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Sample records for climacteric

  1. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  2. Intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women

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    Thaiene Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the characteristics and intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study with systematic probabilistic sampling, consisting of 247 women in post menopause, who answered the Questionnaire of Women’s Health. To evaluate the intensity of climacteric symptoms the Menopausal Index of Blatt and Kupperman was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17, a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence intervals for all analyzes were adopted. Results: 36.8% of women had mild climacteric symptoms, 56.3% moderate and 6.9% severe. In descending order hot flushes, irritability and sleep disorders reached the highest intensity ratios. Conclusion: the Menopausal index of Blatt and Kupperman (25.34 showed symptoms of moderate intensity. Hot flushes showed to be the symptom of highest intensity of discomfort.

  3. Dysfunctional uterine bleedings of a climacteric period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climacteric period of some women is complicated by dysfunctional uterine bleedings (DUB). Bearing in mind the fact that DUBS are caused by disorder of estrin rhysmic secretion, the paper presents the methods of differential diagnostics for investigations into functional disorders in the hypothalamus -hypophysis - ovaries - uterus system. The preference is given to roentgenologic and radioimmunologic diagnostic methods

  4. Hormones for therapy of climacteric afflictions

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    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western countries hormone replacement therapy (HT is widely used in the treatment of climacteric women who are affected with hot flashes and night sweats. Besides, long-term HT was frequently used to manage the higher risks for osteoporosis and heart attack in postmenopause. Estrogens alone or combined with progestin feature most frequently in HT. Objectives: This HTA report addresses the questions on medical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HT as a treatment of hot flashes and night sweats as well as in the primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopause in general healthy women. Methods: The literature search for articles published after 1998 was conducted in March 2004 in standard medical and economic databases. The analysis included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and economic evaluations considering relevant clinical endpoints in English or German language. The quality of the studies was assessed using checklists corresponding to the study type. Results: HT is highly effective in treating hot flashes in climacteric women. The question of economical efficiency cannot be answered due to the scarce database. As the positive effects (lower risk for fractures and endometrial cancer do not outweigh the negative effects (higher risk for breast cancer and general cardiovascular risk estrogen-progestin combination HT cannot be recommended for primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Discussion: The observation period of most of the studies regarding therapy of hot flashes and night sweats were too short to evaluate possible risks of long-term HT. The economic publications assessing HT for this indication varied vastly in terms of applied methods and were not carried out with respect to the German health care system. Conclusions: HT can be recommended in the short-term treatment of hot flashes and night sweats in climacteric

  5. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

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    Piérard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  6. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

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    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  7. Effect of leptin level upon lipid metabolism in climacteric women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the relationship between leptin and obesity of climacteric women with their lipid metabolism, 110 cases of climacteric women were chosen as observation group, consisting of 69 cases obese subgroup and 45 cases non-obese group, and 60 cases of normal reproduction- age women were arranged as control group. Blood levels of leptin, INS, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, apoA1, apoB, LH, FSH, E-2, T, and P were detected and BMI was calculated. The results showed that blood levels of leptin and INS of obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of non-obese sub-group and control group(P<0.01), and that LDL-C(5.01 mmol/L), TG(2.21mmal/L) and apoB(0.89g/L) levels in obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of control group. Furthermore, an important observation was that in climacteric women group, blood leptin level was positively and significantly correlated with insulin, BMI and several atherogenic blood lipid parameters, including LDL-C, TG and apoB. Thus, a preliminary conclusion might be reached as that the high climacteric level of leptin is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism related to atherogenity, and so leptin and lipid metabolism as a whole should be paid more attention in climateric women, especially those with obesity. (authors)

  8. Hormonal therapy in climacteric women: compliance and its socioeconomic impact.

    OpenAIRE

    Notelovitz, M

    1989-01-01

    Hormonal therapy can effectively enhance the quality of life for postmenopausal women, and prevent climacteric-related conditions such as osteoporosis. Since long-term therapy is often required, compliance becomes an important issue. This can best be achieved by measurement, documenting the reason for hormone therapy, and by repeated measurement, demonstrating a response to the treatment. Case histories documenting this principle are described.

  9. Observation of Climacteric-Like Behavior of Citrus Leaves Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

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    Caio B. Wetterich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves depends on the detection of ethylene. However, such detection requires a gas chromatographer and complex sample preparation procedures. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic technique for climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves. Our results indicate that the chlorophyll fluorescence presents a time evolution consistent with the ethylene evolution. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to observe the climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves.

  10. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  11. Relation between plasma oestrone and oestradiol and climacteric symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma levels of oestrone and oestradiol-17β were determined at 20 or 30 minute intervals for up to 24 hours in 26 postmenopausal or ovariectomised women of similar age, weight, and number of years since menopause or operation. Results in women with both superficial dyspareunia and flushes were compared with those in women with flushes only, and with those in symptomless women. Women with superficial dyspareunia had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma-oestradiol, but not of oestrone, than symptomless women. Flushes were not related to plasma-oestrogen. The implications of these findings in relation to the optimum dose of oestrogen for treating climacteric symptoms are discussed. (author)

  12. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

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    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  13. VAGINAL MICROECOLOGY IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CLIMACTERIC PERIOD

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    Berihanova R. R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the peculiarities of vaginal microbiocenosis in female patients with metabolic syndrome during peri- and postmenopause. 320 women in the climacteric period aged of 45-70 were examined. Two groups were formed: the main group (160 female patients with metabolic syndrome, the control group (160 women without metabolic syndrome. The average age of women 54.5 ± 7.2 years. Depending on the length of menopause each of the two groups was divided into three subgroups.Microscopy of vaginal smears, the colpocytological analysis, the culture test of vaginal discharge were conducted. The statistical processing of the results was carried out with the help of programme sets Microsoft Office 2010 (MicrosoftExcel and «STATISTICA® for Windows 6.0». A tendency of decreasing frequency of non-specific vaginitis with aging and of increasing frequency of vaginal atrophy, disorders of vaginal biocenosis (lactobacillus deficiency and the domination of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms was discovered. The frequency of vaginal atrophy in women with a length of postmenopause of 10 years and older was 65.9% in the subgroup of in female patients with metabolic syndrome and 63.6% in the subgroup of female patients patients without it. The more observable changes in vaginal biotope were found in women with metabolic syndrome

  14. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programs of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and...

  15. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

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    Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet. Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach

  16. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Ethylene Climacteric of Melon Fruit by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIU Yi-ding; HAO Jin-feng; BADE Rengui; ZHANG Li-quan; HASI Agula

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Ethylene regulates the ripening process and affects the ripening rate. To screen genes that are differentially expressed at the burst of ethylene climacteric in melon fruit, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate forward and reverse libraries, for which we sequenced 439 and 445 clones, respectively. Our BLAST analysis showed that the genes from the 2 libraries were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell structure, transcription, translation, and defense. Six genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during the differential developmental stage of melon fruit. Our results provide new insight into the understanding of climacteric ripening of melon fruit.

  17. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Myung-Haeng Hur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total. The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05. There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05. These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  18. Comparative evaluation of course and treatment of climacteric period in women living in radionuclide-contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of heavy forms of climacteric syndrome in territories with density of radioactive contamination up to 15 Ci/km2 is higher than in those living in territories with the level of contamination from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. At treatment of climacteric syndrome during menopause in women living in radionuclide-contaminated territory, preparations containing natural estrogen and gestagens are of higher priority. (Authors)

  19. Fatores indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica Predicting factors of climacteric symptoms

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    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar fatores indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: estudo transversal de 254 mulheres pós-menopáusicas com idade entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em Ambulatório de Climatério entre junho e outubro de 2002. Foram excluídas mulheres histerectomizadas ou sob terapia hormonal. As atitudes sobre a menopausa foram avaliadas por meio de instrumento construído a partir da adaptação de um questionário, constituindo-se de 11 questões referentes a atitudes positivas (vantagens e 11 referentes a atitudes negativas (desvantagens sobre a menopausa. Para a coleta de dados sociodemográficos e relacionados a variáveis reprodutivas e às condições de saúde da população estudada, utilizou-se questionário estruturado e previamente testado. A sintomatologia climatérica foi avaliada pelo índice de Kupperman e as atitudes sobre a menopausa por meio de instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student, análise de variância (ANOVA e regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: de modo geral, a sintomatologia climatérica foi leve em 28%, moderada em 42,3% e intensa em 30,7% dos casos. Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram a irritabilidade (87,1%, as artralgias/mialgias (77,5% e a melancolia/tristeza (73,2%, ao passo que os mais intensos foram as ondas de calor, a irritabilidade e a insônia. Sintomas vasomotores foram referidos por 60,2% das entrevistadas. Mostraram-se indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica a cor, a atividade física regular e as atitudes com respeito a menopausa. A cor branca (p=0,02, a atividade física regular (p=0,04 e uma percepção positiva sobre a menopausa (p=0,01 associaram-se a sintomas climatéricos menos intensos. Em contrapartida, a percepção da menopausa como evento desvantajoso (atitude negativa associou-se a pior sintomatologia climatérica (pPURPOSE: to identify factors associated with climacteric symptoms. METHODS: a cross-sectional study of 254

  20. The Pathogenesis of Climacteric Syndrome and Principle of Acupuncture Treatment Based on TCM Theory about Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xiaoming; Du Yuanhao; Shi Xuemin

    2005-01-01

    The brain is the sea of marrow, stores the cerebral spirit and dominates all the life activities of the human body, which are the basic TCM knowledge about the brain. Based on this knowledge, the pathogenesis of climacteric syndrome is considered as consumption and deficiency of kidney-essence, and incoordination between the brain and kidney. The principle of acupuncture treatment should be soothing the mind and tonifying the kidney.

  1. Age, pattern of menopause, climacteric symptoms and associated problems among urban population of Hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the physiology of menopause in the context of the age at menopause, its pattern, climacteric symptoms and associated problems of an urban cohort. In total, 800 women of age 45-59 years, who had reached a natural menopause were interviewed. The data were collected by simple random sampling method. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Physical examination including height, weight and blood pressure check was also carried out at the same time. Data were statistically analyzed through software program SPSS 10.0. The mean age at menopause of subjects was 47.16 years. Duration of climacteric ranged from 2 - 36 months in majority of cases. The marked climacteric symptoms were low backache (75%), headache (70.25%), tiredness (67.75%), limb pain (59.25%), sleep disturbance (53.75%), lack of concentration (49.5%), hot flushes (55.5%) and night sweats (45%). Other associated problems were hypertension (31.5%), ischaemic heart disease (22.25%), diabetes mellitus (15.75%), postmenopausal bleeding (10.5%) and vaginitis (4.2%), respectively. (author)

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence. PMID:27040419

  3. A systematic review of non-hormonal treatments of vasomotor symptoms in climacteric and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, Juergen; Bucher, Kathleen A; Zahner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal climacteric symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats affect 24-93% of all women during the physiological transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Though efficacious, hormonal therapy and partial oestrogenic compounds are linked to a significant increase in breast cancer. Non-hormonal treatments are thus greatly appreciated. This systematic review of published hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for climacteric, and breast and prostate cancer-associated hot flushes, examines clinical efficacy and therapy-related cancer risk modulation. A PubMed search included literature up to June 19, 2014 without limits for initial dates or language, with the search terms, (hot flush* OR hot flash*) AND (clinical trial* OR clinical stud*) AND (randomi* OR observational) NOT review). Retrieved references identified further papers. The focus was on hot flushes; other symptoms (night sweats, irritability, etc.) were not specifically screened. Included were some 610 clinical studies where a measured effect of the intervention, intensity and severity were documented, and where patients received treatment of pharmaceutical quality. Only 147 of these references described studies with alternative non-hormonal treatments in post-menopausal women and in breast and prostate cancer survivors; these results are presented in Additional file 1. The most effective hot flush treatment is oestrogenic hormones, or a combination of oestrogen and progestins, though benefits are partially outweighed by a significantly increased risk for breast cancer development. This review illustrates that certain non-hormonal treatments, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, gabapentin/pregabalin, and Cimicifuga racemosa extracts, show a positive risk-benefit ratio. Key pointsSeveral non-hormonal alternatives to hormonal therapy have been established and registered for the treatment of vasomotor climacteric symptoms in peri- and post-menopausal women.There are indications

  4. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial.

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    Nehleh Parandavar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman's life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms.The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012. The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg's general health questionnaire (GHQ, Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention.We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001. In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001. No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135.The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms.

  5. Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study

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    B Formby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available B Formby, F SchmidtThe Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USAObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern.Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily and progesterone (100 mg, daily were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax, in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm.Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be

  6. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; ZHANG, BO; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2009-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as ‘Luoyangqing’ (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as ‘Baisha’ (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3...

  7. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage

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    Alide Salazar-Molina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfaction with their sexual life. Moreover, a slight degree of agreement was found between the sexual life satisfaction reported by women and their partners' perceptions of the women's sexual life satisfaction. Additionally, a slight degree of agreement was reported between the sexual life satisfaction reported by men and their partners' perceptions of the men's sexual life satisfaction. This study provides new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.

  8. [Climacteric women: a proposal for nursing clinical care based on Freirean ideas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cláudia Rejane Pinheiro Maciel; Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to discuss the concepts of caring and education and propose a strategy for health education as a possibility for clinical nursing care for women in menopause based on the educational principles of Paulo Freire. Over the years, different paradigms of Health Education are conditioned by different strategies, many of them reductionists, which require questioning and implementation of more integral and participatory actions. From this thought, we seek an opportunity for education that includes the "Other" in their complexity, enabling the women in their climacteric phase can also be assisted in full. In this scenario, we visualize the principles of Paulo Freire as a framework to guide this development; it shows a dialectic education, solidarity, without arrogance, articulating the scientific knowledge and popular knowledge, translating his method in a collective work. PMID:23258690

  9. Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Poel, Bram; Vandenzavel, Nick; Smet, Cindy; Nicolay, Toon; Bulens, Inge; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Vandoninck, Sandy; Hertog, Maarten LATM; Derua, Rita; Spaepen, Stijn; Vanderleyden, Jos; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Nicolai, Bart M.; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solanum lycopersicum or tomato is extensively studied with respect to the ethylene metabolism during climacteric ripening, focusing almost exclusively on fruit pericarp. In this work the ethylene biosynthesis pathway was examined in all major tomato fruit tissues: pericarp, septa, columella, placenta, locular gel and seeds. The tissue specific ethylene production rate was measured throughout fruit development, climacteric ripening and postharvest storage. All ethylene intermediate...

  10. 腹针治疗更年期综合征40例%Abdominal acupuncture for 40 cases of climacteric syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾群; 朱文罡

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric syndrome,so-called symptoms before and after menopause in TCM,encompasses a series of symptoms due to disorder of endocrine and autonomic nerve caused by declination of ovary function during perimenopausal period.In western medicine,the major treatment is hormone replacement therapy.However,different opinions exist on estrogen application and its safety,which shows more contraindications and adverse reactions combined.From 2004,the author has applied abdominal acupuncture on 40 cases of climacteric syndrome.

  11. Identification of a Predictive Biomarker for the Beneficial Effect of Keishibukuryogan, a Kampo (Japanese Traditional Medicine, on Patients with Climacteric Syndrome

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    Takao Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor β gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients’ profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12 weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients’ climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype. No relationship between the patients’ profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it.

  12. The non-estrogenic alternative for the treatment of climacteric complaints: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga or Actaea racemosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Haunschild, Jutta; Stecher, Guenter; Schuh, Markus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    In postmenopausal women estrogens in combination with progestins have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints and on osteoporosis but this hormone replacement therapy (HRT) bears the risk of increased mammary carcinomas and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens at low doses have little or no effects on climacteric complaints, at high doses they mimic the effects of estrogens. Therefore other plant derived substances are currently intensively investigated. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) did not bind to estrogen receptors and were shown to be devoid of estrogenic effects on mammary cancer cells in vitro and on mammary gland and uterine histology in ovariectomized rats. In addition in this rat model the special extract CR BNO 1055 inhibited the occurrence of hot flushes and development of osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women CR BNO 1055 reduced major climacteric complaints as effectively as conjugated estrogens and significantly more than placebo. Similar data were published for other European CR preparations whereas 2 US American preparations were ineffective. This was most likely due to the too high doses or due to the adulteration with Asian Cimicifuga preparations. In all European studies neither effects in the uterus nor in mammary glands were observed. The effective compounds in CR are most likely neurotransmitter-mimetic in nature: dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic effects were demonstrated and some have been structurally identified. We conclude that CR extracts at low doses are effective to ameliorate climacteric complaints but are devoid of adverse estrogenic effects. These finding strengthens the role of CR extracts as substitutes for HRT. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Special Issue on Phytoestrogens. PMID:23459142

  13. The effectiveness of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors

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    Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was made to assign the effect of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors. Methods: The research was carried between January 2002-February 2003 in the district of Abdurrahman Gazi Primary Health department which lies in the borders of metropolitan municipality of Erzurum. 2761 climacteric women between the age of 40-60 formed the population of the research. In sample selection, because of knowing the frequency of event and the number of individuals in the population; the formula of, n=N . t2 . pq / y2 .(N-1 + t2 . pq was used and samples are assigned as 337. Afterresearch problem had been assigned on 337 women, the research was made control group with pretest-posttest of quasi experimental design on 100 women who were selected proper to the aim of the research, 50 of which was experiment, the rest was control group. But 87 women 44 of which was control, 434 of which was experiment group completed the research. Results: According to the research results, after planned health education given by the researcher, decrease in common menopausal symptoms and increase in point averages of menopausal attitude (t=4.697, p=.000 and health promotion life style behaviors (t=7.127, p=.000 were determined. Conclusion: After planned health education given to the women in climacteric period, positive health behaviors can be developed so as to make women live a more peaceful life. According to these result, it can be suggested to health professionals to mind education programs about climacteric period.

  14. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A-M; Neff, A

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  15. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  16. Effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康) on Senile Sexual Hormone and Expression of Estrogen Receptor in Bone of Climacteric Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康,GNK) with that of hormone replacement treatment (HRT) on climacteric female rats with osteoporosis, and to investigate the roles of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Methods: Climac-teric female rats with osteoporosis were chosen and divided into three groups (GNK group, HRT group and control group). Apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells was measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferae mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Serum level of estrdiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT) technology was used to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in bone. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by double energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Results: In the climacteric rats, BMD, serum E2, ER mRNA expression in bone decreased remarkably, and serum FSH, LH and apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells increased obviously. After treating with GNK, all the indexes were reversed except serum E2. The increase of E2 was not significant. Conclusion:GNK is effective on climacteric osteoporosis female rats. Its role is performed not by increasing serum E2 but by enhancing ER in the bone and inhibiting apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells. GNK can deter further exhaustion of ovarian function.

  17. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  18. Changes of Plasma Concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in climacteric women with hot flushes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ya-qiong; Wu Wei-guang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of serotonin metabolism and the hot flushes in climacteric women.Methods.Ninety eight climacteric women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: Group A: 20 cases of early menopausal transition.Group B: 26 cases of late menopausal transition, with skip of periods 3-12 months.Group C: 28 cases of early postmenopause (1-3 yrs).Group D: 24 cases of late postmenopause(>3-6 yrs).Twelve normal women of reproductive age (24±3yrs) were served as young controls.Fifty two postmenopausal women were subdivided into 3 groups according to the presence or the absence of hot flushes: (1) postmenopausal controls without hot flushz 17 cases, (2) mild hot flushes group: 20 eases,fewer≤5 times/d, (3) severe hot flushes group: 15 cases, more than 5 times/d.Plasma concentrations of tryptophan (TP), 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in all participants by high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence spectrophotometer (HPLC-FS).The relationship between serotonin metabolic parameters and menopause, hot flushes were analysed.Results: (1) Mean 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in climacteric women than those in young controls, especially in Group B.Mean 5-HTP and 5-HT levels were higher and 5-HIAA lower in Group D as compared with those of young controls.(2) Plasma 5-HT levels was positively correlated to luteinizing hormone concentration in postmenopansal women (P<0.01).(3) In the mild hot flushes group, only plasma 5-HTP levels were significantly higher than that in the non-hot flushes group.In severe hot flushes group,plasma 5-HT and 5-HTP contents were significantly higher and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio lower than those in the non-hotflushes groups.Conclusion: The results suggest that the catabolic disorder of serotonin maybe involve in the underling mechanism of

  19. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Women Climacteric Insomnia by Plum-Blossom Needle: A Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qing; LI Nai-rong

    2004-01-01

    To observe the treatment of 50 female patients with climacteric insomnia by plum-blossom needle therapy. According to differentiation of symptoms and signs the head, back, belly and other location were tapping. Besides 50 patients were treated with Western medicine as a control group. The result showed the immediate and long-term effect in plum-blossom needle group was better than that in control group (P<0.01).%梅花针叩刺头部,背部和腹部,并根据辨证配穴治疗更年期综合征以失眠为主症的患者50例,并与西药治疗50例相对照,梅花针组近期疗效和远期疗效均好于对照组(P<0.01).

  20. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD) in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT) in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patie...

  1. Role of sucrose phosphate synthase in sucrose biosynthesis in ripening bananas and its relationship to the respiratory climacteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, N L; Pharr, D M; Huber, S C

    1990-09-01

    During ripening of bananas (Musa spp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup]), there is a massive conversion of starch to sucrose. Also during ripening there is a rise in respiration known as the respiratory climacteric. In this study changes in carbohydrate content, activities of starch and sucrose metabolizing enzymes, and respiration were measured to assess their potential interrelationships. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased dramatically during the first 4 days after initiation of ripening by ethylene treatment. Starch concentration decreased and sucrose concentration increased during this time period. Developmental changes in sucrose phosphate synthase activity were measured with limiting substrate (plus Pi) and saturating substrate concentrations. Activities were not parallel under the two assay conditions, providing tentative evidence that kinetically different forms of the enzyme may exist at different stages of ripening. Sucrose accumulation rate was most highly correlated with sucrose phosphate synthase activity assayed with limiting substrate concentrations (plus Pi). The cumulative amount of CO(2) respired during ripening was positively correlated with sugar accumulation (R(2) = 0.97). From this linear regression it was calculated that a constant 0.605 millimoles of CO(2) was evolved per mole of sucrose formed throughout ripening. Using this quantity, the percentage of the total respiratory ATP produced which was required for the conversion of starch to sucrose was calculated assuming different models for carbon export from the amyloplast. The results suggest that sucrose biosynthesis during ripening constitutes a significant sink for respiratory ATP. PMID:16667688

  2. Prevalência e fatores associados a fogachos em mulheres climatéricas e pós-climatéricas Prevalence and factors associated with hot flashes in climacteric and post-climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iândora Krolow Timm Sclowitz

    2005-04-01

    by climacteric women.

  3. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  4. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX, mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1 has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1 shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms.

  5. CLIMATERIO Y POSTMENOPAUSIA: ASPECTOS EDUCATIVOS A CONSIDERAR SEGUN LA ETAPA DEL PERIODO CLIMACTERIC AND POSTMENOPAUSE: EDUCATIVE ASPECTS TO CONSIDER ACCORDING TO THE STAGE OF THE PERIOD

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    ALEJANDRA ARAYA GUTIERREZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo del climaterio es una etapa de transición en la vida de la mujer caracterizada por cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales. Es una etapa dinámica marcada por la repercusión de los cambios hormonales, principalmente por la paulatina disminución de los estrógenos. La presente revisión bibliográfica describe las características generales del periodo, cambios que ocurren y aspectos a educar en las mujeres durante el climaterio y la postmenopausia, con el propósito de dar una visión actualizada de esta etapa que permita planificar cuidados específicos. Las estrategias educativas planteadas se presentan organizadas en etapas, según la problemática de la mujer en este periodoClimacteric is a transitional period in women’s life. It is characterized by dynamic physical, psychological, and social changes caused by gradual plasmatic estrogens’ reduction. The purpose of this literature review is to describe with accurate available information the stages of the climacteric period, understand the relevance of nursing care through this process, and suggest some recommendations to develop educative strategies. Nursing care, considering educative strategies, can be an effective approach towards climacteric’s experience

  6. Personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome%男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭汉珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome and summarize the coping styles.Method 32 patients with male climacteric syndrome involved in the investigation of personality characteristics and coping styles by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).As a control,another 32 healthy subjects were enrolled for the controlled investigation.Results In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on extraversion(E)was significantly lower than that of the control group,the scores on neuroticism(N)and lie(L)were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.01).In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on active coping style was significantly lower than those of the control group and the scores on negative coping style score were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.01).Conclusions The patients with male climacteric syndrome is characterized with incomplete catharsis and emotional lability.They tend to suppress their negative emotions and take passive coping styles.%  目的探讨男性更年期综合征患者个性特征及应对方式。方法采用艾森克人格问卷(eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)和简易应对方式量表对32例男性更年期综合征患者进行性格特征和应对方式调查,并选择32例健康人进行对比。了解男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式状况。结果更年期综合征组中内外向(E)维度得分明显低于对照组,情绪稳定性(N)维度及掩饰性(L)维度得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01);更年期综合征组患者积极应对方式得分明显低于对照组,消极应对方式得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01)。结论男性更年期综合征患者具有不完善的宣泄和情绪不稳定性,过分压抑自己的负性情绪特点,而且倾向于采取消极的应对方式。

  7. Mulher no climatério: reflexões sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade Women in the climacteric: reflections on sexual desire, beauty and femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Nogueira Valença

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O climatério é um período abrangente da vida feminina, caracterizado por alterações metabólicas e hormonais que trazem mudanças envolvendo o contexto psicossocial. Tendo como referência as alterações de sexualidade vivenciadas no climatério, este trabalho tem por objetivo refletir sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade da mulher nessa fase. A metodologia adotada consistiu em estudo bibliográfico, em livros e artigos publicados, entre 1999 e 2009. A exigência exacerbada pela beleza eterna e jovialidade é agravada no climatério, no qual o corpo feminino não tem o mesmo vigor físico pelas alterações decorrentes do envelhecimento. A mulher climatérica vive o mito da perda do desejo sexual, todavia, continua a sentir prazer, não devendo deixar de manifestar amor e sexualidade. A visão social estereotipada sobre o papel da mulher (esposa e mãe pode interferir negativamente na visão das mulheres sobre si mesmas e no seu relacionamento com as pessoas e o mundo. Nesse sentido, é importante que as mulheres tenham acesso à informação em saúde para a compreensão das mudanças do período de climatério/menopausa, contemplando e ressignificando tal fase como integrante de seus ciclos de vida e não como sinônimo de velhice, improdutividade e fim da sexualidade.The climacteric is a long period of a woman's life, characterized by metabolic and hormonal alterations that bring changes involving the psychosocial context. Having as reference the sexuality alterations experienced in the climacteric, this literature review aims to reflect on women's sexual desire, beauty and femininity in this phase. The methodology involved a bibliographic study of papers and books published between 1999 and 2009. The exaggerated need of eternal beauty and youth is aggravated in the climacteric, when the female body does not have the same physical vigor due to alterations deriving from aging. The climacteric woman lives the myth of loss of sexual

  8. Estado nutricional e qualidade de vida da mulher climatérica Nutritional status and quality of life of climacteric women

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    Carin Weirich Gallon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Associar a qualidade de vida com o estado nutricional da mulher climatérica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal, no qual foi incluída uma amostra com 200 mulheres climatéricas, de 40 a 65 anos, que responderam a um Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas e questões sobre fatores socioeconômicos, história clínica atual, pregressa e familiar. Para a avaliação antropométrica, foram utilizados índice de massa corpórea (IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e relação cintura/quadril. Para avaliação da qualidade de vida, foi aplicado o MRS-menopause rating scale. RESULTADOS: A média do IMC e da CC foi de 30,1 kg/m² (obesidade grau 1 e 99 cm (risco muito aumentado para doença cardiovascular, respectivamente. Constatou-se consumo aumentado de proteínas e diminuído de fibras, cálcio e vitamina D. A comorbidade mais prevalente foi a hipertensão arterial, 48,5% faziam uso de medicação para doenças cardiovasculares e 23%, de medicações antidepressivas. Quanto à qualidade de vida, foram encontrados resultados significativos relacionados ao IMC, como também à pressão arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Uma intervenção nutricional visando corrigir ou melhorar o consumo alimentar e o perfil antropométrico poderá resultar em benefícios relativos à saúde da mulher climatérica. A prevalência de obesidade, associada com pior qualidade de vida e morbimortalidade, reforça a necessidade de existir um programa de reeducação alimentar no climatério.PURPOSE: To associate the quality of life with the nutritional status of climacteric women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on a sample of 200 climacteric women aged 40 to 65 years who responded to a 24-hour food recall and to questions about socioeconomic factors and current, previous and family medical history. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio were used for anthropometric evaluation. To assess the quality of life, we applied the MRS

  9. Las ciencias sociales como discurso de la salud reproductiva. El ejemplo del climaterio femenino The social sciences as discourse in reproductive health. The example of female climacteric

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    Fernando Lolas Stepke

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como ejemplo la construcción del climaterio femenino por parte de la medicina, de la opinión profana y de las ciencias sociales, se examinan los modelos de interrelación entre estos discursos y se propone la tesis de que la aportación de las ciencias sociales consiste en una reformulación de la base cognitiva de las profesiones de la salud en un nivel de integración.Climacteric is constructed by medicine, lay knowledge, and the social sciences. This article examines the interrational models involving these different discourses and proposes that the contribution of the social sciences lies in a reformulation of the cognitive base of the health professions at an integrative level.

  10. Study on nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status%更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预效果.方法 将80例更年期抑郁妇女随机分对照组和观察组,每组40例.观察组实施综合护理干预,对照组不予护理干预.采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自评症状量表(SSCL-90)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)对其效果进行评价.结果 干预前两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90得分差异无显著性;干预后两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90的得分与干预前及组间比较,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 实施护理干预明显改善患者的抑郁状态,有效地提高患者的生活质量,减轻了社会和家庭的负担,体现了人本关怀的理念.%Objective To research the effect of nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status. Methods 80 depressed climacteric women were randomly divided into control and observation groups. The observation group was given integration nursing intervention. The Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Social Support Bating Scale (SSBS) were used to evaluate the treatment effective-hess. Results Before nursing intervention, the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL-90 between two groups werenot dif-ferent;and the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL - 90 were significant difference after the nursing intervention (P <0.01 ). Conclusions The treatment with nursing intervention can improve the depressive state of patients, uplift patients'life quality, lighten the burden of society and patients'familles, and embody the idea of people oriented.

  11. Síndrome do climatério: inquérito populacional domiciliar em Campinas, SP Climacteric syndrome: a population-based study in Brazil

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    Adriana Orcesi Pedro

    2003-12-01

    prevalence of climacteric, urogenital and sexual symptoms in a population of Brazilian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive population-based study was conducted. The selection of 456 women aged 45-60 years, living in Campinas, SP, in 1997, was done through area cluster sampling, according to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data were collected via home interviews, using structured pretested questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test; a probability of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The degree of climacteric symptoms was analyzed through circulatory and psychological indices. Analysis of the main components was used to determine symptom interrelationships. RESULTS: The most prevalent symptoms were nervousness (82%, hot flushes (70%, headache (68%, irritability (67% and sweating (59%. Hot flushes, sweating and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in the peri and postmenopausal phases. The frequency (severity of vasomotor and psychological symptoms did not vary according to the menopause phase. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27.4%. Complaints of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were infrequent. Decreased libido was the most frequent sexual complaint. It was observed that some climacteric complaints were interrelated. The first cluster included hot flushes and sweating (vasomotor cluster. The second cluster included nervousness, depression and irritability (psychological cluster. The third cluster included dizziness and palpitation (atypical cluster. CONCLUSION: Climacteric symptoms in this population were highly prevalent and similar to those described in developed Western countries.

  12. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

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    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Saller, Reinhard; Hess, Lorenzo; Melzer, Jörg; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Juergen; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa) have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo). Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic), assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients' self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL), responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65-19.35) score points, P < 0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55-11.39) score points, P = 0.0003 for 6.5 mg). QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women. PMID:23346194

  13. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Ruediger Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo. Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic, assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients’ self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL, responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35 score points, P<0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39 score points, P=0.0003 for 6.5 mg. QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women.

  14. ¿Which is the quality of life in climacteric that have colombian diabetic women when they are assessed with “Menopause Rating Scale”?

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    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most prevalent chronic disease inpostmenopausal. The gradual estrogenic deficiency followed in climacteric, causessymptoms and deterioration of some organs and systems, with negative changes in thequality of life (QOL.Objective: Evaluate the presence and severity of symptoms related with themenopause, just as the QOL that have climacteric women diagnosed with DM type II.Methods: A cross sectional study was done among Colombian women with DM typeII, resident in Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in urban and rural areas, between 40 and 59years, and that are part of the database of the Life Quality in Menopause in ColombianEthnic Groups project (CAVIMEC. They were assessed with “Menopause Rating Scale”(MRS, specific scale of CV to menopausal women, to establish the prevalence andseverity of the menopausal manifestations, the deterioration of the subscales and thetotal score of the scale. The formulary of sociodemographics information and the MRSscale were applied door to door in the women residences. Data is expressed in mean ±DS and percentages.Results: 192 climacteric women suffering from DM type II were assessed with MRS.Average age was 52.3 ± 5.8. Schooling higher than six years: 67.8%. In overweight andobesity: 66.2%. Never smoker: 63.2%. Fifty or more years old: 68.9%. Concomitantlyarterial hypertension: 40.9%. With sexual partner: 58.5%. In postmenopausal: 63.7%,between these the median age of last menstruation was 48.4±4.3 years. The mostprevalent symptoms were hot flashes (70.3%, joint and muscular discomfort (69.2%,physical and mental exhaustation (68.7% and sleep disturbances (68.2%, similar tothose obtained in other Colombian population. The most prevalent severe problem weresexual problems (30.6%. 25% of the women had severe deterioration of the urogenitalsubscale and 16% had severe deterioration in the QOL.Conclusion: Colombian climacteric women with DM have total MRS score similar to

  15. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

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    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  16. Clinical observation of Tiancan Zhuangyang Powder in treating the male climacteric syndrome%天蚕壮阳散治疗男性更年期综合征临床观察

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    李轩; 何清湖; 刘朝圣; 卢杰宁; 萧汉达; 陈粉莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Tiancan Zhuangyang Powder(TCZYP)on the male climacteric syndrome (kidney yang deficiency type).Methods 106 patients with the kidney yang deficiency type of male climacteric syndrome were randomly divided into 2 groups.Treatment group of 53 cases were given TCZYP and control group of 53 cases was given testosterone undecanoate (TU)(Andriol).Before and after treatment of 8 weeks,the 2 groups' PADAM score and serum testosterone (T) were tested and analysised.Results Changes of each symptom PADAM score of treatment group were better than those of control group (P<0.05).After threatment the serum testosterone of 2 groups were significantly elevated,but there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P>0.05).Conclusion TCZYP is effective in the treating kidney yang deficiency type of male climacteric syndrome.%目的 观察天蚕壮阳散治疗肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征(PADAM)的临床疗效.方法 符合肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征病人106例随机分为2组,治疗组53例,以天蚕壮阳散口服;对照组53例,口服十一酸睾酮胶囊(安特尔).治疗8周后对两组治疗前后PADAM评分及血睾酮(T)变化情况进行统计分析.结果 治疗组PADAM各症状评分变化优于对照组(p<0.05);治疗后2组T值均明显升高(P<0.01),但两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 天蚕壮阳散能有效治疗肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征.

  17. O processo de viver e ser saudável das mulheres no climatério El proceso de vivir y ser saludable de las mujeres y el climaterio The living process and being healthy for women and climacteric

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    Maria de Fátima Mota Zampieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender como se dá o processo de viver de mulheres no climatério. Foi desenvolvido com base na abordagem qualitativa, utilizando multimétodos participativos, com nove mulheres do Núcleo da Terceira Idade (NETI da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas e reuniões de grupos e analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo. Da análise dos dados, emergiram as unidades de significado, que deram origem às seguintes categorias: afirmando-se como mulher; experienciando o climatério e o envelhecimento; interagindo no cotidiano e mantendo as singularidades; abrindo caminhos para a vivência da cidadania. Com base no resultado do estudo, o viver das mulheres no período do climatério mostrou-se como um processo complexo, dinâmico, paradoxal, em que o envelhecimento e a possibilidade de adoecer se colocam como desafios maiores e os avanços nas perspectivas pessoais, culturais e sociais, como conquistas especiais.The aim of this study was to comprehend the living process of women in the period of climacteric. It was developed based on qualitative approach, using multi-participatory methods, with nine women of the Third Age Center (NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil (UFSC. Data was collected through interviews and meetings of groups and analyzed by analysis of the content. From the data analysis, emerged the units of meaning, which led the following categories: affirming one's self as a woman; experiencing the climacteric and ageing; interacting in the day-to-day and maintaining singularities; and opening paths to the experience of citizenship. Based on the result of the study, the living of women in the climacteric period is a complex, dynamic and paradoxical process, in which the aging and the possibility of becoming ill arise as greater challenges, and advances in the personal, cultural and social perspectives as special achievements.

