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Sample records for climacteric

  1. Acupuncture for Climacteric Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-jun; HUANG Qin-feng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    共分析了50篇文章,分别采用单纯针刺法,针刺结合其他疗法,耳穴贴压疗法和其他疗法进行治疗.有39篇文章有明确的诊断标准,其中,Kupperman评分和.治疗组涉及病例总数2946例,临床疗效最高达100%,最低为58.1%.有16篇设立了对照组.15篇进行了辨证分型,共27种证型,有肝肾阴虚,脾肾阳虚,肾阳虚,肾阴虚,心肾不交和肝郁等.针灸治疗更年期综合征具有一定效果,但缺少严格的随机对照试验(RCT).%This paper reviews and analyzes 50 articles concerning the treatment of climacteric syndrome by acupuncture and moxibustion therapries. The therapies were single acupuncture, acupuncture combining other methods, auricular-plaster therapy, and some other therapies. Clear diagnostic criteria were found in 39 articles, and the most common-used criteria were Combination of TCMand Western Medicine Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Kupperman Index Scoring and Criterion of Diagnosis and Treatment Effect of TCM Diseases and Syndrome. All together 2946 cases were treated, and the therapeutic effect rates ranged from 58.1% to 100%. There were control group in 16 articles. The syndromes have been classified as 27 types in 15 articles, including type of yin-deficiency of the liver and the kidney, yang-deficiency of the spleen and the kidney, yang-deficiency of the kidney, yindeficiency of the kidney, disharmony between the heart and the kidney, and the liver stagnation, etc.Some effects have been got in treating female climacteric syndrome with acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, however, there were fewer strict randomized controlled trials (RCT).

  2. Female Climacteric Syndrome Treated by Ear Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ Female climacteric syndrome is a common disease occurring before and after menopause. The author has treated the disease with ear embedding therapy, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a report of the clinical observation.

  3. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  4. Hormones for therapy of climacteric afflictions

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    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western countries hormone replacement therapy (HT is widely used in the treatment of climacteric women who are affected with hot flashes and night sweats. Besides, long-term HT was frequently used to manage the higher risks for osteoporosis and heart attack in postmenopause. Estrogens alone or combined with progestin feature most frequently in HT. Objectives: This HTA report addresses the questions on medical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HT as a treatment of hot flashes and night sweats as well as in the primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopause in general healthy women. Methods: The literature search for articles published after 1998 was conducted in March 2004 in standard medical and economic databases. The analysis included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and economic evaluations considering relevant clinical endpoints in English or German language. The quality of the studies was assessed using checklists corresponding to the study type. Results: HT is highly effective in treating hot flashes in climacteric women. The question of economical efficiency cannot be answered due to the scarce database. As the positive effects (lower risk for fractures and endometrial cancer do not outweigh the negative effects (higher risk for breast cancer and general cardiovascular risk estrogen-progestin combination HT cannot be recommended for primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Discussion: The observation period of most of the studies regarding therapy of hot flashes and night sweats were too short to evaluate possible risks of long-term HT. The economic publications assessing HT for this indication varied vastly in terms of applied methods and were not carried out with respect to the German health care system. Conclusions: HT can be recommended in the short-term treatment of hot flashes and night sweats in climacteric

  5. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

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    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.

  6. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

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    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  7. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries.

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    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    1994-10-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician.

  8. Involvement of wound and climacteric ethylene in ripening avocado discs.

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    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-10-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) discs (3 mm thick) ripened in approximately 72 hours when maintained in a flow of moist air and resembled ripe fruit in texture and taste. Ethylene evolution by discs of early and midseason fruit was characterized by two distinct components, viz. wound ethylene, peaking at approximately 18 hours, and climacteric ethylene, rising to a peak at approximately 72 hours. A commensurate respiratory stimulation accompanied each ethylene peak. Aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG) given consecutively, at once and at 24 hours following disc preparation, prevented wound and climacteric respiration peaks, virtually all ethylene production, and ripening. When AVG was administered for the first 24 hours only, respiratory stimulation and softening (ripening) were retarded by at least a day. When AVG was added solely after the first 24 hours, ripening proceeded as in untreated discs, although climacteric ethylene and respiration were diminished. Propylene given together with AVG led to ripening under all circumstances. 2,5-Norbornadiene given continuously stimulated wound ethylene production, and it inhibited climacteric ethylene evolution, the augmentation of ethylene-forming enzyme activity normally associated with climacteric ethylene, and ripening. 2,5-Norbornadiene given at 24 hours fully inhibited ripening. When intact fruit were pulsed with ethylene for 24 hours before discs were prepared therefrom, the respiration rate, ethylene-forming enzyme activity buildup, and rate of ethylene production were all subsequently enhanced. The evidence suggests that ethylene is involved in all phases of disc ripening. In this view, wound ethylene in discs accelerates events that normally take place over an extended period throughout the lag phase in intact fruit, and climacteric ethylene serves the same ripening function in discs and intact fruit alike.

  9. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  10. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY AND CLIMACTERIC DISORDERS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    A. A. Kirichenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive therapy with enalapril (Berlipril®, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group and diltiazem (Altiazem® PP, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group in postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension (HT and climacteric disorders.Material and methods. 60 postmenopausal women (aged 56,8±3,9 y.o. with HT of 1-3 degrees were included into the study. They were split in two groups. Patients of the first group (30 people received enalapril (Berlipril® 20 mg/daily, patients of the second group (30 people – diltiazem (Altiazem® PP 180-360 mg/daily. Observation period was 6 months. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before treatment and after 3 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months of therapy. Climacteric syndrome severity and urodynamic disorders was estimated as well as psychic status according to score of depression and anxiety.Results. Office and ambulance blood pressure decreased after 6 months of therapy in all patients of both groups. A number of complaints on headache and giddiness reduced significantly. Severity of climacteric syndrome also decreased. Enalapril (Berlipril® monotherapy and especially combined therapy with hydrochlorothiazide led to aggravation of urodinamic disorders. On the contrary both monotherapy with diltiazem (Altiazem® PP or its combination with hydrochlorothiazide had positive effect on urodinamics. Both therapies reduced depression and anxiety levels significantly.Conclusion. All spectrum of pharmacology effects should be taken into account during antihypertensive therapy of patients with climacteric disorders.

  11. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

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    Tingting Dong

    Full Text Available MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4 and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  12. Succinate-based preparation alleviates manifestations of the climacteric syndrome in women.

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    Peskov, A B; Maevskii, E I; Uchitel', M L; Sakharova, N Yu; Vize-Khripunova, M A

    2005-09-01

    Clinical placebo-controlled study of Enerlit-Clima (bioactive succinate-based food additive) a showed positive effect of the preparation on general clinical and psychoemotional manifestations of the climacteric syndrome. A trend to an increase in estradiol level in early pathological climacteric and normalization of the endometrial status were observed.

  13. Instruments to study sleep disorders in climacteric women

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    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify the scales to assess sleep disorders applied to women with climacteric stage. Bibliographical research without intervention, the available information in scientific databases. Performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Ebscohos OvidSP and Health Library. The words used in this article: insomnia, adjustment sleep disorder, questionnaires, studies and menopause. Publications of all types were included. Seven scales were identified: Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale, Pittsburgh Quality of sleep Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Jenkins Sleep Scale, Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire and The St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. There are validated scales in multiple languages and considered appropriate for studying sleep disorders.

  14. Experimental Study of Angeng Prescription for Climacteric Syndrome in Rats

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    CHEN Da-shuai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Angeng Formula on climacteric syndrome in rats. Methods: The ovaries of female SD rats were removed for the establishment of menopausal syndrome rat models. After drug delivery for 30 d, serum sex hormone levels and indexes of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary were detected. Meanwhile, the effects of drugs on the histopathology of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in rats were observed. Results: Angeng prescription could increase the level of estradiol (E2 in castrated rat (P<0.01 and had a tendency to increase the level of progestin (P, lower the level of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH as well as increase the indexes of the uterus and adrenal gland. Moreover, Angeng prescription could improve the pathologic condition of the uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in castrated rats. Conclusion: Angeng prescription has a therapeutic effect on climacteric syndrome, the mechanism of which might be related with the function of regulating sex hormone.

  15. Experimental Study on Angeng Formula for Climacteric Syndrome in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-shuai; LI Peng-li; TAN Hai-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Angeng Formula on climacteric syndrome in rats. Methods:The ovaries of female SD rats were removed for the establishment of menopausal syndrome rat models. After drug delivery for 30 d, serum sex hormone levels and indexes of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary were detected. Meanwhile, the effects of drugs on the histopathology of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in rats were observed. Results:Angeng Formula could increase the level of estradiol (E2) in castrated rat (P<0.01) and had a tendency to increase the level of progestin (P), lower the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as increase the indexes of the uterus and adrenal gland. Moreover, Angeng Formula could improve the pathologic condition of the uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in castrated rats. Conclusion:Angeng Formula has a therapeutic effect on climacteric syndrome, the mechanism of which might be related with the function of regulating sex hormone.

  16. Acupuncture compares with Western medicine for climacteric depression

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    Quan Xiao Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture for climacteric depression. Two reviewers searched major databases independently. The quality assessment and data analysis were evaluated by Cochrane reviews 5.3.0. Seventeen clinical trials were included, contained 1,369 cases. Meta-analysis of acupuncture comparing with medicine showed that: a Affective rate: [OR = 1.44, 95% CI (1.02, 2.04], the difference had statistically significance; b HAMA score : [MD = -2.12, 95% CI (-2.85, -1.40], the difference had statistically significance; c HAMD score: The difference of the 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week, 8th week, or 12th week was not statistically significant; d Kupperman score: [MD = -5.05, 95% CI (-11.94, 1.84] showed no statistical significance; e Incidence of adverse events of acupuncture (2.7% was significantly less than the control group (20%. In conclusion acupuncture will help to improve depressive symptoms of climacteric and decrease adverse reactions.

  17. [Our experience in the treatment of climacteric complaints with Livial (Organon)].

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    Pekhlivanov, B; Malinova, M; Milchev, N

    2001-01-01

    The authors are sharing their experience in using a new medicine Livial (Organon) for the treatment of climacteric complaints. Twenty women have been included in the study. They have received one tablet of 2.5 mg Livial daily throughout four cycles of 28 days. All women report decrease of climacteric symptoms, especially hot flushes and night sweats. Only one of them had genital bleeding while using the drug. Twenty percent of the women reported adverse effects (breast tenderness and nausea), which turned out to be transitional. Conclusions concerning the usage of Livial in the treatment of climacteric complaints have been made.

  18. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

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    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  19. Suan Zao Ren Tang as an Original Treatment for Sleep Difficulty in Climacteric Women: A Prospective Clinical Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hao Yeh; Arnold, Christof K.; Yen-Hui Chen; Jung-Nein Lai

    2011-01-01

    Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of women with sleep difficulty during the climacteric period. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) in reducing the impact of sleep disturbance on climacteric women, as measured by Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL). Sixty-seven climacteric women with sleep difficulty intending to treat receive...

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with urinary incontinence in climacteric

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    Máyra Cecilia Dellú

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To estimate the prevalence and identify associated factors to urinary incontinence (UI in climacteric women. Method: In a cross-sectional study with a stratified random sample, 1,200 women aged between 35 and 72 years were studied, enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in the city of Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo. Urinary incontinence was investigated using the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form, while associated factors were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire with socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological history, morbidities and drug use. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was estimated with a 95% confidence interval (95CI and the associated factors were identified through multiple logistic regression model performed using Stata software, version 11.0. Results: Women had a mean age of 51.9 years, most were in menopause (59.4%, married (87.5%, Catholic (48.9%, and declared themselves black or brown (47.2%. The mean age of menopause of women with UI was 47.3 years. The prevalence of UI was 20.4% (95CI: 17.8-23.1%. The factors associated with UI were urinary loss during pregnancy (p=0.000 and after delivery (p=0.000, genital prolapse (p=0.000, stress (p=0.001, depression (p=0.002, and obesity (p=0.006. Conclusion: The prevalence of UI was lower but similar to that found in most similar studies. Factors associated with the genesis of UI were urinary loss during pregnancy and after delivery, genital prolapse and obesity.

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Ethylene Climacteric of Melon Fruit by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

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    GAO Feng; NIU Yi-ding; HAO Jin-feng; BADE Rengui; ZHANG Li-quan; HASI Agula

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Ethylene regulates the ripening process and affects the ripening rate. To screen genes that are differentially expressed at the burst of ethylene climacteric in melon fruit, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate forward and reverse libraries, for which we sequenced 439 and 445 clones, respectively. Our BLAST analysis showed that the genes from the 2 libraries were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell structure, transcription, translation, and defense. Six genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during the differential developmental stage of melon fruit. Our results provide new insight into the understanding of climacteric ripening of melon fruit.

  2. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

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    Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet. Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach

  3. [The relation between dysmenorrhea and hot flash in a group of women in climacteric].

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    Andreassi, S; Tesseri, E

    1992-01-01

    Hot flushes in climacteric age can cause noticeable discomfort to those who have them. This functional disturbance confirms the strong relationship between the gonadic steroids and the central neurotransmitters. These complex mechanisms which control reproductive functions limit our knowledge of the pathogenesis of hot flushes. The possible intervention of prostaglandins in the rising of this disturbance and their participation in dismenorrhea have raised the hypothesis that the prostaglandins may be the common denominator in the development of dysmenorrhea in fertile age women and of hot flushes in climacteric age women. Under this context, we examined a number of women in menopause to determine if they suffered with dysmenorrhea in fertile age.

  4. Climacteric complaints among very low-income women from a tropical region of Brazil

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    Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Climacteric symptoms may vary between different countries and cultures. Socioeconomic factors and climate may be implicated. The aim of this study was to identify climacteric symptomatology among very low-income Brazilian women, living in a hot and humid region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Cuiabá, at Júlio Müller University Hospital, a tertiary institution. METHODS: The study enrolled 354 climacteric women. The variables analyzed were social class, symptomatology and abnormal concurrent conditions. The study was approved by the hospital's research ethics committee. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the participants (232/354 were very poor and had had little schooling. The number of symptoms per woman was 8.0 ± 5.7. Hot flushes, nervousness, forgetfulness and fatigue were each found in nearly 60.0%. Tearfulness, depression, melancholy and insomnia were also frequent. Sexual problems were reported by 25%. The most relevant concurrent abnormal conditions reported were hypertension (33.9%, obesity (26.5%, arthritis/arthrosis (15.0% and diabetes mellitus (9.6%. Hot flushes were associated with tearfulness, nervousness and forgetfulness. CONCLUSION: Brazilian climacteric women of low income and low schooling present multiple symptoms. Vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms were the most prevalent disorders. Hot flushes were associated with nervousness, forgetfulness and tearfulness.

  5. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Myung-Haeng Hur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total. The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05. There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05. These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  6. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa, Hypericum perforatum and Agnus castus in the treatment of climacteric complaints : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laakmann, Elena; Grajecki, Donata; Doege, Katja; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Buhling, Kai J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The systematic review examines whether Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), Hypericum perforatum (HP), Agnus castus, vitamins and minerals, either as monotherapy or in combination, have an evidence-based impact on vasomotor, genital and psychological climacteric complaints. Data sources and methods

  7. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage.

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    Salazar-Molina, Alide; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Delgado, Jaime Barrientos

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfaction with their sexual life. Moreover, a slight degree of agreement was found between the sexual life satisfaction reported by women and their partners' perceptions of the women's sexual life satisfaction. Additionally, a slight degree of agreement was reported between the sexual life satisfaction reported by men and their partners' perceptions of the men's sexual life satisfaction. This study provides new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.

  8. Fatores indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica Predicting factors of climacteric symptoms

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    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar fatores indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: estudo transversal de 254 mulheres pós-menopáusicas com idade entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em Ambulatório de Climatério entre junho e outubro de 2002. Foram excluídas mulheres histerectomizadas ou sob terapia hormonal. As atitudes sobre a menopausa foram avaliadas por meio de instrumento construído a partir da adaptação de um questionário, constituindo-se de 11 questões referentes a atitudes positivas (vantagens e 11 referentes a atitudes negativas (desvantagens sobre a menopausa. Para a coleta de dados sociodemográficos e relacionados a variáveis reprodutivas e às condições de saúde da população estudada, utilizou-se questionário estruturado e previamente testado. A sintomatologia climatérica foi avaliada pelo índice de Kupperman e as atitudes sobre a menopausa por meio de instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student, análise de variância (ANOVA e regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: de modo geral, a sintomatologia climatérica foi leve em 28%, moderada em 42,3% e intensa em 30,7% dos casos. Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram a irritabilidade (87,1%, as artralgias/mialgias (77,5% e a melancolia/tristeza (73,2%, ao passo que os mais intensos foram as ondas de calor, a irritabilidade e a insônia. Sintomas vasomotores foram referidos por 60,2% das entrevistadas. Mostraram-se indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica a cor, a atividade física regular e as atitudes com respeito a menopausa. A cor branca (p=0,02, a atividade física regular (p=0,04 e uma percepção positiva sobre a menopausa (p=0,01 associaram-se a sintomas climatéricos menos intensos. Em contrapartida, a percepção da menopausa como evento desvantajoso (atitude negativa associou-se a pior sintomatologia climatérica (pPURPOSE: to identify factors associated with climacteric symptoms. METHODS: a cross-sectional study of 254

  9. Social representations elaborated by nurses about climacteric women in primary health care

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    Smithanny Barros da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : to understand the social representations elaborated by nurses from the family health strategy concerning the assistance to climacteric women. Methods : qualitative research conducted with 28 nurses. One adopted the reference of procedural approach of the theory of social representations. The interviews were recorded and transcribed completely and processed by the Software of Lexical Analysis of co-occurrence in simple statements of a text, version 4.7. Results: nurses recognize the menopause as a phase of women’s life that needs to be assisted in its entirety, however, they showed difficulty in helping them, as they just carry out the cytological examination collection, request laboratory tests and forward them to a doctor. Conclusion: the climacteric period is a multifaceted phenomenon and the assistance to those people should be systematized from a qualified listening, in an approach that respects its uniqueness and autonomy.

  10. The Pathogenesis of Climacteric Syndrome and Principle of Acupuncture Treatment Based on TCM Theory about Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xiaoming; Du Yuanhao; Shi Xuemin

    2005-01-01

    The brain is the sea of marrow, stores the cerebral spirit and dominates all the life activities of the human body, which are the basic TCM knowledge about the brain. Based on this knowledge, the pathogenesis of climacteric syndrome is considered as consumption and deficiency of kidney-essence, and incoordination between the brain and kidney. The principle of acupuncture treatment should be soothing the mind and tonifying the kidney.

  11. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfactio...

  12. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  13. CLINICAL STUDY ON CLIMACTERIC SYNDROME TREATED WITH AURICULAR PLUS BODY ACUPUNCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天舒

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To search for the best therapeutic method for climacteric syndrome. Methods: A total of 190 cases of climacteric syndrome participants were randomly divided into auricular plus body acupuncture group (treatment group, n = 96) and simple body acupuncture group (control group, n = 94). Serum sexual hormone (FSH, LH and E2) and blood lipid (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG) levels were detected before and after treatment. Results: After 30sessions of treatment, the total effective rates of treatment and control groups were 82.29% and 76.02% respectively, with the former being significantly higher than the later ( P < 0.01 ). In comparison with pre-treatment of each group, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luterotropic hormone (LH) levels lowered significantly; serum estradiol (E2) increased remarkably ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ); serum high-density l ipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of two groups raised significantly ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ), and Iow-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C of treatment group decreased evidently (P< 0.05). In addition, the improvement of complaints of hot flushes, sweating, paresthesia, insomnia and emotional irritability in treatment group is significantly better than that of control group. Conclusion: Auricular acupuncture combined with body acupuncture has a better therapeutic effect than that of simple body acupuncture in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence.

  15. Cyto-histologic evaluation of the endometrium in climacteric women at risk for endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aloysio, D; Rocca, G; Miliffi, L

    1986-08-31

    The authors evaluated the diagnostic effectiveness of a triple specimen technique (cyto-histologic) performed by the Perma device. The incidence of endometrial hyperplasia (according to Dallenbach-Hellweg's classification) was estimated in 254 climacteric women selected from outpatients who come spontaneously to the Menopause Clinic of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department (Bologna University). The selection criterion was the evidence of risk factors for endometrial carcinoma, climacteric bleedings (obesity, late menopause, high blood pressure, diabetes), or endometriotropic estrogen therapy in the postmenopause. Results showed that the cyto-histologic sampling is most useful for diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia and early carcinoma (diagnostic effectiveness: 89.0-93.8%). Also, endometrial hyperplasia was found to have a significant incidence in the group we examined. This incidence was highest in women with climacteric bleedings, secondly in women using high-dose estrogens, and thirdly in women with risk factors for endometrial carcinoma. When evaluating the different kinds of endometrial hyperplasia, we never found adenomatous hyperplasia in women on estrogen therapy. Affinity between histologic and cytologic classes was around 50% in endometrial hyperplasia and 100% in early carcinoma. This emphasizes that both samplings are needed to perform an accurate diagnosis.

  16. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial.

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    Nehleh Parandavar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman's life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms.The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012. The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg's general health questionnaire (GHQ, Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention.We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001. In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001. No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135.The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms.

  17. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alide Salazar-Molina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfaction with their sexual life. Moreover, a slight degree of agreement was found between the sexual life satisfaction reported by women and their partners' perceptions of the women's sexual life satisfaction. Additionally, a slight degree of agreement was reported between the sexual life satisfaction reported by men and their partners' perceptions of the men's sexual life satisfaction. This study provides new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.

  18. Malate Oxidation and Cyanide-Insensitive Respiration in Avocado Mitochondria during the Climacteric Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, F; Romani, R

    1982-11-01

    After preparation on self-generated Percoll gradients, avocado (Persea americana Mill, var. Fuerte and Hass) mitochondria retain a high proportion of cyanide-insensitive respiration, especially with alpha-ketoglutarate and malate as substrates. Whereas alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation remains unchanged, the rate of malate oxidation increases as ripening advances through the climacteric. An enhancement of mitochondrial malic enzyme activity, measured by the accumulation of pyruvate, closely parallels the increase of malate oxidation. The capacity for cyanide-insensitive respiration is also considerably enhanced while respiratory control decreases (from 3.3 to 1.7), leading to high state 4 rates.Both malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme are functional in state 3, but malic enzyme appears to predominate before the addition of ADP and after its depletion. In the presence of cyanide, a membrane potential is generated when the alterntive pathway is operating. Cyanide-insensitive malate oxidation can be either coupled to the first phosphorylation site, sensitive to rotenone, or by-pass this site. In the absence of phosphate acceptor, malate oxidation is mainly carried out via malic enzyme and the alternative pathway. Experimental modification of the external mitochondrial environment in vitro (pH, NAD(+), glutamade) results in changes in malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme activities, which also modify cyanide resistance. It appears that a functional connection exists between malic enzyme and the alternative pathway via a rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase and that this pathway is responsible, in part, for nonphosphorylating respiratory activity during the climacteric.

  19. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Ryder, Carol D; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available.

  20. Suan zao ren tang as an original treatment for sleep difficulty in climacteric women: a prospective clinical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hao; Arnold, Christof K; Chen, Yen-Hui; Lai, Jung-Nein

    2011-01-01

    Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of women with sleep difficulty during the climacteric period. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) in reducing the impact of sleep disturbance on climacteric women, as measured by Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL). Sixty-seven climacteric women with sleep difficulty intending to treat received SZRT at a rate of 4.0 g, thrice daily for four weeks (MRS < 16, n = 34; MRS ≥ 16, n = 33). After taking into account potential confounding factors, the mean PSQI total scores had fallen from 13.0 (±2.9) to 9.0 (±3.2) (95% confidence interval -4.93, -3.10). Further analyses showed that SZRT produced superior benefit of daytime dysfunction in women with severe menopausal symptoms (MRS ≥ 16). There were three of the withdrawals involved treatment-related adverse events (stomachache, diarrhea, and dizziness). Excluding women with a past history of stomachache, diarrhea, or dizziness, four weeks of therapy with SZRT appears to be a relatively safe and effective short-term therapeutic option in improving daytime function of climacteric women with poor sleep quality.

  1. Suan Zao Ren Tang as an Original Treatment for Sleep Difficulty in Climacteric Women: A Prospective Clinical Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little scientific evidence supports the efficacy of herbal medicines in the treatment of women with sleep difficulty during the climacteric period. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT in reducing the impact of sleep disturbance on climacteric women, as measured by Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI and the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL. Sixty-seven climacteric women with sleep difficulty intending to treat received SZRT at a rate of 4.0 g, thrice daily for four weeks (MRS<16, n=34; MRS≥16, n=33. After taking into account potential confounding factors, the mean PSQI total scores had fallen from 13.0 (±2.9 to 9.0 (±3.2 (95% confidence interval −4.93, −3.10. Further analyses showed that SZRT produced superior benefit of daytime dysfunction in women with severe menopausal symptoms (MRS≥16. There were three of the withdrawals involved treatment-related adverse events (stomachache, diarrhea, and dizziness. Excluding women with a past history of stomachache, diarrhea, or dizziness, four weeks of therapy with SZRT appears to be a relatively safe and effective short-term therapeutic option in improving daytime function of climacteric women with poor sleep quality.

  2. The value of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of climacteric symptoms : Results of a survey among German gynecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Studnitz, Friederike S. G.; Eulenburg, Christine; Mueck, Alfred O.; Buhling, Kai J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aims to detect the attitude and experience towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the treatment of climacteric disorders among gynecologists in Germany. Study design: A self-administered questionnaire, containing 15 questions, was sent to all gynecologi

  3. 腹针治疗更年期综合征40例%Abdominal acupuncture for 40 cases of climacteric syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾群; 朱文罡

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric syndrome,so-called symptoms before and after menopause in TCM,encompasses a series of symptoms due to disorder of endocrine and autonomic nerve caused by declination of ovary function during perimenopausal period.In western medicine,the major treatment is hormone replacement therapy.However,different opinions exist on estrogen application and its safety,which shows more contraindications and adverse reactions combined.From 2004,the author has applied abdominal acupuncture on 40 cases of climacteric syndrome.

  4. The effectiveness of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was made to assign the effect of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors. Methods: The research was carried between January 2002-February 2003 in the district of Abdurrahman Gazi Primary Health department which lies in the borders of metropolitan municipality of Erzurum. 2761 climacteric women between the age of 40-60 formed the population of the research. In sample selection, because of knowing the frequency of event and the number of individuals in the population; the formula of, n=N . t2 . pq / y2 .(N-1 + t2 . pq was used and samples are assigned as 337. Afterresearch problem had been assigned on 337 women, the research was made control group with pretest-posttest of quasi experimental design on 100 women who were selected proper to the aim of the research, 50 of which was experiment, the rest was control group. But 87 women 44 of which was control, 434 of which was experiment group completed the research. Results: According to the research results, after planned health education given by the researcher, decrease in common menopausal symptoms and increase in point averages of menopausal attitude (t=4.697, p=.000 and health promotion life style behaviors (t=7.127, p=.000 were determined. Conclusion: After planned health education given to the women in climacteric period, positive health behaviors can be developed so as to make women live a more peaceful life. According to these result, it can be suggested to health professionals to mind education programs about climacteric period.

