15. Climate change impacts on Moroccan agriculture and the whole economy: An analysis of the impacts of the Plan Maroc Vert in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ouraich, Ismail; Wallace E. Tyner

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides estimates of economic impacts of climate change, compares these with historical impacts of drought spells, and estimates the extent to which the current Moroccan agricultural development and investment strategy, the Plan Maroc Vert, helps in agricultural adaptation to climate change and uncertainty. We develop a regionalized Morocco Computable General Equilibrium model to analyse the linkages of climate-induced productivity losses (gains) at the level of administrative and ...

  16. Rising Crude Prices’ Impact – To understand the impact of the volatility of crude oil market over the Singapore economy and also on the Singapore oil companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Ee Sun

    2009-01-01

    Recent economic and geopolitical events have significantly impacted the crude oil prices worldwide with US crude reaching record highs above $78 dollars per barrel on July 14, 2006. Although the consequences and transmission mechanisms of oil price shocks have been investigated to some extent for developed economies, the impact volatility and rise of oil price on developing countries and emerging market economies (EMEs) have yet to be explored. Established in 1969, Singapore ...

  17. UNDERSTANDING THE MIDDLE-EAST IN THE POST - ARAB SPRING PHASE: A GEOPOLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dipesh Karmarkar

    2014-01-01

    Certain world regions become a geopolitical unit due to their absolute and relative location, availability of strategic resources, closeness to trade routes, etc. The Middle-East is the best example, which has been an extremely important geopolitical unit since historical times. Since the silk route days, it has played a vital role of linking Asia with Europe and Africa. A glance at the world map would show the Middle-East as a territorial knot of the three continents. It is not just its abso...

  18. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  19. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    pipeline for India and then the geopolitics involved in it.

  20. GREEN ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    BLAJ Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of "green economy", presents the main international organizations that deal the green economy. Are provided details of the most significant principles, objectives and actions of the concept of green economy. At the European level there is "The 2020 strategy ", which shows that Europe's economy should be an economy that knows how to manage resources efficiently and reduce carbon emissions. There are currently a number of basic laws for the green economy. Forest e...

  1. Relații internaționale și studii europene Criza geopolitică din Ucraina (The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine)

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin MANOLACHE

    2014-01-01

    The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine represents the effects of changes in the ex-Soviet countries after the collapse of communism in 1990, fleshing the hegemonic security and defence policy of the Russian Federation and the reactions of international organizations (EU, UN, NATO, OSCE) and the great powers, especially the United States. Different historical developments of the eastern and western parts of Ukraine demonstrate a territorial, political, social, cultural and religious division which...

  2. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  3. Geopolitical drivers of foreign investment in African land and water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, A.; Warner, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Resource grabs, particularly land and water, can be a proxy for geopolitical influence. As such, ‘grabs’ become intertwined in international power relations and the competing collective goals and state priorities of economic development, poverty elimination, ecosystem management, energy, self-suffic

  4. Geography, the Integrating Discipline: Explaining China's Population-Driven Geopolitics to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchat, Clarence J.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates geography's role as an integrative discipline and its utility in connecting students to the world around them. A case study links China's demography and its geopolitics to the lives of U.S. students. The relationship of China's population pressures to its resulting economic growth, need for economic resources, and…

  5. The Role of Geopolitics in Language Planning and Language Politics in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2008-01-01

    The history of language planning in Brazil, the only Portuguese speaking country in South America, is shown to have been decisively influenced at every critical moment by prevailing geopolitical interests. Sharing borders with nine out of the 11 countries that, together with it, make up the continent, Brazil has always been attentive to perceived…

  6. Education and Geopolitics in a Changing Europe: Forty Years of Scholarship in "European Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the history of the journal "European Education" since its establishment in 1969 by placing it within the larger context of geopolitical changes of the twentieth century and the historical debates on theory and method in the field of comparative education. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 40…

  7. Voicing Asia: Post-Cold War Novels, Geopolitics, and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Sunny Yang

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores how novels and geopolitics differently represent a voice as "Asian." By incorporating cases studies of how U.S. policy "voiced" culturally representative anti-communist voices, it highlights the historical and formal specificity of post-Cold War Asian novelistic

  8. "Poppies are democracy!" A critical geopolitics of opium eradication and reintroduction in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present. PMID:22164875

  9. The geopolitical implications of the House of Commons’ decision to reject military intervention in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, the House of Commons rejected a Government proposal to intervene in the Syrian conflict following that country’s regime’s use of chemical weapons. Here, Dr Kristian Coates Ulrichsen assesses the geopolitical implications of that dramatic night in the House of Commons, arguing that it decisively stopped the momentum towards war.

  10. Gagauzs at the Crossroads: National Identity as a Determnant of a Geopolitical Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Tislenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the model of Gagauz identity, to be precise, stages of its formation and its current characteristics. Furthermore, the author brings attention to the Gagauz problem in the context of geopolitical discourse of the Moldovan state. 

  11. On Dittmer's "Popular Culture, Geopolitics, and Identity" as a Classroom Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeck, Reecia; Craine, James; Dando, Christina; Somdahl-Sands, Katrinka

    2014-01-01

    In this intervention, four geographers, all of whom have used Jason Dittmer's book, "Popular Culture, Geopolitics, and Identity", in their classes, assess its status as a teaching resource. All have had considerable success using Dittmer's book, alongside other resources, to cultivate critical thinking and critical knowledge…

  12. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  13. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.)

  14. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change; L'economie de l'effet de serre: point sur les engagements internationaux de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again.

  15. From black to green energy. Geopolitics of global energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition to a global low-carbon energy sector is on the agenda of policymakers in the Netherlands, Europe and world-wide. However, the way in which the international political discussion takes place makes it far from clear that such a transition will indeed take place. Conflicts of interest between climate concerns, energy security, access to energy and profits made from fossil fuels should be analysed more properly and taken into account in international energy and climate negotiations in order to prevent that an energy crisis will be the only way forward towards a low-carbon energy sector.

  16. The geopolitics of northern travels: enactments of adventure and exploration in the Norwegian-Russian borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Wråkberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Critical geopolitics is used in analysing discourses on a micro-social level in the performances and enactments taking place during fact-finding tours and leisure journeys in northernmost Europe. The cases of journeys focussed are those of Scandinavians travelling along, and sometimes departing from, the highway between the Norwegian village of Kirkenes and the Russian city of Murmansk. In travels undertaken for professional or leisure purposes alike a hyperreal meta-script is enacted mediated on the cosmopolitan cultural experiences held collectively by the travellers; simulacra provide the context for the enactments of fact-finding and drama taking place during border-passage. It is argued that the characteristic montage-like sequence of events of border-crossings are interwoven with a geopolitical discourse, and that it should be understood as encompassing both language and practice in order to appreciate the geopolitics at work. Three ways in which geopolitics enters travels in the northern borderland between Scandinavia and Russia are identified: scenarios of future regional scenarios of future regional developments, popularisations of research obsessed with the problems of borders, and what has been termed here the geopolitical anecdote. In considering the aesthetics of the simulations taking place in cross-border travels this study suggests focussing the meta-script of the American and the European road movie film genres. The essay argues that the cosmopolitan mind of any traveller, and its collective mediated content of cultural and political discourses, has been underestimated so far in the socio-political research regarding the borderlands of the European north.

  17. "New Economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial

    2001-01-01

    Quelles sont les forces motrices de la « nouvelle économie » ? Ce concept un peu dé­crié depuis la fin de la bulle spéculative de la fin du siècle résume pourtant un ensemble de facteurs générant croissance et compétitivité, dont les principaux sont le dévelop­pe­ment de l’informatique et la mise en œuvre des TIC. Etude de la position de l’Allemagne face aux USA commanditée à l’institut RWI par le ministère fédéral de l’Economie. (IB)

  18. 隋代山东政治环境及其对农业经济发展的影响%Shandong Political Climate in the Sui Dynasty and Its impacts on Development of Agricultural Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李取勉

    2012-01-01

    Politics in a society of tyranny is the politics of monarchy. The monarchy's behaviors, as an individual, exert influences on the whole social and political climate, which in return affects the development of local agricultural economy. In the Sui Dynasty, during Emperor Wu's reign, the society order keeps stable and agricultural economic recovery has gained while during Emperor Sui's reign, the agricultural economy declines drastically and people's living worsens due to constant wars and exorbitant taxes.%专制社会的政治是帝王政治。帝王个人作为影响整个社会政治环境,而政治环境又影响经济的发展。隋代前后期政治环境的变化,对山东地区农业经济的发展影响深远。隋文帝统治期间,社会秩序稳定,农业经济得到复苏;隋炀帝统治期间,战争不断,苛捐杂税横生,致使民不聊生,农业经济迅速下滑。

  19. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  20. Evolution of Regional Geopolitical Pattern and Its Impact on the Regional Resources Cooperation in Northeast Asia%东亚地缘政治格局演变对东北亚资源合作的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于会录; 董锁成; 李泽红; 李飞; 程昊; 李富佳

    2015-01-01

    Taking America’s implementing the Asia-Paciifc rebalancing strategy and China’s building the Silk Road Belt as a backdrop, this research generalizes the basic concepts of geopolitics, geo-economy and geo-strategy, and then reviews the basic theories of geopolitics and its progress. Furthermore, based on the results of analyzing the features of changes of East Asia geopolitical environment, the paper summarizes the development trends of geopolitical environment of Sino-Mongolia and Sino-Russia, and considers that the geopolitical pattern and order of the South China Sea has been changed deeply with the strong involvement of USA. One of the most important changes is that China’s interests are suffering stern challenge from Japan, Vietnam, Philippines and other countries. Afterwards, taking the energy market as an example, this research analyzes the impact of geopolitical changes of East Asia on the regional resources market. For China, the strategic conception of building the Silk Road Economic Belt is a countermeasure to counterbalance the adverse changing. At the same time, Russia was sanctioned by western countries and turned their eyes to Asia. So the stern geopolitical environment of both countries provides a good opportunity for China-Russia economic and trade cooperation. Because of the similar geopolitical situation and economic complementary, the energy cooperation between China and Russia is expected to be further enhanced in the future. Although Mongolia’s economy relies heavily on China, its geopolitical strategic demand and strategic target have changed profoundly since the United States returns to Asia. The diplomatic priority of Mongolia is to strengthen exchanges with “the third neighbor” and to counterbalance its two neighbors’ inlfuences. Though the Sino-Mongolia geopolitical relations are mainly positive, America’s involvement increased the uncertainty of Sino-Mongolia resources cooperation. For Japan and Korea being America

  1. China-Thailand Relations Viewed from the Perspective of Geopolitics%从地缘政治角度看中泰关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小霞

    2016-01-01

    中泰关系既是中国处理周边国家关系的重要内容,也是中国加强与东盟关系的重要切入点。基于地缘政治的角度,文章首先分析了中国视角的泰国地缘价值;着重探讨美国因素对中泰两国地缘关系产生的主要影响;并对加强中泰关系提出了三点建议:第一,全球范围来看,需高度重视中美关系;第二,地区范围来看,需重视中国与东盟各国的关系;第三,中泰两国双方来看,需不断加强政治、经济、安全和社会等领域的交流与合作。%The relationship between China and Thailand is not only an important content of handling with neighboring countries’ relation for China, but also an entrance of strengthening the relation between China and ASEAN. From the perspective of geopolitics, this article analyzes the value of Thailand geopolitical, focuses on the main influence which America brings, and puts forward three suggestions to strengthen the relation between China and Thailand: firstly, paying high attention to the China-America relationship; Secondly, attaching great importance to the relation between China and ASEAN countries; Thirdly, enhancing the cooperation in the fields of politics, economy, security and society between China and Thailand.

  2. GREEN ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert BLAJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the concept of "green economy", presents the main international organizations that deal the green economy. Are provided details of the most significant principles, objectives and actions of the concept of green economy. At the European level there is "The 2020 strategy ", which shows that Europe's economy should be an economy that knows how to manage resources efficiently and reduce carbon emissions. There are currently a number of basic laws for the green economy. Forest ecosystems are part of the green economy and the forest products industry are very important because they are renewable, recyclable and biodegradable. Thus forests are a fundament of the green economy, the goods and services are important components.