  18. β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值%Clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climacteric women

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    贺桦; 李针; 渠红霞; 孟凡琳; 王兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值。方法选取无器质性疾病但有心电图改变的更年期妇女62例,经患者知情同意按照数字表法随机分为治疗组31例,予以β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周;另31例为对照组,不给予任何治疗。观察治疗前后2组间及治疗组心电图指标(心率、心律、ST-T)的改变。结果(1)经β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周后,2组平均心率、心律、ST-T改变(除ST上斜外)比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(2)治疗组治疗前后比较,成对房早、ST上斜和T波倒置虽有改变,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);其余指标均有明显改变,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论β-受体阻滞剂应用于心电图改变的更年期妇女有一定的临床价值。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climac-teric women.Methods Sixty-two subjects of climacteric women without organic diseases but with ECG changes were chosen and ran-domly divided into 2 groups:the control group(n=32)and the treatment group(n=30).The subjects of the control group were not giv-en any treatment, while the subjects of the treatment group were given treatment of beta-receptor blocker intervention for 3 weeks.ECG changes ( heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes) were detected both before and after treatment, and then, comparisons were made be-tween the groups and within the groups.Results ( 1 ) After 3 weeks of beta-receptor blocker intervention, significant ECG changes could be noted in heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes ( except ST cable) in the subjects of the treatment group, with statistical signifi-cance, when comparisons were made between the 2 groups (P0.05).There were significant changes in the remaining parameters, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Beta-receptor blocker had its clinical

  19. Validación de un cuestionario para la medición de las creencias sobre el climaterio Validity test of a questionnaire used to measure climacteric beliefs

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    Rubén Chávez-Ayala

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Diseñar un instrumento para medir las creencias sobre las consecuencias sociales, psicológicas y fisiológicas de la etapa del climaterio. Material y métodos. El estudio se realizó de junio a octubre de 2000 en 340 mujeres derechohabientes de la unidad de medicina familiar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (media de edad=49.46, (DE 7.92. Se seleccionó un total de mujeres entre los 40 y 60 años de edad, en virtud del criterio de la Organización Mundial de la Salud: el promedio de edad de la menopausia es de 50 años. El promedio de embarazos en la muestra fue de 3.75 (DE 2.57, y el de hijos nacidos de 3.21 (DE 2.19. El 48.3% de las mujeres eran premenopáusicas, 10.9% perimenopáusicas y 40.6% posmenopáusicas. El instrumento contó con 25 reactivos, y la escala utilizada para evaluar las respuestas fue de tipo Likert con cinco opciones. El tipo de diseño fue observacional exploratorio, de corte transversal multivariado. Se hicieron comparaciones de medias por factor entre los grupos de mujeres premenopáusicas, perimenopáusicas y posmenopáusicas. Resultados. Se realizó un análisis factorial con rotación Varimax, confirmándose cuatro factores: desventajas, (alfa=0.769; ventajas, (alfa=0.839; fisiológico, (alfa=0.659, y psicológico, (alfa=0.711. Conclusiones. El presente instrumento tiene una buena consistencia interna, y mide cuatro grupos de creencias sobre el climaterio: a creencias de desventajas, b creencias de ventajas, c creencias sobre padecimientos fisiológicos, y d creencias de síntomas psicológicos. Las tres dimensiones confirmadas del climaterio han sido propuestas en otros estudios.Objective. To design an instrument for measuring beliefs about the social, psychological, and physiological consequences of women's climacteric stage. Material and Methods. The study included 340 women affiliated to Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del

  20. Prevalência de sintomas do climatério em mulheres dos meios rural e urbano no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Prevalence of climacteric symptoms in women living in rural and urban areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Inavan Lopes da Silveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sintomatologia climatérica e fatores relacionados entre mulheres dos meios urbano e rural do Rio Grande do Norte. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, descritivo, envolvendo casuística de 261 mulheres climatéricas residentes em Natal e Mossoró (grupo urbano; n=130 e Uruaçu, em São Gonçalo do Amarante (grupo rural; n=131. A sintomatologia climatérica foi avaliada pelo Índice Menopausal de Blatt-Kupperman (IMBK e Escala Climatérica de Greene (ECG. A análise estatística constou de comparações das medianas dos escores entre os grupos e regressão logística. Definiram-se como "muito sintomáticas" as pacientes com escores >20, para ambos instrumentos (variável dependente. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, procedência, alfabetização, obesidade e prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS: o grupo urbano apresentou escores significativamente superiores ao grupo rural, tanto para o IMBK (medianas de 26,0 e 17,0, respectivamente; pPURPOSE: to evaluate climacteric symptoms and related factors in women living in rural and urban areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional study involving 261 women in the climacteric was performed. A total of 130 women from Natal and Mossoró (urban group and 131 from Uruaçu, in São Gonçalo do Amarante (rural group, were studied. Climacteric symptoms were assessed by the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI and Greene Climacteric Scale (GCE. Statistical analysis involved comparison of median between groups and logistic regression analysis. Patients were defined as "very symptomatic" when the climacteric score was >20 for both questionnaires (dependent variable. Independent variables were: age, living area, schooling, obesity and physical activity. RESULTS: the urban group had significantly higher scores than those of the rural group, both for BKMI (median of 26.0 and 17.0, respectively; p<0.0001 and for GCE (median of 27.0 and 16.0, respectively; p<0.0001. For

  1. Ensaio clínico placebo-controlado com isoflavonas da soja para sintomas depressivos em mulheres no climatério Placebo-controlled clinical trial with soy isoflavones for depressive symptoms in climacteric women

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    Rilva Lopes de Sousa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do uso de isoflavonas da soja no tratamento de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com síndrome climatérica. MÉTODOS: estudo experimental placebo-controlado, randomizado e duplo-cego, com 84 pacientes climatéricas atendidas ambulatorialmente no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley, em João Pessoa (PB. Na avaliação de sintomas depressivos empregou-se o Questionário de Auto-avaliação da Escala de Hamilton para Depressão (QAEH-D nas visitas pré-tratamento (VT1 e na 8ª (VT2 e na 16ª (VT3 semana pós-tratamento. O grupo experimental (GExp recebeu extrato de isoflavonas da soja, 120 mg por dia, e o controle (GCont, placebo. A comparação dos escores do QAEH-D entre os grupos em VT1, VT2 e VT3 constituiu a medida primária de eficácia (teste t, p0,05. De VT1 para VT3, evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa de 8,9% na redução dos escores entre os grupos (p=0,03. Não houve correlação da redução dos sintomas depressivos com resposta dos sintomas vasomotores (p>0,05. Houve redução das concentrações de FSH apenas no GExp (p=0,02, sem alterações do estradiol. Não ocorreram eventos adversos clinicamente relevantes. CONCLUSÕES: o efeito do extrato de isoflavonas foi superior ao do placebo, porém de pequena magnitude e apenas após 8 semanas de tratamento. Este pequeno efeito atribuído ao tratamento experimental, de boa tolerabilidade, poderá beneficiar pacientes que têm efeitos colaterais aos estrógenos ou que preferem não usar estes hormônios.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of the use of isoflavones in the treatment of depressive symptoms in climacteric women. METHODS: placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind experimental study with 84 climacteric women who were assisted at the Lauro Wanderley University Hospital Ambulatory, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. In the evaluation of the depressive symptoms the Self-evaluation questionnare of Hamilton's rating scale for

  2. Autopercepción del estado de salud en climatéricas derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Self-rated health among climacteric women affiliated to Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

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    Svetlana Vladislavovna-Doubova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la autopercepción del estado de salud positivo (APES + o negativo (APES - de mujeres climatéricas e identificar los factores relacionados con la APES-. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de 9 248 mujeres de 40 a 59 años. Las variables dependientes fueron la APES y las independientes las características generales, antecedentes ginecoobstétricos, enfermedades crónicas, actividad física, participación en programas de detección y educación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: Una proporción de 42% de las mujeres refirió APES+ y 58% APES-. Los factores vinculados con APES- fueron primaria completa o menos (RM=1.78; IC95% 1.62-1.95, no tener trabajo remunerado (RM=1.20; IC95% 1.09-1.33, menopausia (RM=1.22; IC95% 1.11-1.33, diabetes (RM=1.88; IC95% 1.65-2.13, hipertensión (RM=2.01; IC95% 1.82-2.22, actividad física irregular (RM=1.30; IC95% 1.12-1.50, sedentarismo (RM=1.395; IC95% 1.23-1.57, falta de integridad de detección (RM=0.82; IC95% 0.75-0.89 y de información sobre el climaterio por parte de los servicios de salud (RM=1.17; IC95% 1.07-1.28. CONCLUSIÓN: Los factores relacionados con APES- son múltiples y algunos, como la información acerca del climaterio y la actividad física, deben fortalecerse.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-rated health (SRH in climacteric women and to identify the factors associated with negative SRH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from 9 248 women aged 40 to 59 years was analyzed. SRH was the dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, history of reproductive and chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in screening and health education programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of women reported positive SRH and 58% reported negative SRH. Factors associated with negative SRH were: low literacy

  3. Efeitos do Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e sexuais na pós-menopausa Effects of Trifolium pratense on the climacteric and sexual symptoms in postmenopause

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    Cecília Del Giorno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do tratamento com Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e na satisfação sexual de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado com placebo. Foram selecionadas 120 mulheres na faixa etária de 45 anos a 65 anos com sintomas climatéricos, amenorreia superior a um ano e sem tratamento nos últimos seis meses. Após a seleção, foram divididas em dois grupos: GT -receberam Trifolium pratense na dose de 40 mg, 1 capsula/dia; GP -receberam placebo (controle, contendo lactose, 1 cápsula/dia. A duração do tratamento foi de 12 meses. As pacientes foram avaliadas clinica e laboratorialmente antes do tratamento e com quatro, oito e 12 meses de tratamento. Foi empregado também o Índice Menopausal de Kupperman (IMK e o Inventário de Satisfação Sexual Golombok Rust. No final do estudo, cada grupo tinha 50 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais após quatro meses de tratamento pelo IMK, principalmente em relação aos fogachos, comparando os dados antes do tratamento nos dois grupos, porém, não houve diferença significante entre os grupos. Não houve melhora na sexualidade antes e após o tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento por 12 meses com Trifolium pratense, na dose de 40mg/dia, não promoveu melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais e na satisfação sexual.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of treatment with Trifolium pratense on climacteric symptoms and sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study was prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. We selected 120 women, aged between 45 and 65 years with climacteric symptoms, with absence of menstruation (amenorrhea for more then one year and without any treatment in the last six months. After selection, women were divided into two groups: GT received 40 mg of Trifolium pratense (one capsule per day; GP received placebo

  4. Reflections on sexuality during the climacteric Reflexiones sobre la sexualidad durante la vivencia del climaterio Reflexões sobre a sexualidade durante a vivência do climatério

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    Roselane Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and phenomenological study based on reports of women between 48 and 55 years old with spontaneous menopause for 12 months or more. Results evidenced five theme categories that were analyzed and interpreted based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's theoretical-philosophical reference framework. Among the categories that emerged from reports, the theme "reflecting on sexuality" was emphasized, and is presented with a view to understanding the existential aspects of the climacteric experience, focusing on the exercise of sexuality.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de abordaje fenomenológico, realizado a partir del relato de mujeres con edad entre 48 y 55 años que habían presentado menopausia espontánea hace 12 meses o más. Los resultados mostraron cinco categorías temáticas que fueron analizadas e interpretadas con base en el marco teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Entre las categorías que surgieron de los relatos sobresalió el tema" Reflexionando sobre la sexualidad" que será presentado con el objetivo de comprender los aspectos existenciales de la vivencia del climaterio con énfasis en la sexualidad.Estudo qualitativo de abordagem fenomenológica, realizado a partir do depoimento de mulheres entre 48 e 55 anos que haviam apresentado menopausa espontânea há 12 meses ou mais. Os resultados evidenciaram cinco categorias temáticas que foram analisadas e interpretadas à luz do referencial teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Dentre as categorias que emergiram dos depoimentos destacou-se o tema: "refletindo sobre a sexualidade", que será apresentado com o objetivo de compreender os aspectos existenciais da vivência do climatério com ênfase no exercício da sexualidade.

  5. Experimental Study on Influence Xuzao Gengping Prescription in Sex Hormones of Female Rats Climacteric Hypertension%虚燥更平方对雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)性激素影响的实验研究

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    周丽萍; 林雪

    2011-01-01

    Obctiveje: To study the clinical efficacy of Xuzao Gengping Prescription on the female climacteric hypertension rats and analyzes theirs sex hormones index before and after the treatment, observe the changes of index.To explore on influence Xuzao Gengping prescription in sex hormones.Methods:the female climacteric hypertension rat model, Randomly divided into blank group, Chinese traditional medicine group, the model group, observe three group, estrogen ( E2 ), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ),T ( testosterone ), corpus luteum ( LH ), progesterone ( PRO ), prolactin ( PRL )level, and statistical analysis is made.Results: Xuzao Gengping Prescription can make the female rat climacteric hypertension of Chinese traditional medicine group after the treatment, E2 raiseded levels, T, FSH reduced levels, a statistically significant ( P<0.05 ), PRO, PRL, LH was not statistically significant ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions:( 1 )Xuzao Gengping Prescription has certainly regulate function to improve the levels of sex hormones of female climacteric hypertension.( 2 ) Through the Chinese traditional medicine group and the model group related indexes and levels of sex hormones, female climacteric hypertension rats with the occurrence and development of hypertension relation, disorder sex hormone index may participate the patho-physiological course of menopausal hypertension in female.%目的:运用虚燥更平方作用于治疗雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期),观察大鼠性激素指标治疗前后的变化,探讨虚燥更平方对性激素的影响.方法:将雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)模型,随机分成空白组、模型组、中药组,观察3组雌激素(E2)、促卵泡刺激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)、促黄体生成素(LH)、孕酮(PRO)、催乳素(PRL)水平,并做统计分析比较.结果:虚燥更平方可使雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)中药组治疗后血清E2水平升高,T、FSH水平降低,三者有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:(1)虚燥更平方对改善

  6. Relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério Calcium/protein relation of women on the climacteric

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    Regina das Neves Girão Montilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foi avaliada a dieta de 154 mulheres entre 35 e 65 anos de idade, atendidas no Ambulatório de Saúde da Mulher Climatérica do Centro de Saúde-Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. Para obtenção do consumo alimentar de cálcio e de proteína, foi realizado inquérito alimentar pelo método ''recordatório de 24 horas''. A avaliação da relação cálcio/proteína foi feita segundo proposta de Massey e Heaney (1998, que é de 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTADOS: O consumo médio de cálcio foi de 624,9 mg; o de proteínas foi 86,7g e a relação cálcio/proteína foi de 7/1 (624,9mg/86,7g. CONCLUSÃO: A população estudada apresenta consumo inadequado dos nutrientes cálcio e proteína, podendo resultar em sérios riscos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the calcium/protein relation of the diet of climacteric women. METHODS: In a transversal study the diet was evaluated of 154 women 35-65 years old and matriculated in the Health Clinic of the Climateric Woman of Health Center of Public Health College of the São Paulo University. The food intake of calcium and protein was food investigated by ''24 hours recall'' method. The evaluation of calcium/protein relation was made according to Massey and Heaney (1998, that is 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTS: The mean of intake of calcium was 624.9 mg; the mean of intake of protein was 86.7 g and the calcium/protein relation was 7/1 (624.9 mg/86.7 g. CONCLUSION: The studied population presents inadequated consumation of the calcium and protein nutrients. It could result in serious risk for health.

  7. 围绝经期潮热妇女焦虑与抑郁状况的分析%Relation between Hot Flashes and Anxiety, Depression among Climacteric Women

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    张巧利; 李芬; 于英; 盛秋

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨围绝经期前后妇女潮热与焦虑、抑郁之间的关系.方法:将符合条件的1 206名40~60岁妇女分为潮热组、无潮热组,分别完成调查问卷.问卷具体内容包括一般情况、潮热状况、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS).结果:潮热组妇女SAS和SDS的平均值高于无潮热组妇女(SAS:39.8±7.3 vs 36.0±6.1;SDS:44.1±8.3 vs 40.9±8.9,P均<0.05),潮热组轻度焦虑和抑郁的发生率明显高于无潮热组(焦虑:8.3%vs 3.4%;抑郁:23.3%vs 14.2%,P均<0.05).潮热妇女焦虑、抑郁的发生风险分别是无潮热妇女的4.1倍(95%CI,1.20~13.74)、2.4倍(95%CI,1.15~4.92).重度潮热妇女较轻度潮热妇女SAS和SDS得分均高(SAS:46.4±7.9 vs 38.8±6.6; SDS:43.9±6.9 vs 52.7±12.5,P均<0.05).潮热妇女的月经状况与SAS和SDS得分无关.结论:围绝经期潮热妇女易发生焦虑、抑郁症状,且重度潮热妇女更易发生.对妇女进行潮热治疗时,还应对妇女进行心理疏导.%Objective: To explore the relation of hot flashes, anxiety and depression among climacteric women. Methods: A total of 1 206 eligible women aged 40-60 years were divided into hot flashes group and no hot flashes group. All women were asked to finish the questionnaire. The content of questionnaire included general situation, hot flashes, anxiety (SAS) and depression (SDS) self-rating scale. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS in hot flashes group were higher than those in no hot flashes group (SAS: 39.8 ± 7.3 vs 36.0 ±6.1; SDS:44.1 ± 8.3 vs 40.9 ± 8.9, all P<0.05). The incidences of mild anxiety and mild depression were obviously higher than those in no hot flashes group (anxiety: 8.3% vs 3.4%; depression: 23.3% vs 14.2%; all P< 0.001). The risk of anxiety, depression among hot flashes group were 4.1-fold (OR=4.07,95%CI: 1.20-13.74) and 2.4-fold (OR=2.3S, 95%CI: 1.15-4.92) compared with no hot flashes group, respectively. The mean scores of SAS and SDS in

  8. A Survey on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases and their Risk Factors in Chinese Climacteric Women%围绝经期妇女月经状况与心血管疾病的关系

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    崔文欣; 张小松; 陈丽君; 赵更力

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查城市社区围绝经期女性中心血管疾病的患病率及其危险因素,并探讨绝经与心血管疾病危险因素之间的关系。方法采用现况调查的方法入选社区年龄40岁~59岁围绝经期妇女,填写调查问卷,内容包括:人口学特征、月经情况、身高体重、心血管疾病患病情况。根据月经状况将入选人群分为月经规律组、月经不规律组和绝经后期组。结果入选女性中,高血压和冠心病患病率分别为23.5%和7.7%,超重、肥胖、高脂血症及糖尿病的患病率分别为25.3%、2.4%、10.4%和6.2%,三组中绝经后期组超重、肥胖、高脂血症及其糖尿病比例最高。绝经后期组、月经不规律组及月经规律组中高血压的患病率分别为13.6%、5.8%和4.1%,具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。月经不规律组中冠心病患病率高于月经规律组(P<0.01),月经不规律组中高脂血症患病率高于月经规律组(P<0.01)。结论高血压、高血脂、冠心病、肥胖和超重是城市社区围绝经期女性中最常见的心血管疾病。心血管疾病患病率及其危险因素从绝经过渡期即开始增加。%Objectives To investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)and their risk factors in urban climacteric women and explore the relationship between menopause and risk factors of CVDs.Methods In this cross sectional study,788 women were selected by multistage cluster sampling.All subjects lived in Beijing and were investigated with structured interview questionnaire.The response rate was 93.5%.The sample consisted of 242 premenopausal women,187 menopausal transition women (menses change),and 358 postmenopausal women.Results the prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease was 23.5%and 7.7%.The prevalence of overweight,obesity,hyperlipidemia,and diabetes was 25.3%,2.4%,10.4%,and 6.2%,respectively.Among three groups,the proportion of overweight

  9. A mulher coronariopata no climatério após a menopausa: implicações na qualidade de vida The post menopausal climacteric woman with coronary artery disease: implications to quality of life

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    M.E.C. DE S. FAVARATO

    2001-12-01

    coronary artery disease (CAD proved by angiography undergoing treatment at The Heart Institute (InCor - University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil (CAD group. This group was compared with 50 women (55.1±5.4 years old without clinical evidence of coronary artery disease (control group from a primary health care center, Centro de Saúde Escola Geraldo de Paula Souza, São Paulo - FSP- USP. The quality of life was assessed by a structured interview and by Medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36 validated to the Brazilian population. RESULTS: They were homogenous regarding age of the last menstruation period: 49±3.9 years old in CAD and 49.2±3 years old in controls. The groups were also similar in education level, marital status (64% of CAD and 45% of controls were married; and 18% of CAD and 24% of controls were widowhood. The active working satatus was more frequent in controls than in CAD (52% vs. 14%; p= 0.0001. Both groups showed similar perceptions in their sexual experience. The evaluation of quality of life by SF-36 showed better scores for the control group in: physical functioning (84 vs. 50.5, role physical (84 vs. 45,5 , general health (87.2 vs. 59.1, vitality (69.7 vs. 51,4, p<0.0001; and total score of mental components (70.4 vs. 58.6, p = 0.028. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease alters the quality of life of climacteric women by limiting the physical capacity to perform ordinary daily activities and by intensifying emotional conflicts usually present in this phase of life.

  10. Conhecimento, percepções e assistência à saúde da mulher no climatério Conocimiento, percepciones y asistencia a la salud de la mujer en lo climaterio Knowledge, perceptions and assistance to woman's health in the climacteric

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    Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira Berni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As vivências do climatério foram o objeto deste estudo, em pesquisa descritivo-qualitativa com mulheres das cidades de Canoas e Porto Alegre, RS. A coleta de informações utilizou entrevista semi-estruturada em 15 mulheres entre 41 e 59 anos de idade. A interpretação e análise basearam-se na análise de conteúdo. As mulheres expressam confusão sobre o significado do climatério, relacionando-o aos sintomas que associam ao envelhecimento. Reconhecem tratar-se de uma fase da vida com aspectos também positivos e a vivem sem maiores preocupações.As percepções das mulheres sobre o climatério são fragmentadas e a assistência médica o trata como doença passível de tratamento. Portanto, o profissional enfermeiro, pela presença interativa constante na vida dessas mulheres, pode ajudar a desmistificar e ressignificar esse processo na vida da mulher.Las vivencias del climaterio fueron el objeto de este estudio, en investigación descriptiva-cualitativa con mujeres de las ciudades de Canoas y Porto Alegre, RS. La recolección de informaciones utilizó entrevista semiestructurada con 15 mujeres entre 41 y 59 años de edad. La interpretación y el análisis se basaran en el análisis de contenido. Las mujeres expresan confusión acerca del significado de climaterio, relacionándolo con los síntomas que asociados al envejecimiento. Reconocen tratarse de una fase de la vida con aspectos también positivos y la viven sin mayores preocupaciones. Las percepciones de las mujeres acerca del climaterio son fragmentadas y la asistencia médica lo trata como enfermedad factible de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, el profesional enfermero, por su presencia interactiva constante en la vida de esas mujeres, puede ayudar a desmistificar y a re-significar ese proceso en la vida de la mujer.The experience of the climacteric period is the object of the present descriptive-qualitative study with women from the cities of Canoas and Porto Alegre, RS. The

  11. Depressão em mulheres climatéricas: análise de mulheres atendidas ambulatorialmente em um hospital universitário no Maranhão Depression in climacteric women: analysis of a sample receiving care at a university hospital in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Mari-Nilva Maia da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O climatério, período de transição entre a fase reprodutiva e não-reprodutiva, ocasiona mudanças biopsicossociais nas mulheres que o vivenciam. A associação entre a maior prevalência de depressão nesse período é, no entanto, ainda controversa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de depressão em mulheres climatéricas atendidas em um hospital universitário numa cidade da Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores associados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e analítico de 70 mulheres climatéricas. O diagnóstico de depressão foi dado segundo critérios diagnósticos da Classificação Internacional de Doenças em um período de seguimento mínimo de 3 meses. Foram investigadas as seguintes variáveis: escolaridade, situação conjugal, renda pessoal, gravidade da depressão segundo escala de Hamilton, presença e intensidade de sintomas climatéricos, menopausa (natural ou cirúrgica, dependência econômica do parceiro, antecedentes familiares de depressão, história prévia de depressão pós-parto, episódios depressivos e transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual, alterações da função sexual e visão positiva ou negativa da menopausa. Resultados: Um percentual de 34,3% das pacientes apresentou depressão, sendo 70,8% destas na categoria leve da escala de Hamilton. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre variáveis socioeconômicas, diminuição da libido e antecedentes familiares de depressão com a presença de depressão. Houve associação entre a presença de depressão e pacientes com sintomas vasomotores (p = 0,03, insônia (p Introduction: The climacteric is a transition period between reproductive and non-reproductive ages that leads to biopsychossocial changes in women who experience it. However, association between a larger prevalence of depression in this period is still controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of

  12. 不同生理阶段更年期综合征证候规律及治疗的临床研究%Clinical study on distribution rule of TCM syndromes and treatment of climacteric syndrome among patients in different menopausal status

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    靳岭; 王兴娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨不同生理阶段女性更年期综合征(CS)患者中医证型分布规律及CS与性激素、糖脂代谢之间的关系,为本病的临床治疗提供依据.方法:随机选择绝经前期、围绝经期、绝经后期更年期综合征患者各50例,辨证后给予相应中药服用6周,治疗前后分别进行问卷调查及血清检测.结果:不同生理阶段女性CS患者中医证型的构成比存在差异;中药治疗后患者的更年期症状均明显改善,Kupperman评分降低(P<0.01),雌二醇(E2)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、睾酮(T)水平无明显变化;脾虚组患者的空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、瘦素(leptin)较治疗前均降低;肝虚组患者的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)较前升高;肾虚组患者的FBG、总胆固醇(TC)较前降低(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:不同生理阶段的女性CS患者中医证型分布存在一定规律;本病的发病可能与心血管疾病风险因素有关,其治疗应该重视糖脂代谢功能的调节.%Objective: To explore the distribution rule of TCM (TCM) syndromes of patients with climacteric syndrome (CS) in different menopausal status and the association between CS and sex hormone as well as glucolipid metabolism, and to supply credible evidence for the clinical therapy of CS.Methods: Randomly selected patients with CS 50 cases in premenopausal,perimenopausal, postmenopansal status separately.After differentiation, the patients were treated with the appropriate Chinese medicine for 6 weeks.Questionnaire survey and serum testing were conducted before and after treatment.Results: The constituent ratio of TCM syndromes was different among CS patients in different menopausal status.The climacteric syndrome was significantly improved in patients of all 3 groups after treatment, kupperman score was markedly reduced(P<0.01), but the level of endocrine hormone (F2, FSH, LH, T) didn't show any change.In the spleen deficiency

  13. O olhar dos responsáveis pela política de saúde da mulher climatérica La mirada de los responsables por la política de la salud de la mujer climatérica The look of the responsible ones for the politics of health of woman climacterics

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    Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, exploratório e descritivo que tem como objetivo identificar a busca das usuárias climatéricas do Sistema Único de Saúde por serviços e ações de saúde nos municípios da 3ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul, na perspectiva dos responsáveis pela política da saúde da mulher. A procura das climatéricas caracterizou-se por ser em função dos sintomas e queixas típicos desta fase, e dúvidas quanto a uma possível gestação. Há de se procurar pôr em prática o direito constitucional da integralidade, preservando os direitos já conquistados pelas mulheres e ampliar os serviços assistenciais, para que possam corresponder, tanto quantitativa como qualitativamente, às demandas, às necessidades de promoção, prevenção e recuperação da saúde das usuárias do sistema de saúde brasileiro.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo como objetivo identificar la búsqueda de las climatéricas usuarias del sistema único de salud por servicios y acciones de salud en los municipios de la 3ª Coordinaciones Regional de Salud do Rio Grande do Sul, en la perspectiva de los responsables por la política de la salud de la mujer. La busca de las climatéricas se caracterizó por ser en función de los síntomas y quejas típicos de esta fase y, dudas cuanto a una posible gestación. Hay de buscarse por en práctica el derecho constitucional de la integridad, preservando los derechos ya conquistados por las mujeres y ampliar los servicios asistenciales, a fin de que puedan corresponder tanto cuantitativa como cualitativamente a las demandas, a las necesidades de promoción, prevención y recuperación de la salud de las usuarias del sistema de salud brasileño.It is about qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with objective to identify to the search of the climacteric's using of the single health system for services and action of health in the cities of 3ª

  14. Avanços na elucidação dos mecanismos de ação de Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. nos sintomas do climatério Advances on the elucidation of mechanisms of action of Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. in climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar os avanços ocorridos para a compreensão da atuação terapêutica de Cimicifuga racemosa, um fitoterápico utilizado no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres nas quais a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é contra-indicada. A revisão bibliográfica possibilitou concluir que existem quatro principais hipóteses para esclarecer a base mecanística de ação: indução de apoptose por meio da ativação de caspases, inibição do ciclo celular em G1 por alteração de proteínas reguladoras, efeito central em receptor 5HT e ação estrogênica evidenciada pela inibição seletiva dos receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina. Porém, é incipiente a produção científica abordando as bases moleculares que sustentem os referidos mecanismos de ação. Ainda há necessidade de elucidação quanto à possível existência de pelo menos mais um receptor estrogênico que possa ser o alvo de ligação para as substâncias ativas de C. racemosa, bem como avançar no conhecimento da atividade reguladora seletiva de receptores estrogênicos já evidenciada em estudos de farmacologia experimental.The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to

  15. Self-esteem of hypertensive women with menopause (climacteric) problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos; Klívia Regina de Oliveira Saraiva

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzed the self-stem of hyper tense women who experience the climacterium. The research was done based in a descriptive study, and it was experienced in a health clinic located in Fortaleza, Ceara. This clinic works attending people who suffer of cardiologic and pulmonary diseases. Twenty hyper tense women, between forty-five and fifty-five years old, took part on this study. The data was colleted using the method of interviewing the patients, and then classifying them in categori...

  16. Phytoestrogens for menopausal bone loss and climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Women have always looked for non-hormonal options to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent menopausal bone loss. The use of complementary and alternative medicine for these purposes has particularly increased after the publication of the Women's Health Initiative's results suggesting that there might be more risks than benefits with hormone replacement. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens that, although less potent than estradiol, bind to the estrogen receptor and can function as estrogen agonists or antagonists. Soy isoflavones extracted from soy are the phytoestrogens most commonly used by menopausal women. Because typical Western diets are low in phytoestrogens and taking into account the general difficulty in changing dietary habits, most clinical trials in Western women have used isoflavone-fortified foods or isoflavone tablets. Although some women might experience a reduction in the frequency or severity of hot flashes, most studies point towards the lack of effectiveness of isoflavones derived from soy or red clover, even in large doses, in the prevention of hot flashes and menopausal bone loss. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'. PMID:23246986

  17. Bone densitometry in the Feminine Climacteric routine study or election?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted, on the basis of a systematic review of the clinical histories of the database, between July 1999 and July 2001.Strategy consisted of reviewing at random clinical data up to obtaining a sample of 100 patients with bone densitometry by mains of dual energy X ray absorbtiometry (DEXA) device. The standard number was statistically significant and representative of the population under study.Results: It is emphasized that more of a hal of the patients studied presented loss of the bone mineral density and 11% with and altered morphometry of the column, similar to other national and international studies. the risk factors for osteoporosis were presented in 71% of the cases, having those patients older densitometric alterations.Conclusions:considering the results and the situation that generates risk of fracture with its high socioeconomic costs, the authors recommend the routine use of the densitometry in the Feminine Climateric or in its absence, a selective screening, reserving the study for patients with given risk factors.It is proposed a guideline to select patients in which conducting the study ia a priority

  18. Fatores Associados à Obesidade e ao Padrão Andróide de Distribuição da Gordura Corporal em Mulheres Climatéricas Factors Related to Obesity and Android Pattern of Body Fat Distribution in Climacteric Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Filip Raskin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: descrever as características de um grupo de mulheres climatéricas, conhecer a freqüência e os fatores associados à obesidade e ao padrão andróide de distribuição da gordura corporal. Métodos: estudo observacional com 518 pacientes com idade entre 45 e 65 anos em um ambulatório de climatério. Foram considerados a idade, cor, status menopausal, tempo de menopausa, atividade física, tabagismo, dieta, etilismo, antecedentes pessoais e familiares de hipertensão, diabetes, doença cardiovascular, dislipidemia e obesidade. O índice de massa corpórea e a relação das medidas cintura/quadril foram variáveis dependentes. Na análise estatística utilizaram-se os testes de Wilcoxon, c² de Pearson, com nível de significância de 5%, e análise múltipla por regressão logística. Resultados: mais de dois terços das participantes eram não-obesas com perfil andróide e menopausadas. Aproximadamente um quarto tinha atividade física adequada, era tabagista, metade referiu dieta inadequada e um quinto era etilista. Pacientes com perfil andróide apresentaram média etária maior que mulheres com padrão ginecóide. Antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes e história familiar de diabetes relacionaram-se com obesidade e padrão andróide. O status pós-menopausa associou-se significativamente ao perfil andróide. Conclusões: a maioria das mulheres foram não-obesas com perfil andróide, brancas, pós-menopáusicas, sedentárias, não-tabagistas nem etilistas. Os principais fatores associados à obesidade e padrão andróide foram os antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, história familiar de diabetes e, particularmente, o status pós-menopausa com o perfil andróide.Purpose: to describe sociodemographic characteristics of a group of climacteric women in order to discover the frequency and the variables associated with obesity and android profile of body fat distribution. Methods

  19. Efeito de um programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e os hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério The effects of a mixed program of nutritional intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits of obese climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Assunção Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi avaliar o efeito de programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério. MÉTODOS: Trabalhou-se com 2 grupos de 15 pessoas por 40 semanas: Grupo Dieta (intervenção nutricional e Grupo Exercício (intervenção nutricional e exercício. RESULTADO: As reduções do peso (-2,3kg para Grupo Dieta e -5,3kg para o Grupo Exercício e da circunferência da cintura (-4,8cm para Grupo Dieta e -7,6cm para Grupo Exercício, foram maiores para o Grupo Exercício. Foi verificada evolução positiva na classificação do Índice de Massa Corporal para ambos os grupos, sendo que o Grupo Exercício respondeu melhor ao tratamento. O padrão alimentar foi considerado monótono e com baixo consumo de alimentos regionais. CONCLUSÃO: O programa foi efetivo para perda de peso, em maior intensidade na presença de exercício. A educação alimentar proposta foi capaz de acarretar mudanças nos hábitos alimentares.OBJECTIVE: The effects of a mixed program of nutrition intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits were evaluated in obese climacteric women. METHODS: Thirty participants were randomly assigned in 2 groups during 40 weeks: Diet Group (nutritional intervention and Exercise Group (nutritional intervention and exercise. RESULTS: Weight reductions (Diet Group 2,3kg/Exercise Group -5,3kg and waist circunference (Diet Group -4,8cm/Exercise Group 7,6cm were greater in Exercise Group. A positive evolution was noticed in the Body Mass Index in both groups, with Exercise Group having better answer to treatment. It was observed a monotonous feeding pattern and low compliance to the consumption of regional typical foods. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the program was effective for weight loss at a higher intensity in the presence of exercise and the feeding education was able to modify the feeding habits.

  20. Relationship of menopausal status and climacteric symptoms to sleep in women undergoing chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rissling, Michelle B.; Liu, Lianqi; Natarajan, Loki; He, Feng; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Goals of work The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, and mood as measured by actigraphy and self-report prior to treatment and at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Patients and methods Data on sleep quality (measured using actigraphy and self-report) and mood were collected prior to treatment and 12 weeks later at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy in 69 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. ...

  1. Menopause and Climacteric. Substituted Hormonal Treatment. Its indications, guidelines and safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío García Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated revision was carried out about climateric and menopause period and its substituted hormonal treatment when it is necessary. The indications of the substituted hormonal therapy, its main contraindication and the directions of the treatment are shown.

  2. Hormone replacement therapy and hypercoagulability. Results from the Prospective Collaborative Danish Climacteric Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars F.;

    2003-01-01

    norethindrone acetate, (E). E(2) combined with local delivery of levonorgestrel and (F). E(2)V plus medroxyprogesterone. HRT-induced changes in the concentration of inhibitors of coagulation and markers of fibrin turnover during 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Significant decreases of antithrombin and protein......-normalised ratio were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of HRT in six groups of healthy postmenopausal women: (A). no HRT (reference group), (B). continuous oestradiol valerate (E(2)V) plus cyproterone acetate, (C). cyclic E(2)V plus cyproterone acetate, (D). continuous combined oestrogen (E(2)) plus...