  5. The non-estrogenic alternative for the treatment of climacteric complaints: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga or Actaea racemosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Haunschild, Jutta; Stecher, Guenter; Schuh, Markus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    In postmenopausal women estrogens in combination with progestins have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints and on osteoporosis but this hormone replacement therapy (HRT) bears the risk of increased mammary carcinomas and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens at low doses have little or no effects on climacteric complaints, at high doses they mimic the effects of estrogens. Therefore other plant derived substances are currently intensively investigated. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) did not bind to estrogen receptors and were shown to be devoid of estrogenic effects on mammary cancer cells in vitro and on mammary gland and uterine histology in ovariectomized rats. In addition in this rat model the special extract CR BNO 1055 inhibited the occurrence of hot flushes and development of osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women CR BNO 1055 reduced major climacteric complaints as effectively as conjugated estrogens and significantly more than placebo. Similar data were published for other European CR preparations whereas 2 US American preparations were ineffective. This was most likely due to the too high doses or due to the adulteration with Asian Cimicifuga preparations. In all European studies neither effects in the uterus nor in mammary glands were observed. The effective compounds in CR are most likely neurotransmitter-mimetic in nature: dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic effects were demonstrated and some have been structurally identified. We conclude that CR extracts at low doses are effective to ameliorate climacteric complaints but are devoid of adverse estrogenic effects. These finding strengthens the role of CR extracts as substitutes for HRT. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Special Issue on Phytoestrogens.

  6. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product, and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE and Grades of Recommendation (GR were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR: the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints.

  7. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  8. Prof WANG Xiao-yun's Experience in Treating Climacteric Syndrome from the Pathogenesis of Kidney Deficiency and Liver Stagnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; LIU Jian; WANG Xiao-yun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Prof. WANG Xiao-yun, a chief physician in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou TCM University (Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM), is a leading physician, professor, and the supervisor of doctoral students in the national key subject of TCM gynecology. Having been engaged in TCM gynecological clinical practice and scientific researches for about 30 years, Prof. WANG has obtained rich experience in the treatment of obstinate and miscellaneous diseases of gynecology, especially in the analysis of pathogenesis and differential treatment of climacteric syndrome.

  9. Effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康) on Senile Sexual Hormone and Expression of Estrogen Receptor in Bone of Climacteric Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康,GNK) with that of hormone replacement treatment (HRT) on climacteric female rats with osteoporosis, and to investigate the roles of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Methods: Climac-teric female rats with osteoporosis were chosen and divided into three groups (GNK group, HRT group and control group). Apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells was measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferae mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Serum level of estrdiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT) technology was used to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in bone. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by double energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Results: In the climacteric rats, BMD, serum E2, ER mRNA expression in bone decreased remarkably, and serum FSH, LH and apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells increased obviously. After treating with GNK, all the indexes were reversed except serum E2. The increase of E2 was not significant. Conclusion:GNK is effective on climacteric osteoporosis female rats. Its role is performed not by increasing serum E2 but by enhancing ER in the bone and inhibiting apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells. GNK can deter further exhaustion of ovarian function.

  10. Effects of Xuefu Zhuyu Oral Liquid on climacteric osteoporosis%血府逐瘀口服液对更年期骨质疏松的康复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾红; 岳楠

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Osteoporosis is a complication of climacteric syndrome. Preventionand rehabilitative treatment to climacteric syndrome are advocated atpresent. Current method of treatment is hormonal replacement ther-apy or the traditional Chinese medicine therapy aiming at invigora-tion and health protection. Though effects the hormonal replacementtherapy does, it also risks of higher incidence rate of mammarycancer and carcinoma of corpus uteri with improper using[1 -3] . Sodrug treatment without side effect is desirable. Application of XuefuZhuyu Oral liquid is good to climacteric osteoporosis.

  11. A comparative study of Klimakt-Heel® and Femolene Ultra in the management of typical climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Deroukakis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The climacteric is described as the physiological cessation of menses due to a decrease in ovarian function. Typically, women between the ages of 44 and 57 years old are symptomatically affected by it. During this stage of life, a woman may experience what is referred to as ‘typical climacteric symptoms’ of varying intensity, including vasomotor reactions, increased perspiration, sleeping problems, mood changes, headaches, joint pains and urogenital problems.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Femolene Ultra (phytotherapeutic preparation and Klimakt-Heel® (homeopathic preparation in the treatment of typical climacteric symptoms.

    Thirty female volunteers between the ages of 44 and 57 years suffering from climacteric symptoms were recruited and asked to complete the Patient Profile and Case History Form and to sign a Patient Information and Consent Form. These participants were randomly placed in two groups of fifteen. One group received Femolene Ultra and the other received Klimakt-Heel® for a period of 12 weeks. The trial was blinded as neither the researcher nor the participant was aware of which treatment was being administered. Blood samples were taken to ascertain the 17ß oestradiol levels before and after the 12-week period. The Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI was used as a self-report measure and completed at four-weekly intervals. For statistical purposes, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, from the class of non-parametric distribution-free tests, was used.

    Both products served to decrease the typical climacteric symptoms significantly within the 12-week period. Femolene Ultra decreased the average Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI score by 63% (26.2 to 16.4 and Klimakt-Heel® decreased the average score by 54% (28.4 to 15.28, although more participants in the Klimakt-Heel® group experienced amelioration of climacteric symptoms. The results are not conclusive, but they do provide an interesting base

  12. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  13. Changes of Plasma Concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in climacteric women with hot flushes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ya-qiong; Wu Wei-guang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of serotonin metabolism and the hot flushes in climacteric women.Methods.Ninety eight climacteric women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: Group A: 20 cases of early menopausal transition.Group B: 26 cases of late menopausal transition, with skip of periods 3-12 months.Group C: 28 cases of early postmenopause (1-3 yrs).Group D: 24 cases of late postmenopause(>3-6 yrs).Twelve normal women of reproductive age (24±3yrs) were served as young controls.Fifty two postmenopausal women were subdivided into 3 groups according to the presence or the absence of hot flushes: (1) postmenopausal controls without hot flushz 17 cases, (2) mild hot flushes group: 20 eases,fewer≤5 times/d, (3) severe hot flushes group: 15 cases, more than 5 times/d.Plasma concentrations of tryptophan (TP), 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in all participants by high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence spectrophotometer (HPLC-FS).The relationship between serotonin metabolic parameters and menopause, hot flushes were analysed.Results: (1) Mean 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in climacteric women than those in young controls, especially in Group B.Mean 5-HTP and 5-HT levels were higher and 5-HIAA lower in Group D as compared with those of young controls.(2) Plasma 5-HT levels was positively correlated to luteinizing hormone concentration in postmenopansal women (P<0.01).(3) In the mild hot flushes group, only plasma 5-HTP levels were significantly higher than that in the non-hot flushes group.In severe hot flushes group,plasma 5-HT and 5-HTP contents were significantly higher and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio lower than those in the non-hotflushes groups.Conclusion: The results suggest that the catabolic disorder of serotonin maybe involve in the underling mechanism of

  14. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Women Climacteric Insomnia by Plum-Blossom Needle: A Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qing; LI Nai-rong

    2004-01-01

    To observe the treatment of 50 female patients with climacteric insomnia by plum-blossom needle therapy. According to differentiation of symptoms and signs the head, back, belly and other location were tapping. Besides 50 patients were treated with Western medicine as a control group. The result showed the immediate and long-term effect in plum-blossom needle group was better than that in control group (P<0.01).%梅花针叩刺头部,背部和腹部,并根据辨证配穴治疗更年期综合征以失眠为主症的患者50例,并与西药治疗50例相对照,梅花针组近期疗效和远期疗效均好于对照组(P<0.01).

  15. Clinical Observation of Combined Acupuncture and Herbs in Treating Low Back Pain due to Climacteric Osteoporosis in 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    针刺双侧风池、大椎、膈俞、天宗及阿是穴,配合内服中药,治疗40例更年期骨质疏松腰背痛患者,治愈25例,好转9例,无效6例,总有效率85.0%.%Forty cases of low back pain due to climacteric osteoporosis were treated by needling Fengchi (GB 20), Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Tianzong (SI 11) and Ashi points, as well as oral Chinese herbs. Results showed cure in 25 cases, improvement in 9 cases and failure in 6 cases, with the total effective rate of 85.0%.

  16. Community prevention and treatment of female climacteric syndrome%女性更年期综合征的社区防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利燕

    2012-01-01

    更年期综合征是指妇女在围绝经期前后由于卵巢功能逐渐衰退或丧失,激素水平下降而引起的以植物神经功能紊乱、代谢障碍为主的综合征.现今逐渐老龄化的社区,更年期妇女这一庞大的群体出现的生理及心理方面的问题尤为突出,为解决这一社区妇女常见疾患,社区医生采取激素替代疗法、心理疏导、健康教育等综合方法,有效地改善了更年期综合征患者的症状,提高其心理健康水平及生活质量.%Climacteric syndrome refers to a series of symptoms caused by disorders of vegetative nervous system and metabolic system due to hypofunction of ovary in women before and after menopause. At present, the population aging has become serious gradually, and the physiological and psychological disorders of climacteric women are becoming prominent. In order to treat the climacteric syndrome, community doctors carry out the hormone replacement therapy, psychological counseling and health education, effectively improve the syndromes of climacteric women, as well as enhance their mental health and quality of life.

  17. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Pablo; Dos-Santos, Noelia; Martínez-Alcaraz, Rocío; Le Bleis, Inés

    2013-01-01

    A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate). Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate) decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate) increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate). Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid).

  18. Comparison of the effect of Foeniculum vulgare and St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum on the climacteric symptoms and sexual activity in menopausal woman

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    Khadijeh Abdali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Menopause is the permanent ceasing of menstruation for one year and in this period, women potentially suffer from chronic signs and symptoms resulted from estrogen deficiency. With respect to heavy responsibility of women in the society, providing their health is highly required by health system. The objective of the current research is the comparison between the effects of Fennel and Hypiran on severity of climacteric symptoms and sexual performance in menopausal women. Methodology: In a blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 menopausal women of 45-60 of age in Shiraz were randomly categorized in three groups after a checkup for general health. The first group was given the daily dose of three 160mg tablets of Hypiran, the second group was given the daily dose of three 30mg tablets of Fennel and the third group was given three placebo all for the period of 8 weeks. The data was collected by filling out questionnaire for female sexual function and Greene climacteric scale in three phases (before treatment, 4weeks after treatment and 8 weeks after treatment. Thus, 33 individuals in Hypiran group, 33 individuals in Fennel group and 32 individuals in placebo group cooperated until the end of the research. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 20. Findings: The average age of the participants was 50/52. The score of climacteric symptoms was 42/12±5/1 in Hypiran group before treatment and it decreased to 30/42±4/77 after treatment. The score of climacteric symptoms was 37/81±7/2 in Fennel group before treatment and it decreased to 24/93±6/3 after treatment and regardless of the time, there was a significant difference between the three groups (P≤0.001. The score of sexual function was 18/2±2/61 in Hypiran group before treatment and it increased to 22/78±2/61 after treatment. The score of sexual function was 18/38±2/29 in Fennel group before treatment and it increased to 22/51±2/25 after

  19. Establishment of Climacteric Hypertension Dryness Syndrome Model in Rats%更年期高血压燥证大鼠模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛丽; 林雪; 李鸿霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of the establishment of climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model in rats.Methods A total of 12 female spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR) were selected as study subjects from January to March in 2014, SHR were randomly divided into climacteric hypertension group and climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group , there were 6 rats in each group.The bilateral ovaries of rats were removed by surgery , thus climacteric hypertension rats were obtained.Rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group were placed in artificial dryness syndrome environment, and were fed with food from northwest area which may cause dryness syndrome.The biological characteristics (coat color, mental state, degrees of excitement, food intake, water intake, body mass, characters of urine and stool, tongue picture, claws picture), serum levels of neurotransmitters 〔corticotropin -releasing hormone ( CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5 -hydroxytryptamine (5 -HT)〕 and hormones 〔estradiol (E2), testosterone ( T)〕, and histological changes of organs ( liver, spleen, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus ) were observed and recorded.Results Compared with rats in climacteric hypertension group , the body mass and urine volume were significantly decreased , and water intake was significantly increased among rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group, the differences were statistically significant ( P 0.05) .Compared with rats in climacteric hypertension group, serum levels of E2 and T were significantly decreased , and E2/T was significantly increased among rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group , the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) .The significant histological changes of liver , spleen, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus were observed among two groups of rats.Conclusion The artificial dryness syndrome environment , food from

  20. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945

  1. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

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    Suzanne eHoogstrate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.

  2. Investigation in climacteric symptoms and depression of gynaecology outpatients and inpatients%妇科门诊和住院患者更年期症状与抑郁的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛园; 周彩峰; 付文君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the climacteric symptoms and depressive related factors of climacteric females in gynecology outpatients and inpatients,to provide evidence for effective health promotion.Methods 416 climacteric women were investigated by using improved menopause Kuppermen Scales and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D).The results underwent analysis.Results There were 93.99% of patients suffering from climacteric syndrome,49.52% with depression symptom.The main factors of climacteric syndrome were eating breakfast according to the timetable every day,nutritionally balanced diet,controlling of salt intake,regular body exercises and to maintain a proper body weight.Factors related to depression symptoms were sore breasts,constipation,dry skin,lower abdominal pain.The correlation between climacteric syndrome and depressive symptom was significant.Conclusions The main influencing factor of climacteric syndrome was healthy lifestyle.The climacteric syndrome increases the risk of depressive symptoms.%目的 调查女性更年期症状与抑郁的影响因素,为促进健康提供依据.方法 采用改良更年期Kupperman评分量表和流行病学调查用抑郁自评量表(center for epidemiological studiesdepression,CES-D),对416例更年期女性进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 更年期综合征的发生率高达93.99%,抑郁发生率达49.52%.按时每天吃早餐、营养平衡的饮食、控制盐分摄入、定期锻炼身体及维持适当体质量,这5项健康生活因素是更年期综合征的主要影响因素.乳房疼痛、便秘、皮肤干燥、下腹部疼痛,这4项抑郁相关症状因素和更年期女性抑郁存在显著相关.更年期综合征和抑郁症状之间存在显著相关.结论 健康的生活方式是更年期症状的主要影响因素,更年期症状增加了抑郁症状的发生危险.

  3. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

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    Su Jin Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX, mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1 has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1 shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms.

  4. Mulher no climatério: reflexões sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade Women in the climacteric: reflections on sexual desire, beauty and femininity

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    Cecília Nogueira Valença

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O climatério é um período abrangente da vida feminina, caracterizado por alterações metabólicas e hormonais que trazem mudanças envolvendo o contexto psicossocial. Tendo como referência as alterações de sexualidade vivenciadas no climatério, este trabalho tem por objetivo refletir sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade da mulher nessa fase. A metodologia adotada consistiu em estudo bibliográfico, em livros e artigos publicados, entre 1999 e 2009. A exigência exacerbada pela beleza eterna e jovialidade é agravada no climatério, no qual o corpo feminino não tem o mesmo vigor físico pelas alterações decorrentes do envelhecimento. A mulher climatérica vive o mito da perda do desejo sexual, todavia, continua a sentir prazer, não devendo deixar de manifestar amor e sexualidade. A visão social estereotipada sobre o papel da mulher (esposa e mãe pode interferir negativamente na visão das mulheres sobre si mesmas e no seu relacionamento com as pessoas e o mundo. Nesse sentido, é importante que as mulheres tenham acesso à informação em saúde para a compreensão das mudanças do período de climatério/menopausa, contemplando e ressignificando tal fase como integrante de seus ciclos de vida e não como sinônimo de velhice, improdutividade e fim da sexualidade.The climacteric is a long period of a woman's life, characterized by metabolic and hormonal alterations that bring changes involving the psychosocial context. Having as reference the sexuality alterations experienced in the climacteric, this literature review aims to reflect on women's sexual desire, beauty and femininity in this phase. The methodology involved a bibliographic study of papers and books published between 1999 and 2009. The exaggerated need of eternal beauty and youth is aggravated in the climacteric, when the female body does not have the same physical vigor due to alterations deriving from aging. The climacteric woman lives the myth of loss of sexual

  5. 黄可佳教授治疗更年期综合征经验%Professor HUANG Ke-jia′s Summary on Treatment of Climacteric Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠楠

    2011-01-01

    更年期综合征是妇科最常见的疾病之一,随着现代社会经济文化的飞速发展,处于更年期阶段的女性,在快节奏的生活,繁重的体力、脑力劳动等压力下,机体内分泌系统的变化愈加明显,导致出现一系列更年期症状带给人们大的压力,尤其是处于更年期的女性所要面临的一个重大问题.中医理论认为,更年期综合征以肾虚为本,又常见肝、脾、心等功能的失调,表现为月经紊乱、烘热汗出、头晕乏力、失眠健忘、烦躁易怒等一系列症候.对于更年期阶段的女性所出现的上述症状,导师黄可佳教授依据多年临床经验,审因施治,形成独到的治疗方法,取得了较好的临床疗效.%The climacteric syndrome is one of the most common diseases in gynecology department, with the rapid development of modem social, economic and cultural, women in menopause stage, in the fast-paced life, under the pressure of heavy physical, mental and others, obvious changes of the body's endocrine system, leading to a range of symptoms of menopause brought people pressure, especially in menopausal women who have to face a major problem. In the Chinese medicine theory, The climacteric syndrome take the kidney deficiency as the essence, and some common features such as liver, spleen, heart disorders at the same time, expressing menstrual disorders, baking hot forgetful sweating, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, irritability and irritable and a series of syndromes. Above symptom which appears regarding the climacteric stage's female, Professor HUANG Ke-jia rests on many years clinical experience, treats the sickness according to cause of disease, forms the original method of treatment, and has obtained the good clinical curative effect.

  6. Estado nutricional e qualidade de vida da mulher climatérica Nutritional status and quality of life of climacteric women

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    Carin Weirich Gallon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Associar a qualidade de vida com o estado nutricional da mulher climatérica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal, no qual foi incluída uma amostra com 200 mulheres climatéricas, de 40 a 65 anos, que responderam a um Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas e questões sobre fatores socioeconômicos, história clínica atual, pregressa e familiar. Para a avaliação antropométrica, foram utilizados índice de massa corpórea (IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e relação cintura/quadril. Para avaliação da qualidade de vida, foi aplicado o MRS-menopause rating scale. RESULTADOS: A média do IMC e da CC foi de 30,1 kg/m² (obesidade grau 1 e 99 cm (risco muito aumentado para doença cardiovascular, respectivamente. Constatou-se consumo aumentado de proteínas e diminuído de fibras, cálcio e vitamina D. A comorbidade mais prevalente foi a hipertensão arterial, 48,5% faziam uso de medicação para doenças cardiovasculares e 23%, de medicações antidepressivas. Quanto à qualidade de vida, foram encontrados resultados significativos relacionados ao IMC, como também à pressão arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Uma intervenção nutricional visando corrigir ou melhorar o consumo alimentar e o perfil antropométrico poderá resultar em benefícios relativos à saúde da mulher climatérica. A prevalência de obesidade, associada com pior qualidade de vida e morbimortalidade, reforça a necessidade de existir um programa de reeducação alimentar no climatério.PURPOSE: To associate the quality of life with the nutritional status of climacteric women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on a sample of 200 climacteric women aged 40 to 65 years who responded to a 24-hour food recall and to questions about socioeconomic factors and current, previous and family medical history. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio were used for anthropometric evaluation. To assess the quality of life, we applied the MRS

  7. Las ciencias sociales como discurso de la salud reproductiva. El ejemplo del climaterio femenino The social sciences as discourse in reproductive health. The example of female climacteric

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    Fernando Lolas Stepke

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como ejemplo la construcción del climaterio femenino por parte de la medicina, de la opinión profana y de las ciencias sociales, se examinan los modelos de interrelación entre estos discursos y se propone la tesis de que la aportación de las ciencias sociales consiste en una reformulación de la base cognitiva de las profesiones de la salud en un nivel de integración.Climacteric is constructed by medicine, lay knowledge, and the social sciences. This article examines the interrational models involving these different discourses and proposes that the contribution of the social sciences lies in a reformulation of the cognitive base of the health professions at an integrative level.

  8. Current Status of Female Climacteric Syndrome and Its Influencing Factors%女性更年期综合征现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凡; 张海芹

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查女性更年期综合征的现状,探讨其影响因素。方法采用一般情况调查表、改良更年期 Kupermann评分量表和症状自评量表、艾森克个性问卷,对833例更年期女性进行调查,采用字2检验、皮尔逊相关性分析与多元回归分析进行统计处理。结果本组女性更年期综合征发生率为77.6%,城市、已婚、补充豆浆/牛奶女性组群更年期症状评分显著性低于来自农村、没有补充豆浆/牛奶的女性组群(P<0.01);更年期症状评分与自评症状量表总分、神经质维度得分呈正相关(相关系数为0.432、0.344,P<0.01),与内外向维度得分呈显负相关(相关系数为-0.155,P<0.01);经多元线性回归分析,自评症状量表总分、神经质维度得分、内外向维度得分进入回归方程(回归系数分别是0.752、0.302、-0.149,P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论女性更年期症状与城乡、年龄、长期补充豆浆、心理症状及人格特质有关。%Objective To inquire the present situation of female climacteric syndrome and investigate its influencing factors. Methods With Kupermann menopause rating scale and SCL-90 symptom checklist and EPQ, Totally 833 menopausal women were investigated in the survey. Results The incidence of female climacteric syndrome reached up to77.6%; The Kupermann menopause rating scale score of urban married women with additional soya-bean milk or milk was significantly lower than that of rural women without any addition of soya-bean milk or milk (P<0.01). Kupermann menopause rating scale score, SCL-90 total score and N (neuroticism)of EPQ score were significantly positive correlated;Kupermann menopause rating scale score and E(extraversion) of EPQ score were significantly negative correlated; By multiple linear regression analysis, SCL-90 total score, the neurotic score, N (neuroticism) and E (extraversion) of EPQ score entered regression equation

  9. Procura de serviço médico por mulheres climatéricas brasileiras Climacteric women seeking medical care, Brazil

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    Adriana Orcesi Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as causas e os fatores relacionados à procura de serviço médico por mulheres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo descritivo e exploratório de corte transversal, de base populacional. Selecionaram-se, por meio de amostragem por conglomerado, 456 mulheres residentes no município de Campinas, SP, na faixa etária entre 45 e 60 anos de idade. Os dados sobre os motivos de procura dos serviços médicos foram coletados por meio de entrevistas domiciliares, com questionário estruturado e pré-testado. A análise dos dados foi realizada pelo teste qui-quadrado, pelo coeficiente de Cramer e pela análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 80% das mulheres climatéricas procuraram atenção médica por causa da irregularidade menstrual e dos sintomas climatéricos. Mulheres com companheiro, em terapia de reposição hormonal e com maior intensidade dos sintomas psicológicos foram as que mais procuraram atenção médica. A principal razão para a não-procura foi a mulher considerar que a queixa não merecia atenção médica. CONCLUSÕES: A procura de serviço médico por queixas relacionadas ao climatério foi alta, porém um porcentual significativo de mulheres não procurou atenção médica por considerar a sintomatologia natural.OBJECTIVE: To study the causes and factors associated with climacteric women seeking medical care. METHODS: A descriptive exploratory cross-sectional population-based study was carried out. Subjects were 456 women aged 45 to 60 years resident in a metropolitan area of Southeastern, Brazil, selected through area cluster sampling. Data were collected through home interviews using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical analysis were performed using Chi-square test, Cramer's coefficient and logistic multiple regression. RESULTS: About 80% sought medical care due to menstrual irregularities and climacteric symptoms. The main factors associated with women

  10. Study on nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status%更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预效果.方法 将80例更年期抑郁妇女随机分对照组和观察组,每组40例.观察组实施综合护理干预,对照组不予护理干预.采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自评症状量表(SSCL-90)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)对其效果进行评价.结果 干预前两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90得分差异无显著性;干预后两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90的得分与干预前及组间比较,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 实施护理干预明显改善患者的抑郁状态,有效地提高患者的生活质量,减轻了社会和家庭的负担,体现了人本关怀的理念.%Objective To research the effect of nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status. Methods 80 depressed climacteric women were randomly divided into control and observation groups. The observation group was given integration nursing intervention. The Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Social Support Bating Scale (SSBS) were used to evaluate the treatment effective-hess. Results Before nursing intervention, the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL-90 between two groups werenot dif-ferent;and the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL - 90 were significant difference after the nursing intervention (P <0.01 ). Conclusions The treatment with nursing intervention can improve the depressive state of patients, uplift patients'life quality, lighten the burden of society and patients'familles, and embody the idea of people oriented.

  11. Síndrome do climatério: inquérito populacional domiciliar em Campinas, SP Climacteric syndrome: a population-based study in Brazil

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    Adriana Orcesi Pedro

    2003-12-01

    prevalence of climacteric, urogenital and sexual symptoms in a population of Brazilian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive population-based study was conducted. The selection of 456 women aged 45-60 years, living in Campinas, SP, in 1997, was done through area cluster sampling, according to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data were collected via home interviews, using structured pretested questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test; a probability of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The degree of climacteric symptoms was analyzed through circulatory and psychological indices. Analysis of the main components was used to determine symptom interrelationships. RESULTS: The most prevalent symptoms were nervousness (82%, hot flushes (70%, headache (68%, irritability (67% and sweating (59%. Hot flushes, sweating and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in the peri and postmenopausal phases. The frequency (severity of vasomotor and psychological symptoms did not vary according to the menopause phase. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27.4%. Complaints of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were infrequent. Decreased libido was the most frequent sexual complaint. It was observed that some climacteric complaints were interrelated. The first cluster included hot flushes and sweating (vasomotor cluster. The second cluster included nervousness, depression and irritability (psychological cluster. The third cluster included dizziness and palpitation (atypical cluster. CONCLUSION: Climacteric symptoms in this population were highly prevalent and similar to those described in developed Western countries.

  12. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Ruediger Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo. Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic, assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients’ self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL, responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35 score points, P<0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39 score points, P=0.0003 for 6.5 mg. QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women.

  13. S-adenosyl-L-methionine usage during climacteric ripening of tomato in relation to ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis and transmethylation capacity.