  3. The Analysis of the Reaction of the Romanian Companies Supplying Electrical Energy to the Modification of the Geopolitical Context and of the Internal Legislative Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Robu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplying services in the electrical energy domain that corresponds qualitatively, at acceptable prices, in the context of the respect of the environment preservation standards and of the security of the supply, in accordance with the demands of the economic growth, represents a main component of the lasting development. In the 9th chapter of the 21st Agenda is stated that “energy is essential to the economic and social development and to a better quality of life”. At global level, given the current technological conditions and the permanent growth of the quantity of resources used, a large part of the energy is produced and consumed in an unsustainable manner. The necessity of controlling the greenhouse gas emissions and of other polluting substances imposes the increase of the efficiency of production, transportation, distribution and consumption of the energy and the growth of the use of renewable energy sources. All energy sources must be used in a manner that permits the respect of the environment on the whole. The operational research executed let us state that the defining elements of the geopolitical context influence the behaviour of the companies supplying electrical energy, which has an effect in any branch of the national economy. Such an approach is useful in the determination of the impact of the increase of electrical energy prices on the vulnerable sectors of the national economy.

  4. The New Economy- Knowledge Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of knowledge based economy, in this time characterized by fast changes and sometimes radical changes, it is impossible to resist without adapting, both people and the organizations too. The matter of the paper develops knowledge based economy concept: elements, definitions of the knowledge based economy, stages and the main knowledge codification. In the end of the paper, the author presents the importance of economy knowledge, in Romanian ...

  5. The New Economy- Knowledge Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of knowledgebased economy, in this time characterized by fast changes and sometimes radical changes, it is impossible to resist without adapting, both people and the organizations too. The matter of the paper develops knowledge based economy concept: elements, definitions of the knowledge based economy, stages and themain knowledge codification. In the end of the paper, the author presents the importance of economy knowledge, in Romanian organizations.

  6. Biomass - Energy - Climate - From photosynthesis to bio-economy. V. 1: 'the energy from the fields'; V. 2: 'the energy from the woods'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fist volume presents, outlines and comments the possibilities of energy generation from the biomass produced in fields, the development potential of biomass production and of food industry, the challenge of bio-wastes and soil structure, the relationship between renewable energies and new crops, the development of agriculture to supply bio-refineries, produce biofuels and develop vegetal chemistry. Examples of biomass valorisation in la Reunion are presented. The second volume addresses the possibilities related to wood exploitation. It outlines ways to mobilise this resource, discusses the issue of forest exploitation in Guyana, gives an overview of wood applications, describes how to valorise forest carbon storage, gives an overview of innovation, governance and information for this specific sector, and evokes the place of bio-economy on markets

  7. the shifting horizon of Regional Turkey’s geopolitics and identity in light of european energy needs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sive

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to examine whether Turkey has managed to become an emboldened geopolitical player in recent times. Since the end of the Cold War the global geopolitical situation experienced a reshuffling of priorities, directions and regions of interest. The energy question rapidly moved up the list. Energy is crucially important to the western developed world and is of ever increasing importance to the developing world. The European Union, along with other ...

  8. 'Bringing Geopolitics Back In': Exploring the Security Dimension of the 2004 Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brennan, John

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the functional and technocratic basis of the European integration process, and the fact that the accession criteria hardly mention security issues, the 2004 eastern enlargement brought to the forefront of EU politics important geopolitical and security issues. Eastern enlargement came on to the agenda of the EU in the wake of 1989s peaceful revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe. Security and geopolitics mattered to the decision taken by the EU to embark on expansion in the...

  9. The Russian-Ukrainian Crisis and Behind, Energy Policy in the Mirror of Eurasian Game of Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Bertalan; András Nagy

    2014-01-01

    The Russian-Ukrainian crisis is one of the most important issues of the beginning of the 21st century, from regional and global aspects as well. This paper analyses the crisis from geopolitical aspects, and tries to concentrate on the reasons behind the events and the global perspectives. The study reveals why the Ukrainian question is in the focus of Russian interest, and what led to the crisis. Concerning geopolitics, starting from the point of view of Sir Halford John Mackinder, placing...

  10. How visas shape and make visible the geopolitical architecture of the planet

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedian, Meghdad; Farahani, S Vasheghani; Jafari, G R; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a picture for geopolitical globalization: the role of all world countries together with their contribution towards globalization is highlighted. In the context of the present study, every country owes its efficiency and therefore its contribution towards structuring the world by the position it holds in a complex global network. The location in which a country is positioned on the network is shown to provide a measure of its "contribution" and "importance". As a matter of fact, the visa status conditions between countries reflect their contribution towards geopolitical globalization. Based on the visa status of all countries, community detection reveals the existence of 4+1 main communities. The community constituted by the developed countries has the highest clustering coefficient equal to 0.9. In contrast, the community constituted by the old eastern European blocks, the middle eastern countries, and the old Soviet Union has the lowest clustering coefficient approx...

  11. NEW GEOPOLITICS, CHURCHES AND PEOPLE WITHOUT RELIGION: RELIGIOUS ANARCHY IN BRASIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a synthesis of our doctoral thesis in human geography, defended at the University of São Paulo. What are the relationships between geopolitics and religion? Our hypothesis held that churches make use of geopolitics to maintain and expand the "religious capital". On the other hand, the geographical analysis of the Brazilian reality identifies a slow and fruitful process of metamorphosis of beliefs and spiritual emancipation through the growth of the religious population without religion. This process occurs without the government of the churches. Based on the ideas of geoethic and mutual support, it is argued that the existence of the population without religion represents religious anarchy in Brazil.

  12. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292966

  13. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets. PMID:26387526

  14. Biogas production in Oestfold. Analysis of climate utility and economy in a value chain perspective; Biogassproduksjon i Oestfold. Analyse av klimanytte og oekonomi i et verdikjedeperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoey, Silje; Moeller, Hanne; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Soerby, Ivar; Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    2013-03-01

    Waste management is an important issue. How we choose to deal with food waste that occurs, affects climate through emissions from all phases of waste management. One way of handling waste is to produce biogas from it. General results of the project 'the continuation of biogas model' has shown that the use of food waste as a substrate for biogas production in interaction with manure and great climate benefit. In order to assess the development of biogas production specifically for Oestfold, the general model was used for analysis with specific Oestfold data.The project's goal is that through the development of Oestfoldforskning's present climate and economic models will be carried out analyzes where these models will be tested with specific data of hypothetical case.These analyzes will form the basis for a strategic decision on the location and design of biogas plants in Oestfold. It should be noted that this report only will present greenhouse gas emissions, which represent an environmental indicator, and that the result of greenhouse gas emissions may not be directly transferable to other environmental indicators. Shortened version. (eb)

  15. Practical Token Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  16. Disasters, Confidence and the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    N.J. Nahuis

    2001-01-01

    Negative events often have a significant influence on confidence but their effect on the Dutch economy is considerably less clear-cut. Disasters have a significant influence on consumer and producer confidence. With regard to consumer confidence, this is seen principally in the Economic Climate sub-indicator and to a lesser degree in the Propensity to Consume sub-indicator. After only a small number of disasters was the decline large enough to be individually significant. However, disasters h...

  17. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water : tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    OpenAIRE

    van Noordwijk, M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, David; Gebrekirstos, A

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture ("rainbow water") is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by fast-growing trees; it may require further change to incorporate rainbow water relations as evident in recent literature on short-cycle rainfall derived from evapotranspiration over land. Specific tel...

  18. The geopolitics of hearts and minds : American public diplomacy in the war on terrorism era

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The years following the terrorist attacks on 9/11, 2001, the US launched a series of communication efforts to improve the country’s standing in Arab and Muslim countries. Some of the effort resonated poorly with the US’ policies in the war on terrorism, and were received with suspicion. Based on interviews with public diplomats and discourse analyses of central campaigns, the thesis explores the geopolitical rationale behind the efforts. A core finding is that the understanding of the post-9/...

  19. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  20. Visible Veil Dressing & the Gender Geopolitics of ‘What Not To Wear’

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    This essay critically reflects on ‘Burkha Ban’ legislation in Europe and surrounding public controversies by drawing links between the visual aesthetics of makeover reality TV, the veil, and the cultural politics of ‘visibly Muslim’ dress in western societies. In all cases we see women’s bodies and comportment under increasing scrutiny at the intersection of post 9/11 geopolitics, the global fashion industry, national identity, and everyday life.

  1. Geopolitics to Geopolinomics - A Case Study of Political Domination through Economic Means: The Canadian Defence Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ojanen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Throughout its history, Canada’s geographical location has set limitations on the scope of political and economic actions available to the Canadian government while concurrently supplying it with the political and economic clout that allows it to have a greater presence on the global stage. Thus, geopolitics, which is generally understood to be the study of the political and strategic relevance of geography to the pursuit of international power, has been of crucial importance to the Canadia...

  2. Diverse Democracies: Citizenship Beliefs and Political Participation Across Three Geopolitical Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    This study examines respondents’ beliefs about political, social and civic duty components of “good citizenship,” three modes of political engagement (party membership, voting and activism), and the relationship between beliefs and participation across three geopolitical regions (Eastern Europe, Western Europe and Western non-European states). Based on theories of democracy, voting, and institutionalism, we explore cross-regional patterns and differences. Eastern Europeans are far less engage...

  3. Towards a New Eastern Mediterranean Energy Corridor? Natural Gas Developments Between Market Opportunities and Geopolitical Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliapietra, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is rapidly changing. The turbolent political transition in Egypt after the Arab Spring, the civil war in Syria, the emergence of Turkey as leading regional power, the tensions between Israel and Gaza and the never-ending dispute between Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus are -all together- reshuffling the regional geopolitical equilibrium. At the same time natural gas findings are flourishing in the offshore of Egypt, Israel, and Cyprus, reshaping the regional ...

  4. Potential Iranian hegemony in oil producing Islamic countries: Implications for oil geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh James; Vuković Predrag

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades world supply of oil has been increasingly held in the Islamic countries around the Persian Gulf. The fact that the level of oil production is high in these countries and that they possess most of the world's oil reserves could be extremely significant. This 'petropower' could lead to strategic geopolitical developments when oil is used as economic and political weapons. It may be that the apocalyptic appeal of militant Islamism coming out of Iran can weld both Shia and Sunni...

  5. Changes on Northern Geopolitics - from a frontier (of confrontation) to a region (of peace)

    OpenAIRE

    Heininen, Lassi

    2010-01-01

    At the early-2010s there are two main discourses on a state and geopolitical situation of the Arctic Region: First, that of stability and peacefulness based on institutionalized cooperation across borders by the eight Arctic states and non-states actors. Second, that of a ‘race' of natural resources and emerging conflicts, and an emphasis of state sovereignty and national interests by the five littoral states. The former discourse is (still) much the mainstream discourse, while the latter one...

  6. Economic and geopolitical dimensions of renewable vs. nuclear energy in North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marktanner, Marcus, E-mail: marktanner@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 11-0236/Economics, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Salman, Lana, E-mail: lss06@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 11-0236/Economics, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon)

    2011-08-15

    Addressing issues of renewable energy in North Africa must incorporate concerns regarding the compatibility of energy mixes with the nature of political regimes, their geopolitical relevance, and their socio-economic effects, in addition to economic cost-benefit deliberations. One important and under-researched aspect of nuclear energy refers to the trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation. Competing interests in North Africa's energy market as well as aspects of regional cooperation capacity are important when assessing the choice between renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, the future course of meeting North Africa's energy needs is subject to a complex political and economic interplay between domestic and geopolitical development interests. The objective of this paper is to explore this complexity in more detail. We argue that the identification of any energy alternative as superior is hardly convincing unless certain standards of inclusive governance are met. We also find that it is important to highlight political-economic differences between energy importers like Morocco and Tunisia and energy exporters like Algeria, Libya, and Egypt. - Research Highlights: > North Africa confronted with severe energy supply challenges in near future. > Trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation matters. > Economic and geopolitical dimensions of trade-off heterogeneous across North Africa.