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on banana 'nanica' (Musa sp., group AAA) irradiated in pre climacteric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work verified the effect of gamma radiation on physical and chemical parameters of banana 'nanica', analyzing possible alterations on the period of conservation and the possibility of commercial irradiation aiming the exportation. The results had demonstrated that the radiations had not produced effect on pH and total acidity. However, the bananas of the 'control group' and those that had received 0,75 kGy, had presented greater maturation degree and, radiated with 0,30 kGy, had presented greater firmness. In accordance with the results of the organoleptic analysis, can be perceived that the bananas most mature, especially of the 'control group', had had greater acceptance. The bananas of treatments 0,30 and 0,60 kGy had had minors notes for presenting minor maturation stadium. Knowing that the irradiation in adequate dose and fruits of good quality brings benefits to the storage and the process of exportation, we conclude that the dose most appropriate for the control of the maturation of the 'nanica' banana is 0,30 kGy. (author)

  4. HEALTH EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR WOMEN IN CLIMACTERIC: GRANTS FOR NURSING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Lyra Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:. Conhecer a assistência prestada pelo enfermeiro à mulher no climatério identificando estratégias de educação em saúde no atendimento à mesma. Metodologia:. Realizado levantamento de dados sobre o tema entre 2001 a 2010 seguindo leitura analítica alcançando bibliografia potencial com 10 artigos e 1 monografia divididos em três categorias. Resultados e discussão:. Algumas obras demonstram que as mulheres desconhecem a educação pela enfermagem, constatado pela falta de informações dessas pacientes. Conclusão:. O enfermeiro como educador se insere como grande estímulo, beneficiando estas mulheres com informações, com variados métodos desempenhados buscando vivenciar estas alterações fisiológicas de forma mais saudável permitindo a transformação consciente da realidade. Educar em saúde tornou-se uma das atribuições que o enfermeiro desempenha em toda sua área de atuação e, portanto perpassa todos os níveis de assistência à saúde.

  5. 男性更年期综合征的心身特点%Psychosomatic Characteristics of Male Climacteric Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一云; 屠监源; 季建林

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨男性更年期综合征的临床特征.方法:以主动到心理咨询门诊的男性更年期综合征患者60例为研究组(A组),以女性更年期综合征患者148例为女性对照组(B组),另有来自大学和医院的男性职工62人为正常对照组(C组).采用一般资料、Locke-wallace婚姻调适测定、生命质量评定量表(TDL)、生活事件评定量表(LES)、应激量表(WSP)、社会支持量表(SSRS)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)等,从心身角度对A、B两组进行多方面的对照,且对A组与C组进行了性激素测定对照,对A组血清睾酮、雌激素水平与更年期症状(Kupperman评分)进行了相关分析.结果:①A组不良生活方式、伴发躯体慢性疾病比例及婚姻质量评分高于B组(32/60、28/148;19/60、26/148;107.2±11.0、70.6±22.7,χ2=24.64、5.01、t=11.89,P<0.01),而B组神经质性人格比例高于A组(66/148、12/60,χ2=11.02,P<0.01).②A组LES、SSRS分值高于B组(70.1±23.2/62.2±15.5,53.3±5.0/20.8±7.0,t=2.88、32.93,P<0.01),B组WSP分值高于A组(35.5±2.8/30.0±5.9,t=9.08,P<0.01).A、B两组Kupperman总分比较差异无显著性,但因子分差异有显著性.③A组雌激素水平显示高于C组(40.8±9.2/35.7±10.3,t=2.86,P<0.05).④A组血清睾酮与Kupperman总分无相关(r=0.03,P>0.05),但雌激素与Kupperman总分呈正相关(r=0.57,P<0.01).结论:男性更年期综合征的临床特征有别于女性,血清雌激素水平可能与男性更年期症状的产生有关.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for climacteric symptoms in breast cancer patients experiencing treatment-induced menopause: design of a multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature menopause is a major concern of younger women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer. Non-hormonal medications show a range of bothersome side-effects. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and physical exercise can have a positive impact on symptoms in naturally occurring menopause. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of these interventions among women with breast cancer experiencing treatment-induced menopause. Methods/design In a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of CBT/relaxation, of physical exercise and of these two program elements combined, in reducing menopausal symptoms, improving sexual functioning, reducing emotional distress, and in improving the health-related quality of life of younger breast cancer patients who experience treatment-induced menopause. 325 breast cancer patients (aged Discussion Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise are potentially useful treatments among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment-induced, premature menopause. For these patients, hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are contraindicated or have a range of bothersome side-effects. Hence, research into these interventions is needed, before dissemination and implementation in the current health care system can take place. Trial registration The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1165 and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00582244.

  7. [Ovarian stimulation by a new therapeutic principle for the treatment of complications of the climacteric. Results of a double-blind crossover study with a defined spleen dialysate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, C P; Lübow, H; Schmitz, H

    1986-07-01

    In a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study (test period 8 weeks) the spleen dialysate Solcosplen is tested for effectiveness and tolerance in 40 women, i.e. 14 pre- resp. 26 postmenopausal women in two consecutive periods (test periods I and II). The treatment begins in the first week of each test period with 2 ampoules i.m. t.i.d. and is to be continued for the following 7 weeks with 2 dragees b.i.d. Besides the incidence of clinical symptoms there intensity is summarized in a graded form to the Kupperman index. For further objectifying the therapeutic results vaginal-cytological examinations and radioimmunological analyses of estradiol (E2), LH, FSH and DHEA-S are carried out. The courses of therapy are frequented on a balanced basis. The progress of clinical symptoms shows in respect of incidence of appearance and intensity measured in Kupperman index in Phase I as well as in the cross-over statistically clear reciprocity, which demonstrates - with homogeneous prefindings - significantly differing results of treatment in favour of the dialysate. In the intraindividual comparison of judging the effectiveness by the physician and patient yields significant preferences for the verum. Side-effects were not observed. The proven effectiveness of the spleen dialysate within this study is explained by the stimulation of the ovarian residual function during menopause. It is discussed and compared to the presently applied monotherapeutic E2-substitution. PMID:3533088

  8. Doença arterial coronária no climatério e exclusão social Coronary artery disease in climacteric and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Lima Medeiros

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Doença Arterial Coronária (DAC é uma doença multifatorial e muitos dos fatores de risco para o seu desenvolvimento (ligados aos aspectos biológicos já foram estudados e devidamente mensurados em sua importância. Os determinantes sociais dessa doença, responsável pelo maior número de mortes na cidade de São Paulo, foram pouco estudados e sua importância, negligenciada. No Brasil, as pesquisas sobre o tema são ainda incipientes e a importância da DAC, em mulheres, continua sendo subestimada, mesmo quando os dados estatísticos mostram que ela vem crescendo. As mulheres, hoje, vivem mais e, portanto, têm a possibilidade de enfrentar a doença e ainda de sobreviverem muitos anos após a menopausa, trazendo esse fato um grande impacto social. Nosso objetivo, nessa pesquisa, de caráter descritivo, foi estabelecer uma relação entre o perfil socioeconômico e cultural e os indicadores de exclusão social, encontrados em mulheres após a menopausa e com DAC, em tratamento no ambulatório de Coronariopatias do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. Os resultados podem nos ajudar a entender melhor a doença e as necessidades das pacientes diante das várias formas de exclusão social que vivenciam em seu cotidiano e apontar medidas mais eficazes para programas de prevenção secundária. O diálogo entre as diferentes áreas de conhecimento, como a Medicina, a História e o Serviço Social, estabelecido para a análise dos resultados, trouxe uma compreensão abrangente dos fenômenos estudados trazendo à luz aspectos da exclusão social e discriminação de gênero, vivenciados pelas pacientes até então desconhecidos e, portanto, não valorizados pela equipe multidisciplinar.Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is a multifactorial disease and many of the risk factors for its development, linked to biological aspects, have been well studied and their importance measured. On the other hand, the study of the social determinants of this disease (that is responsible for the highest number of deaths in the city of São Paulo has been neglected. This is an area of great importance and social impact especially in developing countries. Women, in particular, are living longer now, and they may face the disease and survive many years after menopause. In Brazil, research about this theme is in its early phases and the importance of CAD in women still is underestimated, even when statistical data show that it has been increasing. This descriptive research aimed to establish the relationship between the socio-economic-cultural profile and social exclusion indicators in women after menopause and with CAD in treatment at the Coronary Diseases clinic of Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. The results could help us to better understand the disease and the patients' needs and point out effective actions to guide secondary prevention programs. The dialog between different areas of knowledge, such as Medicine, History, and Social Work, enabled a broad understanding of the studied phenomena, bringing to light social exclusion and gender discrimination aspects experienced by the patients that, till that time, had not been known and valued by the multidisciplinary team.

  9. Menopause and Climacteric. Substituted Hormonal Treatment. Its indications, guidelines and safety. Menopausia y climaterio. Tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo, sus indicaciones, las pautas del tratamiento y su seguridad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene E. Delgado Pérez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available An updated revision was carried out about climateric and menopause period and its substituted hormonal treatment when it is necessary. The indications of the substituted hormonal therapy, its main contraindication and the directions of the treatment are shown.

    Se realizó una revisión actualizada acerca del período climatérico- menopáusico y su tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo cuando es necesario. Se exponen las indicaciones de la terapia hormonal sustitutiva, sus principales contraindicaciones y las pautas de tratamiento.

  10. 武汉市妇女绝经相关因素的调查%Survey on related factors of the climacteric syndrome among women in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢实; 张雅君; 王声萍; 张红菱; 罗宝华; 胡引珍; 吴荣海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic factors associated with the menopausal symptoms among women at the age of 40 to 65 in Wuhan City.Methods From Apr.2014 to Oct , women at the age of 40 to 65 attending health examination in Wuhan City were enrolled in this study.A structured questionnaire was used to collect data of basic information, menopausal status, exercise, important physical diseases and perimenopausal symptoms.Also the menopausal symptoms were evaluated by Greene scale. The menopausal symptoms and its influencing factors were analyzed.Results The top 5 highest scores symptoms in perimenopausal women were fatigue, insomnia, dizziness or weakness, hot flashes, muscle/joint pain(P<0.01).The top highest scores syndromes in perimenopausal women were vasomotor symptoms, anxiety symptoms, somatic symptoms and depression symptoms (P<0.05).While insomnia, hot flashes, fatigue, muscle/joint pain got the highest scores symptoms in postmenopausal women (P<0.05).Vasomotor symptoms and sexual problems got the highest score syndromes in postmenopausal women ( P <0.05 ) .Somatic symptoms had a significant impact on five kinds of menopausal syndromes ( P <0.05 ) .Women at the age of 40 to 50 were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those at the age of 61 to 65 ( P <0.05 ) .Women of increasing BMI were more likely to have vasomotor symptoms( P <0.05 ) .Conclusions There were different menopausal symptoms at each stage of menopause.The main factor contributing to menopausal symptoms were somatic symptoms.%目的:评估武汉市40~65岁妇女自然绝经过程中绝经相关症状的发生及影响因素。方法选取2014年4~10月武汉市参加年度健康体检、年龄40~65岁的956名妇女为调查对象,采用问卷形式调查妇女的基本信息、月经状况、运动锻炼情况、重要躯体疾病以及围绝经期相关症状,用Greene评分法评估绝经症状,分析绝经症状的发生情况及影响因素。结果月经不规律妇女出现的得分高的前五位绝经相关症状是:感到疲惫或精力不足、失眠、感到头晕或无力、潮热、肌肉或关节酸痛( P<0.05);得分高的常见的症候群是:焦虑症状、躯体症状、抑郁症状和血管舒缩症状( P<0.05)。绝经后妇女出现的得分高的绝经症状是:失眠、潮热、感到疲倦或精力不足和肌肉关节酸痛( P<0.05);常见症候群是血管舒缩症状和性生活问题(P<0.05)。躯体疾病对5种绝经症候群均有显著影响(P<0.05);40~50岁者较61~65岁者更易有抑郁症状( P<0.05);体质量指数增加更易有血管舒缩症状( P<0.05)。结论绝经症状在绝经的各个阶段侧重表现不同,慢性躯体疾病是绝经症状的不良影响因素。

  11. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Z.; Leon, C.; Feil, R.; Lunn, J.; Delrot, S.; Gomes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of...

  12. Assistência à mulher climatérica: novos paradigmas Atención a la mujer climatérica: nuevos paradigmas Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional é uma realidade demográfica brasileira. Como conseqüência, espera-se, nos próximos anos, um aumento progressivo na procura dos serviços de saúde por mulheres com queixas relacionadas ao climatério. Paralelamente, a assistência ao climatério tem passado por uma modificação de paradigmas, impondo aos profissionais de saúde uma mudança de atitude. Reconhece-se que o climatério é influenciado tanto por fatores biológicos, como por fatores psicossociais e culturais, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para uma assistência mais qualificada e humanizada. Este artigo propõe refletir sobre as mudanças de paradigmas na assistência ao climatério, destacando a multidisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, no sentido acolher melhor essa parcela da população e proporcionar-lhe um cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando o saber da sensibilidade, voltado a uma melhor qualidade vida.Envejecimiento poblacional es una realidad demográfica brazilian. Consecuentementese espera un aumento progresivo de la búsqueda en los servicios de salud del país por mujeres con quejas relacionadas al climaterio. La asistencia al climaterio ha pasado por un cambio de paradigmas que han impuesto a los profesionales de la salud. El climaterio es influenciado por factores biológicos, factores psicosociales y culturales, cuyo conocimiento es fundamental para la planificación de una asistencia. Artículo se propone reflexionar sobre los cambios de paradigmas, el abordaje multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario, en el sentido de recibir mejor esta parcela de la población y proporcionarle un cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando el saber de la sensibilidad, y el tener como objetivo a una mejor calidad de vida.Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  13. Clinical observation on testosterone undecanoate in treating climacteric syndrome in senile men%十一酸睾酮治疗老年男性更年期综合征的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德辉; 杨彬

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨十一酸睾酮治疗老年男性更年期综合征的疗效.方法 58例诊断为老年男性更年期综合征患者随机分为2组,观察组34例给予口服十一酸睾酮40 mg,3次/d,疗程4周;对照组24例给予口服安慰剂治疗.观察治疗后2组的临床症状、血睾酮水平及抑郁症状评分变化并进行比较.结果治疗后观察组及对照组症状均有改善,但观察组改善更为明显,2组比较有非常显著性差异(P<0.01);观察组血睾酮水平治疗后(256.13 μg/dl±20.78 μg/dl)较治疗前(132.41 μg/dl±18.51 μg/dl)有显著提高(P<0.01),2组治疗后比较,有非常显著性差异(P<0.01);观察组治疗后抑郁症状评分各指标亦有明显改善,与对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论十一酸睾酮是治疗老年男性更年期综合征的一种有效、安全的雄激素补充疗法.

  14. Clinical Observation of Clinical Efficacy of Tianmeng Capsule for Climacteric Female with Burning Mouth Syndrome%甜梦胶囊治疗更年期女性灼口综合征的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林琳; 刘建伟

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察甜梦胶囊治疗更年期女性灼口综合征的临床效果.方法:将248例更年期女性灼口综合征患者随机分为2组,试验组124例采用甜梦胶囊辅以心理干预治疗,对照组124例采用维生素B+谷维素+维生素E辅以心理干预治疗,疗程均为1个月.结果:试验组与对照组的有效率分别为91.9%、48.4%(P<0.01);试验组治疗后18项心因性躯体症状均有明显改善,与治疗前比较均有显著性差异(P<0.01).2组患者服药后均未出现明显不良反应.结论:甜梦胶囊治疗更年期女性灼口综合征安全、有效.

  15. Differential effects of low-temperature inhibition on the propylene induced autocatalysis of ethylene production, respiration and ripening of 'Hayward' kiwifruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antunes, M. D C; Pateraki, I.; Kanellis, A. K.;

    2000-01-01

    concluded that kiwifruit stored at 20°C behaves as a typical climacteric fruit, while at 10°C behaves like a non-climacteric fruit. We propose that the main reasons for the inhibition of the propylene induced (autocatalytic) ethylene production in kiwifruit at low temperature (≤ IO°C), are primarily the...

  16. Менопаузальный синдром и его коррекция у онкогинекологических больных

    OpenAIRE

    Molchanov, S.; Kolomiets, L.; Gridneva, T.

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the problem of climacteric syndrome in reproductive-aged oncogynecological patients after antitumor treatment. A subject about correction of climacteric syndrome using substitutive hormonotherapy and non-hormonal methods (phytotherapy, phytohormones, homeopathy, vitamintherapy, behavior therapy and physical factors) was opened.

  17. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) oxidase in climacteric fruits

    OpenAIRE

    CHAVES Ana Lúcia; Jaqueline Dettmann BIERHALS; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; SILVA Jorge Adolfo; Cesar Valmor ROMALDI

    1997-01-01

    Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extr...

  18. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase in climacteric fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia CHAVES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extratos protéicos de maçãs e tomates em diferentes estágios de maturação. Verificou-se que o aumento da produção de etileno, quando os frutos passaram do estágio pré-climatérico para o climatérico, está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento da síntese da ACC oxidase. Em estágios de maturação mais avançados houve uma redução da produção de etileno e da atividade ACC oxidase, mas esta proteína continuava presente. Quando o "Western blot" foi realizado com tomates transgênicos, onde a produção de etileno e a síntese da ACC oxidase foram inibidos em mais de 95%, nenhuma reação imunoquímica foi detectada. O conjunto de resultados obtidos indica que os anticorpos detectam especificamente ACC oxidase.Polyclonal antibodies were prepared to characterize the enzyme ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase from climateric fruits. The antigen was a recombinant protein obtained from an Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, which contained the expression vector pT7-7A4 with one ACC oxidase DNA clone inserted. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the Western blot technique with protein extracts from apples and tomatoes in different maturation stages. It was observed that the increase in ethylene production which happened when the fruits changed from pre-climateric to climateric stage is directly correlated with an increase in ACC oxidase syntesis. In more advanced maturation stages there was a reduction in ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity, however the protein was still present. There was no immunochemical reaction in Western blot performed with transgenic tomatoes, which had a 95% reduction of etylene production and ACC oxidase syntesis. This results suggest that the antibodies detects ACC oxidase specifically.

  19. Morbidades e fatores associados em mulheres climatéricas: estudo de base populacional em mulheres com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade Morbidity and associated factors in climacteric women: a population based study in women with 11 or more years of formal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Santos Machado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados a algumas morbidades em mulheres brasileiras de 40 a 65 anos e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Análise secundária de estudo transversal de base populacional, empregando-se um questionário anônimo e autorrespondido por 377 mulheres. Foram avaliadas, com o uso deste instrumento, algumas morbidades (hipertensão, diabetes, insônia e depressão e fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais, clínicos e reprodutivos. A associação entre as morbidades e as variáveis independentes foi avaliada por meio do teste do Χ2. Realizou-se a regressão logística múltipla com critério de seleção stepwise para selecionar os principais fatores associados a cada uma das morbidades. RESULTADOS: Na análise múltipla, a insônia esteve associada à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=2,3 e ao nervosismo (OR=5,1. O relato de depressão esteve associado à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=3,7 e ter lazer péssimo/ruim (OR=2,8. A hipertensão apresentou-se relacionada à obesidade (OR=3,1 e a estar na pós-menopausa (OR=2,6. Já diabetes, à idade acima de 50 anos (OR=3,9 e obesidade à (OR=12,5. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de morbidades foi alta e pior autopercepção da saúde e obesidade foram os principais fatores associados à presença de morbidades.PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with morbidities among Brazilian women aged 40-65 years and with 11 or more years of schooling. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted, using an anonymous self-report questionnaire completed by 377 women. Were evaluated, with this instrument, some morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, insomnia and depression and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and reproductive factors. The association between morbidities and independent variables was evaluated by the Χ2 test. Multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection criteria was used to select the major factors associated with morbid conditions. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, insomnia was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=2.3 and nervousness (OR=5.1. Depression was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=3.7 and bad/poor leisure (OR=2.8. Hypertension was associated with obesity (OR=3.1 and being in postmenopausal (OR=2.6. Diabetes was associated with age above 50 years (OR=3.9 and obesity (OR=12.5. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of morbidities was high and a worse self-perception of health and obesity were the main factors associated with morbidity.

  20. Depressão em mulheres climatéricas: análise de mulheres atendidas ambulatorialmente em um hospital universitário no Maranhão Depression in climacteric women: analysis of a sample receiving care at a university hospital in Maranhão, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Nilva Maia da Silva; Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito; Maria Bethânia da Costa Chein; Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito; Paula Andréa de Albuquerque Salles Navarro

    2008-01-01

    Introdução: O climatério, período de transição entre a fase reprodutiva e não-reprodutiva, ocasiona mudanças biopsicossociais nas mulheres que o vivenciam. A associação entre a maior prevalência de depressão nesse período é, no entanto, ainda controversa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de depressão em mulheres climatéricas atendidas em um hospital universitário numa cidade da Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores associados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo prospec...

  1. 佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女灼口综合征的疗效观察及其对血清性激素水平的影响%Therapeutic Effect of Jiarong Tablet on Burning Mouth Syndrome of Climacteric Female and Its Influence on the Level of Serum Gonadal Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凯平; 周杰; 荣刚; 刘庆华

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女灼口综合征(burning mouth syndrome,BMS)的临床疗效及其对患者血清性激素水平的影响.方法:将60例更年期妇女BMS患者按编码随机抽取方法分为佳蓉片组30例、空白对照组30例,空白对照组予以安慰剂,采用空心胶囊,应用视觉模拟定级法(visual analogous scale,VAS)评定两组治疗前后疼痛强度,应用疼痛指数法比较其临床疗效,并检测两组患者治疗前后血清性激素水平.结果:治疗前两组BMS患者VAS疼痛指数无显著性差异;1疗程后各组疼痛指数均较治疗前减少(P<0.01),佳蓉片组与空白对照组之问有统计学意义(P<0.01);2疗程后佳蓉片组疼痛指数均较治疗前和1疗程后明显减少(P<0.01),与空白对照组之间有统计学意义(P<0.01),空白对照组疼痛指数与治疗前比较有统计学意义,但与1疗程后比较无统计学意义.佳蓉片组的总有效率明显优于空白对照组(P<0.01).治疗前两组BMS患者雄激素水平无统计学意义;2疗程后与治疗前相比:佳蓉片组显著降低(P<0.01),空白对照组无差异,其差值比较两组之间有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女BMS具有良好的临床疗效,降低更年期妇女雄激素水平,可能是其治疗更年期妇女BMS的作用机制之一.

  2. TREATMENT OF 100 CASES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING BY SCRATCHING THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, a common gynecological disorder, is generally of two kinds, pubescent and climacteric, characterized by menorrhagia, menostaxis, irregular bleeding, associated with dysmenorrhea, soreness and bearing down sensation in the lumbosacral region.

  3. Drug: D06949 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [DR:D06712] | Cinnamon branch [ED:E00249]) Disorder of menstruation; Menstrual pain; Climacteric disturbance; Adnexitis; Cold constit...ution; Bruise; Hemorrhoidal disease; Orchitis Therapeuti

  4. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performe...

  5. Post harvest quality and chilling injury of plums: benefits of 1-methyl cyclopropene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candan, A. P.; Graell, J.; Larrigaudiere, C.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the development of chilling injury (CI) symptoms in four plum cultivars and to determine the relationship between the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and its sensitivity to this disorder. Significant differences in ripening pattern were found between the cultivars after long-term storage. Among the climacteric cultivars, Royal Zee plums showed a higher ethylene production rate than Linda Rosa and Friar cultivars. On the other hand, the Angeleno cultivar behaved as a suppressed climacteric type. The development of translucency symptoms was higher in Royal Zee than in Linda Rosa and Friar plums, and was almost absent in the suppressed climacteric cultivar. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and the percentage of fruit affected by translucency in all climacteric cultivars. This treatment also delayed the ripening of the fruit during shelf life. In contrast, 1-MCP treatment did not affect the quality of Angeleno plums. Collectively these results suggest that the development of chilling injury in plums is related to the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and demonstrated the beneficial effects of 1-MCP maintaining plum quality during storage. (Author) 29 refs.

  6. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  7. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eisen (Andrea); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); P. Moller (Pal); H. Lynch (Henry); J. Klijn (Jan); C. Kim-Sing (Charmaine); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); L. Gilbert (Lucy); P. Ghadirian (Parviz); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); G. Rennert (Gad); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Isaacs (Claudine); B. Rosen (Barry); M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sun (Ping); S. Narod (Steven); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); S. Cummings (Shelly); N. Tung (Nadine); F.J. Couch (Fergus); W.D. Foulkes (William); S.M. Domchek (Susan); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); R. Gershoni-Baruch (Ruth); D. Horsman (David); H. Saal (Howard); E. Warner (Ellen); W. Meschino (Wendy); K. Offit (Kenneth); A. Trivedi (Amber); M. Robson (Mark); M. Osborne (Michael); D. Gilchrist (Dawna); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); W. McKinnon (Wendy); M. Wood (Marie); C. Maugard (Christine); B. Pasini (Barbara); T. Wagner (Teresa); K. Sweet; B. Pasche (Boris); T. Fallen (Taya); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C. Eng (Charis); R.N. Kurz; S. Armel (Susan); A. Tulman (Anna); P.J. Ainsworth (Peter); E. Lemire (Edmond); J. McLennan; G. Evans (Gareth); T. Byrski (Tomas); T. Huzarski (Tomas); L. Shulman (Lee)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hormone therapy (HT) is commonly given to women to alleviate the climacteric symptoms associated with menopause. There is concern that this treatment may increase the risk of breast cancer. The potential association of HT and breast cancer risk is of particular interest to wo

  8. Molecular Biology of ethylene during tomato fruit development and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytohormone ethylene plays critical roles in many developmental events and environmental responses of plants. Climacteric fruits such as tomato, apple or pears, are characterized by a ripening-related increase in respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis to rapidly coordinate and synchronize ...

  9. ENDOTHELIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KLYMADINON IN EXPERIMENTAL OVARIECTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Anishchenko; T. M. Plotnikova

    2016-01-01

    A Endothelial protective and antithrombogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa standardized extract (Klimadynon, Bionorica, Germany) in comparison with ethinylestradiol in experimental ovariectomy were investigated. Extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (klimadynon) contents phytoestrogens, that was the basis for studying of its effects in hypoestrogenic conditions for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in climacteric syndrome as an alternatively of hormonal repla...

  10. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage

  11. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the fu

  12. Research Thinking of Low-intensity laser For the Treatment of Menopausal Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G Z; Wang, X Y [Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Xu, Y X; Li, L J [Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Liu, S H, E-mail: xuyx1968@163.com [South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Female climacteric syndrome is a clinical syndrome due to autonomic nerve dysfunction occurring in women during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, how to pass climacteric period for women without any problems, avoid or reduce the occurrence of climacteric syndrome, prevent geriatric diseases and improve life quality is a key issue now for great attention. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safer method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. By analyzing the relationship between laser technology and traditional acupuncture and moxibustion, the advantage and the existing problems on acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, the application of laser methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of menopausal syndrome was discussed. It's pointed out that the laser acupuncture is safe and effective to treat menopausal syndrome. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome by utilizing the advantage of interdisciplinary intersection. Laser technology will make the development of acupuncture and moxibustion science possess an unprecedented field.

  13. Research Thinking of Low-intensity laser For the Treatment of Menopausal Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female climacteric syndrome is a clinical syndrome due to autonomic nerve dysfunction occurring in women during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, how to pass climacteric period for women without any problems, avoid or reduce the occurrence of climacteric syndrome, prevent geriatric diseases and improve life quality is a key issue now for great attention. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safer method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. By analyzing the relationship between laser technology and traditional acupuncture and moxibustion, the advantage and the existing problems on acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, the application of laser methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of menopausal syndrome was discussed. It's pointed out that the laser acupuncture is safe and effective to treat menopausal syndrome. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome by utilizing the advantage of interdisciplinary intersection. Laser technology will make the development of acupuncture and moxibustion science possess an unprecedented field.

  14. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies on novel microporous copper containing catalytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Suresh K.; Akolekar, Deepak B.; Foran, Garry

    2006-11-01

    Novel copper metal modified microporous aluminosilicate and aluminophosphate catalysts with the high phase purity were synthesized and characterized. CuK-edge XAS measurements were carried out over a series of copper containing SAPO-34 and ZSM-5 catalysts. EXAFS technique was used to obtain specific climacteric information related to the copper atomic distances, coordination and near neighbour environments. EXAFS studies indicated the presence of different of Cu species on ZSM-5/SAPO34 catalysts.

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies on novel microporous copper containing catalytic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel copper metal modified microporous aluminosilicate and aluminophosphate catalysts with the high phase purity were synthesized and characterized. CuK-edge XAS measurements were carried out over a series of copper containing SAPO-34 and ZSM-5 catalysts. EXAFS technique was used to obtain specific climacteric information related to the copper atomic distances, coordination and near neighbour environments. EXAFS studies indicated the presence of different of Cu species on ZSM-5/SAPO34 catalysts

  18. Small and remarkable: The Micro-Tom model system as a tool to discover novel hormonal functions and interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Pereira Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are molecules involved in virtually every step of plant development and studies in this field have been shaping plant physiology for more than a century. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, long used as a tool to study plant hormones, lacks significant important developmental traits, such as fleshy climacteric fruit, compound leaf and multicellular trichomes, suggesting the necessity for alternative plant models. An attractive option often used is tomato, a species also of major ec...

  19. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Diniz Rosa; Gisleine Scatena Brançam

    2013-01-01

    Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resource...

  20. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment. PMID:27085177

  1. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel P Campos; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2011-01-01

    The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a) control; b) 2% cassava starch; c) 1% chitosan; and d) 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of f...

  2. Effectiveness of a low dose testosterone undecanoate to improve sexual function in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Tungmunsakulchai, Reuthairat; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Snabboon, Thiti; Panyakhamlerd, Krasean; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Taechakraichana, Nimit

    2015-01-01

    Background Adding testosterone to hormonal therapy could improve sexual function and general well-being among women during climacteric. We evaluated the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate on sexual function in postmenopausal women utilizing the standardized questionnaire FSFI score. Methods Postmenopausal women with sexual complaints and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) ≤ 26.5 were enrolled in to this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly a...

  3. Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas; Christelle Troadec; Adnane Boualem; Sylvie Lévêque; Abdullah A. Alsadon; Aldoss, Abdullah A.; Catherine Dogimont; Abdelhafid Bendahmane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. [br/] Methodology/Principal Findings: To engineer melon fruit...

  4. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio; Víctor Olalde Portugal; Hortencia Gabriela Mena Violante; Luis Fernando Ceja Torres; José Venegas González; Guadalupe Oyoque Salcedo; María Valentina Angoa Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer) two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present...

  5. Evaluation of a Candelilla Wax-Based Edible Coating to Prolong the Shelf-Life Quality and Safety of Apples

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Ochoa; Saul Saucedo-Pompa; Romeo Rojas-Molina; Heliodoro de la Garza; Ana V. Charles-Rodriguez; Cristobal N. Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The apple by its nature as perishable food of climacteric type implies that even under refrigerated conditions, the fruit spoils quickly by its very nature of breathing and similarly are attacked by microorganisms of different types that make is the fruit spoil even faster so in the present investigation be worked with an edible coating to protect it from decomposition and contamination by phytopathogens microorganisms. Approach: This study reports the effect of the applica...

  6. Timing of fungal invasion using host's ripening hormone as a signal.

    OpenAIRE

    Flaishman, M A; Kolattukudy, P E

    1994-01-01

    In many postharvest fruit diseases, fungi remain latent until the fruit ripens. How the fungus times its infection at ripening of the host is not known. We have found that the volatiles produced by the climacteric tomato, avocado, and banana fruits induce germination and appressorium formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum musae. Exposure of the spores of these fungi to ethylene, the host's ripening hormone, at

  7. Sugar and abscisic acid signaling orthologs are activated at the onset of ripening in grape

    OpenAIRE

    Gambetta, Gregory A.; Matthews, Mark A.; Shaghasi, Tarana H.; McElrone, Andrew J.; Castellarin, Simone D.

    2010-01-01

    The onset of ripening involves changes in sugar metabolism, softening, and color development. Most understanding of this process arises from work in climacteric fruits where the control of ripening is predominately by ethylene. However, many fruits such as grape are nonclimacteric, where the onset of ripening results from the integration of multiple hormone signals including sugars and abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we identified ten orthologous gene families in Vitis vinifera containing...

  8. Charaeterization of the ripening of pineapple (ananas comosus l. merrill) ev. india fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Madelaide; Hernández, María Soledad; Cabezas, Marco; Barrera, Jaime; Martínez., Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize physical, chemicaland physiologically the development of maturation of fruitnative pineapple cv. India, kept fresh at 20°C. During the fruitrnaturation, the respiratory intensity did not have any incrcase,which allowed to classify the fruit as non climacteric. Thisbehavior was accompanied by loss of weight, decrease ofconsistency of edible fruit portion, increase in organic acids,acidity and sugars and decrease in soluble solids and pH.The quality anal...

  9. De Novo Assembly, Characterization and Functional Annotation of Pineapple Fruit Transcriptome through Massively Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Wen Dee; Voo, Lok-Yung Christopher; Kumar, Vijay Subbiah

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throu...

  10. Textural, biochemical and micro-structural changes in mesocarp tissue of imported avocado from Peru during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra; Terry, Leon A.

    2010-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit is a valuable product and notorious for the difficulties encountered in determining quality. Typically the degree of ripeness of many climacteric fruits, such as avocado, is measured by assessing flesh firmness. The aim of the presented work was to elucidate the temporal and spatial changes in texture, biochemistry and micro-structure in different avocado tissues from the same fruit. Fruit were first treated with ethylene and then ripened at 12°C. Sample...

  11. Postharvest biochemical and physiological characterisation of imported avocado fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Donetti, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in controlling and forecasting avocado fruit ripening and the highly perishable nature of the crop once harvested, are the major causes of concern for avocado traders. In particular, the simultaneous presence of many suppliers may account for increased fruit variability during ripening. Avocado is a climacteric fruit with consistent ethylene production after harvest which is also related to high perishability. However, the mechanisms regulating ethylene biosynthesi...

  12. Spatio-temporal postharvest changes in texture and fatty acid profiles in avocado fruit from different origins

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra; Terry, Leon A.; Meyer, Marjolaine D.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of ripeness of many climacteric fruits, such as avocado, can be correlated with fleshfirmness and other rheological properties. However, there remains a paucity of information on not only thepostharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins, but also on the spatial variation in texturewithin individual fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and lipid profile of fruit tissueduring postharvest ripening is unknown.The aim...