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    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Oppermann, Yasmin; Hertog, Marten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Sauter, Margret; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2013-06-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is the major methyl donor in cells and it is also used for the biosynthesis of polyamines and the plant hormone ethylene. During climacteric ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Bonaparte'), ethylene production rises considerably which makes it an ideal object to study SAM involvement. We examined in ripening fruit how a 1-MCP treatment affects SAM usage by the three major SAM-associated pathways. The 1-MCP treatment inhibited autocatalytic ethylene production but did not affect SAM levels. We also observed that 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid formation during ripening is ethylene dependent. SAM decarboxylase expression was also found to be upregulated by ethylene. Nonetheless polyamine content was higher in 1-MCP-treated fruit. This leads to the conclusion that the ethylene and polyamine pathway can operate simultaneously. We also observed a higher methylation capacity in 1-MCP-treated fruit. During fruit ripening substantial methylation reactions occur which are gradually inhibited by the methylation product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH). SAH accumulation is caused by a drop in adenosine kinase expression, which is not observed in 1-MCP-treated fruit. We can conclude that tomato fruit possesses the capability to simultaneously consume SAM during ripening to ensure a high rate of ethylene and polyamine production and transmethylation reactions. SAM usage during ripening requires a complex cellular regulation mechanism in order to control SAM levels.

  14. 针灸治疗女性更年期综合征实验研究进展%ADVANCES OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION FOR TREATMENT OF WOMEN'S CLIMACTERIC SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵珍; 许云祥

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the advances of expeyimental research on acupuncture and moxibustion for treatment of Women's Climacteric Syndrome.The recent years experimental research Iiterature of acupuncture and moxibustion for treatment of Women's Climacteric Syndrome were reviewed.The research literatures on acupuncture treatment were major,focusing on the field of acupuncture and moxibustion regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and nerval-endocritic-irrrnune net.Acupuncture and moxibustion could regulate the endocrine environment of menopausal women.Taking advantage of combination biomedicine with multi-sciences,to improve the acupuncture and moxibustion curative effct and probe the mechanism of menopausal pathology and acupuncture and moxibustion function to Women's Climacteric Syndrome,is the research direction afterward.%从实验研究角度对近年来针灸治疗女性更年期综合征文献报道进行综述.在各种刺激方式中.以针刺法方面的研究最多,其研究主要体现在针灸对下丘脑-垂体-性轴、神经-内分泌-免疫的影响方面.通过综述可以看到针灸对女性绝经后生殖内分泌环境有调节作用.利用生物医学与多学科交叉优势,进一步提高针灸临床疗效,力争从多层次、多指标、多学科交叉的角度,探讨更年期综合征的发病机制及针灸治疗更年期综合征的作用机制,是今后工作的重点.

  15. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

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    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  16. 女性更年期抑郁症实施护理干预的效果评价%Evaluation of the effect of nursing intervention on female climacteric depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the female menopause depression nursing intervention effect. Methods 50 cases offemale climacteric depression were selected in 2013, computers were randomly divided into control group and treatment group as a clinical research object, the control group of 25 cases of female climacteric depression wereonly given antidepressant drugs and general care treatment; 25 cases of female climacteric depression patients in the treatment group in the concurrent administration of antidepressant treatment increase the nursing interventiontherapy. Comparison between the treatment group and the control group of female climacteric depression inpatients with antidepressant treatment and different nursing method, self rating scale before and after treatmentthe scores in SDS depression, and analysis and discussion. Results The patients in the treatment group after drug treatment and nursing intervention, SDS self rating Depression Scale score relatively low, the treatment effect is better than that of control group. (P<0.05), the result of the data with statistical significance. Conclusion The curative effect of nursing intervention on antidepressants female climacteric depression patients, very good,not only make the depression psychological response in patients with ease, but also improve patients mental outlook, with improving effects on the patients with nervous system function, so that patients with endocrine systemfunction tends to be normal or even higher level, compared with the control group use nursing the traditional method, its advantage is obvious, it is worth in clinical application.%目的:探讨女性更年期抑郁症实施护理干预的效果。方法在2013年中选取女性更年期抑郁症患者50例,计算机随机分为对照组和治疗组作为临床研究对象,各25例。对照组中25例女性更年期抑郁症患者给予抗抑郁药物和一般的护理治疗;治疗组的25例女性更年期抑郁症患者则在给予抗抑

  17. 运动疗法对防治更年期妇女骨质疏松症的临床研究%Chinical study on prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in climacteric women by sport therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衡; 古剑雄

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of prevention and treatment on osteoporosis in climacteric women by sport therapy. Methods 120 climacteric women were separated into rehabilitation group(n = 60)and control group(n = 60). Rehabilitation group accepted the oxygensport therapy, calcium, adjusted food. Control group was given calcium and adjusted food. The changs in densify of lumbar vertebradensify ofwere observed two yeats after treatment. Results Densify of lumbar vertebra in the rehabititation group increased( but there was no sta-tistical significance) and decreased remarkably in control group( P < 0. 05) . Densify of lumbar vertebra lumbar in rehabititation group in-creased than that of the control group( P < 0. 05) . Conclusion Exercise therapy was effective in preventing and treating osteoporosis in cli-macteric worrn.%目的探讨运动疗法对更年期妇女骨质疏松症的防治作用。方法将更年期妇女120人随机分为康复组与对照组各60人,康复组给予有氧运动、补钙、饮食调节等综合康复治疗,对照组给予补钙及饮食调节,疗程2年,观察两组治疗前后腰椎骨密度的变化。结果康复组治疗后腰椎骨密度比治疗前稍增高,但无统计学意义(P>0.05),但康复组腰椎骨密度比对照组显著增高(P<0.05)。对照组腰椎骨密度比治疗前明显降低(P<0.05)。结论运动疗法能有效地防治更年期妇女骨质疏松症。

  18. O processo de viver e ser saudável das mulheres no climatério El proceso de vivir y ser saludable de las mujeres y el climaterio The living process and being healthy for women and climacteric

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    Maria de Fátima Mota Zampieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender como se dá o processo de viver de mulheres no climatério. Foi desenvolvido com base na abordagem qualitativa, utilizando multimétodos participativos, com nove mulheres do Núcleo da Terceira Idade (NETI da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas e reuniões de grupos e analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo. Da análise dos dados, emergiram as unidades de significado, que deram origem às seguintes categorias: afirmando-se como mulher; experienciando o climatério e o envelhecimento; interagindo no cotidiano e mantendo as singularidades; abrindo caminhos para a vivência da cidadania. Com base no resultado do estudo, o viver das mulheres no período do climatério mostrou-se como um processo complexo, dinâmico, paradoxal, em que o envelhecimento e a possibilidade de adoecer se colocam como desafios maiores e os avanços nas perspectivas pessoais, culturais e sociais, como conquistas especiais.The aim of this study was to comprehend the living process of women in the period of climacteric. It was developed based on qualitative approach, using multi-participatory methods, with nine women of the Third Age Center (NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil (UFSC. Data was collected through interviews and meetings of groups and analyzed by analysis of the content. From the data analysis, emerged the units of meaning, which led the following categories: affirming one's self as a woman; experiencing the climacteric and ageing; interacting in the day-to-day and maintaining singularities; and opening paths to the experience of citizenship. Based on the result of the study, the living of women in the climacteric period is a complex, dynamic and paradoxical process, in which the aging and the possibility of becoming ill arise as greater challenges, and advances in the personal, cultural and social perspectives as special achievements.

  19. Effect of Climacteric Syndrome Hormone Replacement Therapy Compliance Related Factors and Preventive Countermeasures%影响更年期综合征激素替代治疗依从性相关因素及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董小艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨影响更年期综合征激素替代治疗依从性的相关因素及预防措施。方法:104例更年期综合征患者根据患者个体情况分别应用单纯雌激素补充、单纯孕激素补充和雌孕(雄)激素联系补充3种方式,分析104例更年期综合征临床资料,进行激素替代治疗依从性判断,比较两组不同依从性相关因素上的差异,并进行统计学分析。结果:104例患者激素替代治疗依从性好62例(59.62%),激素替代治疗依从性差42例(40.38%);单因素χ²检验文化程度、家庭支持、居住地、心理状态、经济收入、对激素替代治疗认知、激素替代治疗不良反应、医疗费用、就诊条件9个指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Logistic回归分析影响更年期综合征激素替代治疗依从性的相关因素,激素替代治疗认知偏差、激素替代治疗不良反应、不良心理状况、居住农村(OR=4.70、4.29、3.89、3.17)。结论:更年期综合征激素替代治疗过程中依从性较差,导致依从性差影响复杂,应实施针对性措施提高激素替代治疗依从性。%Objective: To investigate the effects of menopause syndrome hormone replacement therapy compliance related factors and preventive measures.Method: 104 patients with climacteric syndrome according to individual condition used only estrogen supplement, progesterone supplementation alone and female pregnancy (male) hormone ties complement in three ways, to analyze climacteric syndrome clinical data, hormone replacement therapy compliance judgment of 104 cases, differences of compliance related factors between the two groups.Result: 104 patients with hormone replacement therapy compliance in 62 cases (59.62%), hormone replacement therapy for treatment of 42 cases of poor compliance (40.38%); single factor χ² test culture degree, family support, place of residence, the psychological condition, economic income

  20. 度洛西汀联合替勃龙治疗女性更年期抑郁症的疗效观察%Efficacy analysis of duloxetine combinate with tibolone in the treatment of female climacteric depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士贵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨度洛西汀联合替勃龙治疗女性更年期抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法选择2011年9月-2013年9月我院精神科收治的女性更年期抑郁症患者70例,随机分为治疗组与对照组各35例。对照组予度洛西汀肠溶片,治疗组在对照组治疗基础上给予替勃龙片。治疗6周用 HAMD,HAMA,TESS 量表评定疗效和不良反应。结果治疗组显效率85.7%,总有效率94.3%明显高于对照组的65.7%及80.0%,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。治疗1、2、4、6周后2组 HAMD 及 HAMA 评分均较治疗前及上一计分段明显降低,且治疗组评分降低程度较对照组更为明显,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。2组常见不良反应发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),患者均能耐受或经对症治疗缓解,未对治疗产生影响。结论度洛西汀联合替勃龙治疗女性更年期抑郁症的疗效优于单用度洛西汀且耐受性好。值得临床推广应用。%Objective To discuss the efficacy and safety of duloxetine combinate with tibolone in the treatment of fe-male climacteric depression. Methods From September 2011 to September 2013,70 cases of female patients with climacteric depression were selected,and then randomly divided into treatment group and control group,each of 35 cases. The control group received duloxetine for treatment. The treatment group was added tibolone based on the control group. After treatment for 6 weeks,the efficacy and safety were evaluated with HAMD,HAMA and TESS scale. Results The effective rate and total effec-tive rate was 85. 7% ,94. 3% respectively in the treatment group,which was obviously higher than 65. 7% ,80% in control group,the differences were statistically significant(P 0. 05). The patients were all tolerated or relieved by symptomatic treatment. Conclusion The efficacy of duloxetine combinate with tibolone was better in the treatment of female climacteric depression than

  1. Validación de un cuestionario para la medición de las creencias sobre el climaterio Validity test of a questionnaire used to measure climacteric beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Chávez-Ayala

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Diseñar un instrumento para medir las creencias sobre las consecuencias sociales, psicológicas y fisiológicas de la etapa del climaterio. Material y métodos. El estudio se realizó de junio a octubre de 2000 en 340 mujeres derechohabientes de la unidad de medicina familiar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (media de edad=49.46, (DE 7.92. Se seleccionó un total de mujeres entre los 40 y 60 años de edad, en virtud del criterio de la Organización Mundial de la Salud: el promedio de edad de la menopausia es de 50 años. El promedio de embarazos en la muestra fue de 3.75 (DE 2.57, y el de hijos nacidos de 3.21 (DE 2.19. El 48.3% de las mujeres eran premenopáusicas, 10.9% perimenopáusicas y 40.6% posmenopáusicas. El instrumento contó con 25 reactivos, y la escala utilizada para evaluar las respuestas fue de tipo Likert con cinco opciones. El tipo de diseño fue observacional exploratorio, de corte transversal multivariado. Se hicieron comparaciones de medias por factor entre los grupos de mujeres premenopáusicas, perimenopáusicas y posmenopáusicas. Resultados. Se realizó un análisis factorial con rotación Varimax, confirmándose cuatro factores: desventajas, (alfa=0.769; ventajas, (alfa=0.839; fisiológico, (alfa=0.659, y psicológico, (alfa=0.711. Conclusiones. El presente instrumento tiene una buena consistencia interna, y mide cuatro grupos de creencias sobre el climaterio: a creencias de desventajas, b creencias de ventajas, c creencias sobre padecimientos fisiológicos, y d creencias de síntomas psicológicos. Las tres dimensiones confirmadas del climaterio han sido propuestas en otros estudios.Objective. To design an instrument for measuring beliefs about the social, psychological, and physiological consequences of women's climacteric stage. Material and Methods. The study included 340 women affiliated to Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del

  2. β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值%Clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climacteric women

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    贺桦; 李针; 渠红霞; 孟凡琳; 王兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值。方法选取无器质性疾病但有心电图改变的更年期妇女62例,经患者知情同意按照数字表法随机分为治疗组31例,予以β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周;另31例为对照组,不给予任何治疗。观察治疗前后2组间及治疗组心电图指标(心率、心律、ST-T)的改变。结果(1)经β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周后,2组平均心率、心律、ST-T改变(除ST上斜外)比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(2)治疗组治疗前后比较,成对房早、ST上斜和T波倒置虽有改变,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);其余指标均有明显改变,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论β-受体阻滞剂应用于心电图改变的更年期妇女有一定的临床价值。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climac-teric women.Methods Sixty-two subjects of climacteric women without organic diseases but with ECG changes were chosen and ran-domly divided into 2 groups:the control group(n=32)and the treatment group(n=30).The subjects of the control group were not giv-en any treatment, while the subjects of the treatment group were given treatment of beta-receptor blocker intervention for 3 weeks.ECG changes ( heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes) were detected both before and after treatment, and then, comparisons were made be-tween the groups and within the groups.Results ( 1 ) After 3 weeks of beta-receptor blocker intervention, significant ECG changes could be noted in heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes ( except ST cable) in the subjects of the treatment group, with statistical signifi-cance, when comparisons were made between the 2 groups (P0.05).There were significant changes in the remaining parameters, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Beta-receptor blocker had its clinical

  3. 中西医结合治疗更年期抑郁患者的临床疗效%Clinical Observation on Treatment of Patients with Climacteric Depression with Combination of TCM and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of combined treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in patients with climacteric depression.Methods Colected from January 2014 2010 and Dece- mber in our hospital of 53 cases with depression were colected.According to the random number table method were divided into treatment group of 27 cases and control group(26 cases),two groups of patients were given fluoxetine or paroxetine and antidepressants,treatment group adds the clothing made of Chinese medicine,to according to the groups of patients with alprazolam,compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect.Results After 6 weeks of treatment,the patients in the treatment group the total efficiency was 92.6%,and was significantly higher than that of the control group of 80.8%,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The combination of Chinese traditional and Western treatment of climacteric depression,antidepressants can improve patient compliance and tolerability, efficacy significantly.%目的:探讨中西医结合治疗更年期抑郁患者的临床疗效。方法收集2010年1月至2014年12月医院就诊的53例更年期抑郁患者资料,按随机数字表法将患者分为试验组(27例)和对照组(26例),患者均给予氟西汀或帕罗西汀等抗抑郁药物,试验组患者加服自制中药,对照组患者加服阿普唑仑。比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果治疗6周后,试验组患者总有效率为92.6%,明显高于对照组的80.8%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中西结合治疗更年期抑郁症,能够提高患者对抗抑郁药物的依从性和耐受性,疗效明显。

  4. Autopercepción del estado de salud en climatéricas derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Self-rated health among climacteric women affiliated to Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladislavovna-Doubova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la autopercepción del estado de salud positivo (APES + o negativo (APES - de mujeres climatéricas e identificar los factores relacionados con la APES-. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de 9 248 mujeres de 40 a 59 años. Las variables dependientes fueron la APES y las independientes las características generales, antecedentes ginecoobstétricos, enfermedades crónicas, actividad física, participación en programas de detección y educación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: Una proporción de 42% de las mujeres refirió APES+ y 58% APES-. Los factores vinculados con APES- fueron primaria completa o menos (RM=1.78; IC95% 1.62-1.95, no tener trabajo remunerado (RM=1.20; IC95% 1.09-1.33, menopausia (RM=1.22; IC95% 1.11-1.33, diabetes (RM=1.88; IC95% 1.65-2.13, hipertensión (RM=2.01; IC95% 1.82-2.22, actividad física irregular (RM=1.30; IC95% 1.12-1.50, sedentarismo (RM=1.395; IC95% 1.23-1.57, falta de integridad de detección (RM=0.82; IC95% 0.75-0.89 y de información sobre el climaterio por parte de los servicios de salud (RM=1.17; IC95% 1.07-1.28. CONCLUSIÓN: Los factores relacionados con APES- son múltiples y algunos, como la información acerca del climaterio y la actividad física, deben fortalecerse.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-rated health (SRH in climacteric women and to identify the factors associated with negative SRH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from 9 248 women aged 40 to 59 years was analyzed. SRH was the dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, history of reproductive and chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in screening and health education programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of women reported positive SRH and 58% reported negative SRH. Factors associated with negative SRH were: low literacy

  5. Ensaio clínico placebo-controlado com isoflavonas da soja para sintomas depressivos em mulheres no climatério Placebo-controlled clinical trial with soy isoflavones for depressive symptoms in climacteric women

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    Rilva Lopes de Sousa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do uso de isoflavonas da soja no tratamento de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com síndrome climatérica. MÉTODOS: estudo experimental placebo-controlado, randomizado e duplo-cego, com 84 pacientes climatéricas atendidas ambulatorialmente no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley, em João Pessoa (PB. Na avaliação de sintomas depressivos empregou-se o Questionário de Auto-avaliação da Escala de Hamilton para Depressão (QAEH-D nas visitas pré-tratamento (VT1 e na 8ª (VT2 e na 16ª (VT3 semana pós-tratamento. O grupo experimental (GExp recebeu extrato de isoflavonas da soja, 120 mg por dia, e o controle (GCont, placebo. A comparação dos escores do QAEH-D entre os grupos em VT1, VT2 e VT3 constituiu a medida primária de eficácia (teste t, p0,05. De VT1 para VT3, evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa de 8,9% na redução dos escores entre os grupos (p=0,03. Não houve correlação da redução dos sintomas depressivos com resposta dos sintomas vasomotores (p>0,05. Houve redução das concentrações de FSH apenas no GExp (p=0,02, sem alterações do estradiol. Não ocorreram eventos adversos clinicamente relevantes. CONCLUSÕES: o efeito do extrato de isoflavonas foi superior ao do placebo, porém de pequena magnitude e apenas após 8 semanas de tratamento. Este pequeno efeito atribuído ao tratamento experimental, de boa tolerabilidade, poderá beneficiar pacientes que têm efeitos colaterais aos estrógenos ou que preferem não usar estes hormônios.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of the use of isoflavones in the treatment of depressive symptoms in climacteric women. METHODS: placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind experimental study with 84 climacteric women who were assisted at the Lauro Wanderley University Hospital Ambulatory, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. In the evaluation of the depressive symptoms the Self-evaluation questionnare of Hamilton's rating scale for

  6. Efeitos do Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e sexuais na pós-menopausa Effects of Trifolium pratense on the climacteric and sexual symptoms in postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Del Giorno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do tratamento com Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e na satisfação sexual de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado com placebo. Foram selecionadas 120 mulheres na faixa etária de 45 anos a 65 anos com sintomas climatéricos, amenorreia superior a um ano e sem tratamento nos últimos seis meses. Após a seleção, foram divididas em dois grupos: GT -receberam Trifolium pratense na dose de 40 mg, 1 capsula/dia; GP -receberam placebo (controle, contendo lactose, 1 cápsula/dia. A duração do tratamento foi de 12 meses. As pacientes foram avaliadas clinica e laboratorialmente antes do tratamento e com quatro, oito e 12 meses de tratamento. Foi empregado também o Índice Menopausal de Kupperman (IMK e o Inventário de Satisfação Sexual Golombok Rust. No final do estudo, cada grupo tinha 50 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais após quatro meses de tratamento pelo IMK, principalmente em relação aos fogachos, comparando os dados antes do tratamento nos dois grupos, porém, não houve diferença significante entre os grupos. Não houve melhora na sexualidade antes e após o tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento por 12 meses com Trifolium pratense, na dose de 40mg/dia, não promoveu melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais e na satisfação sexual.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of treatment with Trifolium pratense on climacteric symptoms and sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study was prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. We selected 120 women, aged between 45 and 65 years with climacteric symptoms, with absence of menstruation (amenorrhea for more then one year and without any treatment in the last six months. After selection, women were divided into two groups: GT received 40 mg of Trifolium pratense (one capsule per day; GP received placebo

  7. 围绝经期综合征与神经递质(5-羟色胺)相关性的临床研究进展%Climacteric Syndrome and Neurotransmitters(5-HT)Correlation of Clinical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺琦

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current domestic and international the serum of 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5 -HT) and climacteric syndrome clinical relevance of the mechanism and role of estrogen therapy relationship, and traditional Chinese medicine on the 5 - HT effects experimental study. Methods: A search at home and abroad in recent years the use of TCM treatment of perimenopausal syndrome, and with 5 - HT related clinical research. Results: Menopausal Patients 5 - HT abnormalities of reheat and sweating, insomnia and other symptoms by estrogen or Chinese medicine treatment of perimenopausal symptoms improved. Conclusion: Estrogen and traditional Chinese medicine on patients with perimenopausal syndrome of 5 - HT was significant regulatory role.%目的:探讨目前国内外有关血清5-羟色胺(5-HT)与围绝经期综合征临床症状的相关性的机制,及其与雌激素治疗的关系,和中医中药对5-羟色胺影响的动物实验研究.方法:检索近几年来国内外运用中西医疗法治疗围绝经期综合征,及其与5-羟色胺相关性的临床研究成果.结果:围绝经期患者血清5-羟色胺水平异常,出现烘热汗出,失眠等临床症状,经雌激素或中医中药治疗,围绝经期症状得到改善.结论:雌激素及中医中药对围绝经期综合征患者血清5-羟色胺水平有显著性调节作用.

  8. Reflections on sexuality during the climacteric Reflexiones sobre la sexualidad durante la vivencia del climaterio Reflexões sobre a sexualidade durante a vivência do climatério

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    Roselane Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and phenomenological study based on reports of women between 48 and 55 years old with spontaneous menopause for 12 months or more. Results evidenced five theme categories that were analyzed and interpreted based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's theoretical-philosophical reference framework. Among the categories that emerged from reports, the theme "reflecting on sexuality" was emphasized, and is presented with a view to understanding the existential aspects of the climacteric experience, focusing on the exercise of sexuality.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de abordaje fenomenológico, realizado a partir del relato de mujeres con edad entre 48 y 55 años que habían presentado menopausia espontánea hace 12 meses o más. Los resultados mostraron cinco categorías temáticas que fueron analizadas e interpretadas con base en el marco teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Entre las categorías que surgieron de los relatos sobresalió el tema" Reflexionando sobre la sexualidad" que será presentado con el objetivo de comprender los aspectos existenciales de la vivencia del climaterio con énfasis en la sexualidad.Estudo qualitativo de abordagem fenomenológica, realizado a partir do depoimento de mulheres entre 48 e 55 anos que haviam apresentado menopausa espontânea há 12 meses ou mais. Os resultados evidenciaram cinco categorias temáticas que foram analisadas e interpretadas à luz do referencial teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Dentre as categorias que emergiram dos depoimentos destacou-se o tema: "refletindo sobre a sexualidade", que será apresentado com o objetivo de compreender os aspectos existenciais da vivência do climatério com ênfase no exercício da sexualidade.

  9. Experimental Study on Influence Xuzao Gengping Prescription in Sex Hormones of Female Rats Climacteric Hypertension%虚燥更平方对雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)性激素影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽萍; 林雪

    2011-01-01

    Obctiveje: To study the clinical efficacy of Xuzao Gengping Prescription on the female climacteric hypertension rats and analyzes theirs sex hormones index before and after the treatment, observe the changes of index.To explore on influence Xuzao Gengping prescription in sex hormones.Methods:the female climacteric hypertension rat model, Randomly divided into blank group, Chinese traditional medicine group, the model group, observe three group, estrogen ( E2 ), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ),T ( testosterone ), corpus luteum ( LH ), progesterone ( PRO ), prolactin ( PRL )level, and statistical analysis is made.Results: Xuzao Gengping Prescription can make the female rat climacteric hypertension of Chinese traditional medicine group after the treatment, E2 raiseded levels, T, FSH reduced levels, a statistically significant ( P<0.05 ), PRO, PRL, LH was not statistically significant ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions:( 1 )Xuzao Gengping Prescription has certainly regulate function to improve the levels of sex hormones of female climacteric hypertension.( 2 ) Through the Chinese traditional medicine group and the model group related indexes and levels of sex hormones, female climacteric hypertension rats with the occurrence and development of hypertension relation, disorder sex hormone index may participate the patho-physiological course of menopausal hypertension in female.%目的:运用虚燥更平方作用于治疗雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期),观察大鼠性激素指标治疗前后的变化,探讨虚燥更平方对性激素的影响.方法:将雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)模型,随机分成空白组、模型组、中药组,观察3组雌激素(E2)、促卵泡刺激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)、促黄体生成素(LH)、孕酮(PRO)、催乳素(PRL)水平,并做统计分析比较.结果:虚燥更平方可使雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)中药组治疗后血清E2水平升高,T、FSH水平降低,三者有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:(1)虚燥更平方对改善

  10. Relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério Calcium/protein relation of women on the climacteric

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    Regina das Neves Girão Montilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foi avaliada a dieta de 154 mulheres entre 35 e 65 anos de idade, atendidas no Ambulatório de Saúde da Mulher Climatérica do Centro de Saúde-Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. Para obtenção do consumo alimentar de cálcio e de proteína, foi realizado inquérito alimentar pelo método ''recordatório de 24 horas''. A avaliação da relação cálcio/proteína foi feita segundo proposta de Massey e Heaney (1998, que é de 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTADOS: O consumo médio de cálcio foi de 624,9 mg; o de proteínas foi 86,7g e a relação cálcio/proteína foi de 7/1 (624,9mg/86,7g. CONCLUSÃO: A população estudada apresenta consumo inadequado dos nutrientes cálcio e proteína, podendo resultar em sérios riscos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the calcium/protein relation of the diet of climacteric women. METHODS: In a transversal study the diet was evaluated of 154 women 35-65 years old and matriculated in the Health Clinic of the Climateric Woman of Health Center of Public Health College of the São Paulo University. The food intake of calcium and protein was food investigated by ''24 hours recall'' method. The evaluation of calcium/protein relation was made according to Massey and Heaney (1998, that is 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTS: The mean of intake of calcium was 624.9 mg; the mean of intake of protein was 86.7 g and the calcium/protein relation was 7/1 (624.9 mg/86.7 g. CONCLUSION: The studied population presents inadequated consumation of the calcium and protein nutrients. It could result in serious risk for health.