  7. Economic and geopolitical dimensions of renewable vs. nuclear energy in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing issues of renewable energy in North Africa must incorporate concerns regarding the compatibility of energy mixes with the nature of political regimes, their geopolitical relevance, and their socio-economic effects, in addition to economic cost-benefit deliberations. One important and under-researched aspect of nuclear energy refers to the trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation. Competing interests in North Africa's energy market as well as aspects of regional cooperation capacity are important when assessing the choice between renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, the future course of meeting North Africa's energy needs is subject to a complex political and economic interplay between domestic and geopolitical development interests. The objective of this paper is to explore this complexity in more detail. We argue that the identification of any energy alternative as superior is hardly convincing unless certain standards of inclusive governance are met. We also find that it is important to highlight political-economic differences between energy importers like Morocco and Tunisia and energy exporters like Algeria, Libya, and Egypt. - Research highlights: → North Africa confronted with severe energy supply challenges in near future. → Trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation matters. → Economic and geopolitical dimensions of trade-off heterogeneous across North Africa.

  8. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue; Cahiers droit, sciences et technologies - Dossier thematique droit et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)

    2009-07-01

    extraordinary process of standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  9. 西方地缘战略理论批判与中国地缘战略理论构建%The Critique of Western Geopolitical Strategy Theory and the Construction of Chinese Geopolitical Strategy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军; 张耀文

    2015-01-01

    Geopolitical strategy theory is the science and art which directs and safeguards national sovereignty,security and de-velopment interests.In this respect,China should take an open,inclusive and constructive attitude,and learn and absorb criti-cally the scientific and reasonable part of Western geopolitical strategy theory.Then,according to the people -oriented overall security concept,it should establish “stereo -system”geopolitical thinking,seek “sharing and win -win”geopolitical objec-tives,adhere to the “dialogue and cooperation”geopolitical principle and follow the “cultural fusion”geopolitical path,so as to construct a geopolitical strategy theory system with Chinese characteristics.%地缘战略理论是指导和维护国家主权、安全、发展利益的科学和艺术。中国应以开放、包容、建设性的态度,批判性借鉴西方地缘战略理论,汲取其中的科学品质与合理内容,进而在“以人为本”的总体安全观指导下,树立“立体系统”地缘思维,追求“共享共赢”地缘目标,坚持“对话合作”地缘原则,遵循“以文化之”地缘融合路径,构建富有中国特色的地缘战略理论体系。

  10. Medical and Radiological Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Economy ride ahead of the world. "nAll human activities lead to financial problems. "nEconomy has two dimensions in usual daily commercial problems but medical and radiological economy is a tridimensional phenomenon. "nIn the two-dimensional economy, both sides, see their own benefits and fair "gains" but in the  medical and radiologic economy, the patient gives us money and gets health. We protect the patient’s benefits by controlling the complications and c...

  11. Building the Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Čerić, Vlatko

    2001-01-01

    Generation and exploitation of knowledge became one of the most significant components in the new economy. This paper first investigates influence of information and communications technology on economy, with specific emphasis on Internet economy and electronic commerce. The paper then describes characteristics of the knowledge economy, discusses knowledge, presents main issues relevant for building of knowledge economy and gives an overview of the situation and perspectives of knowledge econ...

  12. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  13. Economic impacts of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will probably have a limited impact on the economy and human welfare in the 21st century. The initial impacts of climate change may well be positive. In the long run, the negative impacts dominate the positive ones. Negative impacts will be substantially greater in poorer, hotter, and lower-lying countries. Poverty reduction complements greenhouse gas emissions reduction as a means to reduce climate change impacts. Climate change may affect the growth rate of the economy and ma...

  14. Measuring the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    J. Steven Landefeld; Fraumeni, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the new economy and how it relates to BEA’s economic accounts. It is designed to answer the following questions: What is the new economy? Why is it important that the new economy be captured in GDP and BEA’s other economic accounts estimates? What do we know now about the size and impact of the new economy? Where does the new economy show up in the accounts? How well is the new economy recorded in the accounts? What should be BEA’s highest priorit...

  15. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  16. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  17. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical aspects to

  18. Geopolitical Geworfenheit:Northern Europe After the Post-Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘greater Nordic space’ between Great Britain, Germany and Russia has overtime varied with the balance of power. The Baltic States e.g. have been in and out of the space, rejoining by regaining sovereignty after the end of the Cold War. Russia’s actions in Ukraine and beyond during 2014 mark the end of the Post-Cold War period and its aspiration to peaceful integration. The small states of the greater Nordic space are now rediscovering their inescapable geopolitical nearness to Russia. Dra...

  19. ON THE GEOPOLITICAL AND LEGAL FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJANI NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT

    OpenAIRE

    Sadykhov, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the geopolitical aspects of the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and its destructive consequences for the region as a whole and for Armenia in particular. It examines the origins and reasons for the many years of opposition, as well as the attempts the sides are making to reach a viable compromise. Particular focus is placed on comparing the social and economic processes in the two countries, as well as on the actual conditions that have developed in the r...

  20. A European Union without the United Kingdom: the geopolitics of a British exit from the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A vote by the British people to withdraw from the EU – also known as a ‘Brexit’ – will have significant implications for the EU, the ideas and structures of European integration, and European geopolitics. Opinion polls show that a vote to withdraw is a distinct possibility. The EU, the rest of Europe, allies around the world and the UK itself need to prepare for the wider international implications of such a move. This Strategic Update examines how likely a Brexit is and explores what it c...

  1. The Geopolitical Meaning of a Contemporary Visual Arts Upsurge on the Canada-US Border

    OpenAIRE

    Amilhat Szary, Anne-Laure

    2012-01-01

    International audience Their common border can be seen as a synecdoche of the complex relationship that ties Canada and the United States together: not only is it the longest border in the world (at 8,891 kilometres--5,061 kilometres on land and 3,830 kilometres at sea), but also it represents a line where strong and soft politics and geopolitics converge. One can say that the border not only divides the two states but reflects their relations. Until recently, the border was considered one...

  2. Models for calculating the climate benefits and value-chain economy for biogas production. Food waste and manure.; Modeller for beregning av klimanytte- og verdikjede oekonomi for biogassproduksjon. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, Kari-Anne; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Vold, Bjoern Ivar; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the project was to develop a climate model and an economy model for the entire value-chain from collection and biogas production for the treatment of digestate, which should contribute to increase production of biogas in Norway by an efficient and climate proper utilization of fertilizers and waste. The models are defined in a number of parameter values for each of the different substrates and for each life-cycle stage of the value chain. By changing parameter values enables the analysis models in different regions, with flexible solutions for local differences. This may be options for the location of plants in relation to transport needs, size of plants in relation to efficiency and amount of substrate, utilization of biogas and digestate and what type of energy that can be replaced by biogas (eg fuel for vehicles, heating, electricity) and digestate (fertilizer and soil conditioner product). This report presents the defined parameters in the model, the basic values that are added to the table, results for basic value, as well as results from testing of the model for biogas production in Vestfold and Oestfold. Results:The analysis performed shows that the models are suitable to identify where in the value chain, the major climate impacts occur where the greatest costs are incurred, what is contributing to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and income, and how it can be most effective to take action or to motivate to technology. Analyses of biogas production from manure and food waste results in the following robust conclusions when viewing the biogas production in a greenhouse gas perspective: Biogas is a good initiative for the treatment of food waste and manure in a climate perspective. Of the analyzed scenarios, the results show that biogas which will be upgraded to fuel quality and diesel substitutes provide the greatest climate benefits. It is beneficial to mix substrates. The largest contribution of greenhouse gases are nitrous

  3. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  4. Economies and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for launching the journal Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is my concern regarding human sustainability [1,2]. There are two major categories of economic systems: capitalism, or free market economy and socialism, or planned economy. The last 30 years have witnessed great social change in China, for example, indicating that the free market economy has prevailed and now dominates around the World.

  5. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  6. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  7. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  8. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  9. Analysis on the Development of Low Carbon Marine Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wang

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of low carbon economy, the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy. It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas; environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes; development of related marine industries brings deterioration of marine environment; changes of climate threat the healthy development of marine economy. The ...

  10. Recent Trends in the World Gas Market: Economical, Geopolitical and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Toscano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered by energy experts to be the most promising fossil fuel for the 21st century, and as a matter of fact, the International Energy Agency (IEA introduced for the first time in the 2011 World Energy Outlook a high gas use scenario called the “Golden Age of Gas”. Natural gas is an easy to burn and clean fuel; its proven reserves are large and furthermore, enormous possibilities are offered by unconventional resources. There are anyway some geopolitical concerns in the global gas market, since the most important reserves are concentrated in a limited number of countries; the environmental impacts in the extraction of shale gas should also be taken into account. The paper presents an updated and thorough overview of recent advances and trends in the global gas market, highlighting the role of Europe in the World scenario. Statistical data from the main international reports are presented; economical, geopolitical and especially environmental aspects are presented and discussed.

  11. Hydrogen economy in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses methods of generating and using hydrogen as an energy source to replace the dependence on fossil fuels. The impetus for a future hydrogen economy comes from the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate. Electric power generation, using photovoltaic cells, conversion of sunlight to hydrogen, electric power generation from gravity, disposing of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants into the sea, converting atmospheric carbon dioxide to methanol, and the safety and economic aspects of transmission and burning is reviewed. (UK)

  12. The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John A.

    2006-10-01

    It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

  13. Geopolitics. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakhstan is eager to create a new route for oil to Europe that bypasses Russia and thereby finally break the Kremlin's stranglehold on Kazakh oil transport. In natural gas, however, the Kazakhs remain closely tied to the Russian bear. The article is followed by an interview with Maksat Idenov, vice-president of KazMunayGaz In Kazakhstan. Western oil majors managed to gain hold of some of the world's largest oil and gas fields. But the Kazakh government is taking back what it says belongs to them. Kazakhstan wants a fair deal and equal treatment to create income

  14. Geopolitics. Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-09-15

    Kazakhstan is eager to create a new route for oil to Europe that bypasses Russia and thereby finally break the Kremlin's stranglehold on Kazakh oil transport. In natural gas, however, the Kazakhs remain closely tied to the Russian bear. The article is followed by an interview with Maksat Idenov, vice-president of KazMunayGaz In Kazakhstan. Western oil majors managed to gain hold of some of the world's largest oil and gas fields. But the Kazakh government is taking back what it says belongs to them. Kazakhstan wants a fair deal and equal treatment to create income.

  15. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  16. Pentagon's secret report about climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reveals the content of a secret report ordered by the department of defense of the Pentagon which aims at foreseeing the possible consequences of a rapid climatic change on the security of the USA. The report is based on the most recent studies about the general climate conditions at the worldwide scale. They foresee for 2010 a fast cooling following several years of increasing warming up. A realistic detailed scenario of the geopolitical consequences of this change is made: floods, conflicts, populations migration, lack of drinkable water, starvation, generalized riots etc. (J.S.)

  17. Relații internaționale și studii europene Criza geopolitică din Ucraina (The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANOLACHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine represents the effects of changes in the ex-Soviet countries after the collapse of communism in 1990, fleshing the hegemonic security and defence policy of the Russian Federation and the reactions of international organizations (EU, UN, NATO, OSCE and the great powers, especially the United States. Different historical developments of the eastern and western parts of Ukraine demonstrate a territorial, political, social, cultural and religious division which manifests itself after the collapse of the USSR and Ukraine's independence declaration on 24 August 1991. From a religious point of view, the division is evident in that the western part of Ukraine is predominantly Catholic and the eastern part belongs to the orthodox religion. Instability in Ukraine is accompanied by the danger of disintegration, the threat coming from the inside, and is determined by the economic crisis, the political situation, misunderstandings between political groups and conflicts between the main regions. The western part of the country, represented by Ukrainian nationalists, opts for independence from Moscow, orientation towards the West and integration into Euro-Atlantic structures, while the pro-Russians from the East and South (especially in Crimea Peninsula and Donetsk Basin want to develop close cooperative relations with the Russian Federation and Ukraine's integration in the economic, political and security of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS.