  13. Methionine metabolism in apple tissue: implications of S-adenosylmethionine as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the direct precursor of ethylene as previously proposed, it is expected that 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) would be the fragment nucleoside. When [Me-14C] or (35S)methionine was fed to climacteric apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) tissue, radioactive 5-S-methyl-5-thioribose (MTR) was identified as the predominant product and MTA as a minor one. When the conversion of methionine into ethylene was inhibited by L-2-amino-4-(2'-amino-ethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid, the conversion of (35S) or (Me-14C)methionine into MTR was similarly inhibited. Furthermore, the formation of MTA and MTR from (35S)methionine was observed only in climacteric tissue which produced ethylene and actively converted methionine to ethylene but not in preclimacteric tissue which did not produce ethylene or convert methionine to ethylene. These observations suggest that the conversion of methionine into MTA and MTR is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and provide indirect evidence that SAM may be an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. When (35S)MTA was fed to climacteric or preclimacteric apple tissue, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into MTR and methionine. However, when (35S)MTR was administered, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into methionine but not MTA. A scheme is presented for the production of ethylene from methionine

  14. Plant derived alternatives for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has undisputable positive effects on climacteric complaints, in the bone and on body weight but also several undesired side effects. Therefore, plant-derived alternatives are currently promoted. Phytoestrogens - primarily the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and coumestrol, stemming from soy (Glycine max) or red clover (Trifolium pratense) - were suggested to have the desired but not the undesired effects of estrogens. Most recently published placebo-controlled studies question the beneficial effects. When taken at the time of puberty however, phytoestrogens appear to protect against mammary cancer later in life. Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) have no estrogenic effects. In a narrow dose range they have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, which are due to several compounds with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic actions that act together in the hypothalamus. Ecdysone is produced by several plants, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and was very early on shown to increase muscle mass. Later it became apparent that spinach extracts containing ecdysone decreased body fat load, thereby reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by visceral adipocytes and oxidative stress. This had beneficial effects on body weight and serum lipids not only in obese postmenopausal but also in premenopausal women and in men. For the above-described plant extracts, solid placebo-controlled clinical trials are available. For other plant extracts claiming beneficial effects on climacteric complaints or postmenopausal diseases, no solid data are available. PMID:25436745

  15. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms : a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Carlos; Masri, Ghania; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2009-01-01

    Alternative medicine preparations represent a significant industry worldwide. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), a buttercup plant grown in North America, is one such popular preparation for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Because the proportion of women experiencing climacteric symptoms is high, black cohosh merits further study as to its efficacy and safety. Convincing evidence for its efficacy in this setting remains to be demonstrated. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the current literature on the benefits of black cohosh for women experiencing climacteric symptoms. To this end, a PubMed search was conducted on 1 November 2007 using the search terms 'black cohosh' AND 'menopause'. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials in the English language involving adults. Several additional reviews dealing with alternative therapies for menopause were included to capture additional older and non-English language literature. Ultimately, 16 studies eligible for review were identified. Many of the studies had conflicting results. Methodological flaws included lack of uniformity of the drug preparation used, variable outcome measures and lack of a placebo group. The benefits of black cohosh in the management of climacteric symptoms remain to be proven. Case studies suggest an additional unexplored area of adverse events that also needs to be addressed. PMID:19102512

  16. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  17. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO2/ kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  18. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10% combined with estriol (0.1% + estradiol (0.25% for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05 after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  19. Psychoanalysis of maturescence (definition, metapsychology, and clinical practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Mag Guillermo Julio

    2015-12-01

    This article offers an entirely new way of addressing middle age or mid-life. It uses the neologism maturescence to denote this process's metapsychological feature, and it proposes a meta-psychology of maturescence in order to allow a 'direct understanding of maturescence' instead of the 'indirect understanding of maturescence', which psychoanalytic literature generally alludes to. The paper examines somatic processes specific to male and female climacterics and is focused on to the tension between the soma and the body. It examines the drive increase that Freud posed in climacterics and the somatic climacteric imbalance that begets specific drive activity demanding psychic work, with very different pathways depending on the individual's specific working-through activity. It discusses what happens to the individual when he/she is no longer able to procreate and begins to age; why this process is equivalent for individuals who had children and for others who could not or did not. This somatic event provides a universal constant from which it is possible to understand any individual variable. PMID:26058320

  20. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

  1. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gambacciani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR, is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC, is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence.

  2. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan, E-mail: marcobotelho@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia; Fechine, Pierre [Universidade Federal do Ceara (GQMAT/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica. Grupo Avancado de Biomateriais em Quimica; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFCT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Ruela, Ronaldo [Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada (INBIOS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jackson Guedes [Universidade Federal do Vale de Sao Francisco (UNIVALE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Quintans Junior, Lucindo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2014-06-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  3. Postharvest respiratory activity and changes in some chemical constituents during maturation of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin fruit Atividade respiratória pós-colheita e alterações de alguns constituintes químicos durante o amadurecimento do fruto da cajazeira (Spondias mombin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Almeida Sampaio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mature fruit from the yellow mombin (Spondias mombin was monitored for its respiration activity. Mature green fruit from the yellow mombin was stored in closed glass chambers and the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the end of a six hour respiration period was determined. At the same interval of time, the lid of the chamber was opened for air renewal. The increase in carbon dioxide and decrease in oxygen concentration demonstrated that the fruit was climacteric. The maximum liberation of CO2 54.2 mL Kg-1 h-1 and maximum absorption of O2 49.0 mL Kg-1 h-1 occurred 186 hours after the harvest which, obviously, represented the optimum fruit quality after the senescence process started. The respiratory quotient of fruit at a climacteric maximum was 1.11 representing the oxidation of carbohydrates. Total soluble solids increased from 9.1 °Brix (initial to 13.7 °Brix (climacteric maximum during maturation, while the total number of acids in the fruit decreased during maturation i.e. from 1.55% initially to 1.40% at pre-climacteric, 1.0% at climacteric maximum and 0.8% in the post-climacteric stage. A similar behaviour was observed in the case of ascorbic acid. There was a continuous decrease in chlorophyll and a continuous increase in the carotenoid content of fruit during maturation.Cajás verde-maduros foram armazenados em recipientes de vidro fechados e a concentração de oxigênio (O2 e de dióxido de carbono (CO2 foi determinada em intervalos de 6 horas. Após a coleta das amostras da atmosfera, as tampas dos recipientes foram abertas para renovação do ar. O aumento da concentração do CO2 e o decréscimo de O2 durante o armazenamento demonstraram o comportamento climatérico da respiração do cajá. A liberação máxima de CO2 54,2 mL kg-1 h-1 e a absorção máxima de O2 49,0 mL kg-1 h-1 ocorreram após 186 horas da colheita, quando o fruto alcançou qualidade máxima, iniciando em seguida a senescência. O quociente de

  4. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  5. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (RC shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms.

  6. Post-harvest physiological study and evaluation of the quality of Cv. Horvin plums (prunus domestica l.) in three cold-storage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Parra Coronado; José Eugenio Hernández Hernández; Jesús Hernán Camacho-Tamayo

    2010-01-01

    The plum cv. Horvin is a highly perishable fruit; this hampers post-harvest handling and there is currently no cold sto-rage chamber or suitable post-harvest handling infrastructure in Colombia. The present work was aimed at evalua-ting the quality of the plum cv. Horvin in three storage conditions. The plum cv. Horvin is a climacterical fruit, its res-piratory rate being influenced by storage conditions showing a direct relationship with temperature. It was found that 4°C was the best storag...

  7. Potřeby žen v klimakteriu

    OpenAIRE

    PERSANOVÁ, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor's work deals with the issues of menopause and changes, which take place in a woman's life in connection with it. The work is divided into a theoretical and a research part. At the beginning of the theoretical part there is a definition of the term "menopause", which is followed by the definition of the physiology of this period and hormonal changes which come up in the course of menopause. An integral part of the theoretical section is the description of climacteric syndrome, bot...

  8. The differential diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Arkad'evna Tyuvina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine reorganization in a menopausal woman is frequently accompanied by the development of the climacteric syndrome with concomitant mental disorders. Furthermore, various mental disorders, depressions in particular, can manifest themselves in this period. The paper presents the results of examining 150 women aged 41 to 65 years who had depressive disorders in menopause. Based on the findings, the author considers depressions of varying genesis occurring in women in the pre- and postmenopausal periods, their association with menopausal symptoms and social factors. She outlines the differential diagnosis of depressions and the basic principles of their therapy, including indications for and contraindications to hormone replacement therapy and the use of psychotropic drugs.

  9. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jasińska; Katarzyna Żułtak-Bączkowska; Bożena Mroczek; Artur Kotwas; Ewa Kemicer-Chmielewska; Beata Karakiewicz; Andrzej Starczewski

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a com...

  10. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  11. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l.), stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l.), almacenada a 18°C

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Paola; Miranda Diego; Fischer Gerhard; Ávila Jhonn

    2006-01-01

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish) or 5 (yellow orange) and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of s...

  12. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus) as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas; Elizabeth Jeanne Mitcham

    2013-01-01

    Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage...

  13. Portable equipment for determining ripeness in Hass avocado using a low cost color sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Jessica; Daza, Carolina; Vega, Fabio; Diaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2015-08-01

    The avocado is a one climacteric fruit that not ripe on the tree because it produces a maturation inhibitor that passes the fruit through the pedicel, the ripening occurs naturally during storage or to be induced as required. In post-harvest ripening stage is basically determined by experience of the farmer or buyer. In this word us developed portable equipment for determining ripeness is hass avocado using a low cost sensor color sensor TC3200 and LCD for display result. The prototype read of RGB color frequencies of the sensor and estimates the stage of ripeness in fourth different stages in post-harvest ripening.

  14. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; David N Kuhn; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 cod...

  15. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Shiomi, Shinjiro; Nakatsuka, Akira; Kubo, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Reinosuke; Inaba, Akitsugu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  16. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  17. Characterization of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Shiomi, S; Nakatsuka, A; Kubo, Y; Nakamura, R; Inaba, A

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  18. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes. PMID:17185740

  19. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  20. HIV em mulheres de meia-idade: fatores associados HIV in middle-aged women: associated factors

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Valadares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV tem aumentado significativamente entre mulheres de meia-idade. Nesta revisão foi feito um levantamento de estudos recentes que buscam identificar possíveis fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo HIV em mulheres climatéricas. São abordados diversos fatores associados, como: sintomas climatéricos, mudança de comportamento do parceiro sexual frente a novos medicamentos, negociação sobre o uso de preservativos em relações sexuais, comportamento de risco para HIV, autoestima global e autoestima sexual, história pregressa de abuso sexual, uso de drogas, estereótipo da vida sexual na maturidade, uso de terapia antirretroviral e abordagem da função sexual.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has increased considerably among middle-aged women. In this work we reviewed recent studies aimed at identifying possible factors related to HIV infection in climacteric women. Several associated factors are considered, such as: climacteric symptoms, partner's change in sexual behavior in face of new drugs, negotiation for use of condoms in sexual intercourse, risk behavior for HIV, global self-esteem and sexual self-esteem, history of sexual abuse, use of drugs, stereotypes of sex life in maturity, use of antiretroviral therapy and approach to sexual function.

  1. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUWang-Jin; RyoheiNAKANO; YasutakaKUBO; AkitsuguINABAt; JIANGYue-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening throughdisassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationshipbetween fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a fulllength cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCRand RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNAcontains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding apredicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DE|DFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalyticdomain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in thepulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatmentof fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation ofMA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening ofthe peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptionallevel.

  2. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  4. Freqüência da atividade sexual em mulheres menopausadas Factors related to frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados à freqüência da atividade sexual entre mulheres pós-menopáusicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 206 mulheres pós-menopáusicas entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário da região Sul do Brasil entre junho e outubro de 2002. A atividade sexual foi avaliada pelo número de relações sexuais no último mês e a sintomatologia climatérica pelo Índice de Kupperman. Na análise estatística, fez-se regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Das mulheres pesquisadas, 176 (85% eram sexualmente ativas. Cerca de 60,6% relataram diminuição da atividade sexual após a menopausa, o que atribuíram principalmente à impotência sexual do parceiro (41,7%. Aproximadamente 25,7% negaram satisfação com o intercurso sexual. Na análise por regressão linear múltipla, associaram-se à atividade sexual a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women METHODS: A cross-section study of 206 postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age was made at a university health care service in the South of Brazil between June and October 2002. Evaluations were made of sexual activity according to the number of sexual intercourses in the previous month and the climacteric symptoms using the Kupperman index. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 176 (85% women were sexually active. Although 60.6% reported a decrease in sexual activity after menopause, mostly attributing it to the husband's sexual impotence (41.7%. Approximately 25.7% stated they had no satisfaction with sexual intercourse. By means of multiple linear regression analysis the following aspects were associated to sexual activity: age (p<0.1, degree of sexual satisfaction (p=0.01, and climacteric symptomatology (p=0.02. As age increased the climacteric symptoms were more intense and sexual activity was less

  5. Climateric: fatigue or third stage of the general adaptation syndrome Climaterio: fatiga o tercera etapa del síndrome de adaptación general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alvarez Gaviria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of climacteric has been subject of debate. Most opinions agree in that it arises exclusively from natural selection. In this paper the author argues that, besides this reason there is another, even more important; for him, climacteric is the final response to fatigue or the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, just as in elderly people there is a loss of the capacity of proliferation of fibroblasts and lack of response to insulin. From a genetic point of view, this corresponds to an antagonic pleiotropy: the genetic program that has made the human adrenergic and corticotropic systems hyperactive, has also caused that they do not reach senescence intact. High concentrations of stress hormones during youth and adulthood in humans, as compared to chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans, and the hormonal cascade reactions elicited by them are meaningfully related to our most conspicuous illnesses, our genotype/phenotype and, in the long term, with climacteric. Se ha conjeturado a menudo sobre las razones del climaterio y la mayoría de los autores sostiene que es un fenómeno que surge exclusivamente de la selección natural. Aquí asumimos que, aunque esa sea parte de la explicación, no es la razón primordial. Así como con la edad se da la pérdida, por ejemplo, de la capacidad proliferativa de los fibroblastos y de la sensibilidad a la insulina, el climaterio podría corresponder no más que a la fatiga o tercera etapa del Síndrome de Adaptación General. En un enfoque genético correspondería, pues, a una pleiotropía antagónica: el programa genético que ha hecho hiperactivos a los sistemas adrenérgico y corticotrópico del ser humano, evitaría también que llegara incólume al punto final de senescencia. Las altas concentraciones de hormonas de estrés en la juventud y la edad adulta que distinguen a nuestra especie, comparada con el chimpancé, el gorila y el orangután, y las reacciones hormonales en cascada que

  6. Effects of 1-MCP on Post-Harvest Physiology of Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xi-sheng; WANG Zhi-hua; LI Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Zhi-yun; WANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. 402) was used to investigate the effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) treatment on ethylene production, respiration, vitamin C, chlorophyll, titratable acid,change of fruit color and rot. The results indicated that 1-MCP strongly inhibited ethylene production and respiration of tomato at very low concentration, delayed the incidence of climacteric peak of ethylene production and respiration. 1-MCP also delayed the decrease of vitamin C, chlorophyll and titratable acid during shelf life and storage significantly. Shelf and storage life of fruit treated with 1-MCP were extended at least 10 days at ambient (20 - 22℃ ) and 15 days at storage (9 - 11℃ ) temperature, respectively. Efficacy of 1-MCP on shelf and storage life was improved by increasing its concentration. After treatment of 1-MCP, rots were markedly lower than that of untreated fruit. 1-MCP treatment delayed the fruit color change.

  7. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and depression disorder%绝经后激素治疗与抑郁障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何方方

    2011-01-01

    围绝经妇女是抑郁障碍的高发人群,可能和这一时期特有的激素波动有关.妇产科医生在诊断绝经期综合征的同时要高度警惕抑郁障碍的存在.抗抑郁药物和激素治疗同时应用治疗围绝经期和绝经后抑郁症效果较好.%Depressive symptoms was common in the perimenopausal women. That maybe relate to unstable of estradiol level during the menopausal transition. Recognition of depression among women presenting with menopausal symptoms was very important, When gynecological doctors managed the climacteric symptoms of menopausal women. Hormone therapy plus anti-depressive treatment were much better for menopausal depression.

  9. PENGARUH ZPT TERHADAP KUALITAS BUAH MANGGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Juanasri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment was to examine the influence of polyamine, gibberelline and harvesting times to inhibit ripening process and to maintain postharvest quality on mangosteen. The method applied was randomized block design with two factors and three replications. First factor was harvesting time consisting of 14, 15 and 15 weeks after anthesis. Second factor is chemical concentration consisting of control (aquadest, GA3 (150, 200, 250 mg/l, polyamine (0,3; 1 and 3 mM. The result showed that spermidine application at 1 mM was more effective to maintain the postharvest quality of mangosteen, the fruit remained soft and the climacteric peak was longer than that of control. Gibberelline application showed unsightly result compared to control. Mangosteen fruits with harvesting time of 15 and 16 weeks after anthesis had better perfomance than those of harvesting at 14 weeks after anthesis, the fruit was remained soft and the weight lost was less.

  10. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  11. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  12. Síndrome metabólica e menopausa: estudo transversal em ambulatório de ginecologia Síndrome metabólico y menopausia: estudio transversal en ambulatorio de ginecología Metabolic syndrome and menopause: cross-sectional study in gynecology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil, são escassos os estudos sobre síndrome metabólica na população geral, mais raros são os que a correlacionam ao climatério. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da síndrome metabólica e seus componentes em mulheres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 323 mulheres climatéricas, divididas em dois grupos: pré e pós-menopausadas. Foram avaliadas para presença de síndrome metabólica, segundo os critérios do National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP e da International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Foi verificada a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a síndrome metabólica por meio de análise uni e multivariada. Um p-valor FUNDAMENTO: En Brasil, son raros los estudios sobre síndrome metabólico en la población general, más raros son los que la correlacionan al climaterio. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y sus componentes en mujeres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 323 mujeres climatéricas, divididas en dos grupos: pre y posmenopáusicas. Se evaluaron para presencia de síndrome metabólico, según los criterios del NCEP y de la IDF. Se verificó la asociación entre las variables estudiadas y el síndrome metabólico por medio de análisis uni e multivariado. Un p-valor BACKGROUND: In Brazil, there are few studies of the metabolic syndrome in the general population, and even fewer studies that establish a correlation between metabolic syndrome and climacteric. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among climacteric women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 323 climacteric women, divided into two groups: pre and post-menopausal. They were examined for the presence of metabolic syndrome, according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. It was possible to notice the association between the variables under study and the metabolic

  13. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  14. Tibolone induced Bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal. R. Tandon, Annil Mahajan* & Sudhaa Sharma**

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first ever report of Bullous pemphigoid induced by Tibolone, a STEAR (Selective tissueestrogenic activity regulator that has progestogenic, some androgenic as well as estrogenic effects prescribedas an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of climacteric symptoms in one ofthe 51 year old postmenopausal women with one and half year duration since menopause with previoushistory of use of estrogen progesterone pills during her active sexual life. The mechanism for this ADR isnot well understood. But possible explanation could be progesterone activity of the drug leading to autoimmunityas reported previously. The present patient was managed by dechallenge of drug, local, oral corticosteroidsand injectable, methotrexate, along with folic acid and antibiotic coverage fearing anemia andsecondary infections.

  15. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Among the numerous positive effects of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic carbohydrates observed in clinical studies--the majority of which, however, does not fulfil the criteria of pharmaceutical verification--some are of specific relevance to female health. The present review addresses--besides some notes concerning the potential microbiota-hormone interactions--the first line with preventive and/or therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in order to maintain a balanced intestinal and urogenital flora, as well as in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation (idiopathic slow-transit) and urogenital tract infections. Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides. Some further conditions, namely anorexia nervosa, the premenstrual syndrome as well as prevention or alleviation of climacteric and menopausal disorders, for which the use of probiotics is rather hypothetical or is largely studied by alternative medicine practising physicians, are addressed briefly. PMID:19237621

  16. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  17. [Transdermal estrogenic therapy in menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, T; Polvani, F; Penotti, M; Porcaro, E; Barbieri Carones, M

    1989-01-01

    The availability of percutaneous estrogenic preparations capable of directly entering the bloodstream, avoiding the liver, has opened new prospects in the treatment of the climacteric syndrome. The purpose of our work has been to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of a percutaneous 17-beta-estradiol-oral progestin association with an all oral association of conjugated estrogens and progestins and to evaluate the ability to control menopausal symptoms and biohumoral characteristics. 42 (1 to 7 years postmenopausal) heavily symptomatic patients were selected at the "Centro per lo studio e la terapia del climaterio" in Milan and divided in two equally sized groups. One group was treated using the percutaneous therapy, the other with the all-oral one. The results show that percutaneous administration leads to a quicker control of vasomotor symptomatology and metabolic effects similar to oral administration. PMID:2543896

  18. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  19. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  20. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  1. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein. PMID:18449546

  2. Ethylene-induced modulation of genes associated with the ethylene signalling pathway in ripening kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-ren; Chen, Kun-song; Allan, Andrew C.; Wu, Rong-mei; Zhang, Bo; Lallu, Nagin; Ferguson, Ian B.

    2008-01-01

    Gene families associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway in ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa [A. Chev.] C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa cv. Hayward) were isolated from a kiwifruit expressed sequence tag (EST) database, including five ethylene receptor genes, two CTR1-like genes, and an EIN3-like gene AdEIL1. All were differentially expressed among various kiwifruit vine tissues, and none was fruit specific. During fruit development, levels of transcripts of AdERS1a, AdETR3, and the two CTR1-like genes decreased, whereas those of AdERS1b and AdETR2 peaked at 97 d after full bloom. In ripening kiwifruit, there was a diverse response of the ethylene receptor family to internal and external ethylene. AdERS1a, AdETR2, and AdETR3 expression increased at the climacteric stage and transcripts were induced by external ethylene treatment, while AdERS1b showed no response to ethylene. AdETR1 was negatively regulated by internal and external ethylene in ripening fruit. The two CTR1-like genes also had different expression patterns, with AdCTR1 increasing at the climacteric stage and AdCTR2 undergoing little change. 1-Methylcyclopropene treatment prevented the ethylene response of all components, but transient down-regulation was only found with AdETR2 and AdCTR1. Similar gene and ethylene responses were found in both fruit flesh and core tissues. The ethylene-induced down-regulation of AdETR1 suggests that it may have a role in sensing ethylene and transmitting this response to other members of the receptor family, thus activating the signal transduction pathway. PMID:18535296

  3. Coupling of Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Understand the Ethylene- and Chilling-Induced Kiwifruit Ripening Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Ioannis S; Tanou, Georgia; Karagiannis, Evangelos; Belghazi, Maya; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. "Hayward"] is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this "dilemma," kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20°C following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L(-1), 20°C, 24 h) or/and chilling temperature (0°C, 10 days). All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) enzyme activities after 10 days of ripening at 20°C. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment, and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage, and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:26913040

  4. Discovery of precursor and mature microRNAs and their putative gene targets using high-throughput sequencing in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Noor Hydayaty Md; Ong, Wen Dee; Redwan, Raimi Mohamed; Latip, Mariam Abd; Kumar, S Vijay

    2015-10-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant. PMID:26115767

  5. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects. PMID:20696560

  6. Alternative and complementary therapies for the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Joan

    2012-03-01

    Despite a re-evaluation of risks in recent years, hormone replacement therapy is still surrounded by controversy. Almost 30% of women in a recent survey sought a natural approach to combat climacteric symptoms. Nevertheless, a large proportion of patients felt that they wanted a good safety profile and strong evidence base for treatment. This article seeks to review the evidence supporting non-hormonal approaches to treatment. There is only conflicting evidence at best to support alpha-2 agonists, e.g. clonidine and limited evidence for dihydroepiandrosterone and natural progesterones. There is limited randomized controlled trial data for gabapentin, selective norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), many of these studies being related to breast cancer patients. Of the herbal medicinal products, the largest evidence base rests with phytoestrogens. A Cochrane Database review looking at all types of phytoestrogens, e.g. red clover extracts, dietary soya and soya extracts concluded that there was no evidence to support improvement in climacteric symptoms and the meta-analysis of a 178 studies on soy products was inconsistent. Nevertheless, other studies disagree. Mammographic density is not affected by soy or phytoestrogen products and recent in vitro work shows only a weakly proliferative effect of soy isoflavone on breast cancer cells and evidence that soy isoflavone blocks the proliferative effect of estradiol on these cells. There are no studies looking at clinical outcome measures for cardiovascular disease but a number of studies looking at biochemical markers including arterial wall stiffness and apolipo protein B. Recent studies have also looked at the effects of red clover isoflavone on mood and depression, using specific depression rating scales. Finally, it is important to note that herbal medicinal products should not be used without caution. Some may produce quite marked side-effects in high doses

  7. Coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S Minas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. ‘Hayward’ is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this ‘dilemma’, kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20 oC following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L-1, 20 oC, 24 h or/and chilling temperature (0 oC, 10 d. All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO enzyme activities after 10 d of ripening at 20 oC. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  8. Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction – Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Nowakowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women’s life satisfaction. Material and Methods: The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40–57 years. The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. Results: The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p = 0.04912, gynecological care (p = 0.00325, hormone replacement therapy (HRT (p = 0.01523 and assessment of life satisfaction (p = 0.0325. Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman’s place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. Med Pr 2015;66(3:351–358

  9. Escalas para estudiar percepción de estrés psicológico en el climaterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salguedo-Madrid Marlon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stress is defined as the set of processes and answers before situations that require adjustment bigger than the habitual thing. In the psychological stress, the individual does not believe to have control about the requests of the environment. It has been suggested that the transition to the menopause could be source of psychological stress for some women. Objective: to identify the available and validated scales that allow assessing the perception of psychological stress in climacteric women. Methods: search of articles and publications in databases Pubmed, Science-Direct, Scielo, Ebscohos and Virtual Health Library was carried out; the articles had to present psychometric scales to detect psychological stress. The key words used were found in the DeCS: Psychological stress, questionnaires, psychometry, studies of validation and menopause. Just like words found in the MeSH: stress psychological, questionnaires, psychometrics, validation studies and menopause. Results: 1480 titles were identified, all the abstracts were read and 320 articles about psychological stress were chosen. A second review allowed determining that 76 were relevant with the objective of the review, 51 of them were obtained as complete articles. Conclusion: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, in their three versions, is one of the most efficient and used tools to measure psychological stress, it has satisfactory internal consistency in studies carried out in different population groups. Equal it happens with DASS in their two versions. The DASS and PSS scales have been used in the menopause; they are useful tools to assess psychological stress in women in the climacteric. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(2:318-326

  10. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  11. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. PMID:26307136

  12. Development of ESTs and data mining of pineapple EST-SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, W D; Voo, C L Y; Kumar, S V

    2012-05-01

    Improving the quality of the non-climacteric fruit, pineapple, is possible with information on the expression of genes that occur during the process of fruit ripening. This can be made known though the generation of partial mRNA transcript sequences known as expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ESTs are useful not only for gene discovery but also function as a resource for the identification of molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This paper reports on firstly, the construction of a normalized library of the mature green pineapple fruit and secondly, the mining of EST-SSRs markers using the newly obtained pineapple ESTs as well as publically available pineapple ESTs deposited in GenBank. Sequencing of the clones from the EST library resulted in 282 good sequences. Assembly of sequences generated 168 unique transcripts (UTs) consisting of 34 contigs and 134 singletons with an average length of ≈500 bp. Annotation of the UTs categorized the known proteins transcripts into the three ontologies as: molecular function (34.88%), biological process (38.43%), and cellular component (26.69%). Approximately 7% (416) of the pineapple ESTs contained SSRs with an abundance of trinucleotide SSRs (48.3%) being identified. This was followed by dinucleotide and tetranucleotide SSRs with frequency of 46 and 57%, respectively. From these EST-containing SSRs, 355 (85.3%) matched to known proteins while 133 contained flanking regions for primer design. Both the ESTs were sequenced and the mined EST-SSRs will be useful in the understanding of non-climacteric ripening and the screening of biomarkers linked to fruit quality traits. PMID:22207174

  13. The effect of TCM acupuncture on hot flushes among menopausal women (ACUFLASH study: A study protocol of an ongoing multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial

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    Borud Einar K

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After menopause, 10–20% of all women have nearly intolerable hot flushes. Long term use of hormone replacement therapy involves a health risk, and many women seek alternative strategies to relieve climacteric complaints. Acupuncture is one of the most frequently used complementary therapies in Norway. We designed a study to evaluate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care together with self-care is more effective than self-care alone to relieve climacteric complaints. Methods/Design The study is a multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Participants are postmenopausal women who document ≥7 flushes/24 hours and who are not using hormone replacement therapy or other medication that may influence flushes. According to power calculations 200 women are needed to detect a 50% reduction in flushes, and altogether 286 women will be recruited to allow for a 30% dropout rate. The treatment group receives 10 sessions of Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care and self-care; the control group will engage in self-care only. A team of experienced Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncturists give acupuncture treatments. Discussion The study tests acupuncture as a complete treatment package including the therapeutic relationship and expectation. The intervention period lasts for 12 weeks, with follow up at 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint is change in daily hot flush frequency in the two groups from baseline to 12 weeks; secondary endpoint is health related quality of life, assessed by the Women's Health Questionnaire. We also collect data on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnoses, and we examine treatment experiences using a qualitative approach. Finally we measure biological variables, to examine potential mechanisms for the effect of acupuncture. The study is funded by The Research Council of Norway.

  14. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit. PMID:25534876

  15. Uncommon disorders and decay in near-isogenic lines of melon and reference cultivars Acidentes fisiológicos e podridões atípicas em linhas quase-isogénicas de melão e em cultivares de referência

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    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest disorders and rots can produce important economic losses in fruits stored for long time for exportation. The genetic and physiological basis of some disorders in melon (Cucumis melo L. are unknown and particularly the possible relation with climacteric behavior. A collection of melon near-isogenic lines (NILs (SC3-5 and seven more showing climacteric and two non-climacteric ripening pattern were analyzed to study genetic and physiological aspects of fruit disorders and rots. Two non-climacteric (Nicolás; Inodorus Group; and Shongwan Charmi PI161375, Conomon Group and two climacteric cultivars (Fado, Reticulatus Group; Védrantais, Cantaloupensis Group were used as reference. The field was divided in eight blocks containing one three-plant replication for each NIL, two for the parental cultivar Piel de Sapo and one or two for the reference cultivars. Replications evaluated were more than six in the cultivars studied. Plant problems included aphids, powdery mildew, and leaf wind injury. Preharvest fruit disorders included whole fruit cracking in cultivar Védrantais and NIL 5M2, and stylar-end cracking in cultivar Fado. Climacteric NILs with yellow skin were particularly affected by over-ripening, stylar-end cracking, and sunburn during cultivation. At harvest, two NILs showed slight placental tissue necrosis which was inherited from SC and were also detected after storage. Other uncommon disorders seen at harvest or 30 days after storage at 8ºC included warted skin (scarring, flesh discoloration (light brown or translucent areas, hollow flesh disorder, and deep furrow netting inherited from SC. Less common rots included grey mould, bacterial soft rot, Penicillium rot, cottony leak and internal Cladosporium rot. Stylar-end hardness below 20 N·mm-1 was associated with cracking and softening. The incidence of the disorders and rots was too low to confirm that the genetic component played a role in their development

  16. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l., stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l., almacenada a 18°C

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    Moreno Paola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish or 5 (yellow orange and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of sugars and acids on this day. Soluble solids tended to increase and the titratable acids went to diminish. The fruit's sugar content was characterized by a major concentration of sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. While the citric acid showed its highest level at the sixth storage day that of the tartaric acid increased constantly up to 18 days. The fruit maturity stage 3 is that which best conserved the sugars and organic acids evaluated. The maturity index influenced more than calyx drying the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry. Calyx drying at 24ºC caused the highest climacteric peak and originated the highest loss of fresh weight in fruits harvested at maturity index 5.

    Key words: Physalis peruviana; respiration; climacteric fruit; Brix degrees; organic acids; sugars.

    Frutos de uchuva en estados de madurez 3 (amarillo verdoso ó 5 (amarillo naranja y con secado del cáliz durante seis horas a 18 y 24ºC, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (18ºC y humedad relativa del 75% durante 20 días, con el fin de evaluar cambios físico-químicos y fisiológicos. La uchuva, fruto climatérico, presentó el máximo de respiración entre los 6 y 8 días de almacenamiento. El día 6 de almacenamiento parece ser crucial debido al metabolismo muy elevado y los contenidos más altos de azúcares y ácidos. Los sólidos solubles totales tendieron a aumentar, la acidez titulable a disminuir. El contenido de azúcares se caracterizó por

  17. Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e avaliação da qualidade de vida no climatério Prevalence of mental disorders and assessment of quality of life in the climaterium

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    Lílian Lira Lisboa Fagundes Galvão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e a qualidade de vida (QV relacionados à saúde em mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 191 mulheres (entre 45 e 65 anos em estudo analítico transversal. Um questionário, contendo informações pessoais, hábitos/saúde e dados demográficos, foi administrado em associação a instrumentos validados para medir qualidade de vida (SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey e estimar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (SRQ-20, Self Reporting Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: Com a utilização do SRQ-20 e empregando ponto de corte de oito ou mais respostas afirmativas, 39,8% das mulheres foram classificadas como apresentando transtornos mentais comuns. Evidenciou-se maior prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e piores escores de QV nas mulheres com pouca escolaridade, baixa renda familiar e que não exerciam atividades profissionais fora do domicílio. Os escores médios para todos os domínios do SF-36 foram significativamente mais baixos nas mulheres categorizadas por apresentarem transtornos mentais comuns. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns é elevada na amostra de mulheres no climatério e está associada com repercussões negativas sobre sua qualidade de vida. Fatores psicossociais exercem significativa influência, e estratégias de suporte psicológico deveriam ser instituídas no contexto das políticas de saúde voltadas para mulheres no climatério.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prevalence of mental distress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in climacteric women. METHODS: A total of 191 women (45 to 65 years of age were included in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire about personal information, habits/health, and demographic data was administered in association with the two validated instruments to measure HRQoL, SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and to estimate prevalence

  18. Quality of life in perimenopausal women working in the health and educational system Calidad de vida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en el sistema sanitario y educativo Qualidade de vida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham no sistema sanitário e educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Márquez Membrive

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the association between the professional activity and the perceived quality of life in climacteric women who work in Health and Education. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed in a sample of 203 climacteric women, together with a correlation analysis of labor factors’ influence on health-related quality of life. Significant differences were found between working women’s quality of life and some labor conditions. The perceived quality of life in perimenopausal women who work in Education is higher than that of those working in Health (p=0.004. Nursing professionals can develop health programs that deal with the work conditions that negatively influence the perceived quality of life in climacteric women.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la actividad profesional y la calidad de vida percibida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en las áreas sanitaria y educativa. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, en una muestra de 203 mujeres climatéricas, junto al análisis correlacional de la influencia de los factores laborales en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la calidad de vida de las trabajadoras y algunas condiciones laborales. La calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres perimenopáusicas que trabajan en educación es superior a la de las que trabajan en salud (p=0,004. Los profesionales de Enfermería pueden elaborar programas de salud, que aborden las condiciones de trabajo que influyen negativamente en la calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres climatéricas.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a associação entre a atividade profissional e a qualidade de vida percebida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham nas áreas da saúde e educação. Realizou-se estudo descritivo e transversal, numa amostra de 203 mulheres climatéricas, juntamente com análise correlacional da

  19. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Liu

    Full Text Available Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L. fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF, while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and

  20. Influência dos sintomas climatéricos sobre a função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade Influence of menopausal symptoms on sexual function in middle-aged women

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    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência dos sintomas climatéricos na função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo populacional de corte transversal, com amostra de 370 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos, atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Natal, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário referente s características sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentais das mulheres. A função sexual foi avaliada pelo Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, enquanto os sintomas do climatério pelo Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTADOS: No grupo estudado, 67% das mulheres apresentaram risco de disfunção sexual (FSFI≤26,5. Todos os domínios do FSFI (desejo, excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dor apresentaram escores mais baixos nas mulheres com risco de disfunção sexual (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of climacteric symptoms on the sexual function in middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was conducted on a sample of 370 middle-aged women, aged 40 to 65 years-old, cared for at the Basic Health Units in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. We used a questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, while the menopause symptoms by the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTS: In the studied group, 67% of the women reported risk for sexual dysfunction (FSFI≤26.5. All FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were lower in women with risk for sexual dysfunction (p<0.001. The arousal, orgasm, and pain domains were most likely to contribute to lower FSFI scores. All somatovegetative, urogenital, and psychological MRS symptoms were more elevated in women with risk for sexual dysfunction, being significant for all comparisons (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of

  1. Perfil oxidativo de la mujer menopáusica: Papel de los estrógenos en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades Oxidative Profile of the Menopausal Woman: Estrogens´ Rol in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escalante-Gómez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El balance entre la producción de radicales libres de oxigeno y el nivel de enzimas antioxidantes es permanentemente regulado por la célula. Las enzimas antioxidantes son esenciales para las células aeróbicas, puesto que mantienen en niveles aceptables las concentraciones de especies químicas conocidas como radicales libres. Durante el climaterio o etapa perimenopáusica, el cuerpo y metabolismo de una mujer cambia de forma importante, y los mecanismos que regulan el estrés oxidativo no son la excepción. Los estrógenos, per se, son antioxidantes, y esto ha impulsado recientemente estudios sobre los efectos antioxidativos de los estrógenos, como un posible mecanismo preventivo para algunas enfermedades. En los últimos años se le ha brindado gran importancia al papel del estrés oxidativo en la génesis de algunas enfermedades como la ateroesclerosis y la enfermedad cardiovascular, algunos tipos de cánceres y la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Pareciera que los estrógenos sí modifican el equilibro oxidativo / antioxidativo in vivo, sin embargo aun se requieren más estudios para puntualizar el rol de estos como posibles tratamientos preventivos para la menopáusica.The cell carefully regulates the balance between the production of radical oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes levels. Antioxidant enzymes are critical for aerobic cells to maintain within balance free radical production. During the climacteric transition, the body and its metabolism suffer many changes and the mechanisms that regulate oxidative balance are not the exception. Estrogens, per se, are antioxidants, and this has promoted several studies to investigate the potential role of estrogens in disease prevention. Within the last few years, a great deal of studies have shown the relationship between oxidative stress and diseases such as therosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. It appears that estrogens do modify the oxidative / anti

  2. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  3. 超声碎石联合输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声碎石联合输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石的临床研究与分析。方法:2008年6月至2010年8月来我院治疗输尿管结石的120例患者,其中男性患者55例,女性患者65例,年龄在18-82岁,平均年龄45.5岁,均采用超声碎石联合输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石,上段结石患者13例,中段结石患者40例,下段结石67例。结果:1次性成功取出输尿管上段结石80%成功率(10/13),中段结石95%成功率(38/40),下段结石100%成功率(67/67)。总96%成功率(115/120)。结论:超声碎石联合输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石安全性高,疗效满意,具有广阔的应用前景。%Objective To explore the efficacy of citalopram angument with olanzapine in the treatment of climacteric depression. Methods A total of 64 patients with climacteric depression were randomly divided into study group with citalopram combined with olanzapine and control group with citalopram for 12 weeks of treat ment.They were assessed and analysed contrastively using Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD),Kupperman (KMI) and or clinical efficacy and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS)for side effects.Results After treatment,the scores of HAMD and KMI in two groups were both significantly lower than those before treatment.In the 6th weekend of treatment,the scores of HAMD and KMI in study group were significantly lower than those in control group. No severe side effects were found in two groups.Conclusion Citalopram augmented with olanzapine is more efficient to control the symptoms. It is worth of spreading.