  11. Effect of Bushen Zhuanggu Granules upon Gonadal Hormone and Blood Fat in Climacteric Females%补肾壮骨冲剂对更年期综合征患者性激素及血脂的影响

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    邓伟民; 黄海; 曾东; 李晓昊; 张金玉; 邵玉; 周丽; 黄伟毅; 韩丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Bushen Zhuanggu Granules (Herbal granules for reinforcing kidney to strengthen bones) upon gonadal hormone and vasomotor symptoms of climacteric females. Methods Totally 582 postmenopausal outpatients were randomized into Chinese medicine group of 285 cases and western drug group of 297 cases. The Chinese medicine group was treated with Bushen Zhuanggu Granules and the western drug group was with premarin and provera.The main observed indices were blood fat including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), gonadal hormones including estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), and the changes in scores of symptoms and signs before and after treatment. Results There were 63 dropouts in the Chinese medicine group after a half-year's treatment, and 94 dropouts in the western drug group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.01). The total effective rate of the Chinese medicine group was 82.87%, while that of the western drug group was 73.12%, there was significant difference between the two groups after treatment (P<0.05). The total symptom score of both groups was significantly decreased after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01 ), but the Chinese medicine group was superior to the western drug group (P<0.01). Changes of gonadal hormone and blood fat of both groups after treatment was significant, showing a statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Bushen Zhuanggu Granules can effectively regulate gonadal hormone and blood fat in climacteric females, with a similar function of western estrogen replacement therapy, but without untoward effect.%目的 观察补肾壮骨冲剂对更年期综合征患者性激素及血脂的影响. 方法 将582例患者随机分为中药组285例和西药组297例.中药组口服补肾壮骨冲剂治疗,西药组应用倍美力加安宫

  12. 围绝经期潮热妇女焦虑与抑郁状况的分析%Relation between Hot Flashes and Anxiety, Depression among Climacteric Women

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    张巧利; 李芬; 于英; 盛秋

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨围绝经期前后妇女潮热与焦虑、抑郁之间的关系.方法:将符合条件的1 206名40~60岁妇女分为潮热组、无潮热组,分别完成调查问卷.问卷具体内容包括一般情况、潮热状况、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS).结果:潮热组妇女SAS和SDS的平均值高于无潮热组妇女(SAS:39.8±7.3 vs 36.0±6.1;SDS:44.1±8.3 vs 40.9±8.9,P均<0.05),潮热组轻度焦虑和抑郁的发生率明显高于无潮热组(焦虑:8.3%vs 3.4%;抑郁:23.3%vs 14.2%,P均<0.05).潮热妇女焦虑、抑郁的发生风险分别是无潮热妇女的4.1倍(95%CI,1.20~13.74)、2.4倍(95%CI,1.15~4.92).重度潮热妇女较轻度潮热妇女SAS和SDS得分均高(SAS:46.4±7.9 vs 38.8±6.6; SDS:43.9±6.9 vs 52.7±12.5,P均<0.05).潮热妇女的月经状况与SAS和SDS得分无关.结论:围绝经期潮热妇女易发生焦虑、抑郁症状,且重度潮热妇女更易发生.对妇女进行潮热治疗时,还应对妇女进行心理疏导.%Objective: To explore the relation of hot flashes, anxiety and depression among climacteric women. Methods: A total of 1 206 eligible women aged 40-60 years were divided into hot flashes group and no hot flashes group. All women were asked to finish the questionnaire. The content of questionnaire included general situation, hot flashes, anxiety (SAS) and depression (SDS) self-rating scale. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS in hot flashes group were higher than those in no hot flashes group (SAS: 39.8 ± 7.3 vs 36.0 ±6.1; SDS:44.1 ± 8.3 vs 40.9 ± 8.9, all P<0.05). The incidences of mild anxiety and mild depression were obviously higher than those in no hot flashes group (anxiety: 8.3% vs 3.4%; depression: 23.3% vs 14.2%; all P< 0.001). The risk of anxiety, depression among hot flashes group were 4.1-fold (OR=4.07,95%CI: 1.20-13.74) and 2.4-fold (OR=2.3S, 95%CI: 1.15-4.92) compared with no hot flashes group, respectively. The mean scores of SAS and SDS in

  13. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  14. Sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional de mulheres na pós-menopausa usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal Climacteric symptoms and nutritional status of women in post-menopause users and non-users of hormone therapy

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    Angela Andréia França Gravena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional em mulheres na pós-menopausa, usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal (TH. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico, exploratório, tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar, realizado na área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná, incluindo 456 mulheres com idade entre 45 e 69 anos, no período pós-menopausa. A coleta teve como base de referência os setores censitários urbanizados (368 do município, de acordo com o Censo Demográfico Brasileiro. Foi utilizada amostra aleatória simples proporcional às mulheres residentes em cada setor censitário e, por meio de visita domiciliar, aplicou-se um questionário e verificaram-se as medidas antropométricas e pressão arterial. Para avaliação dos sintomas climatéricos, foi utilizado o Índice Menopausal de Blatt e Kupperman. A variável desfecho foi o uso de TH. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 58,7 anos. O excesso de peso esteve presente em 72,6% das mulheres e a obesidade abdominal em 81,4% delas. Sintomas climatéricos de intensidade leve foram evidenciados em 69,5% das mulheres. Apenas 18,4% das mulheres faziam uso de TH e eram, na sua maioria, brancas, não fumantes, sem comorbidades e sem companheiro. Usuárias de TH apresentaram menor frequência de excesso de peso e obesidade abdominal e tiveram menor prevalência de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade severa. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal foram prevalentes na amostra estudada. Embora em menor número, as usuárias de TH apresentaram uma frequência menor de excesso de peso e sintomas climatéricos leves e intensos na pós-menopausa.PURPOSE: To analyze the climacteric symptoms, nutritional status and distribution of abdominal fat in postmenopausal women using or not hormone therapy. METHODS: exploratory analytical study of the population survey type in the urban area of Maringa, Parana, conducted on 456 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 69

  15. Influence of health education and psychological nursing intervention on symptoms and sleep for climacteric syndrome women%健康教育与心理护理对女性更年期综合征患者症状及睡眠状况的影响

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    沈斌; 王立新

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察健康教育和心理护理干预对伴更年期综合征女性患者的临床影响,探讨改善伴有更年期综合征临床表现的护理措施。方法选择更年期综合征女性患者96例,随机均分为对照组和干预组,对照组给予药物治疗,干预组在药物治疗基础上定期进行健康教育和心理护理干预,治疗两个月后比较两组患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)和焦虑量表( HAMA)、匹茨堡睡眠质量指数( PSQI)及更年期症状改善情况。结果治疗两个月后干预组的HAMD和HAMA评分均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为1.833,1.792;P<0.05)。治疗后干预组睡眠质量、入睡时间、睡眠时间、睡眠效率、睡眠障碍情况均有好转,差异有统计学意义(t 值分别为5.236,1.914,1.721,1.703,1.715;P<0.05)。结论女性更年期综合征患者的常规治疗过程中应积极进行健康教育和心理护理干预。%Objective To observe the clinical influence of health education and psychological nursing intervention on the climacteric syndrome and discuss the methods to improve clinical syndromes . Methods Totals of 96 women with climacteric syndrome were enrolled .Totals of 48 patients were distributed to the conventional group treated by drugs , and 48 patients were distributed to the intervention group treated by drugs and health education and psychological nursing intervention .Then, the Hamilton Depression Scale ( HAMD) score, Hamilton Anxiety Scale ( HAMA ) score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI ) and climacteric syndrome’s improvement conditions were compared between groups after two months ’ treatment. Results The HAMD score and HAMA score of the intervention group were lower than those of the conventional group.The differences were statistically significant ( t=1.833, 1.792, respectively; P<0.05).The sleep quality, the time to fall asleep, time of sleep

  16. Avaliação da sintomatologia depressiva de mulheres no climatério com a escala de rastreamento populacional para depressão CES-D Depressive symptoms in climacteric women evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

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    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    climacteric women using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D from the National Institute of Mental Health (USA. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a gynecological outpatient unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including 151 climacteric women between 40 and 65 years of age. The CES-D was used to assess depressive symptoms and a structured interview obtained sociodemographic, clinical and gynecological data. A score above 15 points on the CES-D was considered as a cut-point for depressive state. RESULTS: Mean CES-D score was 9.2 points (standard deviation = 9.0. Insomnia, sadness and despondency had the highest scores. There was no significant association between CES-D scores and the climacteric period, sociodemographic, clinical or gynecological characteristics, except for women with psychiatric symptoms, history of depression or on antidepressants (p = 0.000. In 32 women (21% who scored > 15 on the CES-D, 72% had already suffered from a depressive state. Women with no history of depressive disorder scored more frequently above 15 when they were perimenopausal. CONCLUSION: This sample of climacteric women, from a non-specialized mental or menopausal health service, had low mean scores on the CES-D, with the item insomnia being the most highly scored. History of a previous depressive episode, but not the woman's climacteric period, was a risk factor for higher scores on the CES-D. In the group of women with no history of depression, the perimenopausal women had more scores above the cut-point. This fact may suggest that the perimenopause is a period of higher susceptibility to new onset of depressive episodes.

  17. Effects of the Xuzao Gengping Granule to the quality of life of Yinxu Neizao female climacteric hypertension%虚燥更平颗粒对阴虚内燥证女性高血压病(围绝经期)患者生活质量的影响

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    林雪; 任玉汝; 马丽; 周丽萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过观察虚燥更平颗粒对女性高血压病(围绝经期)生活质量的影响,从而为中医治疗女性高血压病(围绝经期)提供临床依据.方法:收集2008年7月至2009年10月新疆医科大学附属中医医院高血压科就诊的阴虚内燥证女性高血压病(围绝经期)患者96例(病房59例、门诊37例),随机分为治疗组与对照组,两组在西药基础上,分别给予虚燥更平颗粒及模拟剂,疗程为8周,分别于治疗前与治疗后2、4、8周各进行1次生活质量评分、中医证候评分,并做统计分析.结果:①治疗组生理状态、躯体化症状、性功能失调、睡眠状态、生气或活力、焦虑、压抑等状态积分均较对照组增高(P<0.05),而强迫状态积分无统计学差异.②治疗组烘热汗出、烦躁易怒、眩晕头昏、口干舌燥、失眠心悸、健忘、手或足心热、忧郁寡欢、腰膝酸痛、手或足麻木等症候积分均较对照组降低(P<0.05),而耳鸣症候积分无统计学差异;中医证候疗效总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:应用虚燥更平颗粒治疗女性高血压病(围绝经期)患者,可以提高生活质量,同时能有效改善其临床症状.%Objective: To observe the effect of the Xuzao Gengping Granule on the quality of females' life and all the females with climacteric hypertension, providing the clinical basis for the traditional Chinese medicine to cure female hypertensive disease (menopause). Methods: 96 patients with female climacteric hypertension were choose from hypertension outpatient clinics and ward in Chinese Medicine Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region between July 2008 and October 2009, the Yinxu Neizao group was divided into treatment group and control group. To judge the score of the quality of life and TCM syndrome respectively before and after treatment. Results: CD Compared with the control group, the score of physiological status, somatization symptoms, sexual

  18. Conhecimento, percepções e assistência à saúde da mulher no climatério Conocimiento, percepciones y asistencia a la salud de la mujer en lo climaterio Knowledge, perceptions and assistance to woman's health in the climacteric

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    Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira Berni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As vivências do climatério foram o objeto deste estudo, em pesquisa descritivo-qualitativa com mulheres das cidades de Canoas e Porto Alegre, RS. A coleta de informações utilizou entrevista semi-estruturada em 15 mulheres entre 41 e 59 anos de idade. A interpretação e análise basearam-se na análise de conteúdo. As mulheres expressam confusão sobre o significado do climatério, relacionando-o aos sintomas que associam ao envelhecimento. Reconhecem tratar-se de uma fase da vida com aspectos também positivos e a vivem sem maiores preocupações.As percepções das mulheres sobre o climatério são fragmentadas e a assistência médica o trata como doença passível de tratamento. Portanto, o profissional enfermeiro, pela presença interativa constante na vida dessas mulheres, pode ajudar a desmistificar e ressignificar esse processo na vida da mulher.Las vivencias del climaterio fueron el objeto de este estudio, en investigación descriptiva-cualitativa con mujeres de las ciudades de Canoas y Porto Alegre, RS. La recolección de informaciones utilizó entrevista semiestructurada con 15 mujeres entre 41 y 59 años de edad. La interpretación y el análisis se basaran en el análisis de contenido. Las mujeres expresan confusión acerca del significado de climaterio, relacionándolo con los síntomas que asociados al envejecimiento. Reconocen tratarse de una fase de la vida con aspectos también positivos y la viven sin mayores preocupaciones. Las percepciones de las mujeres acerca del climaterio son fragmentadas y la asistencia médica lo trata como enfermedad factible de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, el profesional enfermero, por su presencia interactiva constante en la vida de esas mujeres, puede ayudar a desmistificar y a re-significar ese proceso en la vida de la mujer.The experience of the climacteric period is the object of the present descriptive-qualitative study with women from the cities of Canoas and Porto Alegre, RS. The

  19. 男性更年期综合征患者性腺轴功能变化及其与代谢综合征的关系的动物性实验研究%Animal experimental study of gonadal axis function changes in patients with male climacteric syndrome and the relationship with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓振; 郑军华; 耿江; 车建平; 王光春; 夏盛强; 王波; 彭波

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过动物实验研究男性更年期综合征与性腺轴、以及代谢综合征的关系.方法:以6月龄雄性大鼠饲养至30月龄复制自然衰老、代谢综合征及补充雄激素的动物模型.通过对各组大鼠12、18、24、30月龄性激素、性激素受体水平检测,睾丸切片分析,研究年龄、激素水平及代谢综合症的相关性.结果:随着月龄的增加,正常饲养大鼠T、FSH及LH逐渐下降,睾丸组织病理呈退行性变化.睾酮饲喂组不同月龄大鼠血清T、FSH、LH水平持续维持较高水平,但睾丸雄激素受体水平仍出现显著下降.结论:单纯补充雄激素能提高性腺轴激素水平,但不能逆转睾丸雄性激素受体水平的下降,不足以治疗男性更年期综合征,须同时提高雄性激素受体水平.%Objective:To study of the relationship among male climacteric syndrome, gonadal axis, and metabolic syndrome in animal experiments.Methods: hTe 6-month-old male rats were reared to 30-month-old to copy natural aging, metabolic syndrome and androgen supplement models. At 12, 18, 24, 30 months old sex hormones, hormone receptor levels, testis slices were tested and analyzed.Results: With the increase of age, T, FSH and LH of normal feeding group decreased, and testicular pathology showed degenerative changes. Serum T, FSH, LH levels of Testosterone fed groups continue to maintain a high level, but testicular androgen levels of RNA and protein levels were signiifcant decreased.Conclusion: Supplement of androgen can maintain gonadal axis, but cannot change the decline of testicular androgen receptor. Androgen supplement treatment cannot cure male climacteric syndrome. It is also essential to increase the male hormone receptor levels.

  20. Depressão em mulheres climatéricas: análise de mulheres atendidas ambulatorialmente em um hospital universitário no Maranhão Depression in climacteric women: analysis of a sample receiving care at a university hospital in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Mari-Nilva Maia da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O climatério, período de transição entre a fase reprodutiva e não-reprodutiva, ocasiona mudanças biopsicossociais nas mulheres que o vivenciam. A associação entre a maior prevalência de depressão nesse período é, no entanto, ainda controversa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de depressão em mulheres climatéricas atendidas em um hospital universitário numa cidade da Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores associados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e analítico de 70 mulheres climatéricas. O diagnóstico de depressão foi dado segundo critérios diagnósticos da Classificação Internacional de Doenças em um período de seguimento mínimo de 3 meses. Foram investigadas as seguintes variáveis: escolaridade, situação conjugal, renda pessoal, gravidade da depressão segundo escala de Hamilton, presença e intensidade de sintomas climatéricos, menopausa (natural ou cirúrgica, dependência econômica do parceiro, antecedentes familiares de depressão, história prévia de depressão pós-parto, episódios depressivos e transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual, alterações da função sexual e visão positiva ou negativa da menopausa. Resultados: Um percentual de 34,3% das pacientes apresentou depressão, sendo 70,8% destas na categoria leve da escala de Hamilton. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre variáveis socioeconômicas, diminuição da libido e antecedentes familiares de depressão com a presença de depressão. Houve associação entre a presença de depressão e pacientes com sintomas vasomotores (p = 0,03, insônia (p Introduction: The climacteric is a transition period between reproductive and non-reproductive ages that leads to biopsychossocial changes in women who experience it. However, association between a larger prevalence of depression in this period is still controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of

  1. O olhar dos responsáveis pela política de saúde da mulher climatérica La mirada de los responsables por la política de la salud de la mujer climatérica The look of the responsible ones for the politics of health of woman climacterics

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    Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, exploratório e descritivo que tem como objetivo identificar a busca das usuárias climatéricas do Sistema Único de Saúde por serviços e ações de saúde nos municípios da 3ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul, na perspectiva dos responsáveis pela política da saúde da mulher. A procura das climatéricas caracterizou-se por ser em função dos sintomas e queixas típicos desta fase, e dúvidas quanto a uma possível gestação. Há de se procurar pôr em prática o direito constitucional da integralidade, preservando os direitos já conquistados pelas mulheres e ampliar os serviços assistenciais, para que possam corresponder, tanto quantitativa como qualitativamente, às demandas, às necessidades de promoção, prevenção e recuperação da saúde das usuárias do sistema de saúde brasileiro.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo como objetivo identificar la búsqueda de las climatéricas usuarias del sistema único de salud por servicios y acciones de salud en los municipios de la 3ª Coordinaciones Regional de Salud do Rio Grande do Sul, en la perspectiva de los responsables por la política de la salud de la mujer. La busca de las climatéricas se caracterizó por ser en función de los síntomas y quejas típicos de esta fase y, dudas cuanto a una posible gestación. Hay de buscarse por en práctica el derecho constitucional de la integridad, preservando los derechos ya conquistados por las mujeres y ampliar los servicios asistenciales, a fin de que puedan corresponder tanto cuantitativa como cualitativamente a las demandas, a las necesidades de promoción, prevención y recuperación de la salud de las usuarias del sistema de salud brasileño.It is about qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with objective to identify to the search of the climacteric's using of the single health system for services and action of health in the cities of 3ª

  2. 不同生理阶段更年期综合征证候规律及治疗的临床研究%Clinical study on distribution rule of TCM syndromes and treatment of climacteric syndrome among patients in different menopausal status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳岭; 王兴娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨不同生理阶段女性更年期综合征(CS)患者中医证型分布规律及CS与性激素、糖脂代谢之间的关系,为本病的临床治疗提供依据.方法:随机选择绝经前期、围绝经期、绝经后期更年期综合征患者各50例,辨证后给予相应中药服用6周,治疗前后分别进行问卷调查及血清检测.结果:不同生理阶段女性CS患者中医证型的构成比存在差异;中药治疗后患者的更年期症状均明显改善,Kupperman评分降低(P<0.01),雌二醇(E2)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、睾酮(T)水平无明显变化;脾虚组患者的空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、瘦素(leptin)较治疗前均降低;肝虚组患者的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)较前升高;肾虚组患者的FBG、总胆固醇(TC)较前降低(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:不同生理阶段的女性CS患者中医证型分布存在一定规律;本病的发病可能与心血管疾病风险因素有关,其治疗应该重视糖脂代谢功能的调节.%Objective: To explore the distribution rule of TCM (TCM) syndromes of patients with climacteric syndrome (CS) in different menopausal status and the association between CS and sex hormone as well as glucolipid metabolism, and to supply credible evidence for the clinical therapy of CS.Methods: Randomly selected patients with CS 50 cases in premenopausal,perimenopausal, postmenopansal status separately.After differentiation, the patients were treated with the appropriate Chinese medicine for 6 weeks.Questionnaire survey and serum testing were conducted before and after treatment.Results: The constituent ratio of TCM syndromes was different among CS patients in different menopausal status.The climacteric syndrome was significantly improved in patients of all 3 groups after treatment, kupperman score was markedly reduced(P<0.01), but the level of endocrine hormone (F2, FSH, LH, T) didn't show any change.In the spleen deficiency

  3. 坤泰胶囊与戊酸雌二醇对更年期综合征各种症状的不同疗效分析%Effects of Kuntai Capsule and Estradiol Valerate on Different Symptoms of Climacteric Syndrome

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    陈蓉; 林守清; 杨欣; 栾艳秋; 陈继英; 李冬梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析中成药坤泰胶囊与西药戊酸雌二醇(E2V)对更年期综合征各种症状的不同疗效.方法 选择2002年4月至2003年8月在北京协和医院和北京大学第一临床医院就诊的更年期综合征患者147例,进行随机、双盲、双模拟平行对照研究3个月,将每日潮热3次以上的更年期妇女随机分为坤泰组(坤泰胶囊4粒,每日3次,77例)和E2V组(协坤片0.5 mg,每晚1次,70例),按照停经时间再分为绝经过渡期和绝经后两亚组.研究期间患者记录症状日记,随访时由专人进行改良Kupperman症状(K)评分评估更年期症状.结果 ①治疗3个月时,坤泰组和E2V组K评分较治疗前均有统计学意义(P<0.05).坤泰组、E2V组K评分临床有效率分别为86.2%、78.9%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).坤泰过渡期组、绝经后组K评分临床有效率分别为96.5%、77.7%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).②两种药物对不同停经时间亚组患者的潮热评分疗效比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).随治疗时间延长,两组的各种症状治疗有效率均明显提高.除头晕、阴道干涩外,两种药物对K评分中其余10项症状的疗效均无统计学意义(P>0.05).过渡期组患者感觉异常、忧郁、头晕、疲乏、肌肉关节痛、头痛6项症状,在治疗1周和1个月时坤泰组疗效优于E2V组.结论 坤泰胶囊和E2V对改善更年期综合征症状均有效.坤泰胶囊对过渡期患者的疲乏、头痛等症状疗效优于小剂量E2V,而对绝经后患者的阴道干涩疗效后者优于前者.%Objective To analyze the different effects of Kuntai capsule,a traditional Chinese preparation and estradiol valerate on different symptoms of climacteric syndrome.Methods One hundred and forty-seven perimenopausal women with hot flushes more than 3 times a day from Peking Union Medical College Hospital and the First Hospital Affiliated to Peking University from Apr.2002 to Aug.2003

  4. Avanços na elucidação dos mecanismos de ação de Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. nos sintomas do climatério Advances on the elucidation of mechanisms of action of Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. in climacteric symptoms

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    A.G. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar os avanços ocorridos para a compreensão da atuação terapêutica de Cimicifuga racemosa, um fitoterápico utilizado no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres nas quais a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é contra-indicada. A revisão bibliográfica possibilitou concluir que existem quatro principais hipóteses para esclarecer a base mecanística de ação: indução de apoptose por meio da ativação de caspases, inibição do ciclo celular em G1 por alteração de proteínas reguladoras, efeito central em receptor 5HT e ação estrogênica evidenciada pela inibição seletiva dos receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina. Porém, é incipiente a produção científica abordando as bases moleculares que sustentem os referidos mecanismos de ação. Ainda há necessidade de elucidação quanto à possível existência de pelo menos mais um receptor estrogênico que possa ser o alvo de ligação para as substâncias ativas de C. racemosa, bem como avançar no conhecimento da atividade reguladora seletiva de receptores estrogênicos já evidenciada em estudos de farmacologia experimental.The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to

  5. Phytoestrogens for menopausal bone loss and climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Women have always looked for non-hormonal options to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent menopausal bone loss. The use of complementary and alternative medicine for these purposes has particularly increased after the publication of the Women's Health Initiative's results suggesting that there might be more risks than benefits with hormone replacement. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens that, although less potent than estradiol, bind to the estrogen receptor and can function as estrogen agonists or antagonists. Soy isoflavones extracted from soy are the phytoestrogens most commonly used by menopausal women. Because typical Western diets are low in phytoestrogens and taking into account the general difficulty in changing dietary habits, most clinical trials in Western women have used isoflavone-fortified foods or isoflavone tablets. Although some women might experience a reduction in the frequency or severity of hot flashes, most studies point towards the lack of effectiveness of isoflavones derived from soy or red clover, even in large doses, in the prevention of hot flashes and menopausal bone loss. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'.

  6. Fatores Associados à Obesidade e ao Padrão Andróide de Distribuição da Gordura Corporal em Mulheres Climatéricas Factors Related to Obesity and Android Pattern of Body Fat Distribution in Climacteric Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Filip Raskin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: descrever as características de um grupo de mulheres climatéricas, conhecer a freqüência e os fatores associados à obesidade e ao padrão andróide de distribuição da gordura corporal. Métodos: estudo observacional com 518 pacientes com idade entre 45 e 65 anos em um ambulatório de climatério. Foram considerados a idade, cor, status menopausal, tempo de menopausa, atividade física, tabagismo, dieta, etilismo, antecedentes pessoais e familiares de hipertensão, diabetes, doença cardiovascular, dislipidemia e obesidade. O índice de massa corpórea e a relação das medidas cintura/quadril foram variáveis dependentes. Na análise estatística utilizaram-se os testes de Wilcoxon, c² de Pearson, com nível de significância de 5%, e análise múltipla por regressão logística. Resultados: mais de dois terços das participantes eram não-obesas com perfil andróide e menopausadas. Aproximadamente um quarto tinha atividade física adequada, era tabagista, metade referiu dieta inadequada e um quinto era etilista. Pacientes com perfil andróide apresentaram média etária maior que mulheres com padrão ginecóide. Antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes e história familiar de diabetes relacionaram-se com obesidade e padrão andróide. O status pós-menopausa associou-se significativamente ao perfil andróide. Conclusões: a maioria das mulheres foram não-obesas com perfil andróide, brancas, pós-menopáusicas, sedentárias, não-tabagistas nem etilistas. Os principais fatores associados à obesidade e padrão andróide foram os antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, história familiar de diabetes e, particularmente, o status pós-menopausa com o perfil andróide.Purpose: to describe sociodemographic characteristics of a group of climacteric women in order to discover the frequency and the variables associated with obesity and android profile of body fat distribution. Methods

  7. Efeito de um programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e os hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério The effects of a mixed program of nutritional intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits of obese climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Assunção Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi avaliar o efeito de programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério. MÉTODOS: Trabalhou-se com 2 grupos de 15 pessoas por 40 semanas: Grupo Dieta (intervenção nutricional e Grupo Exercício (intervenção nutricional e exercício. RESULTADO: As reduções do peso (-2,3kg para Grupo Dieta e -5,3kg para o Grupo Exercício e da circunferência da cintura (-4,8cm para Grupo Dieta e -7,6cm para Grupo Exercício, foram maiores para o Grupo Exercício. Foi verificada evolução positiva na classificação do Índice de Massa Corporal para ambos os grupos, sendo que o Grupo Exercício respondeu melhor ao tratamento. O padrão alimentar foi considerado monótono e com baixo consumo de alimentos regionais. CONCLUSÃO: O programa foi efetivo para perda de peso, em maior intensidade na presença de exercício. A educação alimentar proposta foi capaz de acarretar mudanças nos hábitos alimentares.OBJECTIVE: The effects of a mixed program of nutrition intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits were evaluated in obese climacteric women. METHODS: Thirty participants were randomly assigned in 2 groups during 40 weeks: Diet Group (nutritional intervention and Exercise Group (nutritional intervention and exercise. RESULTS: Weight reductions (Diet Group 2,3kg/Exercise Group -5,3kg and waist circunference (Diet Group -4,8cm/Exercise Group 7,6cm were greater in Exercise Group. A positive evolution was noticed in the Body Mass Index in both groups, with Exercise Group having better answer to treatment. It was observed a monotonous feeding pattern and low compliance to the consumption of regional typical foods. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the program was effective for weight loss at a higher intensity in the presence of exercise and the feeding education was able to modify the feeding habits.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and hypercoagulability. Results from the Prospective Collaborative Danish Climacteric Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars F.