  18. Relații internaționale și studii europene Criza geopolitică din Ucraina (The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANOLACHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical crisis in Ukraine represents the effects of changes in the ex-Soviet countries after the collapse of communism in 1990, fleshing the hegemonic security and defence policy of the Russian Federation and the reactions of international organizations (EU, UN, NATO, OSCE and the great powers, especially the United States. Different historical developments of the eastern and western parts of Ukraine demonstrate a territorial, political, social, cultural and religious division which manifests itself after the collapse of the USSR and Ukraine's independence declaration on 24 August 1991. From a religious point of view, the division is evident in that the western part of Ukraine is predominantly Catholic and the eastern part belongs to the orthodox religion. Instability in Ukraine is accompanied by the danger of disintegration, the threat coming from the inside, and is determined by the economic crisis, the political situation, misunderstandings between political groups and conflicts between the main regions. The western part of the country, represented by Ukrainian nationalists, opts for independence from Moscow, orientation towards the West and integration into Euro-Atlantic structures, while the pro-Russians from the East and South (especially in Crimea Peninsula and Donetsk Basin want to develop close cooperative relations with the Russian Federation and Ukraine's integration in the economic, political and security of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS.

  19. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  20. The European supply security of petroleum and natural gas in the coming years. Economical and geopolitical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the geopolitical risks for oil and gas and (inter)national strategies to limit those risks. The risk assessment is motivated by the increasing dependency for European countries on imports of oil and gas from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea region and the countries around the Persian Gulf in the next decades

  1. Students' Satisfaction with Service Delivery in Federal Universities in South-South Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpoiroro, Roseline M.; Okon, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the level of students' satisfaction with service delivery in federal universities in South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria in terms of educational, library, security, medical, transport, hostel, and ICT services. Survey design was used to carry out the study, the hypothesis was formulated and literature…

  2. Factors Affecting Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff of Universities in South-South Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the factors affecting motivation and job satisfaction of non-management academic staff of universities in South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It employed an expost-facto research design. Three research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. A sample of four hundred and fifty non-management academic…

  3. Oil and the geopolitics of Central Asia: A "new 'great game'"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sati, Saud M.

    The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the

  4. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  5. The Influence of Geopolitical Factors on the Tax Policy of Russia at the Contemporary Stage of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorletskiy Aleksandr Igorevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems analyzed in the article are new to the domestic financial and tax research due to their emergent character. The article considers the influence of geopolitical factors on the tax policy of the Russian Federation and marks the most visible implemented or prospective changes in the Russian tax system under the influence of the facts and circumstances related to the geopolitical component of modern development. The focus is made on the three factors of geopolitical nature, the influence of which on public finances and taxes of Russia has already been or may be the most noticeable in the future. These factors include the growth of military spending on the backdrop of escalating tensions in the political relations between Russia and Western countries; the exchange of trade and economic sanctions between Russia and Western countries; the pursuit of enhanced tax sovereignty of the regions in the framework of the current centralized model of fiscal federalism. The possible consequences of the policy of sanctions imposed as the result of the new round of geopolitical confrontation between Russia and Western countries are analyzed. Among these consequences we should name the use of tax incentives to compensate the losses of exporters; the use of tax regulators at the financial market; the search for new sources of tax revenues for regional budgets; anti-offshore policy in relation to the Russian tax residents; the limitation of the benefits of using the consolidated groups of taxpayers; the possibility of creating a special (free economic zone in Crimea with the regime of preferential taxation. It is proved that the manifestation of geopolitics requires the serious understanding of its consequences in all spheres, including the system of public finances and taxes.

  6. Underground Economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Švec

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy) and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the m...

  7. Knowledge Economy Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BRATIANU; Violeta Mihaela DINCA

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the emergent knowledge economy and its dimensions. The knowledge economy is based primarily on the development of intangibles, and knowledge processing. The knowledge revolution is changing the way we think and work, and the knowledge worker reflects the nature of the new economic driving forces. The knowledge economy opens new directions, and offers unprecedented opportunities to produce and sell on a mass scale, reduce costs, and custom...

  8. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  9. A sustainable economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlak, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There exists a direct correlation between improvements in standard of living and the consumption of resources. To be able to maintain the standard of living of a modern developed country, society must adapt to an economy based on sustainable processes, energy, and raw materials. The sustainable economy presents itself as a disruptive technology to the traditional economy, which is based largely on non-renewable resources. The issue seems to be more about when will we switch to a sustainable economy, rather than whether we will switch.

  10. Information Space as a New (GeoPolitical Space: Th e States’ Role and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kabanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information space as a new (geopolitical space exerts an increasingly higher infl uence on the global processes. Despite its specifi c nature, its connection with physical space is growing, furthermore, the states describe themselves as leading actors of information space more actively. Although the approaches diff er from one another, information space is being generally perceived in the traditional categories of sovereignty, borders and territory. Th e states serve as accelerators of interrelated processes of militarization, securitization and diplomatization of information space, which are typical for other spaces. Strengthening such tendencies and including a greater number of countries lead to new forms of cooperation and confl icts.

  11. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry; Interdipendenza e geopolitica del petrolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreatta, F. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts. [Italiano] L`intreccio tra allineamenti diplomatici e politica economica e la natura strategica delle risorse di energia influenza l apolitica estera dei maggiori Paesi. In quest`ottica, la scopertadi vasti giacimenti di petrolio e gas nell`Asia centrale e nel transcaucaso rappresenta un`importante diversificazione dal Medio Oriente, ma pone anche difficili problemi geopolitici vista la presenza di numerosi conflitti nella regione.

  12. France and its nuclear energy option: a geo-political approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision of the Messmer government to launch an ambitious nuclear program happened as a consequence of the first oil crisis in 1973. Since then France is progressively become independent for its electricity power supplies, today France meets its own electric power demand through nuclear power plants (>75%) and hydroelectric dams (15%). Moreover France has developed a complete nuclear industry from uranium extraction to reprocessing of spent fuels. The author, through a detailed study, presents the story of nuclear energy in France, highlighting particular aspects like: the geo-politics context and the motivations at the very beginning, the reasons of the technological choices, and the implications in terms of energy strategy, of economics and of environmental impacts of this source of energy. The last part is dedicated to the perspectives of nuclear power in the European Union. (A.C.)

  13. Geopolitical and socioeconomic factors presently impacting on United States uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The near-term availability of domestic and selected foreign uranium resources for use by United States electric utilities is considered in light of projected geopolitical and socioeconomic considerations. No attempt is made to analyze the impact on domestic uranium supply of inflation or cost-price considerations, the introduction of the breeder reactor, limitations in enrichment capacity, or the presently expanding uranium inventory. All data are current as of mid-1980. The period with which this research is concerned is 1980-1995. It is concluded that the United States must promote responsible, environmentally acceptable uranium resource exploration and development, if this nation is to remain self sufficient in this necessary energy commodity

  14. ENERGY PARAMETERS OF KAZAKHSTAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS: GEOPOLITICAL AND INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Bakbergenovich Almadiyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategic partnership of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the US of America contains a key vector in the form of the American Kazakhstan’s energetic diplomacy and external policy. This is due to geo-political, geo-economic, geo-strategic, resource and energy, and military policies. Because of the experience gained from the partnership, this bilateral relationship continues to demonstrate progressive development and contributes towards expanding cooperation with other countries of North, Central, and Latin America. This is important in the context of the dynamic development of the fuel and energy complex of Kazakhstan country, and export of Kazakhstan`s energy resources through regional and global markets.

  15. Modeling and predicting abstract concept or idea introduction and propagation through geopolitical groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a novel capability for modeling known idea propagation transformations and predicting responses to new ideas from geopolitical groups. Ideas are captured using semantic words that are text based and bear cognitive definitions. We demonstrate a unique algorithm for converting these into analytical predictive equations. Using the illustrative idea of "proposing a gasoline price increase of 1 per gallon from 2" and its changing perceived impact throughout 5 demographic groups, we identify 13 cost of living Diplomatic, Information, Military, and Economic (DIME) features common across all 5 demographic groups. This enables the modeling and monitoring of Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, and Infrastructure (PMESII) effects of each group to this idea and how their "perception" of this proposal changes. Our algorithm and results are summarized in this paper.

  16. Geopolitics and security in post-cold-war South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most likely scenario is the one in which South-east Asia acquires a greater autonomy, as in Scenario 1. The recomposition of ASEAN as a larger and yet solid entity is far-reaching and requires a lot of mutual internal efforts and policy coordination on external issues. As aforementioned, a situation somewhere between the two sub-scenarios of Scenario I could be achieved. The broadened identity of ASEAN will definitely contribute to the autonomization of South-east Asia as a whole, at least in general geopolitical and security terms. In addition, a greater convergence may develop in economic, strategic and even political areas and gradually produce a subregional order with its own local character and specificities

  17. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas from

  18. The Geopolitical Energy Security Evaluation Method and a China Case Application Based on Politics of Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining the theories of politics of scale from political geography, security theory from international relations, and energy security theory, and putting the scale conversion of energy contention, geographical relationship and geo-structure in geo-setting, and the three properties of safety in consideration, this paper rebuilds a geo-energy security evaluation model and uses the model to quantitatively evaluate China’s geo-oil energy security in the Russian Pacific oil pipeline construction from 1995 to 2010. Five results could be drawn as follows: (1 from the aspect of time, an up-surging Geo-oil Safety Index of China in the Russian Pacific oil pipeline construction indicated an increasingly disadvantage of China in the geo-oil contention by politics of scale. If the United States and South Korea are involved, the competition would be further intensified; (2 from the aspect of geopolitical relationship, a general decrease occurred in the Sino-Japan Energy Competition Index, but a specific increase appeared in the competition of energy imports from Russia, by China and Japan individually; (3 from the aspect of regional strategy of energy export, an obvious downward tendency in Energy Export Strategy Index showed that Russia has changed its export destination off of Europe; (4 from the aspect of geo-security, a relatively steady proportion of China’s oil consumption, and a friendly comprehensive strategic partnership of cooperation between China and Russia, reduced the worries of China’s geo-oil energy security to some extent; (5 from the aspect of geopolitical structure, the increasing comprehensive national power in China, driven by rapid economic growth, will intensify the geo-oil competition in Northeast Asia.

  19. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  20. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  1. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  2. Globalization vs. Developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Economic reality worldwide is marked by the evolution of globalization. This process entails effects that are perceived differently at national economy levels, function of their degree of development. We will proceed by attempting a survey of aspects pertaining to the relationship between globalization and developing economies, stressing on internationalizing Transnational Corporations and its effects.

  3. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...

  4. 2005 Economy: Stable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 is the fifth year of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan, it is an important year to implement commitment for entering into WTO as well as a key year for deepening macro-control. With further deepening of macro control and development of regional economy, Chinese economy will operate in a more healthy and stable way.……

  5. 2005 Economy: Stable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 is the fifth year of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan, it is an important year to implement commitment for entering into WTO as well as a key year for deepening macro-control. With further deepening of macro control and development of regional economy, Chinese economy will operate in a more healthy and stable way.

  6. Analysis on the Development of Low-Carbon Marine Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of low-carbon economy,the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy.It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas;environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes;development of related marine industries brings deterioration of marine environment;changes of climate threat the healthy development of marine economy.The paper points out the development routines of marine low carbon economy:accelerating the innovation of energy techniques,exploring marine renewable green energies;planning scientifically and strengthening the protection and repairmen of marine environment;developing marine recycle economy,upgrading resources using efficiency;adjusting marine industrial structures and exploring greatly the marine low carbon industries;guiding industries to chase chances and accelerating the development of low-carbon marine economy.

  7. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006; Intervention de Thierry Breton ministre de l'Economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Intervention devant l'Ajef sur les questions energetiques nationales et internationales, le 22 mai 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  8. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Bram [Institute of Social Studies, Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-10-15

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected. (author)

  9. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected.

  10. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  11. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  12. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  13. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority is...