  4. Efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract on menopausal syndrome in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ting-ping; SUN Ai-jun; XUE Wei; WANG Ya-ping; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Ying; LANG Jing-he

    2013-01-01

    Background It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms.But the durations reported were usually short.This paper compares the clinical effects of different regimens of three-month course on climacteric symptoms in Chinese women,so as to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract.Methods This was a prospective,randomized trial.Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into 3 groups to take different kinds of medicine for 3 months; participants were given Cimicifuga foetida extract daily in group A (n=32),given estradiol valerate and progesterone capsule cycle sequentially in group B (n=32),and given estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate cycle sequentially in group C (n=32).The questionnaires of Kupperman menopause index,Menopause-Specific Quality of Life,and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were finished before and after the treatment.The status of vaginal bleeding and breast tenderness was recorded every day.Results Eighty-nine participants (89/96,92.7%) completed the treatment.Kupperman menopause index decreased after taking the medicine for 3 months in each group (with all P<0.001),but the score after the treatment was higher in group A than in the other 2 groups.Except for the score of sexual domain in group A (P=0.103),the scores of all domains of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life decreased significantly after the treatment in all groups (with all P≤-0.01).Score of anxity decreased significantly in group A (P=0.015) and B (P=0.003).Incidence of breast tenderness was 12.9% (4/31) in group A,36.7% (11/30) in group B,and 14.3% (4/28) in group C.Incidence of vaginal bleeding was 6.5% (2/31) in group A,26.7% (8/30) in group B,and 82.1% (23/28) in group C.Conclusions Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective and safe in the treatment of menopausal syndrome.It is worth extending its use in the treatment of climacteric

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation combined with hot water immersion treatment for shelf life extension of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of minimal processing treatments, both individually or in combinations, was carried out in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the quality of bananas. Pre climacteric bananas at light full three-quarter grade, were either treated with hot water immersion for 1-30 min at 45-55 degree C, or irradiated with electron beams (2.0 MeV, Van de Graaff accelerator), to a dose of 0.1-1.5 kGy. All fruit was stored at 21 ± 1 degree C and relative humidity of 85-95 %. There was no significant delay in ripening of fruit treated with hot water immersion at the above temperatures. Some damage to fruit particularly peel scalding at ends occurred at the higher temperatures (>50 degree C). The 50 degree C, 5 minutes immersion was selected for further study. Irradiation to 0.1-0.3 kGy delayed the ripening (up to 3 days) without affecting fruit quality. Doses greater than 0.4 kGy resulted in extensive discoloration and fruit splitting. No significant differences could be detected organoleptically between bananas irradiated at 0.15 kGy and the control. Results of the physico-chemical attributes of the bananas were reported for fruits at colour stage 5 and after 10 and 15 days of storage. The combination treatment of hot water immersion and irradiation at the above settings further extended the shelf life of the banana fruits

  6. Potential role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant genes in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chen; Jiang, Li; An, Xiujuan; Yu, Mingliang; Xu, Yin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Zhifang

    2016-07-01

    The roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as both toxic by-products and as signaling molecules have been reported in fruit development and ripening. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) play important roles in balancing the induction and removal of ROS in plants, and are respectively encoded by families of closely homologous genes. In the present study, we investigated the roles of ROS and the above-mentioned antioxidant genes during the development and ripening of peach fruit. The experimental results indicated that O2(-) and H2O2 acted as potential signaling molecules in the middle stage of fruit development, and only H2O2 might function as a main toxic molecule to stimulate lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCu/Zn-SODs were the most abundant members in the PpaSOD gene family and they expressed steadily in peach fruit development and ripening. Low temperature (4 °C) postponed and suppressed the climacteric peaks of respiration and ethylene, significantly enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX, and up-regulated the expression of PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 were two key genes in alleviating oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening. PMID:27208820

  7. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Chilling Injury and Maintains Postharvest Quality in Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lei; ZHENG Yong-hua; ZHANG Yan-fen; WANG Feng; ZHANG Lan; LU Zhao-xin

    2003-01-01

    Zhaohui peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) were treated with 0 (CK), 1, 10 or 100 μmol L-1methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapor at 20℃ for 24 h before stored at 0℃ for 35 d. The untreated fruits showed chilling injury (CI) symptoms after 4 wk of storage, as indicated by increased fruit firmness and reduced extractable juice, which is referred as leatheriness. Treatment with 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA promoted normal ripening and softening, maintained higher levels of extractable juice, titratable acidity, pectinesterase (PE)and polygalacturonase (PG) activities, inhibited increases in fruit fresh weight loss, decay incidence, electrolyte leakage and MDA content, and improved color development, thereby preventing chilling injury symptoms development and maintaining edible quality. MeJA treatment also delayed the climacteric rise in respiratory rate, but promoted ethylene production during the later period of cold storage, suggesting that ethylene may involve in CI development of peaches. These results indicate that 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA treatments could be used to reduce CI development and decay incidence in peaches.

  8. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  9. Mild hyperthyroidism with inappropriate secretion of TSH in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custro, N; Scafidi, V

    1986-02-01

    In a previous study on the function of the hypothalamus - pituitary - thyroid axis, about 10% of postmenopausal women with the climacteric syndrome were found to have borderline high values of T3 and T4 and signs of pituitary decreased sensitivity to the suppressive effect of increased thyroid hormones. The present report concerns 5 women in the first phase of their menopause who showed a mild hyperthyroidism under basal conditions and after suppression test with liothyronine. Each patient had borderline increased levels of serum total and free T4 and T3 and a marked TSH responsiveness to exogenous TRH. After liothyronine, the serum levels of T4, FT4, TSH and the responsiveness to TRH-test clearly decreased. These data suggest an inappropriate TSH secretion with a decreased pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormones. These cases could represent a modification of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis associated with that of the gonadal axis, secondary to the absence of rapid adaptation of neurotransmitters. PMID:3082097

  10. Assessment of the Potential of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments to Maintain Fruit Quality of the Common Fig (Ficus carica L. cv. ‘Bursa Siyahi’ during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan OZKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fig fruit is a unique, climacteric, highly perishable subject to rapid physiological breakdown. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP was tested to delay ripening of black fig (Ficus carica L. cv. ‘Bursa Siyahi’ during storage over two growing seasons. Fruits were pre-cooled to 1 °C for 6 hours and afterwards treated with 500 or 1000 nl l-1 of 1-MCP for 24 hours. Treated fruits were stored for 10 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH and then evaluated. 1-MCP treatments showed that ethylene production, respiration rate, weight loss and concentrations of glucose, fructose and total soluble solids (TSS were negatively correlated to the 1-MCP doses during cold storage (with the exception of TSS in the first year of experiment and respiration rate in the second year of the experiment. In contrast, pulp firmness and colour (ho during cold storage were positively correlated to the 1-MCP applied doses. Results of this study showed that although 1-methylcyclopropene applications slowed down fruit softening during the 10 days of storage, 1-methylcyclopropene appeared to have a relatively limited effect on slowing ripening of ‘Bursa Siyahi’ figs.

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from ‘Taishanzaoxia’ apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in ‘Taishanzaoxia’. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening. PMID:26719904

  12. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  13. Ethylene and fruit ripening: from illumination gas to the control of gene expression, more than a century of discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Soares Chaves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ethylene on plants have been recognized since the Nineteenth Century and it is widely known as the phytohormone responsible for fruit ripening and for its involvement in a number of plant growth and development processes. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in the ripening of climacteric fruit and the role that ethylene plays in this process have been central to fruit production and the improvement of fruit quality. The biochemistry, genetics and physiology of ripening has been extensively studied in economically important fruit crops and a considerable amount of information is available which ranges from the ethylene biosynthesis pathway to the mechanisms of perception, signaling and control of gene expression. However, there is still much to be discovered about these processes and the objective of this review is to present a brief historic account of how ethylene became the focus of fruit ripening research as well as the development and the state-of- art of these studies at both biochemical and genetic levels.

  14. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP. PMID:20689184

  15. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  16. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'). Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric). Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom. PMID:22204446

  17. Kiwifruit EIL and ERF Genes Involved in Regulating Fruit Ripening1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-ren; Allan, Andrew C.; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B.

    2010-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a climacteric fruit sensitive to low concentrations of ethylene. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying kiwifruit ethylene response, transcription factors encoding four EIN3-Like (EILs) and 14 Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) were cloned from kiwifruit. Expression of these transcription factors was examined during fruit development. The expression of transcripts of most AdERFs was higher during early fruit development, with the exception of AdERF3, which increased with maturity. Several AdERFs were apparently down-regulated by ethylene, as they were affected by the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene and by antisense suppression of ACO (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) in the fruit. In contrast, AdEILs were constitutively expressed during fruit development and ripening. The transcription factors AdEIL2 and AdEIL3 activated transcription of the ripening-related genes AdACO1 and AdXET5 (xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene) and, when overexpressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), stimulated ethylene production. The potential repressor AdERF9 suppressed this promoter activity. These results support a role for kiwifruit EILs and ERFs in transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes and in the regulation of kiwifruit fruit-ripening processes. PMID:20457803

  18. Evaluation of bone alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vieira Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a reduction in mortality, thus contributing to an increase in the number of women with HIVࢧAIDS who reach the climacteric period, experience decline in ovarian function, and develop complications of viral infection and HAART, which can accelerate bone loss. The aim of this study was to detect possible alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected women by panoramic radiography. The study comprised a total of 120 women above 40 years of age who were divided into the following two groups: women who are HIV positive (Group I and women with no known HIV infection (Group II. Measurement of the following three radiomorphometric indexes was performed by panoramic radiography: Mental Index (MI, Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI and Antegonial Depth (AD. A total of 70% of women in the control group and 50% of women in the HIV group were in the postmenopausal period, and the average values of both MI (p = 0.0054 and AD (p < 0.0001 for this period were lower in the HIV group than in the control group. For patients who were in the premenopausal period, the average AD was lower in the HIV group than in the control group (p = 0.0003. Despite the difference in the average age between groups, greater bone resorption in the mandible was found in the group of HIV-positive women.

  19. Endocrinology of menopausal transition and its brain implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Bernardi, Francesca; Pluchino, Nicola; Begliuomini, Silvia; Lenzi, Elena; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele

    2005-06-01

    The central nervous system is one of the main target tissues for sex steroid hormones, which act on both through genomic mechanisms, modulating synthesis, release, and metabolism of many neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and through non-genomic mechanisms, influencing electrical excitability, synaptic function, morphological features, and neuron-glia interactions. During the climacteric period, sex steroid deficiency causes many neuroendocrine changes. At the hypothalamic level, estrogen withdrawal gives rise to vasomotor symptoms, to eating behavior disorders, and altered blood pressure control. On the other hand, at the limbic level, the changes in serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and opioidergic tones contribute to the modifications in mood, behavior, and nociception. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) positively affects climateric depression throughout a direct effect on neural activity and on the modulation of adrenergic and serotoninergic tones and may modulate the decrease in cognitive efficiency observed in climaterium. The identification of the brain as a de novo source of neurosteroids, suggests that the modifications in mood and cognitive performances occurring in postmenopausal women may also be related to a change in the levels of neurosteroids. These findings open new perspectives in the study of the effects of sex steroids on the central nervous system and on the possible use of alternative and/or auxiliary HRT. PMID:15908899

  20. Characterization of the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene family and the regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernys, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    2000-09-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Lula) is a climacteric fruit that exhibits a rise in ethylene as the fruit ripens. This rise in ethylene is followed by an increase in abscisic acid (ABA), with the highest level occurring just after the peak in ethylene production. ABA is synthesized from the cleavage of carotenoid precursors. The cleavage of carotenoid precursors produces xanthoxin, which can subsequently be converted into ABA via ABA-aldehyde. Indirect evidence indicates that the cleavage reaction, catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), is the regulatory step in ABA synthesis. Three genes encoding NCED cleavage-like enzymes were cloned from avocado fruit. Two genes, PaNCED1 and PaNCED3, were strongly induced as the fruit ripened. The other gene, PaNCED2, was constitutively expressed during fruit ripening, as well as in leaves. This gene lacks a predicted chloroplast transit peptide. It is therefore unlikely to be involved in ABA biosynthesis. PaNCED1 was induced by water stress, but expression of PaNCED3 was not detectable in dehydrated leaves. Recombinant PaNCED1 and PaNCED3 were capable of in vitro cleavage of 9-cis-xanthophylls into xanthoxin and C(25)-apocarotenoids, but PaNCED2 was not. Taken together, the results indicate that ABA biosynthesis in avocado is regulated at the level of carotenoid cleavage. PMID:10982448

  1. Pharmacokinetic interactions between Japanese traditional Kampo medicine and modern medicine (IV). Effect of Kamisyoyosan and Tokisyakuyakusan on the pharmacokinetics of etizolam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Toshiaki; Inagaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Ken-ichi; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2005-02-01

    Kamisyoyosan (KSS) and Tokisyakuyakusan (TSS) are widely used herbal formulas in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to relieve the symptoms occurred in climacteric disturbance. Since Japanese physicians frequently prescribe these formulas combined with etizolam, one of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction between KSS or TSS and etizolam, and in vitro inhibitory effect of KSS and TSS on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity in rat microsomes, to obtain drug information to prevent from disadvantage or adverse effects by their combined therapy. In in vitro experiment, KSS and TSS inhibited CYP3A activity comparable to grapefruit juice. However in in vivo experiments, oral administration of KSS did not influence the plasma concentration profile of etizolam. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of etizolam was significantly reduced when TSS was co-administered at 20 times amount of human daily dosage. Since the double of human daily dose of TSS did not suppress the absorption of etizolam, TSS would not influence the pharmacokinetics of etizolam at the usual clinical dosage. Since both KSS and TSS did not influence the metabolism of etizolam, the result of in vitro experiment would not reflect to that of in vivo experiment or in clinic. The combination of etizolam with KSS or TSS at usual dosage would not cause drug interaction. PMID:15684484

  2. Post-harvest physiological study and evaluation of the quality of Cv. Horvin plums (prunus domestica l. in three cold-storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra Coronado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The plum cv. Horvin is a highly perishable fruit; this hampers post-harvest handling and there is currently no cold sto-rage chamber or suitable post-harvest handling infrastructure in Colombia. The present work was aimed at evalua-ting the quality of the plum cv. Horvin in three storage conditions. The plum cv. Horvin is a climacterical fruit, its res-piratory rate being influenced by storage conditions showing a direct relationship with temperature. It was found that 4°C was the best storage temperature for maintaining cv. Horvin plum quality, having a 13.23% accumulated weight loss, greater than 20 N firmness and more than 11°Brix total soluble solids (SST at the end of a 31-day sto-rage period. Weight loss, respiratory rate, firmness, titratable acidity (AT and SST/AT ratio were the parameters best representing cv. Horvin plum maturity during storage. Total soluble solids did not reveal high variability in the stora-ge conditions analysed here; this parameter should not be taken as being a post-harvest maturity index.

  3. Gender features of depressive disorders in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the data available in the literature and the results of their investigations of the gender features of depressive disorders in women. They analyze the results of studies relating to gender differences in the neurohormonal system from the embryonic period, as well as those in the lateralization of neuromorphofunctional provision of emotions. Based on their clinical observations, the authors discuss the varying roles of menopause in the etiopathogenesis of climacteric, psychogenic, and endogenous depression; in these forms of depression, menopause may be a cause, ground, or trigger, respectively. The influence of endocrine and sociopsychological factors on the development of postpartum depression is considered. The authors unveil the diagnostic and predictive value of premenopausal syndrome with depressive disorders at different stages of a depressive episode: the prediction of depression when depressive symptoms appear in the premenopausal period, as well as the reduction of premenopausal depressive disorders as evidence of intermission. Based on the data available in the literature, the authors consider the clinical features of depression in women: earlier onset; more frequent depressive episodes; greater presentation of atypical symptoms (anxiety, fatigue, increased appetite, weight gain, hypersomnia, and signs of somatization, as well as rarer suicidal tendencies as comparedto men. It is concluded that the gender features of depression in women are due to the whole complex of gender factors, such as neurophysiological, neuroendocrine, and sociopsychological ones.

  4. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  5. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  6. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  7. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  8. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  9. An Orange Ripening Mutant Links Plastid NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Complex Activity to Central and Specialized Metabolism during Tomato Fruit Maturation[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevitz, Shai; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Izkovich, Yinon; Rogachev, Ilana; Osorio, Sonia; Itkin, Maxim; Adato, Avital; Pankratov, Ilya; Hirschberg, Joseph; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Wolf, Shmuel; Usadel, Björn; Levy, Avraham A.; Rumeau, Dominique; Aharoni, Asaph

    2010-01-01

    In higher plants, the plastidial NADH dehydrogenase (Ndh) complex supports nonphotochemical electron fluxes from stromal electron donors to plastoquinones. Ndh functions in chloroplasts are not clearly established; however, its activity was linked to the prevention of the overreduction of stroma, especially under stress conditions. Here, we show by the characterization of OrrDs, a dominant transposon-tagged tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant deficient in the NDH-M subunit, that this complex is also essential for the fruit ripening process. Alteration to the NDH complex in fruit changed the climacteric, ripening-associated metabolites and transcripts as well as fruit shelf life. Metabolic processes in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruit were affected in OrrDs, as mutant fruit were yellow-orange and accumulated substantially less total carotenoids, mainly β-carotene and lutein. The changes in carotenoids were largely influenced by environmental conditions and accompanied by modifications in levels of other fruit antioxidants, namely, flavonoids and tocopherols. In contrast with the pigmentation phenotype in mature mutant fruit, OrrDs leaves and green fruits did not display a visible phenotype but exhibited reduced Ndh complex quantity and activity. This study therefore paves the way for further studies on the role of electron transport and redox reactions in the regulation of fruit ripening and its associated metabolism. PMID:20571113

  10. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  11. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  12. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal compo-nents of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-tae CHOI

    2008-01-01

    Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer is mainly used to maintain the homeostasis of the body, and the pharmacological efficacy of Korean ginseng identified by modern science includes improved brain function, pain-relieving effects, pre-ventive effects against tumors as well as anti-tumor activity, enhanced immune system function, anti-diabetic effects, enhanced liver function, adjusted blood pressure, anti-fatigue and anti-stress effects, improved climacteric disorder and sexual functions, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Further clini-cal studies of these pharmacological efficacies will continue to be carried out. Korean ginseng is found to have such main properties as ginsenoside, ployacety-lene, acid polysaccharide, anti-oxidative aromatic compound, and insulin-like acid peptides. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is substantially more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Furthermore, Korean ginseng has been identified to contain more main non-saponin compounds, phenol compounds, acid polysaccharides and polyethylene compounds than American ginseng and Sanchi ginseng.

  13. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.

  14. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  15. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  16. Uwarunkowania zaburzeń snu u kobiet stosujących hormonalną terapię zastępczą i niestosujących hormonalnej terapii zastępczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wilczak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms accompanying the changes occurring in a female organism in the climacteric period constitutemore frequently a major health-related problem and via its influence on the quality of life, they also becomesocial-related problems concerning many millions of women worldwide.The aim of the study was to estimate the conditioning of sleeping disorders in women using and not usinghormonal replacement therapy (HRT.90 patients between 15 and 80 years of age participated in the study (M = 49.81; SD = 11.69. Psychologicaltests and sleeping disorders tests that were used: Courtauld Emotional Control, Beck Depression Inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth SleepinessScale, Athens Insomnia Scale. The analysis of the results included first of all measuring of r-Pearson’s correlationbetween sleeping disorders such as difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or awakening too early andgroups of variables such as the level of psychic life (satisfaction with life as a positive indicator and depressionas an indicator of disorders, control of emotions (anger, depression and anxiety as well as general control indicatorand self-esteem (general self-esteem, competences, being loved, popularity, leadership features, self-control,moral self-acceptance, physical attractiveness, vitality, integration of identity, defensive self-enhancement.

  17. Depressão e ansiedade em mulheres climatéricas: fatores associados Depression and anxiety in menopausal women: associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernando Polisseni

    2009-01-01

    ção significativa entre a presença de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade moderada e o aparecimento dessas alterações do humor (pPURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in climacteric women and the probable factors responsible for its occurrence. METHODS: a transversal study that has selected 93 women attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic, from May 2006 to August 2007. Inclusion criteria were: women from 40 to 65 years old who agreed with participating in the project. Exclusion criteria: patients in hormonal therapy, hormone-therapy by implant, DIUs and depo injections in the preceding six months, endocrinopathies leading to menstrual irregularities, hepatopathies, thrombopathies, use of drugs which interfere in the menstrual cycle, anxiolytics and antidepressants (as their use indicates previous diagnosis of mood disorders, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer or psychiatric disease, and patients who had been submitted to radio or chemotherapy. During the interview, four questionnaires were applied: Anamnesis, containing socio-demographic, clinical and living habits data; Blatt-Kupperman's Menopausal Index for climacteric syndrome diagnosis; Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS-A for anxiety diagnosis; and Beck's Depression Inventory for the diagnosis of depression. Descriptive and correlation analysis among the variables, χ2 and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were performed using the Statistica Software program, version 6. RESULTS: the average depression prevalence among the patients was 36.8%, while that of anxiety was 53.7%. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the three phases of climacterium. There was a significant relationship between the presence of moderate climacteric symptoms and the presence of mood alterations (p<0.001. Depression was more frequent in women with anxiety (OR=4.2 and insomnia (OR=4.9, having a job being a protection factor (OR=0.2. Risk factors

  18. Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Xuan T; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-03-01

    The aril around the seeds of Gac fruit is rich in fatty acids and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene). Understanding how these qualities are affected by fruit maturity at harvest may identify indices for quality assessment. Some physical and chemical properties of Gac fruit were determined for fruit harvested between 8 and 16 weeks after pollination (WAP). Fruit respiration rates and ethylene production rates were assessed after harvest and up to 20 days in storage at 20°C. Fruit harvested at 14 WAP had the highest oil (0.27 ± 0.02 g/g DW), lycopene content (0.45 ± 0.09 mg/g FW), and β-carotene content (0.33 ± 0.05 mg/g FW) which declined by 16 WAP. External skin color and aril TSS were indicative of oil and carotenoid contents in aril. Skin color, TSS and potentially firmness were good indices of fruit quality. Harvesting less mature fruit at 12 WAP would be practical as the fruit were firmer and more capable of transport; however, quality during postharvest ripening may be limited. Fruits continued to ripen after they were harvested and an ethylene peak in the least mature fruit may reflect a climacteric behavior but this needs further investigation. PMID:27004120

  19. Tibolone protects astrocytic cells from glucose deprivation through a mechanism involving estrogen receptor beta and the upregulation of neuroglobin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Hidalgo-Lanussa, Oscar; Baez, Eliana; Gonzalez, Janneth; Barreto, George E

    2016-09-15

    Tibolone, a synthetic steroid used for the prevention of osteoporosis and the treatment of climacteric symptoms in post-menopausal women, may exert tissue selective estrogenic actions acting on estrogen receptors (ERs). We previously showed that tibolone protects human T98G astroglial cells against glucose deprivation (GD). In this study we have explored whether the protective effect of tibolone on these cells is mediated by ERs. Experimental studies showed that both ERα and ERβ were involved in the protection by tibolone on GD cells, being ERβ preferentially involved on these actions over ERα. Tibolone increased viability of GD cells by a mechanism fully blocked by an ERβ antagonist and partially blocked by an ERα antagonist. Furthermore, ERβ inhibition prevented the effect of tibolone on nuclear fragmentation, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in GD cells. The protective effect of tibolone was mediated by neuroglobin. Tibolone upregulated neuroglobin in T98G cells and primary mouse astrocytes by a mechanism involving ERβ and neuroglobin silencing prevented the protective action of tibolone on GD cells. In summary, tibolone protects T98G cells by a mechanism involving ERβ and the upregulation of neuroglobin. PMID:27250720

  20. Effect of exercise on the auditory discrimination task in perimenopausal women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, R-J; Wu, H-Y; Chen, H-J; Yan, Y-J

    2016-06-01

    Background The climacteric phase of menopausal transition (perimenopause) is marked by reproductive hormone fluctuations and reduced cognitive capacity. Exercise enhances neurocognitive performance. However, auditory perceptual sensitivity has not been examined. Purpose This study aimed to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on the response speed (reaction time) and error rate during auditory processing among perimenopausal women. Methods Three pitches (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) were used during a simple auditory discrimination task, which was performed before and after exercise. We included 14 perimenopausal women and 17 right-handed young women (aged 46-54 years and 18-22 years, respectively). To achieve similar exercise intensity in both groups, we proposed two types of physical activities for each group. Mixed models statistics were used to analyze the reaction time and error rate before and after training in the two groups. Results Perimenopausal women exhibited a significantly longer reaction time than young women during the baseline auditory discrimination task (p performance differs between the two groups. Aerobic exercise improves auditory discrimination performance specifically for perimenopausal women. These results provide preliminary evidence concerning the acoustic features of middle-aged women, underscoring the importance of exercise for preventing decline in auditory cognitive function in perimenopausal women. PMID:26940827

  1. [Assessment of serum estrogen levels by RIA with HPLC during hormone replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Uemura, H; Yoneda, N; Irahara, M; Aono, T; Sunahara, S; Hata, K

    1995-07-01

    We studied the serum estradiol and estrone levels in 146 peri and postmenopausal women, and in 38 women who had complained of various climacteric disturbance symptoms during daily hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 2.5 mg. Serum estradiol and estrone were measured before treatment, and at 6 months, and after one year of the HRT therapy by HPLC-radioimmunoassay. In 146 peri and postmenopausal women, the serum level of estradiol was from 3 to 6pg/ml. The serum level of estradiol in 38 women after HRT significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 3.34 to 23.6 pg/ml at 6 months, and 21.5 pg/ml at 12 months. The serum level of estrone significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 26.6pg/ml to 156.7pg/ml at 6 months, and 137.2pg/ml at 12 month. These results are very useful for deciding on the doses of hormones and the expected serum estradiol level in HRT for Japanese women. PMID:7636337

  2. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care. PMID:26653073

  3. 'PROFOX'--the post HRT nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, J

    2011-04-01

    The recent report of a two-fold increase in esophageal cancer in women taking oral bisphosphonates is yet another reason to question current relegation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to a minor role in the correction of many problems occurring in the younger postmenopausal woman. Women under the age of 60 years with low bone density, flushes, sweats, vaginal dryness, loss of libido and climacteric depression would be treated with estrogens by gynecologists and most general practitioners. It is regrettable that bone physicians use bisphosphonates as first-line therapy in this age group, in spite of the growing number of serious complications reported. Similarly, psychiatrists have little experience in the use of estrogens for the reproductive depression syndrome of postnatal depression, premenstrual depression and perimenopausal depression, but use antidepressants. The adverse effects reported in the 2002 Women's Health Initiative study are given as justification for not using estrogens, although serious complications did not occur in women starting HRT before the age of 60 years. But, in reality, the objection to estrogens from psychiatrists and bone physicians preceded this study by decades and was a result of their unfamiliarity with this treatment. Regrettably, PROFOX (PROzac + FOsomaX) will become an established treatment for women who really need estrogens. PMID:21105839

  4. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  5. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  6. Extension of the shelf life of guava by individual packaging with cling and shrink films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Seema; Siddiqui, Saleem; Goyal, Ankit

    2015-12-01

    Guava is a climacteric fruit so physico-chemical changes continuously occur after harvest till fruit become unfit for consumption and suffers from post harvest losses. The main objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of individual film in form of Shrink and Cling wrap on shelf life of guava. Fruits were individually packed in polythene bags (LDPE) of 200 gauge thickness by Shrink and Cling wrapping and stored at 7 ± 3 °C. Individual wrapping reduced the magnitude of changes during storage i.e., ripening process drastically as evident from lower total soluble solids, higher ascorbic acid, polyphenol content with lower polyphenol oxidase activity and physiological loss of weight (PLW) was less than 3.5 %. Film wrapping preserved freshness of wrapped fruits as they remained acceptable for whole storage time in contrast to control fruits which turned unacceptable by 15(th) day of storage. Control fruits showed significant compositional changes as well as in polyphenol content, ascorbic acid and reduced number of marketable fruits while Cling and Shrink wrapping enhanced the shelf life by 10 days. PMID:26604388

  7. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening. PMID:21930327

  8. Model Arrhenius untuk Pendugaan Laju Respirasi Brokoli Terolah Minimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Imamah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed broccoli are perishable product because it still has some metabolism process during the storage period. One of the metabolism process is respiration. Respiration rate is varied depend on the commodity and storage temperature. The purpose of this research are: to review the respiration pattern of minimally processed broccoli during storage period, to study the effect of storage temperature to respiration rate, and to review the correlation between respiration rate and temperature based on Arrhenius model. Broccoli from farming organization “Agro Segar” was processed minimally and then measure the respiration rate. Closed system method is used to measure O2 and CO2 concentration. Minimally processed broccoli is stored at a temperature of 0oC, 5oC, 10oC and 15oC. The experimental design used was completely randomized design of the factors to analyze the rate of respiration. The result shows that broccoli is a climacteric vegetable. It is indicated by the increasing of O2 consumption and CO2 production during senescence phase. The respiration rate increase as high as the increasing of temperature storage. Models Arrhenius can describe correlation between respiration rate and temperature with R2 = 0.953-0.947. The constant value of activation energy (Eai and pre-exponential factor (Roi from Arrhenius model can be used to predict the respiration rate of minimally processed broccoli in every storage temperature

  9. Comportamiento fisiológico de la pera variedad Triunfo de Viena (Pyrus communis L. durante el período poscosecha Physiological performance of pears (Pyrus communis L., cv. Triunfo de Viena during postharvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La pera variedad Triunfo de Viena es una fruta producida en Colombia y actualmente no se dispone de una red de frío para su manejo poscosecha. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer el comportamiento fisiológico de la pera variedad Triunfo de Viena en tres condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa: 3ºC y 85%, 11ºC y 80%, 18ºC y 75%. La pera variedad Triunfo de Viena es un fruto climatérico, cuyo punto de máxima intensidad respiratoria puede desplazarse en el tiempo dependiendo de las condiciones de almacenamiento. Para las condiciones estudiadas, el climaterio se presentó en el día 22 (35,87 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, en el día 36 (28,59 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 y en el día 93 (15,72 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 del almacenamiento, para las temperaturas de 18ºC, 11ºC y 3ºC respectivamente. La pérdida de peso presentó una relación lineal y directa respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento, siendo mayor con temperaturas de 18ºC y 11ºC. La acidez titulable y el pH no presentan grandes variaciones durante el almacenamiento. La intensidad respiratoria, la pérdida de peso, la relación SST/AT y la firmeza de la pulpa, son las características que representan mejor la evolución de la madurez de las peras variedad Triunfo de Viena.The pear cv. Triunfo de Viena is a fruit produced in Colombia, but at present time there is no cool chamber to handle it. The objective of this work was to determine the pear's physiological performance under three conditions of temperature and relative humidity: 3ºC and 85%, 11ºC and 80%, 18ºC and 75%. The pear cv. Triunfo de Viena is a climacterically fruit, which its maximum point of respiratory rate could vary according to the storage conditions. For the evaluated conditions, the number of days required to reach the climacteric-like peak was 22 (35,87 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, 36 (28,59 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 93 (15,72 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, at temperatures of 18ºC, 11ºC and 3ºC respectively. The weight loss presented a linear and direct

  10. Avaliação da capacidade orgástica em mulheres na pós-menopausa Assessment of orgasmic capacity of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Lenharo Penteado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a capacidade orgástica (durante a relação sexual e/ou a masturbação solitária de mulheres pós-menopausadas, saudáveis e sem tratamento hormonal com fatores climatéricos, psicossociais, comportamentais, hormonais e interpessoais. MÉTODOS: De um total de 999 mulheres avaliadas com idade entre 41 e 60 anos, selecionaram-se 60 mulheres saudáveis, sexualmente ativas, com pelo menos um ano de amenorréia, útero íntegro, relacionamento estável com parceiro capacitado ao coito e não usuárias de terapia hormonal. Elaborou-se um modelo estatístico de regressão logística que avaliou a capacidade de orgasmo (variável dependente em função de 17 variáveis independentes, que representavam fatores psicossociais, comportamentais, interpessoais, climatéricos e hormonais. RESULTADOS: A capacidade orgástica está significativamente correlacionada à prática da masturbação (p=0,000, ao gostar de abraçar e acariciar o corpo do parceiro (p= 0,036 e à presença de secura vaginal (p=0,021. CONCLUSÕES: Nas mulheres pós-menopausadas avaliadas, a capacidade orgástica relacionou-se positivamente com o relacionamento mais afetivo com o companheiro e com a prática da masturbação. Mulheres que apresentam secura vaginal, mas que praticam a masturbação e mantêm relacionamento afetivo com o parceiro, conseguem obter o mesmo número ou um número maior de orgasmos se comparados à freqüência do coito.OBJECTIVE: To correlate the capacity of healthy postmenopausal women to have orgasms (during intercourse or by solitary masturbation with psychosocial, behavioral, climacteric, hormonal and interpersonal factors. METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety-nine women (aged from 41 to 60 years underwent physical and supplementary tests and answered questionnaires regarding sexual behaviour. Sixty healthy women, sexually active, with one or more years of amenorrhea, without hormone therapy and with a partner capable of intercourse

  11. Os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa The meanings attributed to the voice by menopause women

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    Maria Aparecida Miranda de Paula Machado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados de 148 mulheres nos prontuários médicos, entre fevereiro de 2000 e outubro de 2001, no Programa da Saúde da Mulher no Climatério, do ambulatório de ginecologia de um hospital na cidade de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. Dentre a população total foram selecionadas intencionalmente 30 mulheres entre 48 e 59 anos, que não se consideravam profissionais da voz, no mínimo há 12 meses em amenorréia, e que foram entrevistadas com um roteiro temático, constituído de questões semi-estruturadas. Cada entrevista foi gravada e transcrita. A descrição, análise e interpretação foram fundamentadas pelas representações sociais, por meio do discurso do sujeito coletivo, com aproximações à hermenêutica-dialética. RESULTADOS: Os 27 discursos coletivos estruturados denotaram o relacionamento da voz às características biológicas, psicológicas e aspectos sociais do cotidiano, com a identificação de mudanças vocais no decorrer da vida. CONCLUSÕES: Foi possível observar representações sociais de natureza comunicacional e funcional, que salientaram a voz como elemento de constituição da identidade pessoal, concebida na pertinência social. A pesquisa sugere novas investigações fundamentadas nas ciências sociais, simultâneas aos estudos epidemiológicos, e a necessidade de se refletir sobre o processo de terapêutica vocal aplicado sobre uma laringe mais vulnerável, além de priorizar uma proposta de assistência integral à mulher no climatério, com enfoque sobre a saúde da voz.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed to the voice by menopausal women. METHODS: Data were collected from 148 medical records of women seen in the Climacteric Women Health Program of the Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia Gynecology Outpatient Clinic in Curitiba, Brazil, between February 2000 and October 2001. Of them, 30 women aged

  12. Resistencia mecánica, tasa respiratoria y producción de etileno de caqui 'Fuyu' durante el almacenamiento Mechanical resistance, respiratory rate and the ethylene production of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' during storage

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    Saul Dussán-Sarria

    2008-10-01

    during the postharvest period independently of the conservation conditions. The Young's modulus varied between 3,695.3 and 968.2 kPa. The harvest index of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' influenced the Young's modulus values during the storage. The persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' showed a respiratory pattern characteristic of climacteric fruits and exhibited a maximum ethylene evolution at the climacteric peak.