    2003-01-01

    , Hellerup, and Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION: One hundred and forty-nine postmenopausal women without previous venous thromboembolic disease. METHODS: Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F(1+2)), fibrin degradation products, antithrombin, protein C, total protein S and activated protein C...... manifestations in thrombosis-prone individuals....

  9. HEALTH EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR WOMEN IN CLIMACTERIC: GRANTS FOR NURSING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Lyra Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:. Conhecer a assistência prestada pelo enfermeiro à mulher no climatério identificando estratégias de educação em saúde no atendimento à mesma. Metodologia:. Realizado levantamento de dados sobre o tema entre 2001 a 2010 seguindo leitura analítica alcançando bibliografia potencial com 10 artigos e 1 monografia divididos em três categorias. Resultados e discussão:. Algumas obras demonstram que as mulheres desconhecem a educação pela enfermagem, constatado pela falta de informações dessas pacientes. Conclusão:. O enfermeiro como educador se insere como grande estímulo, beneficiando estas mulheres com informações, com variados métodos desempenhados buscando vivenciar estas alterações fisiológicas de forma mais saudável permitindo a transformação consciente da realidade. Educar em saúde tornou-se uma das atribuições que o enfermeiro desempenha em toda sua área de atuação e, portanto perpassa todos os níveis de assistência à saúde.

  10. Menopause and Climacteric. Substituted Hormonal Treatment. Its indications, guidelines and safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío García Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An updated revision was carried out about climateric and menopause period and its substituted hormonal treatment when it is necessary. The indications of the substituted hormonal therapy, its main contraindication and the directions of the treatment are shown.

  11. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie I. Siebler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55% and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%; modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86% and sleeping problems (35.56%. There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms.

  12. [The climacteric and biomedicine: reflections from nursing and the sociology of health and illness disciplines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel

    2012-03-01

    This article critically examines the biomedical model and how it has influenced the social construction of the meaning of the menopause. This model has been criticized as reductionist since it understands people as entities made of several parts that can be studied separately. Contrarily for nursing, people are formed by several parts in direct relation with the environment and themselves. Therefore, it is not posible to understand people's reality without considering social factors. The menopause has been described in various biomedical texts as a phenomenon similar to a disease, with severe symptoms and negative connotations. However the experiences and meanings that women ascribe to this stage of their life are varied and not always negative. In order to offer appropriate care, it is important for nursing to think about the role of social interaction in constructing the meaning individuals attribute to phenomena.

  13. 理性情绪疗法支持治疗更年期综合征%Rational-emotive therapy supporting treatment for climacteric syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰丙芝

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨对更年期综合征患者心理和精神障碍的理性情绪疗法的支持治疗效果.方法对80例随机分组的更年期综合征患者给予药物+心理治疗或单纯药物治疗.在治疗前后,应用症状自评量表(SCL-90)进行评分比较.结果两组治疗前评分比较无差异(P>0.05).两组治疗前后相比均有差异(P<0.01),治疗6个月后,治疗组与对照组相比,除强迫一项外,均有差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论更年期综合征患者,不同程度出现心理和精神障碍,理性情绪疗法支持治疗是有效的,且较单纯药物治疗好.

  14. Qualidade do sono em mulheres paulistanas no climatério Quality of sleep of climacteric women in São Paulo: some significant aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lúcia Souza; José Mendes Aldrighi; Geraldo Lorenzi Filho

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O climatério é um período de grandes transformações em que a qualidade do sono usualmente se deteriora. O objetivo foi avaliar subjetivamente a qualidade do sono em mulheres no climatério (35 a 65 anos). MÉTODOS: Um questionário contendo informações pessoais, hábitos/saúde, sexualidade e sono foi aplicado a 271 mulheres. RESULTADOS: A amostra estudada constituiu-se principalmente de mulheres casadas, ativas profissionalmente, de alta condição econômica e escolaridade, não usuárias d...

  15. Menopause and Climacteric. Substituted Hormonal Treatment. Its indications, guidelines and safety. Menopausia y climaterio. Tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo, sus indicaciones, las pautas del tratamiento y su seguridad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene E. Delgado Pérez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available An updated revision was carried out about climateric and menopause period and its substituted hormonal treatment when it is necessary. The indications of the substituted hormonal therapy, its main contraindication and the directions of the treatment are shown.

    Se realizó una revisión actualizada acerca del período climatérico- menopáusico y su tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo cuando es necesario. Se exponen las indicaciones de la terapia hormonal sustitutiva, sus principales contraindicaciones y las pautas de tratamiento.

  16. Qualidade do sono em mulheres paulistanas no climatério Quality of sleep of climacteric women in São Paulo: some significant aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O climatério é um período de grandes transformações em que a qualidade do sono usualmente se deteriora. O objetivo foi avaliar subjetivamente a qualidade do sono em mulheres no climatério (35 a 65 anos. MÉTODOS: Um questionário contendo informações pessoais, hábitos/saúde, sexualidade e sono foi aplicado a 271 mulheres. RESULTADOS: A amostra estudada constituiu-se principalmente de mulheres casadas, ativas profissionalmente, de alta condição econômica e escolaridade, não usuárias de terapêutica hormonal da menopausa (THM, com hábito freqüente de ingerir café e com pouco consumo de álcool/tabaco. A maioria das participantes tinha hábito de jantar e de praticar atividade física. A avaliação subjetiva da qualidade do sono foi considerada ruim por 29% das mulheres da amostra. A menopausa e a autopercepção de saúde foram as únicas variáveis que exibiram relação estatisticamente significante com a qualidade do sono. Mulheres na perimenopausa (ou seja, entre 45 anos e até um ano após a menopausa e após menopausa cirúrgica declararam a pior qualidade de sono, enquanto mulheres na pré-menopausa revelaram a melhor qualidade de sono. Mulheres que se consideravam saudáveis informaram melhor qualidade de sono do que as que declararam problemas de saúde. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade do sono piora durante o climatério e nas mulheres que se percebem doentes; ademais, há um grande desconhecimento de regras básicas de higiene do sono entre as mulheres.OBJECTIVE: To subjectively evaluate the quality of sleep in menopausal women (35 to 65 years of age METHOD: A questionnaire about personal information, habits/health, sexuality and sleep was administered to 271 women. RESULTS: The sample under study included mostly married women, professionally active with a higher education and financial status, not using menopause hormone therapy, (MHT habitual coffee drinkers and limited users of alcohol/tobacco. Most participants habitually had dinner and practiced physical exercises. Subjective evaluation of the quality of sleep was considered poor by 29% of the women in this sample. Menopause and self- awareness of health were the only variables that had a statistically significant relation with the quality of sleep. Perimenopausal women (that is to say from 45 years until one year after menopause and those after surgical menopause stated the worst quality of sleep, while women at pre-menopause disclosed the best quality of sleep. Women who deemed themselves healthy reported a better quality of sleep than those that mentioned health problems. CONCLUSION: quality of sleep worsens during the climacterium and in women that consider themselves sick. Furthermore, there is a considerable lack of knowledge about the basic rules of sleep hygiene among women.

  17. 武汉市妇女绝经相关因素的调查%Survey on related factors of the climacteric syndrome among women in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢实; 张雅君; 王声萍; 张红菱; 罗宝华; 胡引珍; 吴荣海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic factors associated with the menopausal symptoms among women at the age of 40 to 65 in Wuhan City.Methods From Apr.2014 to Oct , women at the age of 40 to 65 attending health examination in Wuhan City were enrolled in this study.A structured questionnaire was used to collect data of basic information, menopausal status, exercise, important physical diseases and perimenopausal symptoms.Also the menopausal symptoms were evaluated by Greene scale. The menopausal symptoms and its influencing factors were analyzed.Results The top 5 highest scores symptoms in perimenopausal women were fatigue, insomnia, dizziness or weakness, hot flashes, muscle/joint pain(P<0.01).The top highest scores syndromes in perimenopausal women were vasomotor symptoms, anxiety symptoms, somatic symptoms and depression symptoms (P<0.05).While insomnia, hot flashes, fatigue, muscle/joint pain got the highest scores symptoms in postmenopausal women (P<0.05).Vasomotor symptoms and sexual problems got the highest score syndromes in postmenopausal women ( P <0.05 ) .Somatic symptoms had a significant impact on five kinds of menopausal syndromes ( P <0.05 ) .Women at the age of 40 to 50 were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those at the age of 61 to 65 ( P <0.05 ) .Women of increasing BMI were more likely to have vasomotor symptoms( P <0.05 ) .Conclusions There were different menopausal symptoms at each stage of menopause.The main factor contributing to menopausal symptoms were somatic symptoms.%目的:评估武汉市40~65岁妇女自然绝经过程中绝经相关症状的发生及影响因素。方法选取2014年4~10月武汉市参加年度健康体检、年龄40~65岁的956名妇女为调查对象,采用问卷形式调查妇女的基本信息、月经状况、运动锻炼情况、重要躯体疾病以及围绝经期相关症状,用Greene评分法评估绝经症状,分析绝经症状的发生情况及影响因素。结果月经不规律妇女出现的得分高的前五位绝经相关症状是:感到疲惫或精力不足、失眠、感到头晕或无力、潮热、肌肉或关节酸痛( P<0.05);得分高的常见的症候群是:焦虑症状、躯体症状、抑郁症状和血管舒缩症状( P<0.05)。绝经后妇女出现的得分高的绝经症状是:失眠、潮热、感到疲倦或精力不足和肌肉关节酸痛( P<0.05);常见症候群是血管舒缩症状和性生活问题(P<0.05)。躯体疾病对5种绝经症候群均有显著影响(P<0.05);40~50岁者较61~65岁者更易有抑郁症状( P<0.05);体质量指数增加更易有血管舒缩症状( P<0.05)。结论绝经症状在绝经的各个阶段侧重表现不同,慢性躯体疾病是绝经症状的不良影响因素。

  18. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on climacteric syndrome%激素替代治疗对更年期综合征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲海平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal syndrome. Methods Select 128 cases of menopausal syndrome in our hospital during November November to 2013,Hormone replacement therapy,E2, FSH and other indicators were observed before and after treatment, and the quality of life of patients were observed.Results Compared with before treatment,After treatment, patients with FSH, LH, E2 and other biochemical indicators have improved,The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);Patients sweating, irritability, insomnia, depression and other symptoms scores were decreased after treatment,The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);After treatment, the patients in the psychological field, social relations, the field score were improved,The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The clinical symptoms and biochemical indexes of the patients can be significantly improved by hormone replacement therapy,To improve the quality of life of patients with important significance.%目的 探讨激素替代治疗对更年期综合征的影响.方法 选择2013年11月~2014年11月我院收治的更年期综合征患者128例为研究对象,对其进行激素替代治疗,观察患者治疗前后血清雌二醇(E2)、促卵泡成熟激素(FSH)等指标变化及患者生活质量评分.结果 治疗后患者E2、FSH、黄体生成激素(LH)等生化指标与治疗前相比,均有所改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后患者潮热出汗、烦躁易怒、失眠、抑郁等临床症状评分均有所降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后患者心理领域、社会关系领域评分均有所提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 更年期综合征应用激素替代治疗可显著改善患者生化指标及临床症状,对提高患者生活质量有重要意义.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for climacteric symptoms in breast cancer patients experiencing treatment-induced menopause: design of a multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature menopause is a major concern of younger women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer. Non-hormonal medications show a range of bothersome side-effects. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and physical exercise can have a positive impact on symptoms in naturally occurring menopause. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of these interventions among women with breast cancer experiencing treatment-induced menopause. Methods/design In a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of CBT/relaxation, of physical exercise and of these two program elements combined, in reducing menopausal symptoms, improving sexual functioning, reducing emotional distress, and in improving the health-related quality of life of younger breast cancer patients who experience treatment-induced menopause. 325 breast cancer patients (aged Discussion Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise are potentially useful treatments among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment-induced, premature menopause. For these patients, hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are contraindicated or have a range of bothersome side-effects. Hence, research into these interventions is needed, before dissemination and implementation in the current health care system can take place. Trial registration The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1165 and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00582244.

  20. Variability of candidate genes, genetic structure and association with sugar accumulation and climacteric behavior in a broad germplasm collection of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Background A collection of 175 melon (Cucumis melo L.) accessions (including wild relatives, feral types, landraces, breeding lines and commercial cultivars) from 50 countries was selected to study the phenotypic variability for ripening behavior and sugar accumulation. The variability of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 53 selected candidate genes involved in sugar accumulation and fruit ripening processes was studied, as well as their association with p...

  1. First attempts of linking modelling, Postharvest behaviour and Melon Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Santos, Don N.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of climacteric is associated with the end of melon fruit shelf-life. The aim of this research was to develop practical and applicable models of fruit ripening changes (hardness, moisture loss) also able to discriminate between climacteric and non-climacteric behaviour. The decrease in firm

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine Treats Menopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE climacteric in women, often referred to as menopause, generally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55. The ailment people most commonly or frequently encountered during this period is women’s climacteric syndrome with senile osteoporosis and senile depression next. The illness rate of the women’s climacteric syndrome is about 87.5 percent in China.

  3. 中药足部熏蒸治疗更年期失眠症的临床观察%Clinical Observation on Chinese Herb Fumigation and Steaming of Foot for Climacteric Insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文静

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察中药足部熏蒸治疗更年期失眠症的疗效.方法:将符合诊断标准的98例更年期失眠症患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组采用中药足部熏蒸疗法,对照组给予艾司唑仑治疗,28天后比较治疗前后两组患者匹兹堡睡眠质量指数、疗效和不良反应,并在停药1周后随访两组失眠的复发情况.结果:治疗组在匹兹堡睡眠质量指数总分及睡眠质量、催眠药物、日间功能障碍三因子方面优于对照组,差异有统计学意义.两组总有效率比较无统计学差异,但治疗组显效率高于对照组(P<0.05).治疗组不良反应发生率较低,且复发率亦低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:中药足部熏蒸治疗更年期失眠症疗效确切,且安全性与稳定性好,具有良好的应用开发前景和推广价值.

  4. 合理情绪疗法治疗更年期皮肤瘙痒症46例%Rational-emotive behavior therapy for women with climacteric itching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洁; 向群英; 赖蓉

    2006-01-01

    目的观察合理情绪治疗法联合皿治林治疗更年期皮肤瘙痒症的疗效.方法对46例更年期皮肤瘙痒症病人分别采用合理情绪治疗法+皿治林(治疗组)和单独使用皿治林治疗(对照组)4周,治疗前后采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)评定疗效,临床症状判断有效率.结果治疗组4周后SCL-90评分总分及因子分显著降低,临床显效率治疗组52.17%,对照组17.39%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.13,P=0.013).结论合理情绪治疗法联合皿治林治疗更年期皮肤瘙痒症,有较好的治疗作用.

  5. Assistência à mulher climatérica: novos paradigmas Atención a la mujer climatérica: nuevos paradigmas Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional é uma realidade demográfica brasileira. Como conseqüência, espera-se, nos próximos anos, um aumento progressivo na procura dos serviços de saúde por mulheres com queixas relacionadas ao climatério. Paralelamente, a assistência ao climatério tem passado por uma modificação de paradigmas, impondo aos profissionais de saúde uma mudança de atitude. Reconhece-se que o climatério é influenciado tanto por fatores biológicos, como por fatores psicossociais e culturais, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para uma assistência mais qualificada e humanizada. Este artigo propõe refletir sobre as mudanças de paradigmas na assistência ao climatério, destacando a multidisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, no sentido acolher melhor essa parcela da população e proporcionar-lhe um cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando o saber da sensibilidade, voltado a uma melhor qualidade vida.Envejecimiento poblacional es una realidad demográfica brazilian. Consecuentementese espera un aumento progresivo de la búsqueda en los servicios de salud del país por mujeres con quejas relacionadas al climaterio. La asistencia al climaterio ha pasado por un cambio de paradigmas que han impuesto a los profesionales de la salud. El climaterio es influenciado por factores biológicos, factores psicosociales y culturales, cuyo conocimiento es fundamental para la planificación de una asistencia. Artículo se propone reflexionar sobre los cambios de paradigmas, el abordaje multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario, en el sentido de recibir mejor esta parcela de la población y proporcionarle un cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando el saber de la sensibilidad, y el tener como objetivo a una mejor calidad de vida.Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  6. Relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério Calcium/protein relation of women on the climacteric

    OpenAIRE

    Regina das Neves Girão Montilla; José Mendes Aldrighi; Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foi avaliada a dieta de 154 mulheres entre 35 e 65 anos de idade, atendidas no Ambulatório de Saúde da Mulher Climatérica do Centro de Saúde-Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. Para obtenção do consumo alimentar de cálcio e de proteína, foi realizado inquérito alimentar pelo método ''recordatório de 24 horas''. A avaliação da relação cálcio/proteína fo...

  7. Study on State of Spirit and Body of Women in Climacteric Period by Yoga.%瑜伽锻炼对改善更年期女性心身状态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阿勐; 刘海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨瑜伽锻炼对更年期女性心身状态的影响.方法 选取64名自愿参加瑜伽锻炼的更年期女性,通过16周规范的运动处方训练后,评估其心身状态的改变,同时选取64名具有相似背景的更年期女性进行对照研究.结果 训练组成员在焦虑水平、睡眠品质上有明显改善,与对照组比较有显著差异(t=0.46,0.17;P<0.05),训练组成员在心率、收缩压、舒张压、台阶指数、肺活量都得到明显的改善,与对照组相比差异具有统计学意义(t=0.11,0.24,0.52,0.19,0.71;P<0.05或P<0.01).结论瑜伽锻炼可以有效改善和提升更年期女性的心身状态.

  8. Drug: D06700 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4], (Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780] | Atractylodes lancea rhizome [DR:D06752]) Cold constitution...; Weak constitution; Disorder of menstruation; Dysmenorrhea; Climacteric disturbance Therap

  9. Interrelationship of Gene Expression, Polysome Prevalence, and Respiration during Ripening of Ethylene and/or Cyanide-Treated Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M L; Laties, G G

    1984-02-01

    Upon initiation of ripening in avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) with 10 microliters/liter ethylene, polysome prevalence and associated poly(A)(+) mRNA increase approximately 3-fold early in the respiratory climacteric and drop off to preclimacteric levels at the peak of the respiratory climacteric. The increase in poly(A)(+) mRNA on polysomes early in the respiratory climacteric constitutes a generic increase in constitutive mRNAs. New gene expression associated with ripening is minimal but evident after 10 hours of ethylene treatment and continues to increase relative to constitutive gene expression throughout the climacteric. The respiratory climacteric can be temporally separated into two phases. The first phase is associated with a general increase in protein synthesis, whereas the second phase reflects new gene expression and accumulation of corresponding proteins which may be responsible for softening and other ripening characteristics. A major new message on polysomes that arises concomitantly with the respiratory climacteric codes for an in vitro translation product of 53 kilodaltons which is immunoprecipitated by antiserum against avocado fruit cellulase.Cyanide at 500 microliters/liter fails to affect the change in polysome prevalance or new gene expression associated with the ethylene-evoked climacteric in avocado fruit. Treatment of fruit with 500 microliters/liter cyanide alone initiates a respiratory increase within 4 hours, ethylene biosynthesis within 18 hours, and new gene expression akin to that educed by ethylene within 20 hours of exposure to cyanide.

  10. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase in climacteric fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia CHAVES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extratos protéicos de maçãs e tomates em diferentes estágios de maturação. Verificou-se que o aumento da produção de etileno, quando os frutos passaram do estágio pré-climatérico para o climatérico, está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento da síntese da ACC oxidase. Em estágios de maturação mais avançados houve uma redução da produção de etileno e da atividade ACC oxidase, mas esta proteína continuava presente. Quando o "Western blot" foi realizado com tomates transgênicos, onde a produção de etileno e a síntese da ACC oxidase foram inibidos em mais de 95%, nenhuma reação imunoquímica foi detectada. O conjunto de resultados obtidos indica que os anticorpos detectam especificamente ACC oxidase.Polyclonal antibodies were prepared to characterize the enzyme ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase from climateric fruits. The antigen was a recombinant protein obtained from an Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, which contained the expression vector pT7-7A4 with one ACC oxidase DNA clone inserted. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the Western blot technique with protein extracts from apples and tomatoes in different maturation stages. It was observed that the increase in ethylene production which happened when the fruits changed from pre-climateric to climateric stage is directly correlated with an increase in ACC oxidase syntesis. In more advanced maturation stages there was a reduction in ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity, however the protein was still present. There was no immunochemical reaction in Western blot performed with transgenic tomatoes, which had a 95% reduction of etylene production and ACC oxidase syntesis. This results suggest that the antibodies detects ACC oxidase specifically.

  11. Regulation of Estrogen Combined with Danzhi Xiaoyao Capsule on the Reproductive Endocrine and Immune Function of female patients with Climacteric Cyndrome%雌激素与丹栀逍遥丸对更年期女性生殖内分泌系统及免疫功能的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 钟成福; 张勇; 刘旭阳; 贾宁; 李凡

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究雌激素联合丹栀逍遥胶囊对更年期综合征妇女生殖内分泌系统及免疫功能的调节作用.方法:选取2014年5月至2014年9月我院收治的女性更年期综合症患者60例并将其随机分为两组,其中对照组给予雌激素替代等临床常规疗法;实验组在雌激素替代治疗基础上加用丹栀逍遥胶囊联合治疗.观察并比较两组患者生殖内分泌激素(E2、FSH、LH)水平、T淋巴细胞亚群(CD3+、CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+)比例以及IL-2活性的变化.结果:治疗后,两组血清E2、CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+水平及IL-2活性均较治疗前显著升高,而FSH、LH水平均明显低于治疗前,且实验组治疗后E2、CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+水平及IL-2活性显著高于对照组,FSH、LH水平均明显低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:雌激素联合丹栀逍遥胶囊能更加有效调节女性更年期综合征患者生殖内分泌激素水平,提高免疫功能,值得临床推广.

  12. Morbidades e fatores associados em mulheres climatéricas: estudo de base populacional em mulheres com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade Morbidity and associated factors in climacteric women: a population based study in women with 11 or more years of formal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Santos Machado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados a algumas morbidades em mulheres brasileiras de 40 a 65 anos e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Análise secundária de estudo transversal de base populacional, empregando-se um questionário anônimo e autorrespondido por 377 mulheres. Foram avaliadas, com o uso deste instrumento, algumas morbidades (hipertensão, diabetes, insônia e depressão e fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais, clínicos e reprodutivos. A associação entre as morbidades e as variáveis independentes foi avaliada por meio do teste do Χ2. Realizou-se a regressão logística múltipla com critério de seleção stepwise para selecionar os principais fatores associados a cada uma das morbidades. RESULTADOS: Na análise múltipla, a insônia esteve associada à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=2,3 e ao nervosismo (OR=5,1. O relato de depressão esteve associado à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=3,7 e ter lazer péssimo/ruim (OR=2,8. A hipertensão apresentou-se relacionada à obesidade (OR=3,1 e a estar na pós-menopausa (OR=2,6. Já diabetes, à idade acima de 50 anos (OR=3,9 e obesidade à (OR=12,5. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de morbidades foi alta e pior autopercepção da saúde e obesidade foram os principais fatores associados à presença de morbidades.PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with morbidities among Brazilian women aged 40-65 years and with 11 or more years of schooling. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted, using an anonymous self-report questionnaire completed by 377 women. Were evaluated, with this instrument, some morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, insomnia and depression and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and reproductive factors. The association between morbidities and independent variables was evaluated by the Χ2 test. Multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection criteria was used to select the major factors associated with morbid conditions. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, insomnia was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=2.3 and nervousness (OR=5.1. Depression was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=3.7 and bad/poor leisure (OR=2.8. Hypertension was associated with obesity (OR=3.1 and being in postmenopausal (OR=2.6. Diabetes was associated with age above 50 years (OR=3.9 and obesity (OR=12.5. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of morbidities was high and a worse self-perception of health and obesity were the main factors associated with morbidity.

  13. Clinical Analysis the Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Complex Capsules and Tibolone Tablets Supplement Therapy in Treatment of Climacteric Syndrom%复方醋酸甲羟孕酮胶囊和替勃龙激素补充疗法治疗绝经期综合征的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2016-01-01

    Objective Medroxyprogesterone acetate complex capsules and tibolone hormone supplement therapy for menopause comprehensive syndrome clinical efifcacy compared.Methods 98 patients were divided into two groups, the control line for oral drug therapy, observation group medroxyprogesterone acetate complex capsules treatment, compared two groups of curative effect.ResultsThe observation group, the clinical efifcacy was higher than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the observation group, the serum E2, FSH and LH levels were signiifcantly better than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The compound medroxyprogesterone compound capsule in the treatment of menopausal syndrome patients the effect is signiifcant.%目的:复方醋酸甲羟孕酮胶囊和替勃龙激素补充疗法治疗绝经期综合征的临床疗效比较。方法将98例患者分为两组,对照组行口服替勃龙治疗,观察组行复方醋酸甲羟孕酮胶囊治疗,比较两组疗效。结果观察组临床疗效高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗后观察组血清E2、FSH、LH水平优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采用复方醋酸甲羟孕酮胶囊治疗绝经期综合征患者效果显著。

  14. Drug: D06920 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ark [DR:D06689], Coptis rhizome [DR:D00092], Gardenia fruit [DR:D06731] Disorder of menstruation; Dysmenorrhea; Climacteric disturban...ce; Nervous disease Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeut

  15. Yoga como uma proposta para melhora dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres na pós-menopausa com queixa de insônia

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Rui Ferreira [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The practice of Yoga has proven to have positive effects on the reduction of insomnia. Studies also show its effects on the reduction of climacteric symptoms. However, no studies have been carried out so far that evaluated the effects of Yoga on postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of insomnia. Objective: to evaluate the effect of Yoga practice on the physical and mental health of postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of insomnia, as well as on their climacteric symptoms. Metho...