  14. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey;

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...

  15. The Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN; Nistor, Costel; Ludmila Daniela MANEA

    2009-01-01

    We are living through a period of profound change and transformation of the shape of society and its underlying economic base .The nature of production, trade, employment and work in the coming decades will be very different from what it is today. In an agricultural economy land is the key resource. In industrial economy natural resources, such as coal and iron ore and labour are the main resources. A knowledge economy is one in which knowledge is the key resource. One in which the generation...

  16. The Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living through a period of profound change andtransformation of the shape of society and its underlying economic base .Thenature of production, trade, employment and work in the coming decades willbe very different from what it is today. In an agricultural economy land is thekey resource. In industrial economy natural resources, such as coal and iron oreand labour are the main resources. A knowledge economy is one in whichknowledge is the key resource. One in which the generation and the exploitationof knowledge has come to play the predominant part in the creation of wealth.

  17. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  18. Essays in Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vernby, Kåre

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  19. The Russian-Ukrainian Crisis and Behind, Energy Policy in the Mirror of Eurasian Game of Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bertalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian-Ukrainian crisis is one of the most important issues of the beginning of the 21st century, from regional and global aspects as well. This paper analyses the crisis from geopolitical aspects, and tries to concentrate on the reasons behind the events and the global perspectives. The study reveals why the Ukrainian question is in the focus of Russian interest, and what led to the crisis. Concerning geopolitics, starting from the point of view of Sir Halford John Mackinder, placing the theory of the Heartland to the 21st century, the study gives a complete picture about the situation of the Eurasian chessboard in terms of Ukraine and Russia. The authors attempt to provide comprehensive analysis of the crisis, keeping in mind the spheres of interests of Russia, Ukraine, the U.S. and the European Union.

  20. The Geopolitics of Central Asia after the Annexation of Crimea in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razma Ainis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to

  1. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circu...

  2. The Knowledge Economy – New Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Niculae Niculescu

    2006-01-01

    The status of knowledge and information as development resources make us familiar with the phenomena on which The New Economy is founded. They reveal the fact that the universalisation of the scientific and technical values does not have alternative on the evolutionary level of mankind. Named with slight differences and variations, as we have already stated, the new economic and social reality has several specific features: the technologies based on microelectronics and computer science, biot...

  3. Development of theory of autopoiesis as superposition of action of feed-backs in difficult geopolitical frames of society

    OpenAIRE

    Попов, Сергій Миколайович

    2014-01-01

    Actuality of research of autopoiesis, as selfregulation of superposition and selfbuilding of geopolitical frames of society does not cause doubts, it is a sufficient popular theory in the West, and it is used in different spheres, such as engineering of software, artificial intelligence, sociology and psychotherapy. Therefore, the study of this theory has practical application in administrative processes, so as it can assists to the increase of efficiency recreation of conceptions action of f...

  4. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  5. Welfare impacts of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Andries F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

  6. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  7. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Perotti

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  8. Implementing a hydrogen economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ritter

    2003-09-01

    In recent years, months, weeks, and even days, it has become increasingly clear that hydrogen as an energy carrier is ‘in’ and carbonaceous fuels are ‘out’1. The hydrogen economy is coming, with the impetus to transform our fossil energy-based society, which inevitably will cease to exist, into a renewable energy-based one2. However, this transformation will not occur overnight. It may take several decades to realize a hydrogen economy. In the meantime, research and development is necessary to ensure that the implementation of the hydrogen economy is completely seamless, with essentially no disruption of the day-to-day activities of the global economy. The world has taken on a monumental, but not insurmountable, task of transforming from carbonaceous to renewable fuels, with clean burning, carbon dioxide-free hydrogen as the logical choice.

  9. Geopolitical Constructs Understanding and Survey with Constructivism Geography Approach Case Study: IRI and Its Confronting Challenges in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pishgahifard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: After dissolution of Soviet Union, both of political geography system and dominance ideational structure have deconstructed in central Asia region. In year of 1979 with revolution, Iranian actors was accepted the Islamic republic system in their country, so new actors, structure and exigencies were revealed in Iran and central Asia relations, that cause create new challenges in confronting of Islamic republic of Iran government. Our fundamental question in this research is that: How geopolitical constructs have constituted confronting challenges for Islamic republic of Iran in Central Asia region? Approach: Therefore in this study we tried to explain the question in geographical framework and constructivism approach (on ground as constructivism geography. We had utilized qualitative research method and hermeneutic-positivist procedure in this study. As attention implicated question, the purpose of this article is understand challenges how constitute in reason of geopolitical constructs. Results: Differences in geopolitical constructs, between Iran and countries of central Asia region and also being harmonious construct, these countries with the present actors in the region, has caused an opposition in regional anarchic system between IRI and these countries in region and actors in the region and also form of distribution of capabilities between actors which has caused challenges for IRI. Conclusion: For following its goals against, high level fruition enemies of IRI like USA, Israel and Russian, China competitors from distribution of capabilities in national and international caused many challenges and double-deficiency for IRI.

  10. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes; Geopolitique transsaharienne. Le jeu et l'enjeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegrouche, L. [Universite Paris 1, 75 (France)

    2010-02-15

    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  11. Reshaping the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Santos, Indhira

    2009-01-01

    Jean Pisani-Ferry and Indhira Santos observe that the crisis and the national responses to it have started to reshape the global economy. But beyond the specifics of shock transmission, the crisis has also exposed that, in spite of regional integration and the emergence of new economic powers, the global economy lacks resilience. The authors explain how they believe the international community could build a stronger and more legitimate globalised governance out of the crisis.

  12. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  13. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-01-01

    The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open ...

  14. New Open Economy Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The New Open Economy Macroeconomics refers to a vast body of literature embracing a new theoretical framework for policy analysis in open economy, with the goal of overcoming the limitations of the Mundell-Fleming model, while preserving the empirical wisdom and policy friendliness of traditional analysis. Starting in the early 1990s, NOEM contributions have developed general equilibrium models with imperfect competition and nominal rigidities, to reconsider conventional views ...

  15. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-01-01

    Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society ...

  16. The Economy of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    1983-01-01

    The paper opens with a description of the salient features of the Israeli economy. These consist of a large government sector(the government budget has absorbed more than 80% of GNP in some recent years); high levels of defense spending; a large government budget deficit; a large current account deficit (about 20%of GNP); triple digit inflation; and extensive indexation of both wages and long term financial commitments. A descriptive model of the economy is then presented, which includes the ...

  17. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  18. Speculation and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Aßmuth, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the impact of speculative behaviour on output patterns of the real economy. The impact may be twofold. Speculative behaviour occurs due to positive developments at the real economy and optimistic outlooks. Also, speculative behaviour may occur at other markets, like the stock market. We address both, a spill-over effect and the build up of speculation due to economic activity. Therefore, we implement realistic behaviour in an evolutionary framework and...

  19. Island political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  20. Overheated Economy in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On July 19, 2007, the State Statistics Bureau made a report on the development of national economy in the first half of this year. The central government has come up with a string of macro-control policies and regulations this year to deal with urgent contradictions and problems during the economic development. As a result, the national economy has enjoyed a stable and rapid growth with an increase in quality and effectiveness, a stronger structure harmonization, and more benefits for its people.

  1. Zoning the neighbourhood economy

    OpenAIRE

    Risselada, Anne; Folmer, Emma

    2011-01-01

    With industrialisation and rationalisation of the Western economy, the scale of production became larger, production costs declined and competitiveness rose (Kloosterman and van der Leun 2004). It was thought that Economies of scale would weed out small-business. This seems plausible: As a company increases production, the average costs per unit will decrease. Due to shifts in production and consumption patterns that are characteristic of post-industrial societies, small-scale business became...

  2. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  3. A shopkeeper economy

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of an economy populated by shopkeepers who monopolistically provide differentiated services at zero marginal cost but positive fixed costs. In this setting, equilibrium output and wealth depend on consumer demand rather than available supply. The “shopkeeper economy” is compared to a standard production-based economy in which wealth is a function only of labor supply and technology. I demonstrate that the existence of producers who face only fixed costs ...

  4. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  5. Underground Economy in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Švec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the members of the European Union? It is presumed that the increase of activity rates causes decrease of underground economy. However, this assumption is valid only for administrative data. Correlation analysis is based on regression models and given results are quite logical. If Croatian and European underground economy is compared, it can be confirmed that the position of Croatia is extremely poor. Given results are approximative and show the level of Croatian underground economy which is presumably underestimated. These phenomena occur because of available statistics and method limitations

  6. Assessing Climate Change Impacts: Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bosello, Francesco; Zhang, Jian

    2005-01-01

    The economy-wide implications of climate change on agricultural sectors in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. Peculiar to this exercise is the coupling of the economic model with a climatic model forecasting temperature increase in the relevant year and with a crop-growth model estimating climate change impact on cereal productivity. The main results of the study point out on the one hand the limited influence of climate change on world food supply and wel...

  7. Active Learning about Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, I.C.; Tol, R.S.J.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a climate-economy model with active learning. We consider three ways of active learning: improved observations, adding observations from the past and improved theory from climate research. From the model, we find that the decision maker invests a significant amount of money in climate research. Expenditures to increase the rate of learning are far greater than the current level of expenditure on climate research, as it helps in taking improved decisions. The optimal carbon tax for ...

  8. Geopolitical and cultural factors affecting ARV adherence on the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos Ulises; Beltran, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The data discussed represent the findings from a study by the NIH-funded Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, exploring the influence of institutional and psychosocial factors on adherence to antiretroviral medications by Mexican-origin persons living with AIDS on the US-Mexico Border. A qualitative approach was utilized consisting of clinic observations, baseline and follow-up interviews with patients (N = 113), key informant interviews (N = 9) and focus groups (5) with patients and health providers. Findings include the social-normative, institutional and geo-political factors affecting treatment and service delivery as well as individual variation and culturally patterned behaviors. ARV adherence and retention were found to depend on complex interactions and negotiation of co-occurring factors including the experience of medications and side-effects, patient/provider relationships, cultural norms and the changing dynamics of international borders. We note effects of drug-related violence which created border-crossing obstacles influencing mobility, access to services and adherence. PMID:22797951

  9. New Geopolitical Role of Central Asia within Foreign Policy Interests of World Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem Kulnazarov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fall of the Soviet Union, the leading global and regional players have started their occupation of the geopolitical and geo-economical vacuum in Central Asia. This article is targeted to trace the competition growth with regard to establishment of control over the Central Asian region by global players, in particular, by Russia, seeking to return Central Asia, and China, striving to entangle the region into its orbit of influence. Within two post-Soviet decades, the world players still have not managed to develop a general cooperation scheme against each other in Central Asia. Although, at the beginning of the XXI century, Russia and China attempted to build up a scheme of the Russian-Chinese-Central Asian cooperation within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, however this scheme cannot be called effective due to the absence of common vision of long-term interests in Russia, China and Central Asian countries. As it seems, even at very short by historical standards period of time, after the fall of the Soviet Union we observe clear interests in the Central Asian’s policies of Russia and China.  

  10. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  11. A Brief History of Building the Geopolitical Space across the North Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan A. Khachidogov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on little-studied materials, the article provides a brief history of building the geopolitical space across the North Caucasus. The author establishes that North Caucasus Krai has had a unique geographical and political significance for countless centuries. Its territories stretched between two seas – the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, which was of great strategic significance: it is here that Europe and Asia locked into each other, with various trade, political, and cultural relations established through them. It has been proven that the ancient region had from the very beginning been formed as a polyethnic one, inhabited by as many as 120 different nationalities. Today there are now 10 autochthonous peoples living in the area, which speak languages belonging to three language families: Caucasian, Indo-European, and Turkic. By the time the North Caucasus was made part of Russia, quite independent language communities had already been formed in the region, which occupied territories that have remained almost unchanged to this day.