  13. Ripening pattern of guava cv. Pedro Sato Padrão de amadurecimento de goiaba cv. Pedro Sato

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    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava is a fruit with high respiration rates and a very short shelf life. Since information on its respiration pattern is contradictory, the objective was to study the changes occurring in the fruit during ripening and to relate them to the respiration behavior of this fruit. Guavas were picked at the half-ripe stage and stored for 8 days at 22 ± 1 ºC and 78 ± 1% relative humidity. The analyses conducted were: peel and pulp coloration, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, and ethylene production. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters analyzed apparently do not coincide and are ethylene-independent. There was an accentuated ethylene production during ripening, starting from the 4th day. The ethylene synthesis continued increasing up to the 8th day, when the fruits were already decomposing. It was observed that the firmness decreased sharply in the first three days of ripening, and the skin and pulp color changed during ripening. The TSS, total soluble solids, and the TTA, total titratable acidity, practically did not change during the ripening, even with the increased ethylene production. It can be concluded that guava is a fruit that presents characteristics of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.A goiaba apresenta altas taxas de respiração e uma vida útil muito curta, e como as informações sobre o padrão respiratório são contraditórias, objetivou-se estudar mudanças ocorridas no fruto durante o amadurecimento e relacioná-las ao comportamento respiratório desses frutos. Foram colhidas goiabas no estádio "de vez" e armazenadas por 8 dias à temperatura ambiente (22 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa de 78 ± 1%. As análises realizadas foram: coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e produção de etileno. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que todas as variáveis analisadas aparentemente não coincidem e independem da s

  14. Sexualidade no período climatérico: situações vivenciadas pela mulher Sexualidad en el período cilmatérico: situaciones vivenciadas por la mujer Sexuality in the climateric period: situations experienced by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rodrigues Fernandez

    2005-06-01

    , ofreciendo subsidios para la asistencia a la salud de la mujer contemplando la dimensión sexual.Descriptive study aimed at identifying the aspects that women, cared for at a Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics, consider positive and negative in exercising their sexuality in the climacteric phase. Data was collected through individual interviews, using the technique of critical incidents. The 45 women that were interviewed mentioned 86 situations, of which 41 (47.7 percent were considered positive and 45 (52.3 percent negative. The situations were classified in three categories: relationship with a partner, intercourse and the woman as a social being. The results showed that these women gave priority to the quality of the relationship and to the demonstration of emotion in a romantic context. They highlighted their dissatisfaction with their self-image and with the existence of sexual dominance of the men over women. The study made possible a wider understanding regarding the climacteric period, thus offering subsidies for an assistance to women's health that contemplates the sexual dimension.

  15. Potassium permanganate effects in postharvest conservation of the papaya cultivar Sunrise Golden Permanganato de potássio na conservação pós-colheita da cultivar de mamão Sunrise Golden

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    Danieele Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of KMnO4 on the extension of postharvest life of 'Sunrise Golden' papaya, stored under modified atmosphere and refrigeration. Fruit with up to 10% yellow peel were harvested in a commercial orchard in Linhares, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Sets of three fruit (unit mass of 289.9±18.5 g were wrapped in low-density polyethylene films (28 ¼m thick containing sachets of KMnO4 at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g per bag. The bags were sealed and stored at 10.4±0.9°C and 90±5% relative humidity for 25 days. After this period, the fruit were removed from the bags and maintained at 21±0.8°C and 90±5% relative humidity until complete ripening. Four days after bag sealing, CO2 concentration stabilized in all treatments, and was higher in bags without KMnO4. In all treatments, fruit reached the climacteric respiratory peak on the third day after bag removal, coinciding with peel color index of 3.5. Increasing the KMnO4 dose reduced the losses in fruit fresh matter, consistency and pulp electrolyte leakage. Potassium permanganate was effective in maintaining the fruit at the pre-climacteric stage during the 25-day storage, and did not interfere with normal ripening after bag removal.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do KMnO4 na extensão da vida pós-colheita da cultivar de mamão Sunrise Golden, armazenada em atmosfera modificada e refrigeração. Frutos com até 10% da área superficial da casca amarela foram colhidos em pomar comercial em Linhares, ES. Conjuntos de três frutos (massa unitária de 289,9±18,5g foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade (28 µm de espessura, com sachês de KMnO4 nas doses de 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, e 2 g por embalagem. As embalagens foram hermeticamente fechadas e armazenadas a 10,4±0,9°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR, por 25 dias. Após esse período, os frutos foram retirados das embalagens e armazenados a 21±0,8°C e 90±5% de

  16. 基于文献研究的肝郁证现代医学诊断规律探析%Analysis of the Diagnostic Law of Modern Medicine on Liver Qi Stagnation Based on Literature Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青; 司富春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic law of modern medicine on liver qi stagnation based on clinical research. Methods The retrieval standard was implemented. The literatures of clinical research on liver qi stagnation from 1992 to 2012 that were in compliance with the standard were collected. SPSS17. 0 statistical measure was adopted to analyze the frequency distributions of the relevant disorders,disease category and positive indexes of liver qi stagnation pattern/syndrome. Results Of 40 literatures retrieved,16 sorts of diseases were involved,the total case frequency was 2013,8 categories were classified;the diseases in the urogenital system accounted for 42. 50% on the first top of the list,the diseases in the digestive system for 27. 50% on the second top;the case frequencies were 706 and 388 for climacteric syndrome and breast hyperplasia respectively, occupying the first and second tops; the total frequency of the relevant positive indexes was 6354,including 69 categories,in which,the frequency of liver qi stagnation integral was 840, occupying the first top and that of estradiol was 825 , occupying the second top. Conclusion The diseases in the urogenital system form the main disease category of liver qi stagnation. Climacteric syndrome and breast hyperplasia are the main relevant diseases. The liver qi stagnation integral and estradiol are the main relevant factors of modern clinical pattern/syndrome differentiation.%目的 探析肝郁证现代医学临床研究诊断规律.方法 制定检索标准,对1992~2012年期间符合检索标准的肝郁证临床研究文献收集、整理,应用SPSS17.0统计分析肝郁证的相关疾病、疾病类别、阳性指标频率分布.结果 检索到40篇文献中涉及疾病16种,病例总频次2013,归为8大种类,泌尿生殖系统疾病占42.50%,居第一位,消化系统疾病占27.50%,居第二位,更年期综合征、乳腺增生病例频次分别为706、388,居疾病第一、第二位;

  17. Terapia hormonal y calidad del hueso Hormone therapy and bone quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La osteoporosis se reconoce como uno de los problemas de salud de la población femenina posmenopáusica, y la terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR como una de las medidas terapéuticas efectivas para evitar la fractura. Nos propusimos mostrar la experiencia acumulada en relación con el efecto de la terapia hormonal de reemplazo sobre la calidad del hueso. En un estudio retrospectivo realizado en 42 mujeres con edades entre 40 y 59 años que asistieron a la Clínica de Climaterio y Osteoporosis y a la consulta multidisciplinaria de climaterio del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico “Ramón González Coro” entre enero de 1997 y diciembre del año 2003, se determinó la calidad ósea mediante absorciometría dual de rayos X en región lumbar (L2-L4 o por ultrasonido del calcáneo (USCAL y recibieron tratamiento continuado con terapia estrogénica (E o con estrógenos progestagenos (EP durante no menos de un año (n = 30. Las mujeres que no pudieron recibir THR fueron agrupadas y evaluadas como grupo control (n =12. Durante el tiempo de observación promedio de 2 años, las mujeres que recibieron THR mejoraron su calidad ósea en el 16,8 %, mientras que las del grupo control empeoraron en el 8 % de los casos. Estos resultados iniciales, aunque son modestos, muestran la utilidad de la THR para mejorar la calidad del hueso y la necesidad de continuar estudios que permitan definir en nuestro medio la persistencia de la mejoría ósea, así como la magnitud de la osteoporosis posmenopáusica.Osteoporosis is recognized as one of the health problems of the female postmenopausic population and the replacement hormone therapy (RHT as one of the effective therapeutical measures to prevent fracture. We proposed ourselves to show the experience accumulated in relation to the effect of the replacement hormone therapy on the bone quality. In a retrospective study conducted among 42 women aged 30-59 that attended the Climacteric and Osteoporosis Clinic and the

  18. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  19. From the Women's Health Initiative to the combination of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators to avoid progestin addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marie-Cécile; Gourdy, Pierre; Trémollières, Florence; Arnal, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The female life expectancy rose from an average of 48 years to over 80 years in a century. The decline in the endogenous production of estrogen (especially the main circulating physiological hormone, 17β-estradiol, E2) at menopause (51 years on average) often leads to functional disorders affecting the quality of life. Estrogen deficiency impacts different tissues and results in an increase of various diseases, such as osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases. Hormone therapy (HT) for menopause is a rather new challenge which experienced vagaries following the women's health initiative (WHI) study conducted in largely post-menopausal women. In the first part of this review, we will try to summarize the main conclusions of the WHI trials, in particular the timing effect as well as the deleterious impact of the associated progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Hormone therapy, particularly the conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) combined with the MPA favor the occurrence of breast cancer, whereas conversely selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as tamoxifen or raloxifene) that block the activity of estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) prevent the risk of recurrence of ERa-positive breast cancers. A new strategy of ERa modulation called tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), combines (1) CEE to maintain the benefits of estrogen (climacteric symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis) and (2) bazedoxifene, which is not only a SERM, but which also induces a rapid degradation of ERa in the uterus and in the breast, thereby prevents the stimulatory effects of estrogens on epithelial proliferation of these two sex targets. In the second part of this review, we will summarize the recognized benefits of the TSEC approach, and our current knowledge of its potential benefits and risks. PMID:26261036

  20. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  1. Cloning of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA-regulated ethylene production in detached young persimmon calyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; ZHANG GuangLian; LI XiangXin; WANG LiangHe; ZHENG ZhongMing

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the typical climacteric fruits,persimmons (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) produce higher levels of ethylene when they are detached from trees at a younger stage.In order to obtain detailed information on the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in ripening,we cloned the DKNCED1,DKACS2,and DKAC01 genes from the calyx.Water loss was first noted in the calyx lobe,and DKNCED1 was highly expressed 1 d after the fruits were detached,coinciding with an increase in the ABA content.Then,the DKACS2 and DKAC01 genes were expressed after some delay.In the calyx,the ABA peak was observed 2 d after the fruits were harvested,and this peak preceded the ethylene peak observed on day 3.The fruit firmness rapidly decreased on day 4,and the fruits softened completely 6 d after they were harvested.The increases in the expressions of ABA,ethylene,and the genes in the calyxes occurred earlier than the corresponding increases in the pulp,although the 3 increases occurred on different days.Exogenous ABA treatment increased ABA concentration,induced expression of both ACS and ACO,and promoted ethylene synthesis and young-fruit softening;by contrast,treatment with NDGA inhibited the gene expressions and ethylene synthesis and delayed young-fruit softening.These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in the detached young persimmon fruits is initially triggered by ABA,which is induced by water loss in the calyx,through the induction of DKACS2 and DKAC01 expressions.The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses into the pulp tissue,where it induces autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis,resulting in an abrupt increase in ethylene production.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  3. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  4. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  5. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Catharina; Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Aragüez, Irene; Villarreal, Natalia; Ariza, María T; Martínez, Gustavo A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Civello, Marcos P; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-11-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC2. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  7. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  8. The pros and cons of plant estrogens for menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Sarah; Nachtigall, Margaret; Naftolin, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Concerns pertaining to the risk of estrogen exposure through HT have prompted an increase in the use of natural alternatives. Phytoestrogens may provide postmenopausal women with a practical alternative and many women have already begun to utilize phytoestrogen supplements. However, research regarding the efficacy of phytoestrogens as a hormone therapy alternative has been previously pessimistic or questionable at best. This review scrutinizes the most current research regarding the efficacy of three types of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, lignans and coumestans, and their specific effect on the reduction of climacteric symptoms, specifically vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy, insomnia and osteoporosis. A discussion of the research pertaining to the relative safety of each phytoestrogen in terms of breast and endometrial health is also included. Overall, current research demonstrates that phytoestrogens are effective in reducing the intensity of hot flushes, and some phytoestrogen combinations result in a decreased frequency. Certain phytoestrogens have also been shown to decrease vaginal atrophy, improve sleep and cognition, and positively affect bone health. Even though initial research was generally unconvincing, the more recent evidence reviewed here is rather positive. In terms of safety and reports of adverse reactions, trials have not shown an increase in breast cancer risk or increase in endometrial hyperplasia following phytoestrogen use, but trials explicitly designed to find neoplasia have not been reported. Moreover, unlike hormone therapy, lignans may not increase clotting risk in postmenopausal women, thus supplements may serve as a treatment option for patients who have contraindications to hormone therapy. Phytoestrogens may provide a safe and partially effective alternative to HT. However, because research regarding phytoestrogens is relatively new, pharmaco-vigilence is still required, as these products are not yet FDA-approved. This article is

  9. Construction of a traditional Chinese medicine syndrome-specific outcome measure: the Kidney Deficiency Syndrome questionnaire (KDSQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Run

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM syndrome-specific outcome measures is needed for the evaluation of TCM syndrome-specific therapies. We constructed a Kidney Deficiency Syndrome Questionnaire (KDSQ for the evaluation of the common TCM syndromes Kidney-Yin Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yin and Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang in middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms. Methods KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang were traditionally defined by expert opinion were validated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. Content validity was tested by EFA on a sample of 236 women from a seminar and SEM on another sample of 321 women from a postal survey. Other psychometric properties were tested on 292 women from the seminar at baseline and two systematically selected sub-samples: 54 who reported no changes in discomforts 11–12 days after the baseline and 31 who reported changes in discomforts 67–74 days after the baseline. All participants completed the KDSQ, the Greene Climacteric Scale and the standard 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Results The EFA and SEM established the measurement models of KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang supporting content validity of the KDSQ. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s Alpha >0.70. Construct validity was supported by theoretically-derived levels of correlation with the established external measures. Test–retest reliability was strong (ICCagreement: KDS-Yin, 0.94; KDS-Yang, 0.93. The KDSQ was responsive to changes over time as tested by effect size and longitudinal validity. Conclusions The KDSQ was a valid and reliable measure for KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang in Hong Kong Chinese middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms.

  10. Evaluation of a Candelilla Wax-Based Edible Coating to Prolong the Shelf-Life Quality and Safety of Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The apple by its nature as perishable food of climacteric type implies that even under refrigerated conditions, the fruit spoils quickly by its very nature of breathing and similarly are attacked by microorganisms of different types that make is the fruit spoil even faster so in the present investigation be worked with an edible coating to protect it from decomposition and contamination by phytopathogens microorganisms. Approach: This study reports the effect of the application of an edible coating elaborated with a natural wax extracted from Euphorbia antisyphilitica and containing 0.01% of a potent antioxidant, Ellagic Acid (EA, on the shelf life quality and safety of Golden Delicious apples. This new film extended and improved the quality of fresh apples. In a first experimental step, the edible coating was applied on apples and the characteristics evaluated were changes in the appearance, weight loss, total solids content and a sensorial evaluation was included. In a second experimental step, the capacity of protection of the edible coating was evaluated against three important phytopathogenic fungi (Colletrotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillum expansum. Results: demonstrated that EA-based edible coating prevents apparent damages to the fruits. In general, the film showed better results in comparison with the control (apples without coating. The EA-based coating diminished in greater proportion the change of color, weight loss, total solids content and it was not perceived by the sensorial panel. Results of second experimental step, demonstrated the edible EA-based coating is an excellent antifungal barrier against all microorganisms tested. Conclusion: The application of this new edible film for apples extends their shelf life and elevates the antioxidant potential, as well as their nutritional quality.

  11. Analysis of tomato photomorphogenic mutants for fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruits are an important source of minerals, vitamins, fibers and antioxidants for humans and animals. This is due to the presence of various kinds of carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, tocopherols, etc. All these compounds are synthesized during the course of fruit ripening. The ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex developmental process influenced by numerous factors including light, hormones, temperature, and genotype. Tomato has long served as a model organism for climacteric fruit ripening. The DNA micro array analysis for expression of genes revealed that nearly 1000 genes might participate in regulation of tomato fruit ripening indicating its complexity. Since plants are photosynthetic organisms, they depend on light for their growth and development. Different photoreceptors like phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropins mediate red-far red, and blue light mediated responses during the growth and development of plants. In tomato the process of fruit pigment development is regulated by the light. Recent studies have shown that both red and far-red light can penetrate the epidermis and pericarp of both immature and mature tomato fruits, and photoreceptors such as phytochromes are present in fruit tissues. Similarly, it has been shown that deficiency of cryptochrome affects the pigmentation during fruit ripening whereas the overexpression of cry2 leads to increase in lycopene content in tomato. But the role played by light is still unclear. In view of the importance of the role played by light during fruit pigmentation, we have undertaken a study on fruit ripening using different photomorphogenic mutants of tomato. We are analyzing the role played by different photoreceptors in the formation of various metabolites in tomato fruits such as carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, etc and the results will be presented at the meeting. We believe that such a study would fill the lacunae in the role played by light during fruit ripening of tomato. (author)

  12. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  13. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koia Jonni H

    2012-12-01

    extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  14. PROGRESSION VARIANTS OF CHRONIC SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Gusev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fourteen groups of patients have been investigated and divided into 2 classes. The first class included the following cohorts of patients: relatively healthy persons, age 18 to 55 yrs (n = 50; elderly persons 60 yrs old, as well as senior persons (n = 22; persons with chronic adnexitis, women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy (n = 16; climacteric syndrome (n = 16; autoimmune thyroiditis (n = 29. The second class of patients included following cohorts: elderly persons with chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI II-III stage (n=49; valvular cardiac disease (rheumatism, n = 15; psoriatic arthritis (n = 12; reactive arthritis (n = 17; antiphospholipid syndrome, a sub-group in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (n = 5; systemic lupus erythematosus (n=49; decompensated atherosclerosis of femoral artery (n = 38; end-stage renal disease (n = 42. Plasma cytokines (TNFαα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, acute-phase C-reactive protein (CRP, cortisol, troponin I, myoglobin, D-dimers, interleukin-2 soluble receptor (IL-2sR, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP were determined in all the patients, by means of immune chemiluminescent technique (Immulite; Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, USA. The integral indices of systemic inflammatory reaction (SIR have been calculated, i.e., a Reactivity Coefficient (RC and a Reactivity Level (RL. In the patients belonging to Class 1 cohorts, an absence of chronic systemic inflammation features was revealed, despite of some signs of systemic inflammatory response. Meanwhile, a majority of Class 2 patients have shown the signs of chronic systemic inflammation stage I to III.

  15. Determinants of Menopausal Symptoms among Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Setorglo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The onset of menopause is unique to every woman with varying symptoms which have implications on health and well-being. This study evaluated the perception, knowledge and beliefs about menopause and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 280 menopausal women aged 45 years and older in the Accra Metropolis of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and experience of menopausal symptoms were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric data on weight, height, % body fat and MUAC were also taken. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented as means and frequencies. Predictors of menopausal symptoms were determined by logistic regression. The mean age of onset of menopause was (48±2.9 years with 98.2% having some knowledge of the signs and symptoms of menopause. The most frequently reported menopausal symptoms by the women were: night sweats (83.2%, hot flashes (76.4%, mood swings (72.5% and vaginal dryness (71.4%. The significant predictors for the occurrence of the most common symptoms reported were: age at onset of menstruation, age of start of menopause, body weight and % body fat. There was a decreased risk of experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness as age at menopause increased. Menopausal transition was determined by both vasomotor and urogenital symptoms. Counseling and support are needed to enable women manage the symptoms better. Most women have heard of and know what menopause is.

  16. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya: MADURACIÓN Y SENESCENCIA Catalase, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase from Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruits: Ripening and Senescense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO NARVÁEZ CUENCA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre algunos síntomas de deterioro y la actividad de enzimas vinculadas tanto con el pardeamiento como con el sistema antioxidante en frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y almacenados durante 15 días a 24 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. En los frutos enteros se evaluaron la intensidad respiratoria y el color externo; en la corteza se determinaron la actividad de catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO. Los frutos exhibieron un comportamiento climatérico luego de seis días de la cosecha. El pardeamiento de la corteza tuvo una relación directa con la actividad de POD y PFO. La máxima actividad de CAT observada en el climaterio responde al balance adecuado con la alta producción de H2O2 esperada en ese momento.We evaluate the relation between some symptoms of deterioration and the activity of enzymes entailed with both the browning and the antioxiding system in fruits of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya, harvested in its physiological maturity and stored for 15 days at 24°C and 85% of relative humidity. In the whole fruits, the respiratory intensity and the external colors were evaluated; further, the activity of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO was studied in the peel of the fruit. The fruit exhibited a climacteric behavior six days after the date of the harvest. The browning of the peel had a direct relation with the activity of POD and PPO. The maximum observed activity of CAT in the climacterium, responds to the proper balance with the high production of H2O2 expected at that moment.

  17. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

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    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  18. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27513726

  19. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-08-06

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were ‘disease and defense’ (16.5%) and ‘metabolism’ (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of ‘Barhi’ fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  20. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.

  1. Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ≤1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (≤1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

  2. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  3. Preservation Effect of Phytic Acid on Tomato%植酸对番茄保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任邦来; 赵波

    2012-01-01

    以变色期番茄为材料,分别采用浓度为0.05%、0.1O%、0.15%的植酸溶液浸泡30s,在室温下贮藏33d,研究不同浓度植酸溶液涂膜处理对番茄果实的保鲜效果。结果表明,植酸溶液处理能推迟番茄果实呼吸跃变时呼吸高峰的出现时间,降低呼吸强度峰值;对保持果实硬度、可溶性固形物、维生素C、可滴定酸有较好作用;能减少水分蒸发,降低果实失重率;其中浓度为0.1O%的植酸溶液对番茄果实进行涂膜处理保鲜效果最好。%The deteriorated tomotoes were soaked for 30s with phytic acid of 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% and stored for up to 33d at regular temperature. The effects of preservation Of different concentrations of phytic acid in the coating treatment on tomatoes were studied. The results showed that phytic acid could inhabit the peak time of respiratory rate of the climacteric in ripening tomato fruit, reduce the respiration rate and could keep the hardness, soluble solids, titratable acid and vitamin C of tomoto. Meanwhile,it could decrease the water evaporation and weightlessness rate of fruit. The best concentration of phytic acid that coated tomotoes fruit in preservation was 0.10%.

  4. Analysis of CYP1A1 and COMT polymorphisms in women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, J P; Camargo-Kosugi, C M; Carvalho, C V; Silva, F C; Silva, I D C G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to obtain a comprehensive panel of genetic polymorphisms present only in genes (cytochrome P-450 1A1--CYP1A1 and catechol-O-methyl transferase--COMT) within the metabolic pathway of sex steroids and determine their possible associations with the presence or absence of cervical cancer. Genotypes of 222 women were analyzed: a) 81 with cancer of the cervix treated at the Cancer Hospital Alfredo Abram, between June 2012 and May 2013, with diagnosis confirmed surgically and/or through histomorphological examination; and b) 141 healthy women who assisted at the Endocrine Gynecology and Climacteric Ambulatory, Department of Gynecology, UNIFESP-EPM. These polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and visualized on 3% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. We found a significant association between the frequency of the CYP1A1 polymorphism and the development of cervical cancer. A statistical difference was observed between patient and control groups for CYP1A1 polymorphism genotype distributions (P COMT gene polymorphism genotype distributions between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05) or between other risk variables analyzed. The CYP1A1 gene involved in the metabolic pathway of sex steroids might influence the emergence of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer in women who carry a mutated allele, and result in 1.80 and 13.46 times increased risk for women with heterozygous or homozygous mutated genotypes, respectively. PMID:26782546

  5. Analysis of Career Burnout of Middle-aged Career Women%中年职业女性的职业倦怠之分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2012-01-01

    中年职业女性工作压力大、烦恼多,她们在这段时期面临家庭的压力,如子女升学就业、父母的赡养照料;要面临工作的压力,如知识的更新、评职晋级、人际关系冲突;还要面临生理的变化,如更年期综合症的冲击等。这些方面造成她们更早地进入职业倦怠期。文章着重分析了中年职业女性职业倦怠的生理和心理特征,探寻通过社会、组织、家庭和自身等途径,帮助中年职业女性干预职业倦怠,促进中年女性的职业心理健康。%Middle-aged career women are confronted with pressures and vexation during their work life. They face all kinds of pressures in this period, household pressure such as their children's education and job-hunting, supporting and taking care of their parents; pressure from their own work such as the updating of knowledge, promotion in their position and interpersonal relationship problems; physiological and mental pressure such as climacteric syndrome. All these factors force them to enter into career burnout early. This paper focuses on the analysis of the physiological and psychological features of middle-aged career women with career burnout and seeks ways to help middle-aged career women to solve the problem of career burnout and promote the health in their professional psychology through social, organizational, family and personal means.

  6. Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

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    Melnyk Oleksandr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’, winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’, and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’ w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3 for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

  7. De novo assembly, characterization and functional annotation of pineapple fruit transcriptome through massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dee Ong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus, is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93% with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33% which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple.

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  10. Mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzuko eDautt-Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L. mesocarp cv. Kent was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango (1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR≤0.05. The expression of ten genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R=0.97, validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like cell wall, carbohydrate catabolic process and starch and sucrose metabolic process among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  11. 挥发性香气物质和乙烯生产在"湖景蜜露"桃果实发育过程中的变化%Changes in Aroma Volatile Compounds and Ethylene Production During "Hujingmilu" Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萌; 贾惠娟

    2005-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu"peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size,ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS),titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC,ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities were measured. With the increase of fruit maturity, fruit size, L* value, and TSS and major reducing sugar contents increased, whereas fruit firmness, skin hue angle (h°), and juice TA and organic acid contents decreased. In immature fruits, a C6-aldehydes (trans2-hexenal) and C6-alcohols (cis-3-hexenol) were the major components, corresponding to the low ethylene production and high respiration rates. With increasing of fruit maturity, the C6-C12 lactonic compounds, particularly γ- and δ-lactones became the dominant volatile constituents, which increased significantly at the climacteric stage. These facts suggest that ethylene production may be involved in the regulation of lactones production in maturing peach fruit. The activity of ACC synthase in the mesocarp declined during the climacteric rise of ethylene. ACC level and ACC oxidase activity in mesocarp were consistent with the onset of ethylene production in fruit.Major aroma volatiles are thought to form in conjunction with the initiation of climacteric rises in respiration and ethylene production. Detection of changes in aroma volatile compound synthesis rate in peach may be useful as index of maturity reflecting the current physiological stage of peach fruit development.%以"湖景蜜露"水蜜桃(Prunus persica L.)为试材,检测了果实从未成熟到成熟发育过程中乙烯生成、呼吸速率及挥发性香气性物质的变化;同时对果实大小、果皮色泽、果肉硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸进行了测定;对与果实乙烯产生密切相关的1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)含量、ACC合成酶活性、ACC氧化酶活

  12. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  13. Thinking on application of metabonomics technologies in mechanism research on treatment of menopausal panic disorder%代谢组学技术在女性更年期惊恐障碍防治机制中的应用思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵珍; 许云祥; 王小云

    2011-01-01

    女性更年期惊恐障碍是发生在更年期的典型心身疾病之一,严重威胁中老年人的身心健康,寻找一种更为安全,有效的方法防治本病是现代医学所面临的问题之一.在回顾中西医对女性更年期惊恐障碍病因病机的基础上,进一步分析了补肾益髓埋线法在防治女性更年期惊恐障碍的优势和取穴组方原则、代谢组学技术在穴位埋线防治更年期惊恐障碍机制研究中的应用思路;指出补肾益髓埋线法是治疗女性更年期惊恐障碍的安全、有效的方法之一;利用代谢组学技术.穴位埋线防治女性更年期惊恐障碍有望在发病机制、优化穴位组合及治病机制研究方面取得突破性的进展.%Menopausal panic disorder is a kind of the typical psychosomatic diseases during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. Based on reviewing the knowledge of both TCM and western medicine for the etiology and pathogenesis of menopausal panic disorder; further analyzing the advantage and selecting prescription principles on the tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow by acupoint catgut-embedding methods for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder, thinking on the application of metabonomics technologies in the mechanism research on the treatment of menopausal panic disorder were discussed. It's pointed out that this therapy is safe and effective to treat menopausal panic disorder.Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of acupoint catgutembedding method for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Metabonomics technologies.

  14. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  15. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits.

  16. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, L.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Dilley, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biophysics

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C0{sub 2} at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C0{sub 2} is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO{sub 2}. It has been suggested that CO{sub 2}acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO{sub 2} is know to affect O{sub 2} binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe{sup +2}/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction

  17. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  18. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C02 at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C02 is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO2. It has been suggested that CO2acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO2 is know to affect O2 binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe+2/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction of ethylene production and inhibition of

  19. ENDOTHELIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KLYMADINON IN EXPERIMENTAL OVARIECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Anishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Endothelial protective and antithrombogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa standardized extract (Klimadynon, Bionorica, Germany in comparison with ethinylestradiol in experimental ovariectomy were investigated. Extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (klimadynon contents phytoestrogens, that was the basis for studying of its effects in hypoestrogenic conditions for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in climacteric syndrome as an alternatively of hormonal replacement therapy.The course administration of klimadynon (100 mg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days decelerated the formation of intravascular thrombosis which was initiated by application of 10% FeCb solution on carotid artery. The ethinylestradiol in this conditions intensified prothrombogenic effect of application of 10% FeCh: blood flow in carotid artery stoped to 5 minutes of experiment and mass of the thrombus was on 28% more, than in control rats. For studying of possible mechanisms antithrombogenic action of klimadynon antiplatelet and vasodilator activity of endothelium were studied in rats after bilateral ovariectomy in comparison with effects of ethinylestradiol (25 µg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days. Treatment with klimadynon as well as ethinylestradiol increased the antiplatelet activity of endothelium, restoring its activity to level in sham-operated animals. The endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independence vasodilation by using of acetylcholine (5 µg/kg and of sodium nitroprusside (30 µg/kg. respectively, were investigated. Coefficient of endothelium dysfunctions (CED was estimated as ratio: area over curve of arterial pressure after sodium nitroprusside intravenous injection to value of this index after injection of acetylcholine. In rats after bilateral ovariectomy CED was increased by 66% in comparison with CED value in sharm-operated rats. The klimadynon and ethinylestradiol treatment decreased CED on 42% and 28% correspondingly in comparison

  20. Biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine in aminoethoxyvinylglycine-resistant avocado tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J E; Anderson, J D; Adams, D O; Apelbaum, A; Lieberman, M

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) insensitivity in avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lula, Haas, and Bacon) tissue was due to an alternate pathway of ethylene biosynthesis from methionine. AVG, at 0.1 millimolar, had little or no inhibitory effect on either total ethylene production or [(14)C] ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue at various stages of ripening. However, aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), which inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (the AVG-sensitive enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis), inhibited ethylene production in avocado tissue. Total ethylene production was stimulated, and [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine was lowered by treating avocado tissue with 1 millimolar ACC. An inhibitor of methionine adenosyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.6), l-2-amino-4-hexynoic acid (AHA), at 1.5 millimolar, effectively inhibited [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue but had no effect on total ethylene production during a 2-hour incubation. Rates of [(14)C]AVG uptake by avocado and apple (Malus domestica Borkh., Golden Delicious) tissues were similar, and [(14)C]AVG was the only radioactive compound in alcohol-soluble fractions of the tissues. Hence, AVG-insensitivity in avocado tissue does not appear to be due to lack of uptake or to metabolism of AVG by avocado tissue. ACC synthase activity in extracts of avocado tissue was strongly inhibited (about 60%) by 10 micromolar AVG. Insensitivity of ethylene production in avocado tissue to AVG may be due to inaccessibility of ACC synthase to AVG. AVG-resistance in the avocado system is, therefore, different from that of early climacteric apple tissue, in which AVG-insensitivity of total ethylene production appears to be due to a high level of endogenous ACC relative to its rate of conversion to ethylene. However, the sensitivity of the avocado system to AOA and AHA, dilution of labeled ethylene production by ACC

  1. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  2. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  3. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  4. Food irradiation and its role in shelf life extension of horticulture produce: a comprehensive evaluation of studies carried out in India and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is the process of treating foods to a controlled source of ionizing radiation, to reduce post-harvest losses and ensure its safety. With respect to horticulture produce, the role of food irradiation has been well established to fulfill the phytosanitary requirement of the importing countries and also to ensure food safety in certain commodities. Still for establishing its relevance in extending the shelf-life of horticulture produce, substantial scientific inputs are required. Our objective was therefore to summarize in brief the research findings where role of radiation processing in shelf-life extension of horticulture produce has been addressed. Low dose (0.1 kGy) of γ-radiation resulted in sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, thus prolonging their storage life upto 4 months at 11-12℃. Radiation processing also delayed ripening process in the climacteric fruits by a week upto one month depending on the cultivars and stored condition. Shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was extended up to 10-15 days by γ-radiation treatment of 2-3 kGy and storage at 10±2℃ . A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10℃ storage temperature increased the shelf life of peeled ginger samples upto 70 days. Irradiation of guava fruits with 0.1 kGy γ-radiation increased its post harvest life by 8 days. Shelf-life of Litchi was increased upto 28 days by radiation treatment at 0.5 kGy and subsequent low temperature storage. Shelf-life of leafy vegetables increased upto 20 days by a combination process including γ-radiation (Khade, et.al., unpublished data). Electron beam irradiation (2 kGy) extended shelf-life of fresh strawberry fruits upto 4 day. Apples irradiated at 0.2-0.4 kGy showed improved quality upto 3 months of storage. Shelled sweet corn kernels treated with combination process including γ-radiation (5 kGy) treatment showed prolonged shelf-life of 30 days at 4℃ (Kumar S. et.al., unpublished data). In recent study conducted by us on shelf life

  5. Are we drawing the right conclusions from randomised placebo-controlled trials? A post-hoc analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bone Kerry M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assumptions underlying placebo controlled trials include that the placebo effect impacts on all study arms equally, and that treatment effects are additional to the placebo effect. However, these assumptions have recently been challenged, and different mechanisms may potentially be operating in the placebo and treatment arms. The objective of the current study was to explore the nature of placebo versus pharmacological effects by comparing predictors of the placebo response with predictors of the treatment response in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of a phytotherapeutic combination for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. A substantial placebo response was observed but no significant difference in efficacy between the two arms. Methods A post hoc analysis was conducted on data from 93 participants who completed this previously published study. Variables at baseline were investigated as potential predictors of the response on any of the endpoints of flushing, overall menopausal symptoms and depression. Focused tests were conducted using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Based on these findings, analyses were conducted for both groups separately. These findings are discussed in relation to existing literature on placebo effects. Results Distinct differences in predictors were observed between the placebo and active groups. A significant difference was found for study entry anxiety, and Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS scores, on all three endpoints. Attitude to menopause was found to differ significantly between the two groups for GCS scores. Examination of the individual arms found anxiety at study entry to predict placebo response on all three outcome measures individually. In contrast, low anxiety was significantly associated with improvement in the active treatment group. None of the variables found to predict the placebo response was relevant to the treatment arm. Conclusion This study was a post hoc analysis

  6. The effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in the psychological well-being of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Vlachou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the psychological situation of menopausal women have often been examined in the past. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychological disorders that arise in menopausal women receiving Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in comparison to those not receiving HRT. Material and Method: The sample of the study included 216 menopausal women, 40-60 years old, divided into two groups and examined twice in a six months period apart. The first group included 100 women receiving HRT for at least three months period, while the second group included116 women not receiving HRT. A demographic inventory, the Greene Climacteric Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the CES-D Depression Scale were used. Results: 46.3% of women were taking HRT while 53.7% were not. In the first interview the mean values of the Greene Scale were for the first group 13.21±9.61 and for the second one 25.33±12.25, (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 9.17±6.93 and 28.65±13.25 respectively, (p<0.001. In the Hamilton scale at the first interview the mean values of the first group were 5.74±8.29 and for the second one 19.28±11.90 (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 4.43±7.75 and 19.47±11.75 respectively (p<0.001 and were above the threshold of a clinically anxiety syndrome. The mean values of the CES-D in the first interview were 10.33±7.58 in the first group and 11.20±11.22 in the second one (p<0.001, while at the second interview were 8.61±6.25 and 11.82±11.59 respectively (p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the education level interprets 49.4%, 28.4% and 17.1% of the variable, for Greene, Hamilton and CES-D scales respectively (Β=-4.563, p<0.001, Β=-3.012, p=0.005 και Β=-4.175, p<0.001 respectively. Conclusions: HRT seem to provide significant improvement in menopausal psychological symptoms. Further studies are needed in order to clarify relative

  7. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  8. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez- Zapater José M

    2011-11-01

    as well as secondary metabolism. These results were integrated with transcriptional profiling obtained using genome array to provide new information regarding the network of events leading to grape ripening. Conclusions Altogether the data obtained provides the most extensive survey obtained so far for gene expression and metabolites accumulated during grape ripening. Moreover, it highlighted information obtained in a poorly known variety exhibiting particular characteristics that may be cultivar specific or dependent upon climatic conditions. Several genes were identified that had not been previously reported in the context of grape ripening namely genes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms as well as in growth regulators; metabolism, epigenetic factors and signaling pathways. Some of these genes were annotated as receptors, transcription factors, and kinases and constitute good candidates for functional analysis in order to establish a model for ripening control of a non-climacteric fruit.