  16. Climateric: fatigue or third stage of the general adaptation syndrome Climaterio: fatiga o tercera etapa del síndrome de adaptación general

    OpenAIRE

    William Alvarez Gaviria

    2004-01-01

    The origin of climacteric has been subject of debate. Most opinions agree in that it arises exclusively from natural selection. In this paper the author argues that, besides this reason there is another, even more important; for him, climacteric is the final response to fatigue or the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, just as in elderly people there is a loss of the capacity of proliferation of fibroblasts and lack of response to insulin. From a genetic point of view, this corre...

  17. Respiratory Contribution of the Alternate Path during Various Stages of Ripening in Avocado and Banana Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, A; Laties, G G

    1978-08-01

    The respiration of fresh slices of preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) and banana (Musa cavendishii var. Valery) fruits is stimulated by cyanide and antimycin. The respiration is sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid in the presence of cyanide but much less so in the presence of antimycin. In the absence of cyanide the contribution of the cyanide-resistant pathway to the coupled preclimacteric respiration is zero. In uncoupled slices, by contrast, the alternate path is engaged and utilized fully in avocado, and extensively in banana. Midclimacteric and peak climacteric slices are also cyanide-resistant and, in the presence of cyanide, sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid. In the absence of uncoupler there is no contribution by the alternate path in either tissue. In uncoupled midclimacteric avocado slices the alternate path is fully engaged. Midclimacteric banana slices, however, do not respond to uncouplers, and the alternate path is not engaged. Avocado and banana slices at the climacteric peak neither respond to uncouplers nor utilize the alternate path in the presence or absence of uncoupler.The maximal capacities of the cytochrome and alternate paths, V(cyt) and V(alt), respectively, have been estimated in slices from preclimacteric and climacteric avocado fruit and found to remain unchanged. The total respiratory capacity in preclimacteric and climacteric slices exceeds the respiratory rise which attends fruit ripening. In banana V(alt) decreases slightly with ripening.The aging of thin preclimacteric avocado slices in moist air results in ripening with an accompanying climacteric rise. In this case the alternate path is fully engaged at the climacteric peak, and the respiration represents the total potential respiratory capacity present in preclimacteric tissue. The respiratory climacteric in intact avocado and banana fruits is cytochrome path-mediated, whereas the respiratory climacteric of ripened thin avocado slices comprises

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  19. Role of the genes Md-ACO1 and Md-ACS1 in ethylene production and shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Stella, S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guerra, W.; Cecchinel, M.; Dallavia, J.; Koller, B.; Sansavini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Shelf life determines the economic life time of mature apples, which can be either freshly harvested or stored. Good shelf life is highly associated with a slow decrease of fruit firmness at room temperature. Apple is a climacteric fruit, in which loss of firmness seems to be physiologically related

  20. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  1. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the fu

  2. Impact of recent studies on attitudes and use of hormone therapy among Scandinavian gynaecologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Climacteric medicine has been in focus during the last 2 decades, and an intensive debate has been ongoing regarding the positive and negative aspects of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Recent randomised controlled studies have been unable to confirm data from observational studies of primar...

  3. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eisen (Andrea); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); P. Moller (Pal); H. Lynch (Henry); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); C. Kim-Sing (Charmaine); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); L. Gilbert (Lucy); P. Ghadirian (Parviz); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); G. Rennert (Gad); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Isaacs (Claudine); B. Rosen (Barry); M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sun (Ping); S. Narod (Steven); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); S. Cummings (Shelly); N. Tung (Nadine); F.J. Couch (Fergus); W.D. Foulkes (William); S.M. Domchek (Susan); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); R. Gershoni-Baruch (Ruth); D. Horsman (David); H. Saal (Howard); E. Warner (Ellen); W. Meschino (Wendy); K. Offit (Kenneth); A. Trivedi (Amber); M. Robson (Mark); M. Osborne (Michael); D. Gilchrist (Dawna); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); W. McKinnon (Wendy); M. Wood (Marie); C. Maugard (Christine); B. Pasini (Barbara); T. Wagner (Teresa); K. Sweet; B. Pasche (Boris); T. Fallen (Taya); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C. Eng (Charis); R.N. Kurz; S. Armel (Susan); A. Tulman (Anna); P.J. Ainsworth (Peter); E. Lemire (Edmond); J. McLennan; G. Evans (Gareth); T. Byrski (Tomas); T. Huzarski (Tomas); L. Shulman (Lee)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hormone therapy (HT) is commonly given to women to alleviate the climacteric symptoms associated with menopause. There is concern that this treatment may increase the risk of breast cancer. The potential association of HT and breast cancer risk is of particular interest to wo

  4. Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiling Show That APETALA2a Is a Major Regulator of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Parapunova, V.A.; Do, P.T.; Fernie, A.R.; Fraser, P.D.; Baxter, C.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) requires the coordination of both developmental cues as well as the plant hormone ethylene. Although the role of ethylene in mediating climacteric ripening has been established, knowledge regarding the developmental regulators that modulate the involve

  5. Characteristics of breast cancer patients who experience menopausal transition due to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.A. Duijts; A.C. Stolk-Vos; H.S.A. Oldenburg; M. van Beurden; N.K. Aaronson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify patient-related and treatment-related factors associated significantly with climacteric symptoms in young patients who experience menopausal transition due to adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Methods This cross-sectional study used questionnaire data collected to screen br

  6. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  7. Research Thinking of Low-intensity laser For the Treatment of Menopausal Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G Z; Wang, X Y [Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Xu, Y X; Li, L J [Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Liu, S H, E-mail: xuyx1968@163.com [South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Female climacteric syndrome is a clinical syndrome due to autonomic nerve dysfunction occurring in women during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, how to pass climacteric period for women without any problems, avoid or reduce the occurrence of climacteric syndrome, prevent geriatric diseases and improve life quality is a key issue now for great attention. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safer method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. By analyzing the relationship between laser technology and traditional acupuncture and moxibustion, the advantage and the existing problems on acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, the application of laser methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of menopausal syndrome was discussed. It's pointed out that the laser acupuncture is safe and effective to treat menopausal syndrome. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome by utilizing the advantage of interdisciplinary intersection. Laser technology will make the development of acupuncture and moxibustion science possess an unprecedented field.

  8. [Contraception in perimenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki-Feld, G S

    2000-10-01

    Perimenopausal women are still potentially fertile and pregnancy is attended with increased maternal and perinatal mortality. Several contraceptive methods can be used therapeutic for the treatment of climacteric symptoms like menstrual irregularities, flushes and vaginal dryness. Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) prevent climacteric symptoms and additionally protect from perimenopausal bone loss. However, the individual cardiovascular risk increases with age and is even higher in perimenopausal women using OCs. Therefore for women with cardiovascular risk factors sterilization, barrier methods, progestin-only methods and intrauterine devices (IUD) are the better choice. Prolonged and heavy menses can be treated with the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD or injectable progestogens. If estrogen replacement is necessary, a low-dose treatment with natural estrogens can be combined with barrier methods, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and injectable progestogens. The variety of contraceptive options available to perimenopausal women allows individual counseling and thus may enhance compliance.

  9. Plant-derived alternative treatments for the aging male: facts and myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-06-01

    Soy- or red clover- derived products containing isoflavones have been amply studied in climacteric and postmenopausal women, and confusing contradicting results have been published. The beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, cholesterol and the development of osteoporosis are marginally at best and there are no uterine and mammary safety studies. In males, however, isoflavones may protect the prostate to make them less prone to develop cancer. Cell biological and animal experimental data support this notion. Clinical data about possible beneficial effects on cholesterol or in the bone are largely missing. Hence, soy or red clover products containing the mild estrogenic isoflavones with a slightly higher affinity to the estrogen receptor of the beta in comparison to the alpha subtype may prove to have some beneficial effects in males.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  11. Preparation of Avocado Mitochondria Using Self-Generated Percoll Density Gradients and Changes in Buoyant Density during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, F; Romani, R

    1982-11-01

    Mitochondria from avocado (Persea americana Mill, var. Fuerte and Hass) can be rapidly prepared at every stage of ripening using differential centrifugation and self-generated Percoll gradients. The procedure results in improved oxidative and phosphorylative properties, especially for mitochondria isolated from preclimacteric fruits.A gradual change in the buoyant density of avocado mitochondria takes place during ripening. Climacteric and postclimacteric avocado mitochondria have the same buoyant density as other plant mitochondria (potato, cauliflower), whereas mitochondria from preclimacteric fruit have a lower density. The transition in buoyant density occurs during the climacteric rise, and two populations of intact mitochondria (p = 1.060 and p = 1.075) can be separated at this stage. Evidence indicates that the difference in mitochondrial buoyant density between preclimacteric and postclimacteric mitochondria is likely due to interactions with soluble cytosolic components.

  12. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  13. Genome-Wide Differentiation of Various Melon Horticultural Groups for Use in GWAS for Fruit Firmness and Construction of a High Resolution Genetic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Tomason, Yan R.; Abburi, Venkata L.; Alvarado, Alejandra; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Vajja, Venkata G.; Salazar, Germania; Panicker, Girish K.; Levi, Amnon; Wechter, William P.; McCreight, James D.; Korol, Abraham B.; Ronin, Yefim; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19–0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21–0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in β-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops. PMID:27713759

  14. O efeito da massagem terapêutica nos sintomas climatéricos em mulheres pós-menopausadas com insônia: um estudo clínico randomizado

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Denise de Souza [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    In the climacteric period, approximately 80% of women are affected by consequences of hypoestrogenism: physiological and psychological alterations, hot flashes, nycturia, mood alterations. These changes contribute to the increase of insomnia prevalence in this phase, which affects approximately 28% to 63% of postmenopausal women. The presence of such symptoms associated with socio-cultural conditions, such as retirement, appreciation of youth, aging, reflect directly on quality of life of thi...

  15. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment.

  16. The Role of Estrogen-Related Receptor Alpha in Steroidogenesis in the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Page 1 anti-inflammatory actions without causing metabolic disturbances or osteoporosis ; (b) an estrogen capable of treating the climacteric symp- toms...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0444 TITLE: The Role of Estrogen -Related Receptor...CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Estrogen -Related Receptor Alpha in Steroidogenesis in the Breast 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  17. Professor HE Jin-sen's Experience in Treating Difficult and Complicated Diseases by Acupuncture-Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓岚; 肖元春

    2007-01-01

    @@ Professor HE Jin-sen has been engaged in acupuncture practice, scientific researches and teaching for more than thirty years and won enormous achievements. In particular, he works a lot on the clinical study of acupuncture in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis(HPT axis) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis(HPG axis) and the associated diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, male sterility and female climacteric syndrome.

  18. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  19. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women a...

  20. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10% combined with estriol (0.1% + estradiol (0.25% for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05 after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  1. A study of menopausal symptoms in relation to habits of smoking and make-up using in Japanese women aged 35-59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a survey to elucidate the influence with menopause symptoms and the impact of not only smoking but also using make-up among for Japanese women, included ages above and below the menopausal generation. The subjects of this study were 335 Japanese women from 35 to 59 years of age who were examined for the first time in the specialized women's outpatient clinic of our institution from July 2010 to June 2011 for 1 year period. We used the items of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Similarly, we analysed the scores in relation to menopausal symptoms and whether the subject smoked, whether the subject used make-up depend on women (including foundation, lip rouge, brush one's eyebrows), how frequently she used make-up. The JMP version 9.0 software program was used to statistically analyse the score data. Significant associations were observed in psychosocial (P = 0.0196), tended to be more severe in women before menopause and after climacteric. Furthermore, the frequency of using make-up were negative relations with menopause symptoms (P = 0.0251) after climacteric. Smoking had made worse for physical symptoms (P psychological symptoms. Also, physical conditions were influenced by smoking. Using make-up frequently was often seen after climacteric because of appearance changes by oestrogen dynamic decline.

  2. “Shenfengjing” scraping with oral administration of royal jelly in treating menopausal insomnia%神蜂精刮痧配合口服蜂王浆治疗女性更年期失眠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿钦; 吴加勇; 程林兵; 缪晓青

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察和分析以神蜂精刮痧配合蜂王浆口服的综合疗法治疗女性更年期失眠的治疗效果。方法采用神蜂精刮痧配合蜂王浆口服治疗女性更年期失眠83例。结果通过1~2个疗程治疗,83例中治愈35例,好转46例,无效2例。结论以神蜂精刮痧配合蜂王浆口服治疗女性更年期失眠,见效快,疗效好。%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect and analysis of comprehensive therapy with Shenfengjing scraping with royal jelly oral treatment of female climacteric insomnia.Methods We used Shenfengjing scraping with royal jelly oral treatment of female climacteric insomnia in 83 cases.Results After 1 ~2 courses of treatment, 35 cases were cured, 46 cases were improved, 2 cases were ineffective. Conclusion Shenfengjing scraping with royal jelly oral in treating female climacteric insomnia has quick and good curative effect.

  3. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacciani, Marco; Levancini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR), is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence.

  4. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gambacciani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR, is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC, is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence.

  5. Plant derived alternatives for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has undisputable positive effects on climacteric complaints, in the bone and on body weight but also several undesired side effects. Therefore, plant-derived alternatives are currently promoted. Phytoestrogens - primarily the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and coumestrol, stemming from soy (Glycine max) or red clover (Trifolium pratense) - were suggested to have the desired but not the undesired effects of estrogens. Most recently published placebo-controlled studies question the beneficial effects. When taken at the time of puberty however, phytoestrogens appear to protect against mammary cancer later in life. Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) have no estrogenic effects. In a narrow dose range they have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, which are due to several compounds with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic actions that act together in the hypothalamus. Ecdysone is produced by several plants, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and was very early on shown to increase muscle mass. Later it became apparent that spinach extracts containing ecdysone decreased body fat load, thereby reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by visceral adipocytes and oxidative stress. This had beneficial effects on body weight and serum lipids not only in obese postmenopausal but also in premenopausal women and in men. For the above-described plant extracts, solid placebo-controlled clinical trials are available. For other plant extracts claiming beneficial effects on climacteric complaints or postmenopausal diseases, no solid data are available.

  6. Complementary and alternative therapies for treatment of insomnia in women in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachul, H; Monson, C; Kozasa, E H; Oliveira, D S; Goto, V; Afonso, R; Llanas, A C; Tufik, S

    2014-12-01

    Menopause is an important episode in the life of women and, for the great majority of women, occurs in their fifties. The climacteric period, which is often associated with insomnia, represents one of the most important changes in the female reproductive cycle because it marks the end of reproductive capacity. Hormonal therapy has been considered the most useful and standardized method for treating menopause and climacteric-associated symptoms despite its side-effects. The present study is a review of the scientific literature about the efficacy, toxicity and safety of complementary and alternative therapies used as alternatives to hormone therapy to treat insomnia in menopausal women. Mind-body therapies and the use of isoflavonoids have exhibited promise as interventions for treating insomnia in the climacteric at our Walk-In Clinic of Sleep Disturbance at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. This review will describe the use of complementary and alternative therapies and their effectiveness in treating insomnia in this period of a woman's life.

  7. Actual status of veralipride use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Carranza-Lira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebastián Carranza-LiraReproductive Medicine Service. Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia “Luis Castelazo Ayala” Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México DFAbstract: During the climacteric period, several symptoms exist that motivate women to seek medical advice; one of the most common is the hot flush, which presents in 75%–85% of these during a variable time span. For the treatment of hot flush, several non-hormonal treatments exist; among them, veralipride has shown to be a useful treatment of vasomotor symptoms during the climacteric period. In recent times, several medical societies have discredited its use. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to define a measured position in relation to the use of this drug. On completion of this review, it was possible to conclude that this drug has an antidopaminergic mechanism of action. The recommended schedule is: 100 mg/day for 20 days, with 10 days drug free. Since the risk of undesirable secondary effects such as galactorrhea, mastodynia, and extrapyramidal can increase with use, no more than 3 treatment cycles are recommended. This drug has a residual effect that can allow drug-free intervals, which permit a longer time between schedules.Keywords: veralipride, hot flushes, climacteric, menopause, symptoms, secondary effects

  8. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan, E-mail: marcobotelho@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia; Fechine, Pierre [Universidade Federal do Ceara (GQMAT/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica. Grupo Avancado de Biomateriais em Quimica; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFCT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Ruela, Ronaldo [Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada (INBIOS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jackson Guedes [Universidade Federal do Vale de Sao Francisco (UNIVALE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Quintans Junior, Lucindo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2014-06-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  9. Psychoanalysis of maturescence (definition, metapsychology, and clinical practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Mag Guillermo Julio

    2015-12-01

    This article offers an entirely new way of addressing middle age or mid-life. It uses the neologism maturescence to denote this process's metapsychological feature, and it proposes a meta-psychology of maturescence in order to allow a 'direct understanding of maturescence' instead of the 'indirect understanding of maturescence', which psychoanalytic literature generally alludes to. The paper examines somatic processes specific to male and female climacterics and is focused on to the tension between the soma and the body. It examines the drive increase that Freud posed in climacterics and the somatic climacteric imbalance that begets specific drive activity demanding psychic work, with very different pathways depending on the individual's specific working-through activity. It discusses what happens to the individual when he/she is no longer able to procreate and begins to age; why this process is equivalent for individuals who had children and for others who could not or did not. This somatic event provides a universal constant from which it is possible to understand any individual variable.

  10. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  11. "I should live and finish it": A qualitative inquiry into Turkish women's menopause experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unalan Pemra C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While bio-medically, menopause could be treated as an illness, from a psychosocial and cultural perspective it could be seen as a "natural" process without requiring medication unless severe symptoms are present. Our objective is to explore the perceptions of Turkish women regarding menopause and Hormone Therapy (HT to provide health care workers with an insight into the needs and expectations of postmenopausal women. Methods A qualitative inquiry through semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used to explore the study questions. We used a purposive sampling and included an equal number of participants who complained about the climacteric symptoms and those who visited the outpatient department for a problem other than climacteric symptoms but when asked declared that they had been experiencing climacteric symptoms. The interview questions focused on two areas; 1 knowledge, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about menopause and; 2 menopause-related experiences and ways to cope with menopause and perception of HT. Results Most of the participants defined menopause as a natural transition process that one should go through. Cleanliness, maturity, comfort of not having a period and positive changes in health behaviour were the concepts positively attributed to menopause, whereas hot flushes, getting old and difficulties in relationships were the negatives. Osteoporosis was an important concern for most of the participants. To deal with the symptoms, the non-pharmacological options were mostly favoured. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study which focuses on Turkish women's menopausal experiences. Menopause was thought to be a natural process which was characterised by positive and negative features. Understanding these features and their implications in these women's lives may assist healthcare workers in helping their clients with menopause.

  12. [The effect of tubal sterilization on ovarian function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, M; Reusch-Kusche, K; Neuhaus, W; Kemper, K H

    1994-08-01

    Disturbances of menstrual cycle, as well as premature onset of climacterial symptoms, are discussed as late complications of diverse techniques of tubal sterilisation. A disturbance of the ovarian function is regarded as cause for the disorder known as "post-tubal ligation syndrome". This study should help to clarify if tubal sterilisation via bipolar high-frequency current influences the course of perimenopause. 109 patients were examined, who had been sterilised by this technique at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the University of Cologne during the period 1980 to 1984. 103 patients formed the comparison group, all of whom had neither undergone tubal sterilisation nor hysterectomy. The age of these women of both groups ranged between 36 and 51. Patients of both groups were interviewed personally with regard to cycle irregularities, climacteric symptoms, and onset of menopause in the form of transverse examination. Simultaneously, blood tests were performed to establish the endocrinological status, and to examine FSH and 17-beta-oestradiol levels. Summing up, this study led to the following conclusions: 1. Menstrual disturbances, climacteric symptoms after tubal sterilisation during perimenopause do not occur more frequently than in a comparative group of the same age. 2. In comparison with a group of women with no surgical history, neither did cycle anomalies and ovarian deficiency symptoms in terms of climacteric complaints occur earlier, nor did early onset of menopause take place more often in this examined group of sterilised women. 3. Hormone analysis could not establish any significant differences between both groups in respect of endocrinological parameters in the perimenopause.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Comparison of Piascledine (Avocado and Soybean Oil) and Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopausal-Induced Hot Flashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; dadjo, yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone. PMID:24250433

  14. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  15. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-03-01

    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  16. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  17. PineappleDB: An online pineapple bioinformatics resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbairn David J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A world first pineapple EST sequencing program has been undertaken to investigate genes expressed during non-climacteric fruit ripening and the nematode-plant interaction during root infection. Very little is known of how non-climacteric fruit ripening is controlled or of the molecular basis of the nematode-plant interaction. PineappleDB was developed to provide the research community with access to a curated bioinformatics resource housing the fruit, root and nematode infected gall expressed sequences. Description PineappleDB is an online, curated database providing integrated access to annotated expressed sequence tag (EST data for cDNA clones isolated from pineapple fruit, root, and nematode infected root gall vascular cylinder tissues. The database currently houses over 5600 EST sequences, 3383 contig consensus sequences, and associated bioinformatic data including splice variants, Arabidopsis homologues, both MIPS based and Gene Ontology functional classifications, and clone distributions. The online resource can be searched by text or by BLAST sequence homology. The data outputs provide comprehensive sequence, bioinformatic and functional classification information. Conclusion The online pineapple bioinformatic resource provides the research community with access to pineapple fruit and root/gall sequence and bioinformatic data in a user-friendly format. The search tools enable efficient data mining and present a wide spectrum of bioinformatic and functional classification information. PineappleDB will be of broad appeal to researchers investigating pineapple genetics, non-climacteric fruit ripening, root-knot nematode infection, crassulacean acid metabolism and alternative RNA splicing in plants.

  18. Portable equipment for determining ripeness in Hass avocado using a low cost color sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Jessica; Daza, Carolina; Vega, Fabio; Diaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2015-08-01

    The avocado is a one climacteric fruit that not ripe on the tree because it produces a maturation inhibitor that passes the fruit through the pedicel, the ripening occurs naturally during storage or to be induced as required. In post-harvest ripening stage is basically determined by experience of the farmer or buyer. In this word us developed portable equipment for determining ripeness is hass avocado using a low cost sensor color sensor TC3200 and LCD for display result. The prototype read of RGB color frequencies of the sensor and estimates the stage of ripeness in fourth different stages in post-harvest ripening.

  19. Development of a dielectric spectroscopy technique for determining key chemical components of apple maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Giráldez, Marta; Fito, Pedro J; Chenoll, Creu; Fito, Pedro

    2010-03-24

    Dielectric measurements (from 500 MHz to 20 GHz) on different standard solutions (K(+), malic acid) with different sugar contents were assayed simulating concentrations of these substances during apple ripening. These assays were performed for considering the potential use of dielectric spectra (500 MHz to 20 GHz) to determine the optimal time for eating the fruit. Good correlations between a newly defined dielectric maturity index and the Thiault index were found. This work presents prospective data of dielectric spectra for certain apple key chemical components in order to consider its potential application as a nondestructive control sensor for the prediction of climacteric fruit maturity.

  20. Potřeby žen v klimakteriu

    OpenAIRE

    PERSANOVÁ, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor's work deals with the issues of menopause and changes, which take place in a woman's life in connection with it. The work is divided into a theoretical and a research part. At the beginning of the theoretical part there is a definition of the term "menopause", which is followed by the definition of the physiology of this period and hormonal changes which come up in the course of menopause. An integral part of the theoretical section is the description of climacteric syndrome, bot...

  1. A randomized, controlled pilot trial of hormone therapy for menopausal insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Betania Huber; Martinez, Denis; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório

    2011-12-01

    Insomnia is a frequent climacteric symptom. This pilot, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial compared estradiol associated with trimegestone or placebo in 12 women with perimenopausal insomnia. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered, and polysomnography was performed at baseline and after 28 days. Sleep efficiency and median score of the PSQI improved significantly in the hormone therapy group (HT) (p=0.041 and p=0.027, respectively) and not in placebo group. Perimenopausal insomnia improved after short-term HT.

  2. Maintaining postreproductive health: A care pathway from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Eleni; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    This position statement from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) provides a care pathway for the maintenance of women's health during and after the menopause. It is designed for use by all those involved in women's health. It covers assessment, screening for diseases in later life, treatment and follow-up. Strategies need to be optimised to maintain postreproductive health, in part because of increased longevity. They encompass optimising diet and lifestyle, menopausal hormone therapy and non-estrogen-based treatment options for climacteric symptoms and skeletal conservation, personalised to individual needs.

  3. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  4. Oil discoveries in the hadramaut; How Canadian Oxy scored in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, S.J. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary (CA))

    1992-03-09

    On Dec. 18, 1991, Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., announced that commerciality had been declared on three fields within the Masila Block in the Republic of Yemen. The discovery and successful delineation of Sunah, Heijah, and Camaal fields-with estimated recoverable reserves of 235 million bbl-represents the climacteric of an exploration program which commenced in 1987 on large tract of acreage located in the eastern part of what was then the Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen. Drilling operations continue, and one further discovery has been announced recently. This article summarizes the exploration history of the Masila Block and discusses some of the results of the program to date.

  5. Aspectos clínicos e metabólicos de mulheres na pós-menopausa tratadas com tibolona Clinical and metabolic aspects of postmenopausal women treated with tibolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Wehba

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar a repercussão da tibolona sobre os sintomas do climatério e sobre algumas variáveis clínicas e metabólicas. Métodos: foram avaliadas 34 pacientes na pós-menopausa que foram submetidas ao tratamento com tibolona na dose de 2,5 mg/dia por 48 semanas. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: peso, pressão arterial e perfis lipídico e lipoprotéico, representados pelos níveis de colesterol total, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c e triglicerídeos. Resultados: melhora relevante da sintomatologia do climatério foi demonstrada por decréscimo significativo do índice menopausal de Kupperman (pPurpose: to evaluate the effects of tibolone on climacteric symptoms and clinical and metabolic variables. Methods: thirty-four postmenopausal women were treated orally with 2.5 mg tibolone daily for 48 weeks and evaluated as to climacteric complaints, clinical aspects such as weight and blood pressure and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c and triglycerides. Results: a significant improvement of climacteric complaints was demonstrated by a significant decrease in the Kupperman index (p<0.001 and the mean number of hot flushes (p<0.001 from the first month of treatment onwards. There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-c (p<0.001. The LDL-c levels presented a slight decrease (not significant. The HDL-c levels showed a significant decrease at week 24. However these levels returned to baseline levels at week 48. With regard to the vital signs no change in body weight and blood pressure was measured. The side effects were mild and temporary, vaginal bleeding, nausea and edema being the most common. Conclusion: tibolone may be considered a safe and efficient option to treat climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women without significant impact on lipid profile.