  12. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  13. THE GEOPOLITICAL DIMENSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY. WATERS AND CONFLICT IN THE ARAL SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piastra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the Aral Sea, located in Central Asia on the boundary between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, experienced a dramatic shrinking, divulged even in newspapers and magazines. Such an ecological catastrophe, renamed the “Aral Sea Crisis”, was triggered by the artificial diversion of the rivers of the basin during the Soviet period, in order to irrigate new cotton fields. Nowadays, notwithstanding the fulfilment of several environmental restoration projects and a wide scientific literature about the process, the general balance about the water body, in particular its Uzbek side, is still critical. This paper, after a synthesis concerning the causes and the consequences of the ecological disaster, analyses the geopolitical implications connected to the deterioration of the environmental quality in the region and to water management in Post-Soviet Central Asia, underlining, in the case of the Aral Sea Basin, the criticities linked to its fast transition from an internal basin to an international one. Finally, Central Asian water-related old programs and future scenarios are discussed.

  14. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  15. The Concept of Geopolitics%"地缘政治学"概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙相东

    2008-01-01

    长期以来,人们对"地缘政治学"(geopolitics)概念的理解和使用很容易陷入模糊和混乱,这归咎于此概念的多元性和复杂性.因此需要挖掘思想史上对地缘政治学概念的不同理解,厘清地缘政治学概念的脉络和条理,识别和界定地缘政治学思想史上各种传统和视角的内涵、逻辑、方法和价值.在地缘政治学思想史中,我们可以提炼出几个清晰的视角.第一,人-境关系的视角.第二,大战略的视角.第三,现实主义政治的视角.第四,国际政治结构的视角.地缘政治学的概念蕴含在这几个视角的有机融合之中,建立统一包容性的地缘政治学概念是可能的.

  16. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand. Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system. (author)

  17. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert, E-mail: mert.bilgin@bahcesehir.edu.t [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  18. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  19. Spatial dynamics in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte; Topsø Larsen, Karin; Schrøder, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. What is the experience economy? The experience economy and innovation. The experience economy and governance. The experience economy, space and place......Introduction. What is the experience economy? The experience economy and innovation. The experience economy and governance. The experience economy, space and place...

  20. 4. Climate protection forum of the State of Hessen: Protecting the climate profitably; 4. Hessisches Klimaschutzforum: Klimaschutz wirtschaftlich gestalten. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweer, R. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    The speeches held on the conference deal with the situation of the climate protection from a scientific viewpoint, the perspectives of the Kyoto protocol for insurances and the economy, the answers of economy to the climate change, the trade with hothouse gas emissions and the ways of financing climate protection.

  1. Corruption and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil; Thum, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a simple framework to analyze the links between corruption and the unofficial economy and their implications for the official economy. In a model of self-selection with heterogeneous entrepreneurs, we show that the entrepreneurs' option to flee to the underground economy constrains a corrupt official's ability to introduce distortions to the economy for private gains. The unofficial economy thus mitigates government-induced distortions and, as a result, leads to enhanced e...

  2. INTERNET ECONOMY AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Čerić, Vlatko

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of and development trends in the Internet Economy and Electronic Commerce. The first part of the paper describes the influence of information technology on the economy. The paper then gives an overview of the basic components of the Internet Economy, i.e. the economy based on the Internet, and it presents key figures from recent research about revenues and jobs related to the Internet Economy. Electronic Commerce (E-commerce) refers to business activities using...

  3. The New Economy: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAY, Selçuk

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon coined as "new economy" is attracting a great deal of attention around the world. This study surveys and discusses issues related to new economy. In the first section of this study, definitions and basic features of the new economy are presented.The second section of this study discusses measurements and indicators of new economy. The last section examines the impact of the new economy on economic growth and productivity.

  4. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.

  5. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  6. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  7. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    OpenAIRE

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu; Assistant Dr. Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2011-01-01

    In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the...

  8. Costs and benefits of a zero - carbon economy by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the science and the Eu 2 deg C target for climate stabilization and implications for climate change, the costs and benefits of climate change, adaptation and mitigation with political, pollution and global aspects and the costs of achieving the 2 deg C target. The usefulness of various economic models is discussed. Some technological aspects are mentioned as well as some aspects of the UK climate policies. The main conclusion is that a zero-carbon economy appears feasible at negligible macro economic costs, with high carbon prices and strong regulation (tk)

  9. Success in developing regions: world records evolution through a geopolitical prism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Guillaume

    Full Text Available A previous analysis of World Records (WR has revealed the potential limits of human physiology through athletes' personal commitment. The impact of political factors on sports has only been studied through Olympic medals and results. Here we studied 2876 WR from 63 nations in four summer disciplines. We propose three new indicators and show the impact of historical, geographical and economical factors on the regional WR evolution. The south-eastward path of weighted annual barycenter (i.e. the average of country coordinates weighting by the WR number shows the emergence of East Africa and China in WR archives. Home WR ratio decreased from 79.9% before the second World War to 23.3% in 2008, underlining sports globalization. Annual Cumulative Proportions (ACP, i.e. the cumulative sum of the WR annual rate highlight the regional rates of progression. For all regions, the mean slope of ACP during the Olympic era is 0.0101, with a maximum between 1950 and 1989 (0.0156. For European countries, this indicator reflects major historical events (slowdown for western countries after 1945, slowdown for eastern countries after 1990. Mean North-American ACP slope is 0.0029 over the century with an acceleration between 1950 and 1989 at 0.0046. Russia takes off in 1935 and slows down in 1988 (0.0038. For Eastern Europe, maximal progression is seen between 1970 and 1989 (0.0045. China starts in 1979 with a maximum between 1990 and 2008 (0.0021, while other regions have largely declined (mean ACP slope for all other countries = 0.0011. A similar trend is observed for the evolution of the 10 best performers. The national analysis of WR reveals a precise and quantifiable link between the sport performances of a country, its historical or geopolitical context, and its steps of development.

  10. Healthcare under siege: Geopolitics of medical service provision in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron J

    2015-12-01

    Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, represents a unique threat to healthcare provision. This study is a qualitative examination of the impacts of siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in Gaza. Data are from participant observation conducted over a period of six years (2009-2014), along over 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in the Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO), Governmental, and United Nations sectors. Analyses were informed by two connected theories. First, the theory of surplus population was used, an idea that builds on Marx's conception of primitive accumulation and Harvey's accumulation by dispossession. Second, Roy's theory of de-development was used, particularly as it is connected to neoliberal trends in healthcare systems organizing and financing. Findings indicate that siege impinges on effective healthcare provision through two central, intertwined processes: withholding materials and resources and undermining healthcare at a systems level. These strains pose considerable threats to healthcare, particularly within the Ministry of Health but also within and among other entities in Gaza that deliver care. The strategies of de-development described by participants reflect the ways the population that is codified as a surplus population. Gazan society is continually divested of any of the underpinnings necessary for a well-functioning sovereign health care infrastructure. Instead of a self-governing, independent system, this analysis of health care structures in Gaza reveals a system that is continually at risk of being comprised entirely of captive consumers who are entirely dependent on Israel, international bodies, and the aid industry for goods and services. This study points to the importance of foregrounding the geopolitical context for analysis of medical service delivery within conflict settings. Findings also highlight the importance of advocating for

  11. The Cossacks of the South of Russia in R.A. Fadeev’s geopolitical plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Oleg Viktorovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The political project of a conservative writer of political essays of the second half of the XIX c. R.A. Fadeev (1824–1883, in which a key part is assigned to the attraction of the Cossacks of Southern Russia to solving the pressing foreign policy issues, is analyzed. A conclusion that the Cossacks could be used as a militant vanguard, i.e. military force (infantry, cavalry, reconnaissance and an effective tool of the colonization of the suburbs of the Russian Empire – is drawn. The conditions under which R.A. Fadeev could implement his plans are revealed. The key condition is the preservation of the identity of the Cossacks as a class and as a sub-ethnos. The historical assessment of the R.A. Fadeev’s plans is given. According to the plans R.A. Fadeev, revived after the reforms of its military power, Russia should not only play a key role in international relations, but also strive for a first impact and then rule on its neighboring Asian and European territories. And in the perspective he saw the new world order, in which there would be two dominating superpowers, Russia and the United States. The Cossacks were assigned an important role in the implementation of these plans by the publicist.This geopolitical project, no matter how attractive it was not for the Russians at first glance, was a utopia. The publicist obviously overestimated the military and economic capabilities of contemporary Imperial Russia, the ability of the autocracy to the socio-economic and political renewal of the country corresponding to the demands of the times. Consequently, the Cossacks were not destined to play the role which was assigned to them by R.A. Fadeev. Althoughhe anticipated accurately the individual elements of the future world order established for several decades in the XX century.

  12. The Baroque: the intellectual and geopolitical reasons for a historiographical erasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pérez-Magallón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “The Baroque: the intellectual and geopolitical reasons for a historiographical erasure” highlights the need for a new way of conceptualizing the Baroque, taking into account the period’s plurality of discourses and diverging tendencies, specifically in respect to the modernity project conceived by the dominant European nations of the Enlightenment. As opposed to Antonio Maravall’s univocal paradigm of a guided culture of the masses, the Baroque was a much more multivocal period of time containing various emerging and subaltern discourses which greatly contributed to the rationalist and scientific thought of the Enlightenment. Despite this fact, the Baroque and the Enlightenment came to be seen as antithetical. Consequently, the Baroque and the Iberian Peninsula were erased from the grand narrative of European and Western modernity. Emphasizing its uncivilized character, Northern European nations metaphorically displaced the Spanish Empire to the periphery of modern Europe. Using propagandistic means to cast the Iberians to the margins, the nations belonging to the modernity project painted themselves as the “natural” heirs of the Enlightenment, consolidating their political hegemony. The process of writing the grand narrative of modernity involved appropriating several key criteria from the Baroque and consequently erasing their original place of belonging. Keeping this manipulation of history in mind permits a double reading of the course leading to modernity. My paper calls for a new way of interpreting this period of time which emerged at the end of the sixteenth century and continued until the Cádiz Cortes and the independence of the American colonies. This alternate hermeneutic would entail a coming together of the Baroque and the Enlightenment; a dynamic, complex, and conflicting process establishing a modernity which would continue into the modernity of today.

  13. The Knowledge Economy – New Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The status of knowledge and information as development resources make us familiar with the phenomena on which THE NEW ECONOMY is founded. They reveal the fact that the universalisation of the scientific and technical values does not have alternative on the evolutionary level of mankind. Named with slight differences and variations, as we have already stated, the new economic and social reality has several specific features: the technologies based on microelectronics and computer science, biotechnologies, genetic engineering, green revolution, nuclear technology, space navigation etc. The transformation of management in a key –social function, responsible for the achievement of the best possible results, is also owed to the fact that information and knowledge have become requisite to the economic development.

  14. Equality and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  15. Economy of referential preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Goucha, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce basic notions of new economic model where preference relations on commodities set are represented by a group action on Euclidean space instead of utility function. Conditions that ensure the existence of individual demand functions and a general equilibrium in the setting of exchange economy are examined.

  16. Poverty and Informal Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, François; Venkatesh, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    International audience Informal economic activity is a significant part of world production and distribution. This chapter reviews different core definitions (informal economic activities versus informal sector), different historical instances of "the" informal economy (in the Third World, under Communism and in contemporary Western cities), and different theoretical approaches (the dualist or development perspective, the legalist or neoliberal perspective, the structuralist or neomarxist ...