  9. Evolución de Madurez en Pre y Postcosecha y Potencialidad de Almacenaje de Peras Packham's Triumph Pre and Post-Harvest Maturity Evolution and Storage Potential of Packham’s Triumph Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moggia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Peras (Pyrus communis L. Packham’s Triumph fueron evaluadas en madurez y producción de etileno desde cuatro semanas previo a la cosecha. Firmeza y sólidos solubles obtuvieron las mayores correlaciones (r = -0,97 y 0,98, respectivamente con días después de plena flor (DDPF. La producción de etileno fue baja (Packham’s Triumph pears (Pyrus communis L. were evaluated from four weeks before harvest for maturity and ethylene production. Firmness and soluble solids showed the highest correlations (r = -0.97 y 0.98, respectively with days after full bloom (DDPF. Ethylene production was low (< 0.07 mg kg-1 and was not correlated with DDPF. Fruit harvested with 7.8 (E1 and 7.0 kg (E2 were stored in conventional cold air (0°C and two controlled atmosphere conditions (AC1: 2-2.5% O2 /1-1.5% CO2 and AC2: 1-1.3% O2/0.5-0.8% CO2, -1°C, for six months. Changes in maturity, and ethylene production were measured (monthly and incidence of physiological disorders was assessed (after four and six months. Additionally, the ethylene production rate (TPE was monitored for seven days at room temperature, after each storage period. Fruit from both harvests, stored under AC1 and AC2 were firmer, greener and had lower ethylene production than those of FC. There were no significant differences in ripening between AC1 and AC2. Ethylene accumulation was exponential and occurred earlier and with higher values in FC (900 mg kg-1 maximum at the 5th month, with respect to AC (146 and 230 mg kg-1 for E1 and E2 at the end of the storage period. At room temperature, the TPE of the three storage conditions increased from the second month, but the climacteric peak was observed only in FC. After six months, fruit from FC and from both harvests developed superficial scald (17% for E1 and 20% for E2.

  10. Fatores associados à qualidade de vida após menopausa Factors related to quality of life in post-menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 323 mulheres pós-menopáusicas com idade entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário de atenção ao climatério entre junho e outubro de 2002. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através do Women's Health Questionnaire. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t de Student e a análise de variância, seguidos de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: A qualidade de vida se mostrou comprometida entre a população estudada, em especial nos domínios relacionados a sintomas somáticos, humor deprimido e ansiedade. Por meio de análise multivariada, constatou-se que quanto menor a escolaridade (pOBJECTIVE: To assess quality of life of postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-section study of 323 women between 45 and 60 years of age attended at a university climacteric clinic from June to October 2002was carried out. Quality of life was assessed by the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t Test and analysis of variance, followed by multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: This study found quality of life impaired especially in the domains related to somatic symptoms, depressed mood, and anxiety. Multivariate analysis showed that lower educational level (p<0.01, frequency of sexual activity (p<0.01 and the confirmation of previous clinical co-morbidities (p=0.03 were associated to the worst scores of quality of life. On the other hand, regular physical activity was related to better quality of life (p=0.01. Hormone therapy, in particular, was not related to quality of life (p=0.48. CONCLUSION: Quality of life was found not only to be influenced by biological factors, but also by psychossocial and cultural factors. Middle aged women frequently attributed eventual symptoms associated to clinical co-morbidities or previous emotional difficulties to menopause, distorting their

  11. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  12. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  13. PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, INSOMNIA AND DETERIORATION OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN HYSTERECTOMYZED WOMEN (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2014-04-01

    deterioration of the quality of life. Four of each ten women had severe deterioration of the quality of life with predominance in the urogenital area. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:235-246. KEYWORDS Hysterectomy, Sexual dysfunction, Quality of life, Insomnia, Climacteric

  14. 细胞分裂素类生长调节剂对青花菜采后衰老的影响%Effects of Cytokinin Growth Regulators on Senescence of Harvested Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Florets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云莉; 王成荣; 王然; 杨绍兰; 刘宪路

    2009-01-01

    Application of cytokinin growth regulators, KT (Kinetin), 6-BA (Benzyladenine), and CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-pheuylurea] on delaying senescence of harvested broccoli florets was studied. The results showed that use of KT, 6-BA or CPPU on harvested broccoli delayed floret yellowing and chlorophyll degradation, decreased respiration and ethylene production rate, postponed climacteric time, and retarded membrane permeability loss. The content of endogenous ABA was lower and the levels of IAA and GA were higher in the broccoli treated with 6-BA and CPPU than those in the control during 12-84 h. The treated effects enhanced with increasing concentration in the study. The CPPU treatment (40 mg·L~(-1)) was most effective in delaying the broccoli yellowing, followed by 6-BA and KT.%以青花菜'绿皇后'品种为试材,研究了25℃条件下细胞分裂素类生长调节剂KT、6-BA和CPPU对延缓青花菜采后衰老的效果.结果表明:3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂处理均在不同程度上延缓了青花菜花蕾黄化和叶绿素分解,推迟了呼吸和乙烯跃变峰出现的时间,降低了峰值,并维持了细胞膜稳定性.内源激素测定结果表明,6-BA和CPPU处理使青花菜花蕾在试验的前期阶段(12~84 h)一直保持相对较高的内源IAA和GA水平,相对较低的内源ABA水平.3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂以CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最为明显,其次是6-BA,KT效果最弱.延缓青花菜采后衰老效果随着处理的浓度增加而增加,以40 mg·L~(-1)CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最佳.

  15. 香蕉果实XET cDNA的克隆及其在成熟软化的果实果皮和果肉中的表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆旺金; 中野隆平; 久保康隆; 稻叶昭次; 蒋跃明

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening through disassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationship between fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a full length cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA contains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding a predicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DEIDFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalytic domain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in the pulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatment of fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening of the peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptional level.%木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶(Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase,XET)通过分解细胞壁半纤维素多糖的主要成分--木葡聚糖而参与果实软化.为了阐明香蕉(Musa acuminata.Colla cv.GrandNain)果实成熟过程中的软化与细胞壁代谢酶XET基因表达模式的关系,采用RT-PCR和RACE-PCR方法,首次从成熟香蕉果实果肉中分离了编码XT基因的全长cDNA(MA-XET1,全长1 095 bp

  16. Qualidade de vida em usuárias e não usuárias de terapia de reposição hormonal Quality of life in users and non-users of hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia E. V. Zahar

    2005-06-01

    users were those who had undergone this type of treatment for at least six months. Non-users of HRT were those who had not received this type of treatment during the last six months. Two hundred and seven women were included in the study: 106 users and 101 non-users of HRT. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were assessed. The Kupperman Menopausal Index was applied to rate the intensity of climacteric symptoms and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 was applied to assess women's quality of life. For data analysis, a Student's t test, a chi-square analysis, a Fisher's exact test and a Mann-Whitney test were used. RESULTS: The mean age of HRT users was 52.6 ± 4.9 years and the mean age of non-users of HRT was 54.3 ± 4.7 years (p=0.01. There was a statistically significant difference regarding marital status (p=0.04. HRT users reported a lower frequency of moderate and severe climacteric symptoms (p=0.001. Of the eight quality of life domains evaluated, only vitality scored below 50 (45 in both groups. There were no differences between groups regarding the SF-36 components. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women who were users and non-users of HRT presented a good quality of life. There were no differences between users and non-users of hormone therapy.

  17. Impacto da atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade: estudo de base populacional Impact of physical activity on quality of life in middle-aged women: a population based study

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    Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    -aged women. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 370 women aged 40 to 65 years-old recruited from a population-based sample. Enrollment took place in Basic Health Units in each health district of the city (North, South, East, and West from June to September 2011. According to the Municipal Health Department of the City, 20,801 women were assisted at the Basic Health Units during a one-year period. The sample size calculation was stratified by district and based on a 95% confidence level with a power of 80%, as well as an error estimate of 5% and it was considered proportional to the number of patients classified as having adequate quality of life (indicator >26 in the general population. Data were collected while women waited for their routine appointment at the Health Unit. WHOQOL-Bref was used to evaluate the quality of life, and menopause rating scale (MRS was used to determine climacteric symptoms. The level of physical activity was assessed by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. To obtain the classification of PA levels, we used three categories: sedentary, moderately active, and very active. Statistical analysis was performed using the Minitab software, version 16. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 49.8 years-old (±8.1 and they were predominantly Caucasian (72.7%, married (61.6%, non-smokers (93.5%, and had High School education (47.8%. Using the WHOQOL, mean scores were found to be significantly different between the groups (low, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, classified according to the domains of quality of life (p<0.01. Concerning physical activity and climacteric symptoms, significant differences were found for all domains: psychological (p<0.01, vegetative-somatic (p<0.01, and urogenital (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity improves quality of life in middle-aged women.

  18. Suitable 1-MCP treatment maintaining postharvest quality during storage at room temperature%适宜1-MCP处理保持采后菠萝常温贮藏品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁斌; 贾志伟; 谷会

    2016-01-01

    ethylene receptors to delay fruit ripening and senescence. Previous research results showed that 1-MCP postponed the softening of climacteric fruits, kept the quality of fruits in storage and extended the shelf life of fruits. Some research reported that 1-MCP inhibited the softening of non-climacteric fruits. Pineapple is a typical non-climacteric fruit and the effect of 1-MCP on pineapple fruit is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1-MCP treatment on postharvest physiology and quality of pineapple, and provide a theoretical basis for the storage of fresh pineapple. The tested variety was ‘Bali’ pineapple. Harvested mature fruits were transported to the laboratory immediately, and then the fruits with the same size and being healthy were selected, washed and dried in natural air ventilation for test. Tested pineapple fruits were put into airtight boxes with different 1-MCP concentrations for 12 h at room temperature (25℃), then the fruits were placed in an incubator with about 85% humidity. Fruits treated by air were used as the control. Physiological indices related to fruit quality were evaluated, such as fruit firmness, malondialdehyde (MDA), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acid (TA), vitamin C (VC) content and ethylene production. Activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were detected by spectrophotometer. In the experiments, there were 3 replicates with 30 fruits for each repetition, and each treatment had 90 fruits. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the Excel software. Significant differences were analyzed by the statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) software at the level of 0.05. The results showed that the fruit firmness had significant differences between the control and the treatments with different 1-MCP concentrations (0.20, 0.35, 0.45 and 0.60μL/L) during the storage. On the 8th day, the firmness of fruits treated with 0.20μL/L 1-MCP was 2.80 kg/cm2

  19. Prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa Sleep disturbance prevalence in postmenopausal women

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    Helena Hachul de Campos

    2005-12-01

    an FSH which equaled or exceeded 30 mU/ml; they should not be undergoing hormone therapy, and should display normal laboratory test results. The patients with severe clinical diseases and/or decompensated were excluded; also the ones with suspicion of carcinoma of endometrium and/or breast cancer, a BMI over 30 kg/m² and those who ingested hypnotic drugs. The patients followed a routine climacteric check-up, answered a questionnaire about sleep and underwent an all-night PSG recording. Frequencies in percentage of emerging sleep complaints based on the questionnaire and those pertaining to PSG diagnosis were then calculated separately. RESULTS: the subjective prevalence of insomnia was 61% against 83% in the PSG recordings. The prevalence of apnea reported was 23% against 27% in the PSG. The subjective restless legs syndrome prevalence was 45%, and the objective, 27%. CONCLUSION: there was a high prevalence of sleep disturbances in postmenopausal patients, specially insomnia, apnea and restless legs.

  20. Atmosfera modificada e controle de etileno para bananas 'Prata-Anã' cultivadas na Amazônia Setentrional Brasileira Atmospheric modification and ethylene's control in posthaverst, for 'Prata-Anã' bananas cultivated in the Setentrional Brazilian Amazon

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    Marcos André de Souza Prill

    2012-12-01

    presence of ethylene adsorption sachet had the best maintenance in the color peel, delay of the climacteric peak, as the delay in the starch degradation, lowest increments of soluble solids and titratable acidity, the lowest concentration of ethylene inside the LDPE bags and delay and decrease of enzyme activity. The combination of the use of LDPE bags with the sachet of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 resulted in the delay of ripening fruits of bananas 'Prata Anã', when stored at 12 ºC. It can be attributed this beneficial effect by the presence of the sachet in the adsorption of ethylene and, consequently, in the action of ethylene in the fruit ripening, delaying the senescence of bananas 'Prata Anã'.

  1. Inibição da síntese da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em maçãs frigoconservadas em atmosfera controlada Inhibition of (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxydase synthesis in apple fruits by controlled atmosphere storage

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    Paulo Dejalma ZIMMER

    1999-12-01

    or without gas control (NA. At 90 and 120 days after harvesting, samples were collected to study the ethylene production by gas chromatography, ACC oxidase activity by gas chromatography and immunoblotting protein characterization by western blot, using specific polyclonal antibodies against ACC oxidase from apple fruit. Nevertheless, ACC oxidase was detected and the ethylene production was increased for those fruits stored by 120 hours under room temperature. Apples stored in NA did not control the ethylene production and ACC oxidase synthesis. However, apples stored in CA had the ethylene biosynthesis controlled and showed an ACC oxidase synthesis inhibited. In climacteric apples, the ACC oxidase activity increased by ACC, Fe+2 and ascorbat addition in the enzymatic extract. Protein analysis by isoelectricfocusing showed three proteins with pIs 5.95, 5.87 and 5.78. Those with smallers pIs were detected in the presence of substrate and cofactors.

  2. Controle da antracnose na pós-colheita de bananas-'prata' com produtos alternativos aos agrotóxicos convencionais Postharvest control of antracnose in 'prata' bananas with alternatives products to conventional pesticides

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    Ricardo José Zimmermann de Negreiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos alternativos aos agrotóxicos convencionais foram avaliados no controle da antracnose causada por Colletotrichum musae em pós-colheita de bananas 'Prata' [Musa spp. (AAB]. Foram utilizados buquês com três frutos, com diâmetro médio de 32 mm a 36 mm, no estádio pré-climatérico, com coloração de casca totalmente verde. Os frutos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de conídios de C. musae, na concentração de 2,5x10(5 conídios/mL e mantidos em câmara úmida a 25 ºC, por 24 horas. Após esse período, foram pulverizados com as caldas dos produtos alternativos extrato cítrico 'Biogermex', óleo de nim 'Organic Neem' e óleo de alho 'Probinatu', na concentração de 10,0 mL/L, óleo de pimenta-longa e óleo de cravo-da-índia na concentração de 5,0 mL/L e quitosana na concentração de 10,0 mg/mL, além do fungicida Tectoï SC (tiabendazol na concentração de 0,65 mL/L. Água destilada foi utilizada como tratamento-testemunha. Os frutos tratados com quitosana, óleo de nim e óleo de alho tiveram a severidade da doença reduzida. O óleo de alho foi o produto mais eficiente, com redução também da incidência da doença. A qualidade dos frutos não foi depreciada por nenhum dos tratamentos alternativos nas concentrações utilizadas.Alternatives products to conventional pesticides in the control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae after harvest of 'Prata' banana [Musa spp. (AAB] were evaluated. Fruits with an average diameter of 32-36 mm were selected at the pre-climacteric stage, with a peel color index of 1 (totally green peel. Hands were subdivided into clusters of three fruits. The fruits were sprayed with a conidial suspension of C. musae at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(5 conidia/mL and were kept in a moist chamber at 25°C for 24 hours. After this period, fruits were sprayed with the alternative products 'Biogermex' citric extract, 'Organic Neem' oil and 'Probinatu' garlic oil at a concentration of 10.0 m

  3. Representaciones socio-culturales sobre la menopausia: Vivencias del proceso en mujeres residentes en Albacete (España Socio-cultural representations about menopause: Experiences of the process in resident women in Albacete, Spain

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    Angélica Gómez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Acercamiento a las representaciones sociales constitutivas de un fenómeno biológico-biográfico denominado climaterio, mediante los significados atribuidos por medio de los saberes, actitudes y comportamientos socioculturales de las mujeres en este periodo de su vida. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo mediante siete grupos focales (37 mujeres. Población de estudio: mujeres entre 45-55 años, residentes en la ciudad de Albacete. Resultados: proceso identificado con la edad biológica de las mujeres, con atributos negativos por su relación con el envejecimiento. Se relaciona también con la imagen social de la mujer y los roles socioculturales asignados clásicamente a este colectivo. Esta combinación de factores las conduce hacia un periodo de su vida tildado como "edad crítica", construcción en la que priman elementos biográficos sobre biológicos. Conclusión: Reconocer la "Variabilidad" de la vivencia del proceso. Esto entraría en conflicto con la actual tendencia biomédica, de protocolizar ciertas etapas relacionadas con el ciclo vital de las personas, intentando generar adscripciones unitarias basadas en entidades médicas construidas con fines operativos e instrumentales. Reconocer la "Vulnerabilidad" que supone la confluencia de diversas circunstancias, que las conducen, no sólo a enfrentarse con cambios físicos, emocionales y socioculturales, propios de esta etapa, sino a la realización de una evaluación retrospectiva crítica y profunda de la experiencia de vida, de la autobiografía.Objective: Approach to the social representations constituent of a biological-biographical phenomenon denominated climacteric, by means of the meanings attributed through socio-cultural knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the woman in this period of their life. Methodology: Qualitative study by means of seven focal groups (37 women. Population of study: women between 45-55 years, residents in the city of Albacete. Results: Process

  4. Caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración de plátano Hartón (musa AAB Simmonds en dos sistemas de producción Physical-chemist and physiologic characterization in the Harton plantain ripening process (Musa AAB Simmonds in organic and conventional production systems

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    José Luis Barrera V

    2010-01-01

    between the treatments (organic and conventional during the ripening process, were observed signifi cant differences in the variables resistance, °Brix, pH, acidity; on the contrary in the variables reduction sugar, total sugar, starch they were a similar behave. The respiration index in organic plantain reached the high climacteric to 14 days and the conventional to 7; indicating that organic present a better behave postharvest facilitating its commercialization.

  5. Preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de araçá-vermelho através do tratamento com 1-metilciclopropeno e do acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas, sob refrigeração Postharvest quality preservation of red strawberry-guavas by treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene and fruit packaging in plastic films under refrigeration

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o padrão respiratório e de produção de etileno, e os efeitos do tratamento com diferentes doses de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e do acondicionamento em diferentes embalagens plásticas, associado à refrigeração, na preservação da qualidade pós-colheita de araçá-vermelho. Os frutos apresentaram comportamento climatérico de respiração e produção de etileno. Frutos tratados com doses crescentes de 1-MCP (0; 100; 300; 600 e 1.200 nL L-1 e armazenados a 10±1C/90±5% UR, durante 10 dias, apresentaram retardo substancial no amadurecimento, através da preservação da textura e inibição na mudança de cor da epiderme. Frutos acondicionados com diferentes filmes (polietileno de baixa densidade, policloreto de vinila e à base de náilon apresentaram, em termos gerais, melhor preservação da textura e menores mudanças na cor da epiderme e perdas de massa fresca, durante armazenamento refrigerado (5C e 10C. Os resultados demonstram que os frutos de araçá-vermelho apresentam elevada perecibilidade, caracterizada pelas elevadas taxas respiratórias e de produção de etileno, sendo mais bem preservados quando refrigerados, e tratados com 1-MCP ou acondicionados em embalagens plásticas.This work was carried out to study respiration and ethylene production behavior of red strawberry-guavas and to assess the preservation of fruit postharvest quality by treatment with different doses of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and fruit packaging in plastic films, under refrigeration. Red strawberry-guavas exhibit a climacteric behavior of respiration and ethylene production. Fruits treated with increasing doses of 1-MCP (0, 100, 300, 600, and 1,200 nL L-1 and stored at 10±1C/90±5% RH for 10 days had a substantial delay in ripening, with a better retention of texture and inhibition in the change of the color of the skin. Fruits packed in different plastic films (low density polyethylene, vinyl polychloride, and

  6. Características físicas de goiabas (Psidium guajava L. submetidas a tratamento hidrotérmico Physical characteristics of guava (Psidium guajava L. submitted to hot water treatment

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    Stella M. J. Vieira

    2008-08-01

    , after complete immersion of the fruits in hot water at a temperature of 47 °C during 6 min, and stored at 8 and 22 °C, with medium relative humidity equal to 89%. It was observed that the hot water treatment, in a general way, promoted retardation in the mass loss and the firmness during the storage period, but did not cause a climacteric ascension in the production of CO2 and ethylene.

  7. Efeitos da terapia hormonal na menopausa sobre o sistema imune Effects of the menopause hormone therapy on the immune system

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    Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    2007-11-01

    be altered during pregnancy, gonadectomy, menopause and hormone therapy. Estrogen depresses the cellular immunity, suppresses the natural killer cell activity and increases the production of antibodies. Progesterone/progestogen suppresses the cellular immune system. Androgens, after metabolization in estrogens, might stimulate the humoral immune response. Hormone therapy is still broadly used in post-menopause women with the purpose of decreasing climacteric symptoms, as well as preventing genital atrophy and bone loss. Its use to attenuate the risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases remains in debate. A few studies have been carried out to examine the effect of post-menopause hormone therapy on the immune system. There is evidence that the hypoestrogenic state, following menopause, could result in less resistance to infections. The present review examines the interaction between sexual steroids and the immune system and, based on epidemiological and clinical studies, evaluates the effects of hormone therapy on the immune responses. It was concluded that the hormone therapy normalizes the cellular immune response in post-menopausal women.

  8. Testosterone Undecanoate Capsule Application Results in the Treatment of Male Menopause Syndrome%十一酸睾酮胶囊丸在男性更年期综合征治疗中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟聪; 华伟; 燕华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss Testosterone Undecanoate Capsule(Andriol) application in the treatment of male menopause syndrome.Method:100 cases of male patients with climacteric syndrome from September 2011 to September 2011 in the author’s hospital,using the random number table method were divided into the observation group and control group,50 cases each. Observer group was treated with Testosterone Undecanoate Capsule,the control group was treated with traditional Chinese medicine dialectical for kidney deficiency taking Erxian Soup.Result:Observation group before treatment serum total testosterone levels was (5.04±1.56)nmol/L,rise to eight weeks after the treatment was (8.06±2.97)nmol/L,and the control group before treatment serum total testosterone levels was (4.92±1.78)nmol/L,after 8 weeks after treatment with Erxian Soup was (6.14±2.33)nmol/L,observation group after treatment serum total testosterone levels was higher than that of control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion:In the treatment of male menopause syndrome treated by Testosterone Undecanoate Capsule(Andriol),can significantly improve the patients,male hormones,enhance the level of serum total testosterone and ease of vasomotor symptoms,and is worth popularizing in clinical application.%目的:探讨十一酸睾酮胶囊丸在男性更年期综合征治疗中的应用效果。方法:选取2011年9月-2013年9月笔者所在医院收治的100例男性更年期综合征患者,采用随机数字表法将其分为观察组和对照组,各50例。观察组服用十一酸睾酮胶囊丸,对照组经中医辨证为肾虚证服用二仙汤。结果:观察组治疗前血清总睾酮水平为(5.04±1.56)nmol/L,治疗8周后升至(8.06±2.97)nmol/L,对照组治疗前血清总睾酮水平为(4.92±1.78)nmol/L,治疗8周后升至(6.14±2.33)nmol/L,观察组治疗后血清总睾酮水平高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在男性

  9. The promotion of geomorphosites on salt from Sovata - Praid and Turda using cultural and scientific tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, B.; Irimus, I.; Petrea, D.

    2012-04-01

    these lakes are used for external treatment. The holes resulting from exploitation were arranged and turned into treatment rooms for those affected by respiratory diseases. Localities Praid and Sovata from rural settlements, have become balneary resorts, that use these salt resources by multiple forms of tourism: spas, climatic, cultural, recreational and scientific. In Turda has developed both health, climacteric and recreational tourism, as well as cultural and historical tourism, given the historical relics that are housed here. The design of applicative segment of geomorphological sites on salt recovery, through tourism activities is the objective of our work. Methodological argumentation is supported by the objective motivation, of geomorphosites on salt capitalization, by the content of syllabus and specialization of geography of tourism and territorial planning, from the Faculty of Geography, Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca. The syllabus content argues the need for knowledge of geomorphosites genesis, their morphology, touristic valences, urbanistic valences, and the possibility of recovery, through forms and types of tourism, namely, urban, agricultural, industrial forms and types of exploitation. Key words: salt, geomorphosites, Praid, Turda, recovery

  10. Adaptação sociocultural do short personal experiences questionnaire (SPEQ no Brasil Sociocultural adaptation of the short personal experiences questionnaire (SPEQ in Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Valadares

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: traduzir e adaptar culturalmente o Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ para a língua portuguesa, no Brasil, em mulheres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: a versão original do questionário, em inglês, proveniente da Universidade de Melbourne (Austrália, inicialmente foi traduzida para a língua portuguesa e retraduzida ao inglês. Procedeu-se, então, à adaptação sociocultural do vocabulário e da construção linguística para melhor compreensão. O questionário foi então aplicado para pré-teste em 50 mulheres, em etapas sucessivas, até que não houvesse mais dúvidas. A versão final do instrumento adaptado foi utilizada em estudo de base populacional, autorrespondido anonimamente por 378 mulheres pesquisadas, entre 40 e 65 anos e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade, nascidas no Brasil. Foi aplicada uma análise de confiabilidade (consistência interna, pelo alfa de Cronbach, uma análise de validade do construto (correlação de pares de itens que compõem o SPEQ e cada um destes com os quatro fatores obtidos e com o escore total, e uma análise de validade de critério (correlação entre os quatro fatores obtidos com o escore de classificação geral da vida sexual. RESULTADOS: cento e oitenta mulheres responderam a todas as perguntas do SPEQ e foram incluídas na análise. A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach para os nove itens do SPEQ situou-se entre 0,55 e 0,77 e o alfa geral foi 0,68. Na análise de validade do construto, a maioria dos coeficientes de correlação se mostrou significativo (valores pPURPOSE: to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ to climacteric women. METHODS: the original English version from the University of Melbourne, Australia, was initially translated into Portuguese and back-translated into English. A sociocultural adaptation of vocabulary and linguistic constructions was performed to facilitate comprehension. The

  11. Qualidade de goiaba-serrana em resposta à temperatura de armazenamento e ao tratamento com 1-metilciclopropeno Fruit quality of feijoas in response to storage temperature and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-12-01

    were evaluated for respiration and ethylene production at 20ºC, and respiration rates and skin color alterations at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30ºC. The genotype Brasil (accession no. 242 was evaluated for ripening at 4ºC, after treatment with 1-MCP (0, 500 and 1,500 ppb. Brasil (accession no. 387 and Uruguai (accession no. 454 exhibited a climacteric pattern, with a peak of ethylene evolution and respiration rate at the 8th and 12th days of storage at 20ºC, respectively. There was no significant difference for respiration rates and ethylene evolution between these genotypes at this temperature. There was a substantial increase of respiration rate in both genotypes with the increase in temperature from 0 to 30ºC, with a metabolic coefficient of approximately 3.5. With the increase in temperature, fruits of the genotype Brasil showed the greatest change of skin green color, while fruits of the genotype Uruguai exhibited the greatest darkening of skin. Feijoa fruits of genotype Brasil (accession no. 242 had delayed ripening when treated with 1-MCP and stored at 4ºC.

  12. Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Evolución del Patrón Respiratorio, Enzimático y de Etileno del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget en los Últimos Cuatro Estadios Secuenciales de Madurez

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    Pedro L Undurraga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709, color break (BBCH 801, yellow (BBCH 807, and orange (BBCH 809. The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, polygalacturonase (PG, and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in the respiratory rate. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme increased from the green stage to color break, while the enzymes PME, cellulase, and PG showed a constant reduction from the green to the orange stage, and PPO showed no change over the four stages studied. With regards to quality, from color break onwards soluble solids increased to 11.8 °Brix and titratable acidity dropped from 0.67 to 0.28 g L-1 malic acid. Based on these results, the conclusion is that towards the end of its development loquat cv. Golden Nugget evidence enzymatic and ethylene behavior similar to that of climacteric fruits.Existe controversia sobre el patrón respiratorio del níspero (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Con el fin de aportar información sobre este aspecto, frutos del cv. Golden Nugget entre 50-70 g, fueron cosechados en cuatro estadios de madurez; verde (BBCH 709, quiebre de color (BBCH 801, amarillo (BBCH 807, y anaranjado (BBCH 809. Los parámetros evaluados en cada estadio fueron: sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, relación sólidos solubles acidez, respiración, generación de etileno y la actividad de las enzimas pectin metil esterasa (PME, peroxidasa, polifenoloxidasa (PPO, poligalacturonasa

  13. Uso do 1-metilciclopropeno no controle da maturação de maçãs cv. 'Royal Gala' 1-Methylcyclopropene in the control of the ripening and in maintenance of quality of 'Royal Gala'apples

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    Adriana Regina Corrent

    2005-08-01

    fruits were stored during 60 days at the same temperature. Flesh firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids and ethylene production were evaluated at every 10 days. All concentrations of the 1-MCP product have reduced the fruit's ethylene production and delayed the occurrence of the climacteric peak independently of the ripening stage. The treatments with 1-MCP also gave the bigger values of pulp firmness and titratable acidity.

  14. Fisiologia pós-colheita de frutos da palmeira Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae Postharvest physiology of Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae palm fruits

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    Paulo Santelli

    2009-09-01

    . vinifera fruits suffered chilling injury when stored at 8 ºC and the damaged fruits failed to ripen upon return to 25ºC storage. Subjected to low water loss in high humidity chambers M. vinifera fruit-storage life tripled when compared to less humid storage environment (65 to 85%, also at 25 ºC. The hard M. vinifera fruit peel became more gas permeable as it loses firmness and tight scale arrangement during ripening and also during storage at stressful chilled temperatures. Intercellular gaseous volume was low in M. vinifera fruits, a fact that may increase susceptibility to impact injury caused by a tendency of the hard peel scales to split or unglue. As it ripens the fruit pulp became soft, as recorded by a penetrometer, thus reducing transport resistance, the fruit becoming susceptible to even modest compression. M. vinifera had typical climacteric ripening behavior with the CO2 peak occurring two days after the ethylene peak. The internal CO2 and O2 curves were different from those of previously described fruits because there was a great reduction in peel diffusion resistance caused by the formation of openings between the hard peel scales during ripening.

  15. Biological and Social Factors Related to Women's Health during Climateric Factores biológicos y sociales relacionados con la salud de la mujer durante el climaterio

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    Elodia María Rivas Alpízar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the life of women, being extended to 30 years after menopause, undergoes an environmental impact that overlaps the clinical expression of the cessation of reproductive function. This increases the need to provide, at this stage, a comprehensive care. Objective: To identify some biological and social factors related to women's health during climateric. Methods: Descriptive and cross sectional study conducted in 307 women from 40 to 59 years old in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos, from January to December 2006. Through household interviews, a form that allowed collecting general, clinical and medical support information was filled. Results: 56.3% of women experienced mild climacteric syndrome, circulatory (77.2% and psychological (60% symptoms being the most referred ones. The average age of menopause onset was between 47 and 51 years old. It appeared earlier in smokers. The age of menarche, the number of pregnancies and births and menstrual patterns were not related to the age of menopause onset. 44% of women were hypertensive, 41.4% were pre-obese and 100% were sedentary. 81.8% of them did not seek for medical support. Hormonal therapy was prescribed for 32.1% of patients. Conclusions: Despite the risk factors and the chronic diseases that were detected, women interviewed did not seek for medical support, even when they presented discomfort to some extent. This was caused by the lack of information on this stage of life and the inexistence of specialized multidisciplinary consultations in Primary Health Care.

    Fundamento: la vida de la mujer, que se ha  extendido 30 años después de la menopausia, recibe un impacto del medio sobre la expresión clínica del cese de la función reproductiva, lo cual incrementa la necesidad de brindarles en esta etapa una atención integral. Objetivo: identificar

  16. Physiological and Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Soursop Fruit (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Caracterización Fisiológica y Físico-Química del Fruto de la Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fruit consumption is increasing around the world, just as its population. The World Health Organization recommends a minimum consumption of fruit 120 kg/person - year. Fruits such as soursop provide nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidants which are vital to human health, as well as bioactive substances such as vitamin C, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids, among others. In this research, soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita fruits were collected at physiological maturity in two production seasons for their physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production and physiological loss of weight and physico-chemical characterization (pulp, seeds and skin yield, total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity, pH and firmness. We found that ethylene production peaked at day 6 after-harvest, scoring 133.2 mL kg-1 h-1. This parameter was found to increase during postharvest, with peaks on days 4 and 6, coinciding with the climacteric peaks of biphasic respiration, the largest of which reached a value of 186.9 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1. This is probably the starter for the cascade of events that feature the ripening process, among which changes in TSS, acidity and fruit firmness were outstandingly visible.Resumen. En el mundo, el consumo de frutas es creciente, al igual que la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda un consumo mínimo de 120 kg/persona al año. Frutas como la guanábana aportan nutrientes, fitoquímicos y antioxidantes de vital importancia para la salud humana, además de sustancias bioactivas como vitamina C, flavonoides, antocianinas y carotenoides, entre otros. En la presente investigación, frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, fueron recolectados en estado de madurez fisiológica o de cosecha, en dos épocas de producción, para determinar sus características fisiológicas (tasa de respiración, producción de etileno y pérdida fisiológica de peso, y físico-químicas (rendimiento en pulpa

  17. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

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    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    .7%. The lowest reported symptoms were "facial hair" at 16.1% followed by "dissatisfied with my personal life" at 18.1%. Cronbach′s alpha scores, measuring the internal consistency of questions in each domain for physical, vasomotor, psychosocial and sexual were 0.883, 0.853, 0.697 and 0.805, respectively. The Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient between domains indicated that there is highly significant concordance between the four domains (P < 0.001.Conclusion: A large number of factors were associated with experiencing menopausal symptoms and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women. The current study showed that climacteric symptom in menopausal Arab women is less than Western women, which may be influenced by socio-economic, genetics, environment and parity.

  18. Avaliação do crescimento e da maturação pós-colheita de pêras da cultivar shinsseiki Evaluation of growth and postharvest ripening of shinsseiki pears

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    SERGIO RICARDO BOLTE LOMBARDI

    2000-12-01

    temperature, for 18 days. Seven evaluations took place, at three-day intervals. 'Shinsseiki' pears show growth curve of the simple sigmoidal type, evolution in the weight gain and total soluble solids (TSS, reduction in total titrable acidity (TTA and flesh firmness with the complete growth. After postharvest treatments, fast evolution of the superficial color was observed, with increasing CEPA concentrations. A significant weight loss and reduction in the flesh firmness were observed. Small increases in the values of TTA and TSS and a constant ratio TSS/TTA were found. Pears of the cultivar Shinsseiki have a climacteric behavior and a 50 mg L-1 CEPA solution is enough to anticipate ripening in 9 to 12 days.