  6. Relationship Between Stimulated Ethylene Production and Alternative Respiration Pathway in "Royal Gala" Apple Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiaoyong(雷晓勇); TIAN M.S.; HU Xiaosong(胡小松); DAI Yaoren(戴尧仁)

    2003-01-01

    Endogenous ethylene production and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein expression in "Royal Gala" apple fruits were investigated after treatments with cold (0℃ for 1 week) and heat (38℃ for 1 h).A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway from Sauromatum guttatum was used to identify the AOX protein in apple fruits.The molecular mass of AOX in "Royal Gala" apple fruits is approximately 38 kDa, similar to those reported in tobacco and tomato.The cold treatment depressed the release of endogenous ethylene production before the climacteric ethylene production and obviously induced the expression of AOX protein expression.The heat treatment had the opposite effects on the ethylene production and AOX protein expression.In addition, the climax of endogenous ethylene production preceded the maximum AOX expression after the cold temperature treatment.It is therefore proposed that in climacteric fruits the production of induced ethylene is not coordinated with the level of AOX protein.

  7. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  8. Response of different maturity stages of sapota (Manilkara achras Mill.) cv. Kallipatti to in-package ethylene absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Wangdup; Pal, R K; Sen, Sangita; Jha, S K

    2011-12-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable due to their climacteric nature. The rapid softening of fruits is primarily due to high activity of many oxidative enzymes and liberation of ethylene. Harvest maturity plays a crucial role in deciding the marketability of climacteric fruits in general. Attempt has been made to evaluate the response of ethylene absorbent on variable maturity groups of harvested Sapota cv. Kallipatti with the objective to delay the ripening during transit and extend its marketability during storage at ambient condition (27-32 °C & 65-75% R.H.). Harvested fruits having three different degree of ripeness (as maturity indices viz. mature, half-ripe and ripe) were packed with or without ethylene absorbent sachets (Bioconservación, France) in 10 kg CFB boxes and transported from Dahnu to Delhi covering a distant of approximately 2500 KM by truck on road along with conventional packaging as control. The fruits were evaluated immediately on arrival at Delhi and subsequently during storage for various physical, physiological, biochemical and decay parameters. Mature fruits with ethylene absorbent exhibited maximum delay in ripening, low ethylene liberation, weight loss and high fruit firmness. The response of ethylene absorbent to extend the marketability of ripe fruit was not significant.

  9. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  10. Effect of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-López, Helber E; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Herrera, Aníbal O

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits are highly perishable berries that exhibit a climacteric respiratory behavior. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene and the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (ecotype Colombia). Fruits were treated with ethylene, in an ethephon application (1000 µL L(-1)), and pretreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 µL L(-1)), 1-methylcyclopropene+ethylene, and results compared with a control without application. Subsequently, the fruits were maintained at room temperature (20 ℃, 75% RH) for up to 11 days. The pretreatment of the cape gooseberry fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene delayed most of the ripening-associated parameters, with a reduction in the respiration rate and ethylene production, skin color development, total soluble solids, total carotenoid content, loss of firmness, loss of total titratable acidity and emission of volatile compounds such as ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate, and hexyl decanoate. Conversely, application of ethephon accelerated most of these physiological changes and also overcame most of the effects prevented by the ethylene action inhibitor. Altogether, the results supported the idea of a climacteric-like behavior for cape gooseberry fruits and pointing out that the pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene may be a promising and efficient postharvest treatment to delay maturity and extend the postharvest period.

  11. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  12. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUWang-Jin; RyoheiNAKANO; YasutakaKUBO; AkitsuguINABAt; JIANGYue-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening throughdisassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationshipbetween fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a fulllength cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCRand RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNAcontains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding apredicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DE|DFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalyticdomain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in thepulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatmentof fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation ofMA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening ofthe peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptionallevel.

  13. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T.; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Fortes, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  14. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers.

  15. Ethylene production associated with petal senescence in carnation flowers is induced irrespective of the gynoecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kazuo; Niki, Tomoko

    2014-11-15

    To clarify whether climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of senescing petals are also induced in the absence of the gynoecium in cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Barbara) flowers, we compared ethylene production and expression of ethylene-biosynthesis genes in detached petals and in petals, which remained on flowers (attached petals). No significant difference in longevity was observed between the attached and detached petals when held in distilled water, and both showed the inward rolling typical of senescing flowers. Treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS), an ethylene inhibitor, similarly delayed senescence of attached and detached petals. Climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of petals and gynoecium started on the same day, with similar bursts in attached and detached petals. Transcript levels of DcACS1 and DcACO1 were very low at harvest and increased similarly during senescence in both petal groups. Removal of the gynoecium did not significantly delay wilting of attached petals. In flowers with the gynoecium removed, the petals produced most of the ethylene while production by the other floral organs was very low, suggesting that wound-induced ethylene is not the reason for the ineffectiveness of gynoecium-removal in inhibiting flower senescence. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis is induced in carnation petals irrespective of the gynoecium.

  16. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  17. Structural and functional analysis of the GRAS gene family in grapevine indicates a role of GRAS proteins in the control of development and stress responses

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    Jerome eGrimplet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g. axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L., an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 Vitis vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits.

  18. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  19. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2 which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  20. Expression Study of LeGAPDH, LeACO1, LeACS1A, and LeACS2 in Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum

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    Pijar Riza Anugerah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a climacteric fruit, which is characterized by ripening-related increase of respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis. Ethylene is the key hormone in ripening process of climacteric fruits. The objective of this research is to study the expression of three ethylene synthesis genes: LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and a housekeeping gene LeGAPDH in ripening tomato fruit. Specific primers have been designed to amplify complementary DNA fragment of LeGAPDH (143 bp, LeACO1 (240 bp, LeACS1A (169 bp, and LeACS2 (148 bp using polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide BLAST results of the complementary DNA fragments show high similarity with LeGAPDH (NM_001247874.1, LeACO1 (NM_001247095.1, LeACS1A(NM_001246993.1, LeACS2 (NM_001247249.1, respectively. Expression study showed that LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and LeGAPDH genes were expressed in ripening tomato fruit. Isolation methods, reference sequences, and primers used in this study can be used in future experiments to study expression of genes responsible for ethylene synthesis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and to design better strategy for controlling fruit ripening in agroindustry.

  1. 中国14家医院妇科门诊40~60岁患者绝经相关特征的调查%Survey on characteristics of menopause of Chinese women with the age of 40-60 years at gynecological clinic from 14 hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉; 郁琦; 徐克惠; 谢梅青; 雷小敏; 任慕兰; 阮祥燕; 丁岩; 符书馨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of menopause of Chinese women with the age of 40-60 years concerning gynecologic clinics in China.Methods From Mar.2008 to Sept.2008,a face-to-face questionnaire was conducted in gynecological clinic in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in 14 hospitals in China,which included general demographic data,menstrual change process,climacteric symptoms and knowledge about menopause.Modified Kupperman index were used to evaluate climacteric symptoms during the recent week and awareness of hormonal replacement therapy were studied.Results A total of 1641 women were investigated.The ages of onset of menopause transition,climacteric symptoms and natural menopause were (47±4),(46±4),(49±3) years old respectively.Climacteric symptoms could be found in 78.43% (1287/1641) women during menopausal transition,which were mainly mild to moderate symptoms.The top 5 symptoms were fatigue and weakness (71.48%,1173/1641),irritability (68.68%,1127/1641),insomnia (67.65%,1110/1641),muscle and joint pain (64.11%,1052/1641) and hot flush (57.90%,950/1641).The climacteric symptoms were not constant during menopausal transition,usually more severe in late transition and postmenopausal periods,during which the moderate and severe symptoms were 59.1% (189/320) and 51.1% (291/570) respectively.Although most symptoms primarily appeared along with menstruation change,there are about 17.5% (172/981) patients experienced climacteric symptoms before menstruation change occurrence.There were 56.39% (733/1300)women had ever heard (mostly from gynecologist) about hormone replacement therapy from Obstetrician and Gynecologist.Conclusions Most of the women during menopausal transition had climacteric symptoms,usually mild and moderate ones.Although most symptoms primarily appeared along with menstruation change,there are other patients' experienced climacteric symptoms before menstruation change occurrence.%目的

  2. Influence of Resistance Training on Blood Pressure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Menopause

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    Cardoso Glêbia Alexa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chronic and acute influence of resistance exercise on blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome before and after climacteric. Twenty sedentary women, nine non-menopausal (RNM and 11 menopausal (RM, performed training for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, 23 controls, 11 not menopausal (CNM and 12 menopausal (CM, remained sedentary. Blood pressure was measured before and after the training period in conditions of rest and after a session of exercise. Training promoted variations in blood pressure at rest from 116±13 to 118±10 mmHg (p=0.73 and from 128±12 mmHg to 120±11mmHg (p=0.12 in RNM and RM, respectively. CNM and CM varied from 115±11 to 116±12 mmHg (p=0.9 and from 115±14 mmHg to 116±13 mmHg (p=0.74. Blood pressure values in one acute session did not differ between groups (p>0.05. Resistance training did not improve blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome, regardless of climacteric.

  3. Targeted systems biology profiling of tomato fruit reveals coordination of the Yang cycle and a distinct regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during postclimacteric ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Markoula, Aikaterina; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Dreesen, Rozemarijn; Wirtz, Markus; Vandoninck, Sandy; Oppermann, Yasmin; Keulemans, Johan; Hell, Ruediger; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Sauter, Margret; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2012-11-01

    The concept of system 1 and system 2 ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening was initially described four decades ago. Although much is known about fruit development and climacteric ripening, little information is available about how ethylene biosynthesis is regulated during the postclimacteric phase. A targeted systems biology approach revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) when fruit have reached their maximal ethylene production level and which is characterized by a decline in ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene production is shut down at the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. At the same time, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity increases. Analysis of the Yang cycle showed that the Yang cycle genes are regulated in a coordinated way and are highly expressed during postclimacteric ripening. Postclimacteric red tomatoes on the plant showed only a moderate regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase and Yang cycle genes compared with the regulation in detached fruit. Treatment of red fruit with 1-methylcyclopropane and ethephon revealed that the shut-down mechanism in ethylene biosynthesis is developmentally programmed and only moderately ethylene sensitive. We propose that the termination of autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis of system 2 in ripe fruit delays senescence and preserves the fruit until seed dispersal.

  4. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, R A; Baldi, B G

    1990-02-01

    Fruits of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Liberty, ripen slowly and have a prolonged keeping quality. Ethylene production and the levels of polyamines in pericarp of cv Liberty, Pik Red, and Rutgers were measured in relation to fruit development. Depending on the stage of fruit development, Liberty produced between 16 and 38% of the ethylene produced by Pik Red and Rutgers. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were present in all cultivars. Cadaverine was detected only in Rutgers. Levels of putrescine and spermidine declined between the immature and mature green stages of development and prior to the onset of climacteric ethylene production. In Pik Red and Rutgers, the decline persisted, whereas in Liberty, the putrescine level increased during ripening. Ripe pericarp of Liberty contained about three and six times more free (unconjugated) polyamines than Pik Red and Rutgers, respectively. No pronounced changes in spermidine or cadaverine occurred during ripening. The increase in the free polyamine level in ripe pericarp of Liberty may account for the reduction of climacteric ethylene production, and prolonged storage life.

  5. Localization of the Ethylene-synthesizing System in Apple Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, A K; Lieberman, M

    1977-11-01

    Apple (Malus sp.) slices gradually lost the ability to synthesize ethylene when incubated with a mixture of enzymes that digest cell walls. The released protoplasts did not produce ethylene. The release of protoplasts was faster from climacteric fruit slices than from preclimacteric tissue. In protoplast suspension culture, as new cell wall was deposited (as judged by the intensity of fluorescence of regenerating protoplasts stained with Calcofluor White and the incorporation of labeled myo-inositol into their ethanol-insoluble residue), ethylene synthesis was gradually regained. Restored ethylene synthesis reached a maximum after 80 hours in protoplasts from preclimacteric fruit and in 120 hours in those from climacteric tissue. Addition of methionine (1 mm) to the culture medium was essential for appreciable synthesis of ethylene; and this synthesis was inhibited by the aminoethoxy analogue of rhizobitoxine and by propyl gallate, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis in higher plants. We suggest that the ethylene-synthesizing enzyme system is highly structured in the apple cell and is localized in a cell wall-cell membrane complex.

  6. Freqüência da atividade sexual em mulheres menopausadas Factors related to frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women

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    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados à freqüência da atividade sexual entre mulheres pós-menopáusicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 206 mulheres pós-menopáusicas entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário da região Sul do Brasil entre junho e outubro de 2002. A atividade sexual foi avaliada pelo número de relações sexuais no último mês e a sintomatologia climatérica pelo Índice de Kupperman. Na análise estatística, fez-se regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Das mulheres pesquisadas, 176 (85% eram sexualmente ativas. Cerca de 60,6% relataram diminuição da atividade sexual após a menopausa, o que atribuíram principalmente à impotência sexual do parceiro (41,7%. Aproximadamente 25,7% negaram satisfação com o intercurso sexual. Na análise por regressão linear múltipla, associaram-se à atividade sexual a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women METHODS: A cross-section study of 206 postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age was made at a university health care service in the South of Brazil between June and October 2002. Evaluations were made of sexual activity according to the number of sexual intercourses in the previous month and the climacteric symptoms using the Kupperman index. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 176 (85% women were sexually active. Although 60.6% reported a decrease in sexual activity after menopause, mostly attributing it to the husband's sexual impotence (41.7%. Approximately 25.7% stated they had no satisfaction with sexual intercourse. By means of multiple linear regression analysis the following aspects were associated to sexual activity: age (p<0.1, degree of sexual satisfaction (p=0.01, and climacteric symptomatology (p=0.02. As age increased the climacteric symptoms were more intense and sexual activity was less

  7. Climateric: fatigue or third stage of the general adaptation syndrome Climaterio: fatiga o tercera etapa del síndrome de adaptación general

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    William Alvarez Gaviria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of climacteric has been subject of debate. Most opinions agree in that it arises exclusively from natural selection. In this paper the author argues that, besides this reason there is another, even more important; for him, climacteric is the final response to fatigue or the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, just as in elderly people there is a loss of the capacity of proliferation of fibroblasts and lack of response to insulin. From a genetic point of view, this corresponds to an antagonic pleiotropy: the genetic program that has made the human adrenergic and corticotropic systems hyperactive, has also caused that they do not reach senescence intact. High concentrations of stress hormones during youth and adulthood in humans, as compared to chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans, and the hormonal cascade reactions elicited by them are meaningfully related to our most conspicuous illnesses, our genotype/phenotype and, in the long term, with climacteric. Se ha conjeturado a menudo sobre las razones del climaterio y la mayoría de los autores sostiene que es un fenómeno que surge exclusivamente de la selección natural. Aquí asumimos que, aunque esa sea parte de la explicación, no es la razón primordial. Así como con la edad se da la pérdida, por ejemplo, de la capacidad proliferativa de los fibroblastos y de la sensibilidad a la insulina, el climaterio podría corresponder no más que a la fatiga o tercera etapa del Síndrome de Adaptación General. En un enfoque genético correspondería, pues, a una pleiotropía antagónica: el programa genético que ha hecho hiperactivos a los sistemas adrenérgico y corticotrópico del ser humano, evitaría también que llegara incólume al punto final de senescencia. Las altas concentraciones de hormonas de estrés en la juventud y la edad adulta que distinguen a nuestra especie, comparada con el chimpancé, el gorila y el orangután, y las reacciones hormonales en cascada que

  8. Profile of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens for the treatment of estrogen deficiency symptoms and osteoporosis in women at risk of fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Rossini,1 Stefano Lello,2 Ignazio Sblendorio,3 Ombretta Viapiana,1 Elena Fracassi,1 Silvano Adami,1 Davide Gatti11Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona, Italy; 2Endocrinological Gynecology, Pathophysiology of Menopause and Osteoporosis, Dermopathic Institute of Immacolata, Roma, Italy; 3Medical Coach Italia Center, Bari, ItalyAbstract: Decreasing levels of estrogens during menopause are associated with reduced bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis. Many women also experience bothersome vasomotor and vaginal symptoms during the menopausal transition. Results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that both systemic estrogen therapy or hormone therapy (estrogen combined with a progestin are useful to prevent bone loss, and they are the most effective treatment for such climacteric symptoms as hot flushes, sweating, vaginal dryness, and dyspareunia. Unfortunately, estrogen therapy and hormone therapy increase the risk of endometrial and breast cancer, respectively. The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs result in positive estrogenic effects on bone, with no negative effects on the endometrium and breast but do not provide relief from postmenopausal symptoms. The combination of a SERM with estrogen as a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC is a new strategy for the prevention of bone loss and the treatment of climacteric symptoms. This combination is particularly interesting from a clinical point of view, taking into account that estrogen alone did not increase breast cancer risk by the Women's Health Initiative. TSEC is hypothesized to provide the benefits of estrogen-alone therapy, with an improved tolerability profile because the SERM component can make possible the elimination of progestin. The objective of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence from the reports published to date on the use of bazedoxifene (a third

  9. Effects of 1-MCP on Post-Harvest Physiology of Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xi-sheng; WANG Zhi-hua; LI Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Zhi-yun; WANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. 402) was used to investigate the effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) treatment on ethylene production, respiration, vitamin C, chlorophyll, titratable acid,change of fruit color and rot. The results indicated that 1-MCP strongly inhibited ethylene production and respiration of tomato at very low concentration, delayed the incidence of climacteric peak of ethylene production and respiration. 1-MCP also delayed the decrease of vitamin C, chlorophyll and titratable acid during shelf life and storage significantly. Shelf and storage life of fruit treated with 1-MCP were extended at least 10 days at ambient (20 - 22℃ ) and 15 days at storage (9 - 11℃ ) temperature, respectively. Efficacy of 1-MCP on shelf and storage life was improved by increasing its concentration. After treatment of 1-MCP, rots were markedly lower than that of untreated fruit. 1-MCP treatment delayed the fruit color change.

  10. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): Effect of Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide on Ethylene Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Dilley, D R

    1976-11-01

    Abscisic acid hastened senescence of carnation flowers and this was preceded by stimulation of accelerated ethylene production. Carbon dioxide delayed the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production in flowers regardless of treatment with abscisic acid. Flowers exhibited a low and transient climacteric of ethylene production without wilting while in 4% carbon dioxide and underwent accelerated ethylene production culminating in wilting when removed from carbon dioxide. Hypobaric ventilation, which lowers ethylene to hyponormal levels within tissues, extended flower longevity and largely negated enhancement of senescence by abscisic acid. Supplementing hypobarically ventilated flowers with ethylene hastened senescence irrespective of abscisic acid treatment. Collectively, the data indicate that abscisic acid hastens senescence of carnations largely as a result of advancing the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production.

  11. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

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    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  12. 香蕉采后生理学研究进展%Research Progress of Postharvest Physiology of Banana Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾彩红; 金志强; 刘菊华; 张建斌; 徐碧玉

    2012-01-01

    Banana is one of the typical climacteric fruits and has poor storage characteristics. The advances of research on banana appearance quality, postharvest physiology and postharvest disease in recent years are summarized in this paper. All of these can offer reference for study and application of banana storage methods.%香蕉是一种典型的呼吸跃变型水果,不耐贮运.综述香蕉果实外观品质的变化、采后生理生化变化和采后病害三方面的研究进展,并展望该领域今后的研究方向.

  13. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry.

  14. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

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    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  15. Health condition of women with mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive, gynecological, sexual and clinical aspects of women with mental disorders. This is an exploratory research with quantitative approach performed in a Psychosocial Care Center, Type III, in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with 39 women with mental disorders. Data collection took place from October to December 2012, through used semi-structured interviews and checked blood pressure, blood glucose, weight and height. The results revealed normal levels of blood pressure and postprandial blood glucose, change in body mass index, presence of menstrual flow, nulliparity, first sexual intercourse in adolescence, early menarche, and lack of climacteric symptoms and history of abortion. Comprehensive health care for women involves more than the demands and needs of the mental health field.

  16. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  17. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Chervin, Christian; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening.

  18. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  19. Cellulase Activity and Fruit Softening in Avocado 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesis, Edna; Fuchs, Yoram; Zauberman, Giora

    1978-01-01

    Cellulase activity in detached avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits was found to be directly correlated with ripening processes such as climacteric rise of respiration, ethylene evolutin, and softening. This activity in the pericarp could be induced by ethylene treatment, and the more mature the fruit—the faster and the greater was the response. Only a very low cellulase activity could be detected in hard avocado fruit right after harvest. Cellulase activity was highest at the distal end of the fruit, lower in the midsection, and lowest at the proximal end. The enzyme is heat-labile and appeared to have activity of an endocellulase nature mainly. Electron micrographs of cell walls from hard and soft fruits are presented. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:16660305

  20. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Luís; da Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; de Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. PMID:27533271

  1. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

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    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  2. [Medicine, aging, masculinity: towards a cultural history of the male climacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Most historical studies on aging, gender and medicine have hitherto focused on menopausal women. There is comparatively little work on aging men and the contested idea of climacteric or "menopausal" men. This paper seeks to examine the male climacterium as a culturally and historically shaped idea in twentieth-century medicine. In the first part I shall map historical changes in understanding and defining the subject. In the second and third part, my main emphasis is put on answering the question: "What does it mean to write a cultural history of the male climacterium?" Drawing upon positions from cultural, gender and men's studies, I argue that the production of medical knowledge about the aging process of men is inevitably embedded in a cultural universe constituted by narratives, symbols, metaphors and images.

  3. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  4. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  5. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis and the prevention of fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacciani, M; Levancini, M

    2014-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects millions of women, being estrogen deficiency the key factor in the pathogenesis of involutional osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Different treatments for osteoporosis are available. The various options are aimed to maintain bone health and decrease the risk of fractures. The majority of these drugs are antiresorptive agents, i.e., drugs that lower bone turnover, inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Dietary sources of calcium intake and vitamin D are ideal, while pharmachological supplements should be used if diet alone cannot provide the recommended daily intake. Bisphosphonates are first-line therapy for patients with established osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. Some serious, but rare, adverse events have been associated with their long-term administration. The monoclonal antibody to RANKL, named denosumab, administered as a 60-mg subcutaneous injection every 6 months, is a valuable option for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at increased or high risk of fractures, who are unable to take other osteoporosis treatments. Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) is the only available osteoanabolic drugs for osteoporosis treatment at present. Its use is limited to severe osteoporosis because of the high cost of the treatment. In climacteric women, in different stages of menopausal transition, and beyond, hormone replacement therapy at different doses (HRT) rapidly normalizes turnover, preventing and/or treating osteoporosis. HRT is able to preserve and even increase BMD at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce bone turnover and maintains or increases vertebral and femoral BMDs in comparison to placebo and reduces the risk of vertebral and new vertebral fractures, in high risk women. The combination of a SERM with an estrogen has been

  6. Tibolone induced Bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal. R. Tandon, Annil Mahajan* & Sudhaa Sharma**

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first ever report of Bullous pemphigoid induced by Tibolone, a STEAR (Selective tissueestrogenic activity regulator that has progestogenic, some androgenic as well as estrogenic effects prescribedas an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of climacteric symptoms in one ofthe 51 year old postmenopausal women with one and half year duration since menopause with previoushistory of use of estrogen progesterone pills during her active sexual life. The mechanism for this ADR isnot well understood. But possible explanation could be progesterone activity of the drug leading to autoimmunityas reported previously. The present patient was managed by dechallenge of drug, local, oral corticosteroidsand injectable, methotrexate, along with folic acid and antibiotic coverage fearing anemia andsecondary infections.

  7. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Lopes-Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture.

  8. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics.

  10. Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R E; Warm, E; Laties, G G

    1982-06-01

    The poly(A) (+)RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically with the climacteric rise in respiration and ethylene production. The molecular weights of the corresponding translation products from the ripening-related mRNAs are 80,000, 36,000, and 16,500. These results indicate that ripening may be linked to the expression of specific genes.

  11. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and depression disorder%绝经后激素治疗与抑郁障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何方方

    2011-01-01

    围绝经妇女是抑郁障碍的高发人群,可能和这一时期特有的激素波动有关.妇产科医生在诊断绝经期综合征的同时要高度警惕抑郁障碍的存在.抗抑郁药物和激素治疗同时应用治疗围绝经期和绝经后抑郁症效果较好.%Depressive symptoms was common in the perimenopausal women. That maybe relate to unstable of estradiol level during the menopausal transition. Recognition of depression among women presenting with menopausal symptoms was very important, When gynecological doctors managed the climacteric symptoms of menopausal women. Hormone therapy plus anti-depressive treatment were much better for menopausal depression.

  12. PENGARUH ZPT TERHADAP KUALITAS BUAH MANGGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Juanasri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment was to examine the influence of polyamine, gibberelline and harvesting times to inhibit ripening process and to maintain postharvest quality on mangosteen. The method applied was randomized block design with two factors and three replications. First factor was harvesting time consisting of 14, 15 and 15 weeks after anthesis. Second factor is chemical concentration consisting of control (aquadest, GA3 (150, 200, 250 mg/l, polyamine (0,3; 1 and 3 mM. The result showed that spermidine application at 1 mM was more effective to maintain the postharvest quality of mangosteen, the fruit remained soft and the climacteric peak was longer than that of control. Gibberelline application showed unsightly result compared to control. Mangosteen fruits with harvesting time of 15 and 16 weeks after anthesis had better perfomance than those of harvesting at 14 weeks after anthesis, the fruit was remained soft and the weight lost was less.

  13. Síndrome metabólica e menopausa: estudo transversal em ambulatório de ginecologia Síndrome metabólico y menopausia: estudio transversal en ambulatorio de ginecología Metabolic syndrome and menopause: cross-sectional study in gynecology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil, são escassos os estudos sobre síndrome metabólica na população geral, mais raros são os que a correlacionam ao climatério. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da síndrome metabólica e seus componentes em mulheres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 323 mulheres climatéricas, divididas em dois grupos: pré e pós-menopausadas. Foram avaliadas para presença de síndrome metabólica, segundo os critérios do National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP e da International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Foi verificada a associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a síndrome metabólica por meio de análise uni e multivariada. Um p-valor FUNDAMENTO: En Brasil, son raros los estudios sobre síndrome metabólico en la población general, más raros son los que la correlacionan al climaterio. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y sus componentes en mujeres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 323 mujeres climatéricas, divididas en dos grupos: pre y posmenopáusicas. Se evaluaron para presencia de síndrome metabólico, según los criterios del NCEP y de la IDF. Se verificó la asociación entre las variables estudiadas y el síndrome metabólico por medio de análisis uni e multivariado. Un p-valor BACKGROUND: In Brazil, there are few studies of the metabolic syndrome in the general population, and even fewer studies that establish a correlation between metabolic syndrome and climacteric. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among climacteric women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 323 climacteric women, divided into two groups: pre and post-menopausal. They were examined for the presence of metabolic syndrome, according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. It was possible to notice the association between the variables under study and the metabolic

  14. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-02-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

  15. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be

  16. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  17. Profile of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens for the treatment of estrogen deficiency symptoms and osteoporosis in women at risk of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Maurizio; Lello, Stefano; Sblendorio, Ignazio; Viapiana, Ombretta; Fracassi, Elena; Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing levels of estrogens during menopause are associated with reduced bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis. Many women also experience bothersome vasomotor and vaginal symptoms during the menopausal transition. Results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that both systemic estrogen therapy or hormone therapy (estrogen combined with a progestin) are useful to prevent bone loss, and they are the most effective treatment for such climacteric symptoms as hot flushes, sweating, vaginal dryness, and dyspareunia. Unfortunately, estrogen therapy and hormone therapy increase the risk of endometrial and breast cancer, respectively. The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) result in positive estrogenic effects on bone, with no negative effects on the endometrium and breast but do not provide relief from postmenopausal symptoms. The combination of a SERM with estrogen as a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a new strategy for the prevention of bone loss and the treatment of climacteric symptoms. This combination is particularly interesting from a clinical point of view, taking into account that estrogen alone did not increase breast cancer risk by the Women's Health Initiative. TSEC is hypothesized to provide the benefits of estrogen-alone therapy, with an improved tolerability profile because the SERM component can make possible the elimination of progestin. The objective of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence from the reports published to date on the use of bazedoxifene (a third-generation SERM) in combination with conjugated estrogens in postmenopausal women. The conclusion is that effectively, the combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens may be a promising alternative to hormone therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women.