  17. The College Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  18. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  19. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  20. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  1. Chapter IX. The economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the economy of the Slovak electric power systems to 1918 an in the periods 1939 - 1945, 1946-1968, 1969-1989 and 1929 are reviewed. The corporation taxes, personal management and information management as well as material-technical supply are discussed

  2. Fueling the Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  3. Strategic Program for Biodiversity and Water Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Population pressure, climate change and resulting extreme weather scenarios, armed con?ict and economic pressure have put the situation of Pakistan's biodiversity at risk. Melting glaciers, deforestation, erosion, landslides and depletion of agricultural areas are aggravating the regulation of water ?ow in Pakistan. In Pakistan agro-biodiversity is central to human survival and play vital role in the economy of the country. It contributes 21% to the GDP, employs 45% of the labor force and contributes 71% of the export earnings. Agro- biodiversity in Pakistan is greatly affected by short term climate variability and could be harmed signi?cantly by long-term climate change. As the duration of crop growth cycle is related to temperature, an increase in temperature will speed up crop growth and shorten the duration between sowing and harvesting. This shortening could have an adverse effect on productivity of crops. The present assessment also revealed that hydrological cycle is also likely to be in?uenced by global warming. Since the agricultural crops are heavily dependent on the water, and water resources are inextricably linked with climate; therefore, the projected climate change has serious implications for water resources of the country. The freshwater resources, in Pakistan, are based on snow- and glacier-melt and monsoon rains, both being highly sensitive to climate change. The country speci?c current information strongly suggests that: decrease in glacier volume and snow cover leading to alterations in the seasonal ?ow pattern of Indus River System; increased annual ?ows for a few decades followed by decline in ?ows in subsequent years; increase in the formation and burst of glacial lakes; higher frequency and intensity of extreme climate events coupled with irregular monsoon rains causing frequent ?oods and droughts; and greater demand of water due to higher evapotranspiration rates at elevated temperatures. These trends will have large impact on the spatial

  4. SOLIDARY INFORMATION ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY WITHOUT MARKET AND MONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new organizational-economic theory - solidary information economy, based on the views of Aristotle. The name of this theory has changed over time. Initially, we used the term "nonformal information economy of the future", and then began to use the term "solidary information economy." In connection with Biocosmology and neo-Aristotelism preferred is an adequate term "functionalist organic information economy. Further development of our theory is the subject of this article....

  5. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  6. KAZAKH-U.S. MILITARY-POLITICAL COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF U.S. GEOPOLITICAL INTERESTS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2007-01-01

    As is known, Central Asia is an important strategic element of the U.S.'s foreign policy. It is interesting both from the energy perspective and in the context of Washington's expanding geopolitical influence in the region. Today, the U.S.'s key objectives in Central Asia are as follows: First, establishment of dominant positions in Central Asia.The Washington administration is striving to assert its dominance in Central Asia by playing on the contradictions between the countries in the regio...

  7. Book review: the fence and the bridge: geopolitics and identity along the Canada-US border by Heather N. Nicol

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Heather N.

    2016-01-01

    In The Fence and the Bridge: Geopolitics and Identity Along the Canada-US Border, Heather N. Nicol adds to growing analyses of the functioning and perception of borders by focusing on the historical development of the Canada-US border-security relationship, tracing it from the present post-9/11 era back into the preceding centuries. While the book does tend to assume Canada as a country subject to US dominance, thereby inhibiting consideration of the growing harmonisation of North American se...

  8. Empirical Model for Estimating Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surfaces for Selected Cities in the Six Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Okundamiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a temperature-based model of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces for selected cities, representing the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The modelling was based on linear regression theory and was computed using monthly mean daily data set for minimum and maximum ambient temperatures. The results of three statistical indicators: Mean Bias Error (MBE, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, and t-statistic (TS, performed on the model along with practical comparison of the estimated and observed data, validate the excellent performance accuracy of the proposed model.

  9. Empirical Model for Estimating Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surfaces for Selected Cities in the Six Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okundamiya, Michael Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a temperature-based model of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces for selected cities, representing the six geopolitical zones in N igeria. The modelling was based on linear regression theory and was computed using monthly mean daily data set for minimum and maximum ambient temperatures. The results of three statistical indicators: Mean Bias Error (MBE, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and t-statistic (TS; performed on the model along with practical comparison of the estimated and observed data validate the excellent performance accuracy of the proposed model.

  10. Enlightenment of New Economy on the Development of Chinese Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫焕久; 李理光

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features of the new economy in America, and then analyses the differences between the new economy and Chinese economy with trade theories. At the last, this paper concentrates on study of strategies for China to develop economic internationalization.

  11. MIGRATION OR EXODUS? NEWCOMERS’ EUROPE AND THE CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE TEODORESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave of migration that has invaded the Mediterranean shore of the European Union in the summer and fall of 2015 has ignited a crisis of unprecedented proportions for Brussels. It questions the very identity of the European civilization, threatening to rekindle xenophobic and racist behaviors already deemed bygone in the “Europe House.” In attempting to understand its inner workings and supply sources, turning to method helps to avoid the excesses and the inappropriate policies for counteracting a phenomenon of such complexity that looks like it will continue throughout the following years. Thus, the use of well-defined concepts from Sociology, Economics and Social Psychology, as well as from culture and geopolitics, is not as much an academic pedantry as it is a cautious way to approach a problem loaded with uncertainties and unknowns. Can social economy be an appropriate – albeit a partial – solution to it?

  12. Post-Soviet gas sector restructuring in the CIS: a political economy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses progress and obstacles to gas sector reform in the most important CIS-Countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan), taking a political economy perspective. This reform process is embedded in a very specific post-Soviet institutional framework stemming from the legacy of socialism. Firstly, we review the evolution of the gas sector for the period 1992-1998. The paper then identifies the post-Soviet specifies of gas sector restructuring, to which any reform strategy and technical assistance have to he adapted. We derive concrete, process-oriented policy conclusions to accelerate the reform process in a market-oriented way. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the perspectives of gas sector restructuring in this geopolitically strategic area of the world. (author)

  13. Sustainable ICT: Action Planning for the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The global economy is showing promising signs of recovery, and the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, in Cancun, Mexico at the end of 2010, concluded with an approach to addressing climate change that is based on national action plans and reporting of progress against national targets. In the current economic environment, both sustainability and IT will play pivotal roles in any recovery. When these two powerful components come togethe...

  14. Economy Principle in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Hong

    2015-01-01

    Languages evolve unceasingly according to the economy principle: to exchange the maximal amount of information through the minimal language codes expenditure.This paper analyzes economy in advertisements,especially the concise wording which saves layout,time and energy.

  15. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  16. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Berisha Namani, Mihane; Myrvete BADIVUKU PANTINA

    2009-01-01

    Today, technologies have changed our social and economic life. Society is becoming “knowledge society” and information and communication technology has played an important role. The economy is evolving out of classic model of the economy in the new economy known as “knowledge economy”. Information and communication technology is bringing changes to various sectors of economy. Business is undergoing a fundamental structural transformation and traditional business become more dependent on Inter...

  17. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  18. Economic Impact of Climate Change on Irrigated Rice Agriculture in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Olusegun AJETOMOBI; Abidun, Ajiboye; Hassan, Rashid M.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to test the relative importance of climate normals (average long-term temperature and precipitation) in explaining net revenue from Nigerian rice agriculture under irrigation and dry land conditions. A survey was done by interviewing 1200 rice farmers from 20 rice producing states in Nigeria. The states covered all the six geopolitical zones in the country. The results showed that increase in temperature will reduce net revenue for dry land rice farm...

  19. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2016) Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change presents real threats to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These ...

  20. What Is Climate Change? (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... climate change, which can seriously affect our: Health Economy Crops Water resources Coastlines Energy usage Wildlife Outdoor ... A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information about causes, detrimental global impact ...

  1. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Egypt, Arab Republic of. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that...

  2. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Portugal. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  3. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Mali. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Econ...

  4. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Burkina Faso. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  5. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Georgia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  6. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ireland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  7. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for China. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  8. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sao Tome and Principe. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that c...

  9. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Micronesia, Federated States of. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and th...

  10. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Kazakhstan. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it...

  11. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Côte dIvoire. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Bulgaria. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  13. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Guatemala. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Paraguay. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  15. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  16. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  17. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Lithuania. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  18. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Thailand. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Palau. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  20. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Malaysia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  1. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of...

  2. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Italy. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  3. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Turkey. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Ec...

  4. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Equatorial Guinea. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that const...

  5. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Gabon. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  6. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  7. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sri Lanka. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  8. ICT, Kennis en Economie, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munck, S.G.E. de

    2011-01-01

    ICT, kennis en economie is een voortzetting van de publicatiereeksen De digitale economie en Kennis en economie, zoals die tot voor kort jaarlijks door het CBS werden uitgebracht. In deze nieuwe publicatie beschrijft het CBS de Nederlandse kenniseconomie aan de hand van de pijlers R&D, innovatie en

  9. 冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动研究%Research on Geopolitical Changes in Cambodia Since the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方天建; 何跃

    2014-01-01

    冷战以来,柬埔寨地缘政治经历了从碎片化到重组的变动。其既是冷战期间美苏两大阵营进行冷战与热战博弈的最前沿阵地之一,也是冷战后各域外政治力量在地缘战略上积极争取的东南亚国家之一。在导致柬埔寨地缘政治变动的诸多因素中,外部因素是决定其地缘政治变动的主导性因素,国内政治派别斗争的分化与组合是导致其地缘政治变动的重要因素。因此,在双重因素作用下,冷战以来的柬埔寨地缘政治具有地缘政治棋盘和地缘战略楔子的显著特点。而对冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动的趋势、成因和特征的探讨,对我国的柬埔寨地缘政治研究和我国对柬埔寨地缘政治的战略定位具有十分重要的学术意义和现实意义。%Since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has experienced the changes from fragmentation to restructuring. It is not only one of the forefront to the United States and the Soviet union camps for cold and hot war games during the cold war , and one of the southeast Asian countries has been actively strive for the outside political forces on the geopolitical strategy after the cold war. In cause changes in the Cambodian geopolitical factors, external factors are dominant factors. Moreover, the differentiation and com-bination of domestic political parties to conflict that are the important fac-tors. Therefore, since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has geopo-litical chessboard and geostrategic wedge characteristics significantly. And to discuss the trend , the causes and characteristics of Cambodia geopolitical changes since the cold war to our country's geopolitical research in Cambodia and China's geopolitical strategic positioning in Cambodia has very important academic significance and practical significance.

  10. The emergence of the problem of Bukovina within the European geopolitical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Lavric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the North-Western Moldavia (named later on, by the Austrian occupants, Bukovina emerged within the European geopolitical space in 1775, when the territory has been annexed by the Habsburg Empire. However, before that moment, the Northern part of the future Bukovina (Şipeniţ district was disputed by Poland and Moldavia Yet, the Polish-Moldavian border was clearly established, including the Northern part of Bucovina (wanted by Poland within the Moldavian Principality. The Austrian emperor and administration used a few motivations for the annexation of the North-Western Moldavia: 1. the imposition of a cordon against the plague („which burned down long time before in Moldavia”; 2. „the need” to annex „a strip” (in reality, two big districts were annexed from the territory of Moldavia for the construction of a road linking Transylvania with Galicia; 3. the historical rights of the Pocuţia (i.e., Galicia, which have come in possession of Austria, on the North of Moldavia (Şipeniţ County. Some of the real reasons of occupation were: 1. „insatiable hunger for new territorial acquisitions; lust for the expansion of the Empire and seizing new territories bringing profit; 2. to compensate for the loss of another territory – Oltenia – in this case, with the North-Western Moldavia; 3. a desire to have a strategic area to be pursued in a subsequent expansion in Moldavia and Wallachia, respectively in the Danube region and in the Eastern Balkans. As in June 1940, the Soviet authorities have linked the issue of Bessarabia with the issue of Bukovina, I believe that the problem of Transnistria (Moldavia should be viewed in connection with the issue of ethnic Romanian Community territory of Northern Bukovina (now in Cernăuţi region. A solution for the problem of the Romanian community in Northern Bukovina is possible by the passage of municipalities inhabited by Romanians from Northern Bukovina to Republic of Moldavia, in

  11. Energy Geopolitics in the Middle East and China's Energy Security Strategy%中东能源地缘政治与中国能源安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 潘光

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the geo-political, geo-economic and social development trends in the Middle East as well as their potential impacts on China's energy security. Recommendations are made regarding China's energy security strategy toward the Middle East. The basic conclusions of this study include three points: (a) China's economy will continue to rely on the Middle East's energy supply in the future, (b) political instability in the Middle East would lead to serious consequences, posing a big risk for the Middle East oil and gas supply; (c) China's energy security strategy in the Middle East should include changing its diplomatic ideology, maintaining a balance between the Middle East energy interests and adhering to the principle of non-interference in other's internal affairs, establishing interdependence with the Middle East energy suppliers, working towards a long-term Sino-US energy cooperation, and building a functional multilateral problem-solving system concerned.%本文研究了中东地缘政治发展趋势以及未来该地区对中国能源安全的潜在影响,并就制定具有针对性的中东能源安全战略提出了建议,并认为,中国经济将继续依赖中东能源;中东政治动荡的危险正在增大,中东油气供应存在极大风险.中国的中东能源安全战略应包括:转变外交理念,平衡在中东的能源利益与不干涉内政原则间的关系,建立与中东能源供应国的相互依存关系,制定中美能源合作的长期目标,建立一个以问题为核心的功能性多边制度.