  19. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

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    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el

  20. Entorno familiar, laboral, manifestaciones clínicas y enfermedades crónicas en mujeres de edad mediana Family and work environment, clinical manifestations of chronic diseases present in mean-age women

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    Braulio Heredia Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a las mujeres atendidas en la consulta de climaterio y menopausia del Hospital Universitario "Eusebio Hernández" con respecto a: manifestaciones clínicas, entorno familiar y laboral, y enfermedades crónicas. MÉTODOS: estudio analítico transversal, con 450 mujeres de entre 40 y 59 años, de los municipios La Lisa, Playa y Marianao, atendidas entre el 1º de enero de 2006 y el 1º de enero de 2007. Se estudiaron diversas variables y se consideraron respuestas favorables o desfavorables según criterios establecidos en la encuesta. RESULTADOS: predominaron los calambres de manos y pies en el 79,5 % de las perimenopáusicas y 82,4 % de las posmenopáusicas, así como los bochornos o calores en el 53,8 % de las perimenopáusicas y 76,5 de las posmenopáusicas. En estas últimas predominaron los síntomas psicológicos en las que tenían entorno laboral desfavorable. El entorno familiar influyó significativamente en la presencia de un mayor número de síntomas clínicos en las perimenopáusicas y el entorno laboral en las posmenopáusicas. Hay un incremento en la aparición de algunas enfermedades crónicas después de la menopausia: la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y la osteoporosis, con el 52,9, 29,4 y 11,8 % respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: hubo manifestaciones clínicas en las perimenopáusicas y en las posmenopáusicas, con sus particularidades. El entorno tuvo su influencia, para las perimenopáusicas fue significativo el familiar y para las posmenopáusicas el laboral. Las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en la posmenopausia fueron la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y la osteoporosis.OBJECTIVE: to characterize the women seen in climacteric and menopause consultation of "Eusebio Hernández" University Hospital regarding: clinical manifestation, family and labour environment, and chronic disease. METHODS: authors made a cross-sectional and analytical study in 450 women aged between 40

  1. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe coincidência entre os sintomas do climatério e o aparecimento acentuado dos sinais de envelhecimento da pele. Estudos, em modelos animais, mostraram que o estrógeno é uma espécie de mediador crítico na cicatrização de feridas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da influência da terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH em anastomoses de cólon, feitas em ratas. MÉTODOS: Utilizam 3 grupos de ratas Wistar, um grupo de ooforectomizadas com TRH feita com 50mg de estrógeno e 2 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, um de ooforectomizadas e sem TRH e um de ratas laparotomizadas e não ooforectomizadas. Realizaram a ooforectomia e a confirmação da condição hormonal após 28 dias. Em seguida instituíram a TRH ou de solução fisiológica, diariamente. Após 2 meses fizeram uma colotomia esquerda com anastomose término-terminal e estudaram a resistência e a densidade de colágeno com 7 e 14 dias. RESULTADOS: As anastomoses dos cólons das ratas sem TRH eram menos resistentes do que as do grupo controle tanto no 7.º dia (p=0,0488 como no 14.º dia (p=0,0115. A densidade de colágeno foi menor no 7.º dia (p=0,0210 com menor presença de colágeno I (p=0,0023 e de colágeno III (p=0,0470. No 14.º dia estas diferenças permaneceram significantes. Nas anastomoses dos cólons das ratas com TRH as diferenças, em relação ao grupo controle, não foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A falta dos hormônios ovarianos leva à menor resistência e atrasa a maturação de anastomoses do cólon, em ratas e estas deficiências são compensadas pela TRH.PURPOSE: The symptoms of the climacteric coincide with the marked appearance of signs of skin aging. Studies on animal models have shown that estrogen is a critical mediator in wound healing. The authors report a study of the influence of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT on colon anastomoses performed in female rats. METHODS: Three groups of Wistar rats were used: one submitted to oophorectomy

  2. Estrogen therapy: from women's choice to women's preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, M

    2002-06-01

    The climacteric is not an illness, but the menopause is an event that troubles a woman's present life and puts her future life at risk. One would like to think that, for the woman of the new millennium, the menopause has simply become what it is: a feminine milestone that marks the transition and path to another period of life. She appears younger than her mother was at her age, she has given birth when she decided to, she has had the number of children she wanted, and her social and professional roles are well defined. Nevertheless, none of this makes much difference--the 'change of life' is still something difficult to live through, a bend to negotiate, each woman going at her own pace, using her own means, with the cards that life has already dealt her. Where do we gynecologists come in, what part have we to play in our patients' lives? Sometimes, we need to be less discreet and ask some of those questions women may have trouble voicing aloud. Let us try to help them to talk about their mood changes, the changes in their body, and their anxiety about osteoporosis and aging. Shame or fear of ridicule are still often among the ideas on the menopause and, by preventing honest answers from being given, often modify the scientific statistics on menopausal women--especially as women are often at a loss to know which of the different opinions to believe. The media air their news, the medical community offers its dissent, while friends recount frightening stories. Between the danger of offending Mother Nature and the risk of missing out on the progress of science, what is the right modus operandi that helps to add quality to the quantity of life still there to be enjoyed after the menopause? The doctor-patient relationship is of the utmost importance here, since an atmosphere of confidence and trust is the basis of mutual comprehension. By understanding the patient's needs, her desires, and her ways of coping with the situation, the physician will enable her to accept

  3. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas serranas Influence of storage temperature on postharvest quality of feijoas

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    Aline Cristina Velho

    2011-03-01

    color (hue angle; hº, and incidence of flesh and skin browning, and rots. Fruit stored at 23 ºC exhibited a climacteric, reaching a peak of respiration rates between the 4th and 5th days. Fruits stored at 4 ºC had lower respiration and ethylene production rates. Fruit stored at 23 ºC had more substantial decreases of SSC, TA, and hº of the skin, and increases of skin browning and decay incidence, compared to fruit stored at 4 ºC. The storage at 4 ºC was more effective to reduce respiration and ethylene production, to preserve the quality attributes (SSC, TA, and hº of the skin, and to reduce the severity of skin browning and decay, without avoiding the development of flesh browning. The storage potential of feijoas at 23 ºC is less than one week as a result of flesh browning and skin browning development and decay.

  4. Research advances on Maca%玛咖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏; 徐丽; 宋晖; 马清; 张译; 杨崇仁

    2015-01-01

    玛咖(Lepidium meyeniiWalp)(Maca)为十字花科独行菜属一年生或两年生草本植物,原产海拔3500~4500 m的南美安第斯山区,为当地常用蔬菜。我国本世纪初引种以来种植面积不断扩大,云南为主要种植地区。玛咖含有丰富的蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪酸、纤维、维生素和矿物质含量,具有较高的营养价值,有“南美人参”之誉。此外,玛咖含有玛咖酰胺、玛咖烯、生物碱、芥子油苷、甾醇和类固醇等主要次生代谢物。药理活性研究表明,玛咖具有抗疲劳、增强免疫力、提高生育力、抗炎症、抗癌、抗氧化、抗病毒、降血压、缓解抑郁和治疗女性更年期综合征等多种作用。前期大量文章已对玛咖的化学成分和生理活性研究进展进行综述。本文对玛咖的安全性评价、玛咖成分的检测方法以及以不同色型玛咖的成分比较分析研究概况进行综述。%Maca (Lepidium meyeniiWalp), an annual or biennial herb of Brassicaceae family, is native in the South American Andean mountain, especially above sea level to the altitude 3500~4500 m. Maca has been used as vegetable by the local people. Since the beginning of this century, Maca was introduced into China at the beginning of this century. Up to now, Maca has been planting widely in Yunnan province of China. Maca riches in proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, fibers, vitamins and mineralizes. It has high nutritional value as well as some secondary metabolites, such as macamides, macaenes, alkaloids, glucosinolates and steroids. It is reported that Maca has many biological activates, such as anti-fatigue, immune enhancing, fertility improving, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-virus, blood pressure lowering and treatment of female climacteric syndrome. Research advances in chemical constituents and biological activity of Maca has already been reviewed in previous articles. The current article

  5. Effects of Different Storage Methods on Postharvest Physiology and Storage Quality of Fresh Walnut Fruit%不同贮藏方式对核桃鲜果采后生理及贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曦; 张润光; 韩军岐; 张有林

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] Fresh walnut fruit easily appears decay and browning, its kernel easily becomes mildewed and dehydrated during storage. The supply period of fresh walnut fruit is short and walnut used in production is often conserved by dry. The objective of this study is to provide a theoretical basis and technical method for prolonging the supply period of fresh walnut through studying its postharvest physiology and storage technology.[Method]‘Xiang ling’ walnut variety was used as raw material in this study, air flow method was used to analyze the respiratory intensity of fresh walnut with husk and fresh walnut without husk. Moreover, the respiration type was also studied. Before storage under the condition of temperature (1.0±0.5)℃, RH 90%-95%, the materials were subjected to storage in vacuum-package with plastic bag, modified atmosphere package with plastic bag, controlled atmosphere storage of text box, respectively. A contrast was prepared without any treatment. To study the effect of gas composition on postharvest physiology and storage technology of fresh walnut fruit, moisture content, reducing sugar content, lipid content, protein content, MDA content and oil acid value, iodine value, peroxide value of fresh walnut kernel were measured during storage. Related enzymes of fresh walnut kernel such as LOX activity, SOD activity and CAT activity were determined, too. Moreover, green husk browning index of fresh walnut fruit was evaluated in different periods of storage. After storage for 120 d, walnut shell color, endotesta color, kernel flavour of total fresh walnut fruit were evaluated, respectively. Then, the appearance of fresh walnut husk, shell and kernel were taken photo.[Result]The results showed that the fresh walnut fruit with green husk is respiration climacteric fruit and fresh walnut without green husk is non-respiration climacteric fruit. The content of moisture, lipid, and oil iodine value presented a reduced trend, but the acid value

  6. Prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e massa óssea em mulheres na pós-menopausa Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e suas repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e a densidade mineral óssea (DMO em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Métodos: trata-se de estudo transversal com recuperação de dados de prontuários de pacientes acompanhadas em ambulatório de climatério. Critérios de inclusão: mulheres na pós-menopausa com dosagem do hormônio estimulador da tiróide (TSH e de tiroxina livre (T4-L. Critérios de exclusão: hipertiroidismo e carcinoma de tiróide. Considerou-se hipotiroidismo subclínico valores de TSH superiores a 5,0 mUI/mL e T4-L normal. Foram selecionadas 320 pacientes (idade 55,2±6,4 anos divididas em 3 grupos: função tiroideana normal (n=208, hipotiroidismo subclínico (n=53 e hipotiroidismo clínico sob tratamento (n=59. Foram analisados dados clínicos, uso de terapia hormonal, índice de massa corpórea (IMC=kg/m², perfil lipídico (colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos e DMO da coluna lombar e fêmur. Na análise estatística, as diferenças entre as médias dos grupos foram comparadas utilizando-se a análise de variância (ANOVA. Para múltipla comparação, assumindo que a variância era diferente entre os grupos, utilizou-se o método de Tukey. RESULTADOS: o hipotiroidismo subclínico foi diagnosticado em 16,1% dos casos. Os grupos foram homogêneos quanto às características clínicas, IMC e perfil lipídico e uso de terapêutica hormonal. Nas pacientes com hipotiroidismo subclínico ou clínico encontrou-se menor freqüência de osteopenia na coluna lombar e fêmur quando comparadas às eutiroidianas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. METHODS: a cross-sectional study with survey of data from medical records of patients attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria: postmenopausal women with measured thyroid

  7. 逆针灸关元穴对自然更年期大鼠下丘脑及腹部脂肪胰岛素受体表达的影响%Effect of preventive acupuncture and preventive moxibustion at Guanyuan point on the expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus and abdominal fat of menopausal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓泓; 王洪彬; 莫捷; 何玉伟; 孙志芳; 张露芬; 解秸萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of preventive acupuncture and preventive moxibustion at Guanyuan (CV4) point on the expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus and abdominal fat of natural climacteric model rats. Methods: A total of 60 female SD rats were randomized into 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th month control groups, 12th, 14th, 16th month preventive moxibustion groups and 12th, 14th, 16th month preventive acupuncture groups with 6 rats in each group. In addition, other 6 female SD rats aged 3.5th month were used as young control group. In preventive acupuncture and preventive moxibustion groups, Guanyuan was punctured with the needle retained for 20 min, and given with moxibustion for one moxa-cone respectively from aged 10th month. The treatment was conducted twice every week, 8 weeks altogether. The expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus and abdominal fat was observed by immunohistochemical method. Results: As the growing of month, the expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus during early menopause increased and then decreased, the expression of insulin receptor in abdominal adipose tissues of meopausal rats decreased at the beginning, increased in the middle stage and decreased in the end. With preventive acupuncture and preventive moxibustion at Guanyuan point, the expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus and abdominal fat presented an adverse trend compared to the same month control groups in most of the groups.Conclusion: Preventive acupuncture and preventive moxibustion at Guan-Yuan point had an benign regulation on the expression of insulin receptor in hypothalamus and abdominal adipose tissues, which might be one of the mechanism of preventing effectively dyslipidosis.%目的:观察逆针灸关元穴对自然更年期大鼠胰岛素受体表达的影响.方法:经阴道筛查出动情周期紊乱的10月龄SD雌性大鼠60只,随机分为自然10、12、14、16月龄组、逆灸12、14、16月龄组和逆针12、14、16

  8. Amadurecimento de bananas 'maçã' submetidas ao 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP Ripening of 'apple' banana submitted to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP

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    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2007-04-01

    design in factorial 3x5, evaluating the three different degrees of the banana's peel color ( degree 2: completely green; degree 4: more yellow than green; degree 7: completely yellow with brown spots and five application times of 50 etaL.L-1 of 1-MCP (0-control, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours, with three replicates consisted by 3 bunches with 4 fruits in each one. The data collected were submitted to variant analysis (ANOVA, to the Tukey test, and, when necessary, to polinomial regression. The 1-MCP was applicated on degree 2 of peel color fruits, at 50etaL.L-1 and 25±1ºC. After application, fruits were stored at 25 ± 1ºC and 80 ± 5% RH and their soluble solid (SS, content and total soluble sugars (TSS, pH and peel color were evaluated in degrees 2, 4 and 7 of peel color, and also the respiration rate that was evaluated daily. The 1-MCP at 50nL.L-1 application delayed the start of the ripening of 'Apple' bananas in approximately 9 days, based on the first visible changes in the peel color of green to yellow. It was also observed the retard in ascension and decrease of the respiration rate in 50 % approximately, in the maximal point climacteric, in fruits submitted to 1-MCP during the ripening. The 1-MCP at 50etaL.L-1, despite the times of application, delayed the ripening of 'apple' bananas and promoted no effect on the value b* variants (peel color, soluble solid content, total soluble sugars and pH.

  9. Efeitos da isoflavona de soja sobre os sintomas climatéricos e espessura endometrial: ensaio clínico, randomizado duplo-cego e controlado Effects of soy-derived isoflavone on hot flushes and endometrial thickness: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial

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    Vera Maria Gomes de Moura Sena

    2007-10-01

    involved 90 postmenopausal patients aged 45-60 years old attended at the Outpatient Menopause Clinic. All patients had been experiencing hot flashes accompanied or not by other hypo-estrogenic symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive either two soy capsules containing 50 mg of soy-derived isoflavone or two identical placebo capsules, twice a day for 12 weeks in a double-blind fashion. Each patient was observed for 12 weeks, with two evaluations being made, one at baseline and the other at the end of the study. At each time point, the patients were given a diary to record the severity of the climacteric symptoms experienced, assessed with a modified Kupperman index, using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The intensity of hot flashes was also assessed separately. The patients were also submitted to a transvaginal echography for the measurement of endometrial thickness. Yates chi2, ANOVA or t de Student and Mann-Whitney were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: no significant difference was detected in the Kupperman index (64 versus 82, p>0,05 or in the hot flashes (20 versus 20, p>0,05 between the isoflavone and placebo groups. No significant difference was either detected concerning the Kupperman index and hot flashes before and after treatment, when the two groups were analyzed separately. No difference was detected in the endometrial thickness either in the isoflavone or the placebo group (0.28 versus 0.26 mm, respectively, p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: our results indicate that 100 mg of isoflavone are not more effective than placebo in reducing hot flashes and hypo-estrogenic symptoms in postmenopausal women and present no effect on the endometrium thickness.

  10. 超声波结合弱酸性电位水处理改善商熟期草莓采后品质%Ultrasound combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment improves quality of immature strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛枝; 刘东红; 丁甜; 徐玉亭; 钟建军

    2013-01-01

      为了进一步发展草莓贮运保鲜技术,以商熟期的草莓为原料,研究了超声波、弱酸性电位水(slightly acidic electrolyzed water,SAEW)处理对其表面微生物数目和相关品质参数的影响。结果发现:超声波、SAEW及二者结合处理10 min分别使草莓表面初始菌落总数降低了0.52、1.07、1.29 lgCFU/g,霉菌和酵母总数降低了0.30、0.93、1.18 lgCFU/g,且处理后的样品表面微生物始终维持在相对较低的水平。另外,3种处理均改变了草莓贮藏中的呼吸特性,使其出现了呼吸高峰;第14天,超声结合SAEW处理使草莓的可溶性固形物、VC及花青素的含量提高了7.72%、10.53%、19.28%,促使样品表现出一个后熟的过程。同时,试验还发现,超声波处理能抑制草莓硬度的下降,SAEW则对样品硬度无影响。研究结果表明:超声波和SAEW处理不仅能抑制草莓表面微生物的生长,还能调节其贮藏期生理代谢,改善贮藏期间的品质。%The consumption of strawberries is preferable because of its nutritional value and special flavor. The ripe strawberry has an extremely short postharvest life because it is highly susceptible to mechanical injury, microbiological decay, and physiological deterioration. On the other hand, the strawberry is non-climacteric and will not ripen after harvest, therefore it has to be picked when fully ripened for the best eating quality. Current methods used for preventing undesirable changes of fruit attributes during storage have a detrimental effect on nutritional properties. Therefore, it’s necessary to find appropriate methods to extend the shelf life and maintain the quality of the strawberry. The investigations of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) used in postharvest fruits and vegetables have gained much attention in recent years. Ultrasound is one of the newest nonthermal methods to extend the shelf life of fruits

  11. 围绝经期妇女抑郁症状影响因素调查%Investigation on the effect factors of depression symptom among perimenopausal women

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    顾磊; 杜莉; 施红; 钱晓敏; 谭晶; 秦敏; 纪若思; 沈谦; 朱丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the current situation and effect factors of depression symptom among perimenopausal women and their psychological health demands in partial urban areas in Shanghai. Methods: General condition questionnaire, modified menopausal Kupperman assessment scale, social support rating scale (SSRS), patient health questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9) and menopausal mental health care attitude and need scale were used to survey 935 women aged 45 ~ 59 years old who received general investigation in a community in Shanghai from December 2010 to February 2011. Results: The incidence of depression in perimenopausal women was 24. 8%. The incidences of depression in native women and floating women were 22. 7% and 50. 7%, respectively. The effect factors of depression in perimenopausal women included census registration, the degree ofdysmenorrhea, children leaving their home for a long time within one year, serious diseases, cacesthesia, arthralgia and myalgia, climacteric syndrome, subjective support rating, objective support rating,and so on. The consciousness and knowledge of health care in perimenopausal women: 39. 8% of the perimenopausal women did not care about mental health care, 69. 5% of the perimenopausal women obtained health knowledge from media mainly, and 61.9% of the perimenopausal women obtained health knowledge from newspapers and magazines mainly. Conclusion: The incidence of depression among perimenopausal women is high. It is associated with a variety of social, psychological and biological factors. Mental health care provided for perimenopausal women should be included in women health work.%目的:探讨上海市部分城区围绝经期妇女抑郁症状发生现状、影响因素及其心理保健需求.方法:采用一般情况调查表、改良更年期Kupperman评分量表、社会支持评定量表、病人健康问卷抑郁量表、围绝经期妇女心理卫生保健态度及需求调查表,于2010年12月~2011

  12. Analysis of bone microarchitecture related to anthropometry in climateric women Análisis de la microarquitectura ósea relacionada con la antropometría en mujeres postmenopáusicas

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    F. Giolo De Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is one of the most important public health problems involving a high percentage of costs in the medical care system. Reliable diagnostic techniques for an early detection of bone deterioration and studies of factors that influence its development in menopausal women are crucial. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone microarchitecture and anthropometry in climacteric women. Methods: Women were recruited at the Menopause Clinic, University Hospital of FMRP/USP, and submitted to anthropometry and to the evaluation of bone quality (Ultrasound Bone Profile Index, UBPI and quantity (Amplitudedependent Speed of Sound, AD-SoS- by phalangeal quantitative osteosonography (DBM Sonic BP. Descriptive analysis of the data was reported and a multiple linear regression was performed using the software SAS® 9.0. Results: 71 patients aged 58 ± 7 y were studied: 28% had BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m², 35% BMI 24.9-29.9 and 37% BMI > 30. Mean AD-SoS was 2059 ± 79 m/s and mean UBPI was 0.67 ± 0.13. Considering AD-SoS the dependent variable, there was no statistically significant relationship between age (p = 0.20, BMI (p = 0.76, fat mass by bioelectrical impedance (p = 0.42 and by anthropometry (p = 0.95. The variables had very low effect on the UBPI when it was considered the dependent variable. Conclusions: The relation between bone microarchitecture and the anthropometry of the women studied shows that, the greater the bone quantity, the better the anthropometric parameters, without statistically significance. This work was a cross-sectional study on a small sample that needs to be validated in a prospective design.Introducción y objetivo: La osteoporosis es uno de los problemas más importantes de la Salud Pública e involucra un elevado porcentaje de los costos del Sistema de Salud. Es decisiva la aplicación de técnicas confiables de diagnóstico para la detección precoz del deterioro óseo y estudios de los

  13. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de butiá em função do estádio de maturação na colheita e do manejo da temperatura Postharvest quality of jelly palm fruits as a result of maturity stage at harvest and temperature management

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-02-01

    of jelly palm fruits. The fruits were harvested at three maturity stages (green, yellow-green, and yellow and stored at 0 2°C and 20 2°C. Fruits stored at 0 2°C showed better retention of firmness, green color of the skin, total titratable acidity (TTA, and total soluble solids (TSS than fruits stored at 20 2°C. Fruits harvested at the green maturity stage showed the best benefit from cold storage for postharvest preservation, despite of its poorest sensorial quality, characterized by the higher values of TTA and lower values of TSS than fruits harvested at yellow-green and yellow maturity stages. Fruits stored at 0 2°C did not show any symptom of chilling injury. Along the entire storage period, the fruits did not exhibit a climacteric respiratory pattern. Fruits harvested at different maturity stages did not show significant difference in terms of respiration rates. Thee increment of storage temperature from 0 to 30°C significantly increased the respiration rates from 50.26 to 658.35nmol CO2 kg-1 s-1. This respiratory increase followed a sigmoid model, with a rapid increase between 0 and 10°C, and a more modest increase towards the temperature of 30°C. There was a positive effect of immediate cooling after harvest on fruit retention of firmness, skin green color, and TTA, but not on TSS. Since jelly palm fruit is highly perishable, it should be harvested at the yellow-green maturity stage and then immediately stored at 0°C to preserve its postharvest quality.

  14. Avaliação das pressões sistólica, diastólica e pressão de pulso como fator de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST Evaluation of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure as risk factors for severe coronary arteriosclerotic disease in women with unstable angina non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction

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    José Marconi Almeida de Sousa

    2004-05-01

    from March 1993 to August 2001, and the risk factors for CHD were studied. During examination the pressures, at the aortic root, and coronary obstructions were visually assessed by 2 interventional cardiologists, and those stenosis over 70% were considered severe. RESULTS: Eight-one per cent of the population was white and 18.3% was black. Mean age was 59.2±11.2 years, and it was significantly higher in patients with severe coronary lesions: 61.9 ± 10.8 years versus 56.4 ± 10.8 years; smoking, diabetes mellitus and climacteric were more frequent in patients with CHD. The average mean arterial pressure and mean systolic blood pressure was the same in both groups, however, average left ventricle diastolic pressure (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001, and aortic pulse pressure were significantly greater in patients with CHD (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, while average aortic diastolic pressure was significantly greater in patients without CHD (79.8 ± 16 x 75.3 ± 17.5, p=0.003. In the multivariated analysis, pulse pressure > 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 were independently associated with severe CHD with odds ratio of 2.12 and 2.09, p 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 mmHG determined risk two times greater of severe coronary disease.

  15. Quality of life and menopausal symptoms in women with liver transplants Qualidade de vida e sintomas da menopausa em mulheres transplantadas hepáticas

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    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess quality of life and climacteric symptoms in women with and without liver transplants. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 52 women undergoing follow-up at a university hospital in southeastern Brazil from February 4th, 2009 to January 5th, 2011. Twenty-four of these women were 35 years old or older and had undergone liver transplantation at least one year before study entry. The remaining 28 women had no liver disease and were matched by age and menstrual patterns to the patients with transplants. The abbreviated version of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Correlations between MRS and the WHOQOL-BREF were established by correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the study was 52.2 (±10.4 years and the mean time since transplantation was 6.1 (±3.3 years. Women with liver transplants had better quality of life scores in the environment domain (p=0.01. No difference was noted between the two groups in any domain of the MRS. For women in the comparison group, there was a strongly negative correlation between somatic symptoms in the MRS and the physical domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e os sintomas do climatério em mulheres com e sem transplante de fígado. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 52 mulheres em acompanhamento ambulatorial em um hospital universitário na região sudeste do Brasil no período de 04/02/09 a 05/01/11. Dessas mulheres, 24 tinham 35 anos ou mais e haviam sido submetidas a transplante de fígado a pelo menos um ano antes do início do estudo. As outras 28 mulheres não tinham doença hepática e suas idades e padrões menstruais eram similares ao das transplantadas hepáticas. Para avaliação da

  16. Efeitos da Corticosteroidoterapia na Uretra e na Bexiga de Ratas Castradas antes e durante Reposição Estrogênica Effects of Corticosteroids in the Urethra and Bladder of Castrated Female Rats before and during Estrogen Replacement Teraphy

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    João Batista dos Santos Junior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do uso de corticóides sobre os vasos e o epitélio da bexiga e da uretra de ratas. Método: utilizaram-se 54 ratas, divididas em 5 grupos: Grupo I - dez ratas castradas; Grupo II - onze ratas castradas que receberam succinato sódico de prednisolona, na dose de 15 mg/kg de peso, por via intraperitoneal durante 26 dias; Grupo III - doze ratas castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na mesma dose associado ao 17 beta-estradiol na dose de 10 mg/kg, subcutâneo, nos últimos 5 dias antes de serem sacrificadas; Grupo IV - onze ratas castradas que receberam placebo por 26 dias; Grupo V - dez ratas não-castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na dose e duração do grupo II. Resultados: observou-se na bexiga do grupo castrado que recebeu corticosteróide uma média de 1,8 vasos, número semelhante ao que recebeu corticosteróide e estrogênio, contra 0,8 vasos no grupo com placebo. Já na uretra, identificaram-se 0,7 vaso no grupo com corticosteróide, contra 0,9 vaso do grupo com corticosteróide associado ao estrogênio e 0,4 vaso no grupo placebo. Quanto à mucosa, observou-se que a espessura do epitélio vesical passou de 14,1 mm do grupo placebo para 20,6 mm no que recebeu corticosteróide e para 22,6 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Da mesma maneira, a espessura do epitélio uretral passou de 12,4 mm no grupo controle para 15,1 mm no grupo com corticosteróide e para 16,7 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Conclusões: a prednisolona, na dose e na duração utilizadas, aumentaram o número de vasos e a espessura do epitélio da bexiga e da uretra.Purpose: the effects of corticosteroids on the female urinary tract are not well understood, specially in climacteric women with or without estrogen replacement therapy. We studied the effects of corticosteroids on the blood vessels and epithelium of the bladder and urethra of female rats. Method: fifty-four female rats were used, divided into

  17. Amadurecimento de manga 'Ubá' com etileno e carbureto de cálcio na pós-colheita Ripening of 'Ubá' mango using ethylene and calcium carbide

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-02-01

    chambers at 18.1±0.7°C and 90±3% RH, for 24h. After the treatment, the fruits were kept under the same conditions of temperature and RH, and were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of storage. Ethylene and CaC2 increased mass loss of the fruits. Mangoes treated with CaC2 showed the respiratory climacteric peak at 3, 6, 9, 9 and 12 days of storage for the concentrations 160, 80, 40, 20 and 0g m-3, respectively. Fruits treated with ethylene showed the peak at 3, 3, 6, 6 and 12 days of storage for the concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50 and 0mL m-3, respectively. All concentrations of CaC2 and ethylene accelerated the loss of firmness, the increase of soluble solids and carotenoids, the reduction of acidity and the change in color of skin and pulp. However, these products also increased electrolyte leakage and decreased ascorbic acid content. Fruits treated with ethylene showed sharper firmness loss compared with fruits treated with CaC2. On the other hand, solute leakage was higher in fruits treated with CaC2. Soluble solids content increased with increasing concentrations of CaC2 and ethylene. The concentrations of 20g of CaC2 and 50mL of ethylene per chamber m³ were sufficient to accelerate and uniformize ripening of 'Ubá' mango.

  18. Resposta da aplicação do 1-MCP em frutos de mamoeiro 'Golden' em diferentes estádios de maturação Responses of 1-MCP applications in 'Golden' papaya fruits on differents maturation stages

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    Maximiliano Silva de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de fatores que influenciam no processo de amadurecimento é fundamental para o planejamento do processo de comercialização, principalmente em frutos com padrão de respiração climatérico e perecível, como é o caso do mamão. Nesse trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação do 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre o amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro nos estádios 0; 1 e 2 de maturação. O 1-MCP diminui a produção de etileno (≈79% e a taxa respiratória (≈45%, principalmente em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação. O uso deste inibidor da ação do etileno retardou a perda de coloração verde da casca dos frutos, principalmente em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação. Houve redução na perda de firmeza do fruto e do mesocarpo nos estádios 1 e 2. Entretanto, em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação, a firmeza do mesocarpo manteve-se alta, o que pode comprometer a aceitação destes frutos pelo consumidor. O teor de sólidos solúveis não foi influenciado pela aplicação do 1-MCP. O efeito do 1-MCP na redução da atividade das enzimas PME e PG foi maior em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação em comparação a frutos no estádio 2 de maturação. A atividade da PME demonstrou crescente aumento ao longo do período de armazenamento, porém a atividade da PG permaneceu baixa ao longo dos cinco primeiros dias, com aumento posterior. Os resultados mostraram que a PME exerce influência significativa na perda de firmeza da polpa nos primeiros dias, com atuação posterior da PG. O 1-MCP mostrou-se eficiente em retardar o processo de amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro, tornando-se mais eficiente quando associado a estádios de maturação iniciais.The study of factors that influence the process of ripening is critical for planning the marketing process, mainly in standard breathing climacteric and perishing fruits, as it is the case of papaya. In this work it was evaluated the effect of the application of 1-MCP (1

  19. 逆针灸"关元"穴对更年期大鼠脾脏热休克蛋白70及其mRNA表达和血清白介素-2、肿瘤坏死因子-α含量的影响%Effect of Preventive Acupuncture and Moxibustion at "Guanyuan"(CV 4)on the Expression of HSP 70 and HSP 70 mRNA in Spleen and the Contents of Serum IL-2,TNF-α in Menopausal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓泓; 王洪彬; 徐莉莉; 宋晓琳; 郑玲; 何玉伟; 张露芬

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察逆针灸"关元"穴对自然更年期大鼠免疫功能的影响.方法:经阴道筛查出动情周期紊乱的10月龄SD雌性大鼠160只,随机分为自然10、12、14、16月龄组,逆灸12、14、16月龄组和逆针12、14、16月龄组.另选3.5月龄健康SD雌性大鼠16只为年轻对照组.逆灸、逆针各组从大鼠10月龄开始,每周灸或针"关元"穴2次,共8周.采用免疫组化法检测脾脏热休克蛋白70(HSP 70),原位杂交法检测HSP 70mRNA表达,放射免疫法测定血清白介素-2(IL-2)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量.结果:更年期大鼠随着月龄的增长脾脏HSP 70及HSP 70 mRNA的表达呈先升后降的变化,血清IL-2含量波动性降低,TNF-α含量先降后升.与自然同月龄组相比,逆灸、逆针各月龄组HSP 70及HSP 70 mRNA表达和IL-2含量均呈增加趋势,其中逆灸、逆针12月龄组HSP 70及HSP 70 mRNA,逆灸14、16月龄组HSP 70,逆针14月龄组HSP 70 mRNA的表达差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05),IL-2含量逆灸14月龄组明显升高(P<0.05);TNF-α含量逆灸、逆针12月龄组均明显升高(P<0.01),逆灸16月龄组明显降低(P<0.05).同月龄逆灸、逆针组相比,逆针12月龄组HSP 70 mRNA显著升高(P<0.05).结论:逆针灸"关元"穴对调整更年期免疫功能紊乱具有一定作用,其机制可能与调节脾脏组织细胞HSP 70及其基因的表达,启动了机体内在的抗病与应变能力,从而调节血清免疫因子IL-2、TNF-α的含量有关.%Objective To observe the influence of preventive acupuncture (PA) and preventive moxibustion (PM) at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on the immune function in natural climacteric rats. Methods A total of 160 female SD rats were randomized into control, PA and PM groups, the former one group was further divided into 10 month (mon) ,12 mon, 14 mon and 16 mon subgroups, and the later two groups were further divided into 12 mon, 14 mon and 16 mon subgroups, with 16 rats in each. In addition

  20. Produção de etileno em frutos de ameixeira ‘Prunus domestica’ sujeitos a duas temperaturas de conservação Ethylene production by ‘Prunus domestica’ plums during storage at two different temperatures

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    A.E. Rato

    2007-01-01

    quais era retirada uma amostra para monitorização da produção de etileno. Estudou-se ainda a evolução, da textura, da acidez, e do SSC (teor dos sólidos solúveis dos frutos durante a sua conservação frigorífica. Dos resultados obtidos verificou-se que a conservação dos frutos a 7 ºC não influencia significativamente a produção de etileno, 0,3 nl/g/h, quando comparado com os frutos não sujeitos ao frio. Os frutos conservados à temperatura de 1 ºC durante 14 dias produziram menores quantidades de etileno quando comparados com os restantes grupos. Um período de conservação de 2 dias a 7 ºC induziu nos frutos um aumento na produção de etileno quando comparados com os frutos não sujeitos ao frio. Em ambas as temperaturas de conservação, verificou-se uma antecipação no pico do climatérico, quando se comparam frutos com e sem conservação frigorífica.Low temperatures interacts with ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in many species. Exposure fruits to low temperatures promotes ethylene biosynthesis in a number of apple and pears cultivars because low temperatures stimulates ACC synthase activity after fruits being warmed up.. Some pears and apples varieties required a cold treatment to achieve good colour, acceptable texture and flavour. In ‘Prunus domestica’ plums cv ‘Raínha Claudia verde’, a climacteric fruit, there is little information about ripening process but we observed after a cold storage period a decrease in ethylene production upon rewarming. The longer the storage period the stronger the depress in ethylene biosynthesis. This cultivar is usually stored at 0-2 ºC, it has small commercial period because of its short postharvest life. In cold chambers fruits became soft very quickly and improper to commercialise. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different storage temperatures (1 ºC and 7 ºC ±1º during 0, 2, 5, 8, and 14 days in ethylene production upon rewarming of ‘Raínha Claudia Verde

  1. Comparison of detection rate of osteoporosis in different sex,age and skeleton location%不同性别、年龄及不同骨骼部位骨质疏松检出率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹志伟; 裴育; 杜瑞琴; 陈国昌; 邵伟庆; 崔志辉

    2005-01-01

    股骨颈和大转子 BMD有明显正相关( r=0.306,0.329,0.338,P< 0.05). 结论 : OP的检出率随骨骼测量部位和年龄的变化而变化.正确认识和评价这些客观现象,对 OP的诊治具有重要意义.%BACKGROUND:Bone mineral density(BMD) is still regarded as the standard of early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis(OP) at present.But it is found in detection that different sex,age and skeleton location have different OP detection rate,so it is necessary to analyze the difference. OBJECTIVE:To compare the difference of OP detection rate at different skeleton location between males and females with the increase of age. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study taking patients as the subjects. SETTING:Endocrine department of an artillery general hospital of Chinese PLA. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 147 patients,including 54 males and 93 females, aged from 50 to 78 years old,who were hospitalized in our outpatient clinic from September 2000 to January 2002,were selected and divided into 3 groups according to age,50 to 59 years old group (n=46,13 males and 33 females),60 to 69 years old group (n=66,26 males and 40 females) and 70 to 79 years old group (n=35,15 accordance with the OP diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO[1]. Exclusive criterion: secondary OP patients caused by chronic disease of liver,kidney, heart, and gastrointestinal tract and some endocrine disease such as diabetes,hyperthyroidism and so on. INTERVENTIONS:Every subject filled in the history questionnaire in detail.Height and body mass were measured accurately and body mass index(BMI) was calculated (kg/m2).A new type of Norland Excell plus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) was used to detect BMD(g/cm2) of L2- 4 and proximate femur(neck of femur, Ward's triangle,greater trochanter).The detected values were compared with the normal data of young adults of the same sex and the T value(SD) was obtained. RESULTS:OP in lumber vertebra was predominant in female climacteric(χ 2=10.14,P< 0.01),and the detection rate of