  12. Essays on Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Galvis, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on political economy. The first essay studies the effect of competition on media bias in the context of U.S. newspapers in the period 1870-1910. We measure bias as the intensity with which different newspapers cover scandals. We collected data on 121 scandals and 157 newspapers. We also collected data on the partisanship, frequency of publication, and circulation of the newspapers in our sample, as well as of the newspapers circulating in the sam...

  13. "Economy as Religion"

    OpenAIRE

    Hellestveit, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Comparing economy to religion is a fairly common phenomenon when used as a rhetorical tool, but can it also be used analytically? This thesis is based on a sociological reading of three books by Robert Nelson, who defines the field of economics as a set of theologies for secular religions in modern society. Using the phenomenological sociology of Thomas Luckmann, it seeks to expand on the ideas of Nelson and identify their sociological utility. It finds that understanding econo...

  14. Framing the Collaborative Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruszka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of multiple crises and change, a range of practices discussed under the umbrella term of collaborative (or sharing) economy have been gaining considerable attention. Supporters build an idealistic vision of collaborative societies. Critics have been stripping the concept of its visionary potential, questioning its revolutionary nature. In the study, these debates are brought down to the local level in search for common perceptions among the co-creators of the concept in Vie...

  15. Nowcasting the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, James

    2010-01-01

    Forecasts of global economic activity and inflation are important inputs when conducting monetary policy in small open economies such as Canada. As part of the Bank of Canada's broad agenda to augment its short-term forecasting tools, the author constructs simple mixed-frequency forecasting equations for quarterly global output, imports, and inflation using the monthly global Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). When compared against two benchmark models, the results show that the PMIs are useful...

  16. Information model of economy

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms ...

  17. Challenges of Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, Jose G.; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    One way to analyze the phenomenon of development in the era of globalization is through an approach involving interaction of the economic and the political system. The global economy has altered economic structures and social policies at the level of the nation-state, because the latter limits and impedes the processes of generation and capital accumulation. The purpose of this document is to analyze the emerging phenomenon of the transfer of state governance to global economic corporate gove...

  18. High Speed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Dumitrascu; Roxana Arabela Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    The use of knowledge in business opens vast possibilities for the spectacular intensification of the rhythms of the processes of economic value creation. High speeds are a fundamental feature of the knowledge economy. The sources of high speeds in business are certain economic, technological and commercial processes with the nature of some positive feedbacks. What generates it is the organization of knowledge in the form of networks. The organizations competitiveness is marked by the ability ...

  19. Towards an Inclusive Economy

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    There has recently been a rapid growth in international literature and research on the links between economic growth and social capability and their impact upon well-being. This paper draws on that literature to build upon previous Treasury work at the intersection of economic and social policy. It examines the relationship between a productive economy and a society that enjoys high levels of participation, connection and cohesion, and their combined impact of peoples' well-being. It suggests...

  20. Securing the Digital Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU; Alina MARIN

    2010-01-01

    The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside th...

  1. Biomass rural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukehurst, C.

    1993-12-31

    The development strategy of wood fuel in the United Kingdom aims at reducing CO{sub 2} and providing farmers with a new income source. Wood fuel will be produced by poplar and willow plantations or by traditional coppice. For example, two wood fired heating schemes will be discussed. Wood fuel can provide a useful alternative to the set-aside land and can have wider implications for the local rural economy. (Authors). 1 fig.

  2. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  3. Economy on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Not long after China's top legislative body, the National People's Congress, passed the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2006-10) during its annual meeting in mid-March, Joseph Stiglitz, the 2001 Nobel Prize laureate in economics, talked to 21st Century Business Herald, a leading business paper based in south China's Guangdong Province, on the economy and the newly adopted plan. Here are some excerpts from that interview:

  4. Green Economy, Red Herring

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2012-01-01

    This year sees Rio plus 20 years and much activity especially from United Nations (UN) related institutions to push forward various agendas which the environmentally concerned might welcome. The financial and banking crisis signals for many the tip of the iceberg of reality into which modern industrial economies must inevitably run. Growth of material and energy throughput is then doomed to sink. ... Societal, economic and environmental crises are unified as the result of an old but common de...

  5. Moral Economies of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria is famous for "419" emails asking recipients for bank account information and for scandals involving the disappearance of billions of dollars from government coffers. Corruption permeates even minor official interactions, from traffic control to university admissions. In Moral Economies of Corruption Steven Pierce provides a cultural history of the last 150 years of corruption in Nigeria as a case study for considering how corruption plays an important role in the processes of politic...

  6. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean: Is China a Threat for Arctic Ocean Security?

    OpenAIRE

    Cassotta, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitatesnatural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in theArctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competitionbetween states and can result in tensions, even military ones. This article investigates through apolitical and legal analysis the role of China as an emerging regulatory sea power in the ArcticOcean given i...

  7. Superconductivity for hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging hydrogen economy is expected to deal with a large amount of liquid hydrogen produced from the renewable energy resources. The main advantage of liquid hydrogen in comparison with other forms of its storage and transportation is in allowing wide use of superconductivity, which would optimise energy efficiency of the economy. The basic element of the infrastructure for hydrogen economy is a network of superconducting pipelines carrying simultaneously liquid hydrogen and loss-free electricity. The most likely material for such infrastructure is MgB2, the only superconductor efficiently working at boiling temperature of liquid hydrogen and not showing strong critical current reduction on grain boundaries. The cheap techniques for the preparation of MgB2 are hot isostatic pressing, resistive sintering and paint coating. These and other advanced techniques are able to provide MgB2 with suitable for the infrastructure structural and superconducting properties. The preparation of a large-area superconducting joint between two pieces of MgB2 as a technique enabling this infrastructure is reported. A potential of synergy between liquid hydrogen and superconductivity is revealed in a range of possible new energy applications.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Changes and Their Reasons to the Geopolitical Influence of China and the US in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current international society has entered an era of large-scale power transfer. Government interests have gradually transferred from national strength to national influence. As such, how to quantitatively present the fuzzy geopolitical influence (i.e., geo-influence has attracted greater attention from scholars. The proposed concept of geo-influence conforms to this trend of power structure change in international relations, and provides a reference for national sustainable development on the international stage. This study sets up an index system and a mathematical model of geopolitical influence, and explores the spatio-temporal changes of the geo-influence of China and the United States (US in South Asia over the past decade. Three primary results are found as follows: (1 In general, the geo-influence of China and the US in South Asia increased between 2003 and 2012. In terms of growth rate, the geo-influence of China in South Asia grew much faster than that of the US; (2 The overall strength and geo-influence show non-linear relationships. Strong national overall strength does not necessarily mean that one country has the strongest geo-influence; (3 National geo-influence is inversely proportional to the friction of distance. The larger the friction of distance is, the smaller national geo-potential is, and vice versa.

  9. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  10. A cost in planning for prosperous economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Pugalis, Lee; Glenn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The new draft PPS4 exudes the desperation born of a harsh economic climate and appears to invite short-term fixes rather than long-term sustainable growth, say Lee Pugalis and Glenn Martin. In her foreword Margaret Beckett, then Minister for Housing and Planning, argued that ‘for the first time, this comprehensive new draft statement brings together in one place all of the Government’s key planning policies relating to the economy and streamlines and simplifies policy to focus on what is ...

  11. New Geo-Political Perspectives in Eastern Asia, Two Decades After the Fall of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Iakob

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 20th Century, after the dissolution of the former communist block and the end of the bipolar world, Russian Federation as the successor of the former Soviet Union had to face the new multi-polar world and its challenges. With a weakened economy and little international influence, Moscow had to elaborate and put in place a new foreign policy and foreign economy policy. In this context, the Euro-Asian continent and, especially, the Far Eastern region represented a strategic interest. The consolidation of economic and political relations with Japan and China as a regional partnership is not only a strategic question for Russia it represents the only viable solution for a long term regional stability and security frame in the region.

  12. Towards a low carbon economy in the Amazon: the role of land-use policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortolli, N.; Rodrigues Filho, S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change, rising oil prices and the global financial crisis has put sustainability and ‘green growth’ of the economy on the political agenda. While the transition towards a “low carbon” economy in developed countries like in the European Union should mainly be found in renewable energy product

  13. Climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on

  14. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on water

  15. China's Geopolitical Strategy Choice under the Background of US's New Asia-Pacific Strategy%美国新亚太战略背景下的中国地缘战略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马风书

    2014-01-01

    以“重返亚太”或“亚太战略再平衡”冠名的美国新亚太战略,主要包括经济、军事、外交和文化四个方面,有多重目标、多个手段、多种方式。总体上讲,在美国新亚太战略中,军事战略最为显著,投入最大,其他方面则存在更多的制约因素,资源有限,前景不明。对中国而言,美国新亚太战略主要体现在东西南北四个方向,其总体趋势是东进、西退、北防、南扰,对中国地缘环境的影响在各个方向上不尽相同。在此背景下,中国的地缘战略选择应有多种选项,可以将其归结为东防、西进、北固、南稳四个方面。%Under the names of“return to the Asia‐Pacific”or“rebalancing Asia‐Pacific strategy”,the new American Asia‐Pacific strategy mainly includes four aspects :economy ,military ,diplomacy and culture ,along with multiple targets ,means ,and ways .Generally speaking ,in the new American strategy ,military strategy is the most significant one involving maximum investment with other aspects being restricted with more factors such as limited resources and unclear future .To China , the new American Asia‐Pacific strategy is mainly manifested in four directions ,namely the north and south ,east and west .The overall trend is east‐forwardness ,west‐backwardness ,north‐defense and south‐disturbance .T he effect to China's geopolitical environment is quite different in all directions . In this context ,China's geopolitical strategy should have a variety of options :it can be generalized in this way :east‐cautiousness ,west‐forwardness ,north‐strength and south‐stabilization .

  16. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  17. Climate plan 2004; Plan climat 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  18. Interdisciplinary cooperation on impacts of climate change in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Lois; Chen, Linling; Strey, Sara

    2012-09-01

    Impact of Climate Change on Resources, Maritime Transport and Geopolitics in the Arctic and the Svalbard Area; Svalbard, Norway, 21-28 August 2011 Drastic changes in the Arctic climate directly relate to resource and transport development and complex geopolitical challenges in the Arctic. To encourage future interdisciplinary cooperation among political, social, and climate scientists, 30 early-career researchers from varied backgrounds—including climate change, resources, polar maritime transport, and geopolitics—assembled in Svalbard, Norway. Ola Johannessen, president of the Norwegian Scientific Academy of Polar Research, led this diverse group to highlight the importance of collaboration across disciplines for broadening the terms in which assessments are defined, thus collapsing distinctions between the physical and the human Arctic. He also highlighted the feasibility of conducting effective assessment exercises within short time frames. The group was also mentored by Willy Østreng, author of Science Without Boundaries: Interdisciplinarity in Research, Society, and Politics, who aided participants in understanding the process of interdisciplinary collaboration rather than creating an assemblage of discrete findings.

  19. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  20. The Russian oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Risky Business - Oil in the Russian Empire 3. The Command Oil Economy 4. An Industry Fit for a Superpower 5. Malaise at the End of the Command Era 6. Desperate Measures 7. The New Wild West 8. Russian Oil in the 21 st Century Appendix A. The Early Regional Development of the Russian Oil Industry, 1860-1975 B. Reserve Classifications of the Soviet Union C. Long-Distance Oil Pipelines in Russia, 1908-1988 D. Internal Oil Pricing Policies of the Soviet Union. (Author)