  18. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects.

  19. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein.

  20. Discovery of precursor and mature microRNAs and their putative gene targets using high-throughput sequencing in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Noor Hydayaty Md; Ong, Wen Dee; Redwan, Raimi Mohamed; Latip, Mariam Abd; Kumar, S Vijay

    2015-10-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant.

  1. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  2. [C-AMP concentration in various organs of female rats and in human ovaries with aging (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, M

    1982-02-01

    The change in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) concentration was observed in various organs of rats in gonadal cycle in adult group and with aging (30, 70, 100, 120 weeks), and in human ovaries with aging. 1) The average c-AMP concentration of ovaries of rats showed a significant change with estrus cycle and was higher in the following sequence: proestrus, diestrus II, diestrus I and estrus phase. This tendency was also seen in hypothalamus and pituitary, but was not statistically significant, 2) The average c-AMP concentration in tissues began to decline significantly from 70 weeks in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and from 80 weeks in ovaries. However, on the other hand the concentrations in pituitary, liver and adrenal declined markedly from 100 weeks. 3) The c-AMP in ovaries of 80 weeks rats by pregnant mare serum (PMS) road increased by 0.5-fold in concentration, and by 0.6-fold in whole tissue relative to that of 30 weeks rats. 4) A significant difference in serum LH and FSH level between ovarian artery and vein was not found in cycling mature group, non-cycling climacteric group and post-menopausal group of women. 5) Both average concentrations and total values of c-AMP in ovaries of non-cycling climacteric and post-menopausal women were lower than those of mature cycling women. This fact may imply a different response by ovarian tissues such as corpus luteum, follicle and other tissues to gonadotropin. From these results of c-AMP in tissues, it is concluded that the decline of ovarian function with aging of rats was relatively earlier than pituitary, although being delayed compared with hypothalamus, and were the ovarian function in humans declined in the premenopausal period.

  3. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

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    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  4. Uncommon disorders and decay in near-isogenic lines of melon and reference cultivars Acidentes fisiológicos e podridões atípicas em linhas quase-isogénicas de melão e em cultivares de referência

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    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest disorders and rots can produce important economic losses in fruits stored for long time for exportation. The genetic and physiological basis of some disorders in melon (Cucumis melo L. are unknown and particularly the possible relation with climacteric behavior. A collection of melon near-isogenic lines (NILs (SC3-5 and seven more showing climacteric and two non-climacteric ripening pattern were analyzed to study genetic and physiological aspects of fruit disorders and rots. Two non-climacteric (Nicolás; Inodorus Group; and Shongwan Charmi PI161375, Conomon Group and two climacteric cultivars (Fado, Reticulatus Group; Védrantais, Cantaloupensis Group were used as reference. The field was divided in eight blocks containing one three-plant replication for each NIL, two for the parental cultivar Piel de Sapo and one or two for the reference cultivars. Replications evaluated were more than six in the cultivars studied. Plant problems included aphids, powdery mildew, and leaf wind injury. Preharvest fruit disorders included whole fruit cracking in cultivar Védrantais and NIL 5M2, and stylar-end cracking in cultivar Fado. Climacteric NILs with yellow skin were particularly affected by over-ripening, stylar-end cracking, and sunburn during cultivation. At harvest, two NILs showed slight placental tissue necrosis which was inherited from SC and were also detected after storage. Other uncommon disorders seen at harvest or 30 days after storage at 8ºC included warted skin (scarring, flesh discoloration (light brown or translucent areas, hollow flesh disorder, and deep furrow netting inherited from SC. Less common rots included grey mould, bacterial soft rot, Penicillium rot, cottony leak and internal Cladosporium rot. Stylar-end hardness below 20 N·mm-1 was associated with cracking and softening. The incidence of the disorders and rots was too low to confirm that the genetic component played a role in their development

  5. Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e avaliação da qualidade de vida no climatério Prevalence of mental disorders and assessment of quality of life in the climaterium

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    Lílian Lira Lisboa Fagundes Galvão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e a qualidade de vida (QV relacionados à saúde em mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 191 mulheres (entre 45 e 65 anos em estudo analítico transversal. Um questionário, contendo informações pessoais, hábitos/saúde e dados demográficos, foi administrado em associação a instrumentos validados para medir qualidade de vida (SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey e estimar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (SRQ-20, Self Reporting Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: Com a utilização do SRQ-20 e empregando ponto de corte de oito ou mais respostas afirmativas, 39,8% das mulheres foram classificadas como apresentando transtornos mentais comuns. Evidenciou-se maior prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e piores escores de QV nas mulheres com pouca escolaridade, baixa renda familiar e que não exerciam atividades profissionais fora do domicílio. Os escores médios para todos os domínios do SF-36 foram significativamente mais baixos nas mulheres categorizadas por apresentarem transtornos mentais comuns. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns é elevada na amostra de mulheres no climatério e está associada com repercussões negativas sobre sua qualidade de vida. Fatores psicossociais exercem significativa influência, e estratégias de suporte psicológico deveriam ser instituídas no contexto das políticas de saúde voltadas para mulheres no climatério.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prevalence of mental distress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in climacteric women. METHODS: A total of 191 women (45 to 65 years of age were included in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire about personal information, habits/health, and demographic data was administered in association with the two validated instruments to measure HRQoL, SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and to estimate prevalence

  6. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l., stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l., almacenada a 18°C

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    Moreno Paola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish or 5 (yellow orange and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of sugars and acids on this day. Soluble solids tended to increase and the titratable acids went to diminish. The fruit's sugar content was characterized by a major concentration of sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. While the citric acid showed its highest level at the sixth storage day that of the tartaric acid increased constantly up to 18 days. The fruit maturity stage 3 is that which best conserved the sugars and organic acids evaluated. The maturity index influenced more than calyx drying the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry. Calyx drying at 24ºC caused the highest climacteric peak and originated the highest loss of fresh weight in fruits harvested at maturity index 5.

    Key words: Physalis peruviana; respiration; climacteric fruit; Brix degrees; organic acids; sugars.

    Frutos de uchuva en estados de madurez 3 (amarillo verdoso ó 5 (amarillo naranja y con secado del cáliz durante seis horas a 18 y 24ºC, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (18ºC y humedad relativa del 75% durante 20 días, con el fin de evaluar cambios físico-químicos y fisiológicos. La uchuva, fruto climatérico, presentó el máximo de respiración entre los 6 y 8 días de almacenamiento. El día 6 de almacenamiento parece ser crucial debido al metabolismo muy elevado y los contenidos más altos de azúcares y ácidos. Los sólidos solubles totales tendieron a aumentar, la acidez titulable a disminuir. El contenido de azúcares se caracterizó por

  7. Tibolone Rapidly Attenuates the GABAB Response in Hypothalamic Neurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Bosch, Martha A.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kloosterboer, Helenius J.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Tibolone is primarily used for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone is rapidly converted into three major metabolites: 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-tibolone (3α- and 3βOH-tibolone), which have oestrogenic effects, and the Δ4-isomer (Δ4-tibolone), which has progestogenic and androgenic effects. Since tibolone is effective in treating climacteric symptoms, the effects on the brain may be explained by the oestrogenic activity of tibolone. Previously using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found that 17β-oestradiol (E2) rapidly altered GABA neurotransmission in hypothalamic neurones through a membrane oestrogen receptor (mER). E2 reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate G-protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K+ channels in hypothalamic neurones. Therefore, we hypothesized that tibolone may have some rapid effects through the mER and sought to elucidate the signalling pathway of tibolone’s action using selective inhibitors and whole cell recording in ovariectomized female guinea pigs and mice. A sub-population of neurones was identified post hoc as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones by immunocytochemical staining. Similar to E2, we have found that tibolone and its active metabolite 3βOH-tibolone rapidly reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate GIRK channels in POMC neurones. The effects were blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Other metabolites of tibolone (3αOH-tibolone and Δ4-tibolone) had no effect. Furthermore, tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) was fully efficacious in ERαKO and ERβKO mice to attenuate GABAB responses. The effects of tibolone were blocked by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. However, in contrast to E2, the effects of tibolone were not blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors or protein kinase A inhibitors. It appears that tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) activates phospholipase C leading to PIP2 metabolism and direct alteration of GIRK channel function. Therefore, tibolone

  8. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at vèraison

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    Dal Ri Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine (Vitis species is among the most important fruit crops in terms of cultivated area and economic impact. Despite this relevance, little is known about the transcriptional changes and the regulatory circuits underlying the biochemical and physical changes occurring during berry development. Results Fruit ripening in the non-climacteric crop species Vitis vinifera L. has been investigated at the transcriptional level by the use of the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip® which contains approximately 14,500 unigenes. Gene expression data obtained from berries sampled before and after véraison in three growing years, were analyzed to identify genes specifically involved in fruit ripening and to investigate seasonal influences on the process. From these analyses a core set of 1477 genes was found which was similarly modulated in all seasons. We were able to separate ripening specific isoforms within gene families and to identify ripening related genes which appeared strongly regulated also by the seasonal weather conditions. Transcripts annotation by Gene Ontology vocabulary revealed five overrepresented functional categories of which cell wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms and stress response were specifically induced during the ripening phase, while photosynthesis was strongly repressed. About 19% of the core gene set was characterized by genes involved in regulatory processes, such as transcription factors and transcripts related to hormonal metabolism and signal transduction. Auxin, ethylene and light emerged as the main stimuli influencing berry development. In addition, an oxidative burst, previously not detected in grapevine, characterized by rapid accumulation of H2O2 starting from véraison and by the modulation of many ROS scavenging enzymes, was observed. Conclusion The time-course gene expression analysis of grapevine berry development has identified the occurrence of two well

  9. To observing the Effects of DaBuYin pills and its medicamentum diversified by ovariectomized menopausal syndrome Rats on Serum FSH, LH, body weight and adrenal index%大补阴丸及加减方对去卵巢更年期模型大鼠血清FSH、LH及体质量、肾上腺指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文来; 赵红霞; 金香兰; 张玲; 王震; 卢贺起; 岳广欣; 于峥; 张立石

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of Dabuyin pills and its modification on FSH, LH, body weight and adrenal index adopting ovariectomized rats model,and investigate its mechanism in the treatment of climacteric syndrome. Methods; Rats model of climacteric syndrome was built by surgical transplant, and were randomLy divided into the control group, model group,Dabuyin pills group and a medicamentum diversified from Dabuyin pills group. The content of serum FSH,LH were determined with radioimmunoassay,and the weight of rats, adrenal index were detected. Results; Compared with the model group, the content of serum FSH, LH and the body weight of Dabuyin pills group and its medicamentum diversified lowered significantly, and the adrenal index increased. Conclusion: Dabuyin pills and its medicamentum diversified can correct the model rats FSH, LH hormone levels, can alleviate the situation of adrenal atrophy in ovariectomized female rats to a certain extent, consequently restore the endocrine function and relieve the clinical symptoms.%目的:观察大补阴丸及加减方对去卵巢大鼠(OVX)血清性激素FSH、LH及体质量、肾上腺指数影响.方法:以OVX大鼠为动物模型,分为空白对照组、模型组、大补阴丸组、大补阴丸加减组和阳性对照组,采用ELISA方法,观察各组大鼠血清中FSH、LH变化,并对大鼠体质量、肾上腺指教进行检测.结果:大补阴丸及加减方能显著降低OVX大鼠LH、FSH及体质量水平,明显升高肾上腺指数.结论:大补阴丸及加减方可纠正OVX大鼠FSH、LH激素水平,缓解肾上腺萎缩状况.

  10. 不同年龄段女性复发性尿路感染的临床分析%Clinical analysis of recurrent urinary tract infection of female patients in different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓峰; 刘蔚; 李科珍; 程黎明; 马祖福

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection of female patients in different ages stages and to evaluate curative effect on using antibiotics only and on combination of antibiotics and Chinese herbal drugs. Methods: A total of 156 female patients with recurrent urinary tract infection were observed, including 90 cases in reproductive age and 66 cases during climacteric and gerontism period. All patients accepted antibiotics therapy and part of them combined with Chinese herbal drugs therapy which had the effects on clearing away heat evil and promoting diuresis. Clinical symptoms, sighs, and laboratory examination results were recorded pre ?therapy and post ?therapy. A half year following up was done after pharmacotherapy conclusion. Results: Female patients with recurrent urinary tract infection during climacteric and gerontism period had less typical symptoms and higher recurrence rate than the patients in reproductive age. Antibiotics combined with Chinese herbal drugs therapy could decrease recurrence rate and ameliorate clinical symptom. Conclusion; The clinician should think about clinical characteristics of different ages and select reasonable projects when treating female patients with recurrent urinary tract infection.%目的:观察不同年龄段女性复发性尿路感染的临床特点,评价单用抗生素或联合中药治疗的疗效.方法:观察女性复发性尿路感染患者156例,其中育龄期组90例,更年期和老年期组66例.所有患者予以抗生素治疗,部分患者同时联用清热利湿复方中药治疗.观察治疗前后临床症状、体征和实验室检查结果,药物治疗结束后观察随访半年.结果:更年期和老年期女性较育龄期女性复发性尿路感染症状不典型,随访期复发率高.联合中药治疗能显著减少复发率,改善症状.结论:临床医生在诊治女性复发性尿路感染时应该考虑不同年龄段的临床特点,合理选择诊疗方案.

  11. Investigation and Analysis on Physical Fitness of Old and Middle-aged Women in Shanghai%对上海市中老年妇女体质状况的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄洁; 王人卫; 陈及治; 谭晓缨; 郭仕达; 蔡斌; 段子才; 高勇

    2001-01-01

    By the methods of morphological and functional measurements, the authors made an investigation into the physical fitness of 463 women aged from 40 to 70. It has been found from the measuring results that the rate of body fat and BMI indices in this age group inclined to rise, their systolic pressure and pulse pressure tend to increase, their TC has a tendency to go up and the TC among the women in early senility and senility is significantly different from those who are in climacteric. The relevant analysis on above indices has revealed that body fat of each group is positively interrelated with BMI index; HDL is positively related to TC. But the internal pulse pressure and GLu in the climacteric group are positively related to BMI index while HDL is negatively interrelated with BMI and HDL negatively with GLu. At the same time, the rate of TC/HDL is positively related to GLu in the groups of early senility and senility.%采用形态、机能等测试方法,对上海市463名40~70岁中老年妇女的体质状况进行调查。测试结果发现,随着年龄增长,该人群体脂率与BMI指数呈上升趋势,收缩压及脉压有逐渐增加趋势,血总胆固醇(TC)有升高趋势,其中老年前期、老年期均较中年更年期有显著性差异。各指标相关分析显示:各组体脂率与BMI指数呈显著正相关;高密度脂蛋白(HDL)与TC呈正相关。其中,中年更年期组内脉压、血糖(GLu)与BMI指数呈正相关,HDL与BMI指数呈负相关,HDL与GLu呈负相关;老年前期、老年期组TC/HDL比值与GLu呈正相关。

  12. Perfil oxidativo de la mujer menopáusica: Papel de los estrógenos en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades Oxidative Profile of the Menopausal Woman: Estrogens´ Rol in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases

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    Carlos Escalante-Gómez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El balance entre la producción de radicales libres de oxigeno y el nivel de enzimas antioxidantes es permanentemente regulado por la célula. Las enzimas antioxidantes son esenciales para las células aeróbicas, puesto que mantienen en niveles aceptables las concentraciones de especies químicas conocidas como radicales libres. Durante el climaterio o etapa perimenopáusica, el cuerpo y metabolismo de una mujer cambia de forma importante, y los mecanismos que regulan el estrés oxidativo no son la excepción. Los estrógenos, per se, son antioxidantes, y esto ha impulsado recientemente estudios sobre los efectos antioxidativos de los estrógenos, como un posible mecanismo preventivo para algunas enfermedades. En los últimos años se le ha brindado gran importancia al papel del estrés oxidativo en la génesis de algunas enfermedades como la ateroesclerosis y la enfermedad cardiovascular, algunos tipos de cánceres y la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Pareciera que los estrógenos sí modifican el equilibro oxidativo / antioxidativo in vivo, sin embargo aun se requieren más estudios para puntualizar el rol de estos como posibles tratamientos preventivos para la menopáusica.The cell carefully regulates the balance between the production of radical oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes levels. Antioxidant enzymes are critical for aerobic cells to maintain within balance free radical production. During the climacteric transition, the body and its metabolism suffer many changes and the mechanisms that regulate oxidative balance are not the exception. Estrogens, per se, are antioxidants, and this has promoted several studies to investigate the potential role of estrogens in disease prevention. Within the last few years, a great deal of studies have shown the relationship between oxidative stress and diseases such as therosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. It appears that estrogens do modify the oxidative / anti

  13. Efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract on menopausal syndrome in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ting-ping; SUN Ai-jun; XUE Wei; WANG Ya-ping; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Ying; LANG Jing-he

    2013-01-01

    Background It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms.But the durations reported were usually short.This paper compares the clinical effects of different regimens of three-month course on climacteric symptoms in Chinese women,so as to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract.Methods This was a prospective,randomized trial.Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into 3 groups to take different kinds of medicine for 3 months; participants were given Cimicifuga foetida extract daily in group A (n=32),given estradiol valerate and progesterone capsule cycle sequentially in group B (n=32),and given estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate cycle sequentially in group C (n=32).The questionnaires of Kupperman menopause index,Menopause-Specific Quality of Life,and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were finished before and after the treatment.The status of vaginal bleeding and breast tenderness was recorded every day.Results Eighty-nine participants (89/96,92.7%) completed the treatment.Kupperman menopause index decreased after taking the medicine for 3 months in each group (with all P<0.001),but the score after the treatment was higher in group A than in the other 2 groups.Except for the score of sexual domain in group A (P=0.103),the scores of all domains of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life decreased significantly after the treatment in all groups (with all P≤-0.01).Score of anxity decreased significantly in group A (P=0.015) and B (P=0.003).Incidence of breast tenderness was 12.9% (4/31) in group A,36.7% (11/30) in group B,and 14.3% (4/28) in group C.Incidence of vaginal bleeding was 6.5% (2/31) in group A,26.7% (8/30) in group B,and 82.1% (23/28) in group C.Conclusions Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective and safe in the treatment of menopausal syndrome.It is worth extending its use in the treatment of climacteric

  14. Discussion on clinical characteristics analysis and nursing care of menopause depression%更年期抑郁症的临床特征分析及护理对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐久梅; 卢永军; 阮祥燕

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析围绝经期及绝经后妇女的抑郁症发病率,并根据更年期妇女抑郁症的发病特点,找出指导患者控制或消除抑郁症的对策。方法:随机将围绝经期妇女分为绝经组和绝经前组,采用Zung抑郁量表对724例患者进行评定和静脉血内分泌激素FSH、LH、E2测定。Zung量表总分为80分,评分≥40分可诊断为抑郁。结果:绝经前组更年期抑郁症的发病率为13.3%,绝经组抑郁症的发病率为5.6%。绝经前组更年期抑郁症的发病率明显高于绝经后(x2=12.797,P<0.05)。结论:更年期抑郁症患者常有某些躯体或精神因素作为诱因而发生精神、躯体疾病;患者常常伴有生理和心理改变。对更年期抑郁症患者需从生物、心理及社会诸方面进行综合护理。%Objective:To analyze the depression incidence in premenopausal or postmenopausal women, find out the countermeasures to control or eliminate depression. Methods:Randomly divided the menopause group and premenopausal group in 724 patients who were assessed using Zung depression scale and venous blood determination of endocrine hormone FSH, LH, E2. Zung score≥40 points can diagnose depression. Results:The incidence in premenopausal group of climacteric depression was 13.3%, and postmenopausal group was 5.6%. The incidence of climacteric depression premenopausal group was obviously higher than that after menopause (x2=12.797, P<0.05). Conclusion:Menopause depression patients often have some physical or mental factors as incentive, spirit and body disease, etc.;Patients often change in physical and psychological. So the comprehensive care in the biological, psychological and social are necessary.

  15. Influência dos sintomas climatéricos sobre a função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade Influence of menopausal symptoms on sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência dos sintomas climatéricos na função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo populacional de corte transversal, com amostra de 370 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos, atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Natal, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário referente s características sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentais das mulheres. A função sexual foi avaliada pelo Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, enquanto os sintomas do climatério pelo Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTADOS: No grupo estudado, 67% das mulheres apresentaram risco de disfunção sexual (FSFI≤26,5. Todos os domínios do FSFI (desejo, excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dor apresentaram escores mais baixos nas mulheres com risco de disfunção sexual (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of climacteric symptoms on the sexual function in middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was conducted on a sample of 370 middle-aged women, aged 40 to 65 years-old, cared for at the Basic Health Units in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. We used a questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, while the menopause symptoms by the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTS: In the studied group, 67% of the women reported risk for sexual dysfunction (FSFI≤26.5. All FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were lower in women with risk for sexual dysfunction (p<0.001. The arousal, orgasm, and pain domains were most likely to contribute to lower FSFI scores. All somatovegetative, urogenital, and psychological MRS symptoms were more elevated in women with risk for sexual dysfunction, being significant for all comparisons (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of

  16. Cell wall polysaccharides of near-isogenic lines of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and their inbred parentals which show differential flesh firmness or physiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Noelia; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Fernandez-Trujillo, J Pablo

    2011-07-27

    We characterized differences in cell wall material and polysaccharide structures, due to the quantitative trait loci associated with higher flesh firmness in a nonclimacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC7-2, and with the climacteric behavior of the NIL SC3-5-1, using their nonclimacteric inbred parentals, "Piel de Sapo" (PS) and PI 161375 (SC). PS was firmer and had a higher ripening index and greater hemicellulosic content than SC, with its lower wall material yield, and uronic acid, neutral sugar, cellulose and free sugar content and higher pectic content. SC3-5-1 showed lower uronic acid values, a higher soluble solid content, and similar flesh firmness to PS. SC3-5-1 yielded mainly high molecular weight polysaccharides in the imidazole-soluble fraction than PS. SC7-2 showed greater flesh firmness, a higher neutral sugar (especially galactose and mannose) and uronic acid content, together with a larger cellulose and α-cellulose residue than PS. SC7-2 also contained more polysaccharides of low molecular weight in the first pectic fraction and shifted toward higher molecular weights in the main peak of the 4 M potassium-soluble fraction compared with PS.

  17. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  18. Small and remarkable: The Micro-Tom model system as a tool to discover novel hormonal functions and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Hormones are molecules involved in virtually every step of plant development and studies in this field have been shaping plant physiology for more than a century. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, long used as a tool to study plant hormones, lacks significant important developmental traits, such as fleshy climacteric fruit, compound leaf and multicellular trichomes, suggesting the necessity for alternative plant models. An attractive option often used is tomato, a species also of major economic importance, being ideal to bring together basic and applied plant sciences. The tomato Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar makes it possible to combine the direct benefits of studying a crop species with the fast life cycle and small size required for a suitable biological model. However, few obscure questions are constantly addressed to MT, creating a process herein called "MT mystification". In this work we present evidence clarifying these questions and show the potential of MT, aiming to demystify it. To corroborate our ideas we showed that, by making use of MT, our laboratory demonstrated straightforwardly new hormonal functions and also characterized a novel antagonistic hormonal interaction between jasmonates and brassinosteroids in the formation of anti-herbivory traits in tomato.

  19. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yu; Cheng, Dai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp) on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious') pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1) CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol). Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  20. Health of Indonesian women city-dwellers of perimenopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samil, R S; Wishnuwardhani, S D

    1994-10-01

    In the last few years more women of climacteric age, living in urban areas, have been seeking medical care. In 1989, on the invitation of 6 women's organizations in Jakarta and other cities, the Indonesian Menopause Society gave talks and held discussions in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. These occasions were used to accumulate data from women participants of 40 years of age and older. The age of the respondents ranged between 40-59 years. Most were 42 years old (13.9%). Ninety-four percent were still married. Twenty-five percent had three living children. Sixty-three percent of the respondents were high school graduates who worked full time (33%), part time, or were unemployed. The average menarche age was 13 and menopausal age 50-51. Menopausal complaints were rare, hence medical consultations were rare. Tranquilizers were prescribed for those who did seek medical help. This data constitutes the basis of the formulation of a strategy to solve menopause related problems in Indonesia, where female life expectancy, and the contribution of women to society, is on the increase.

  1. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal compo-nents of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-tae CHOI

    2008-01-01

    Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer is mainly used to maintain the homeostasis of the body, and the pharmacological efficacy of Korean ginseng identified by modern science includes improved brain function, pain-relieving effects, pre-ventive effects against tumors as well as anti-tumor activity, enhanced immune system function, anti-diabetic effects, enhanced liver function, adjusted blood pressure, anti-fatigue and anti-stress effects, improved climacteric disorder and sexual functions, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Further clini-cal studies of these pharmacological efficacies will continue to be carried out. Korean ginseng is found to have such main properties as ginsenoside, ployacety-lene, acid polysaccharide, anti-oxidative aromatic compound, and insulin-like acid peptides. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is substantially more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Furthermore, Korean ginseng has been identified to contain more main non-saponin compounds, phenol compounds, acid polysaccharides and polyethylene compounds than American ginseng and Sanchi ginseng.

  2. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  3. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  4. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  5. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  6. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  7. Identification of New Diterpenes as Putative Marker Compounds Distinguishing Agnus Castus Fruit (Chaste Tree) from Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit (Viticis Fructus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Naohiro; Masada, Sayaka; Suzuki, Ryuta; Yagi, Kanae; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Emi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yahara, Shoji; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Agnus Castus Fruit is defined in the European Pharmacopoeia as the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. In Europe it is used as a medicine targeting premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorder. In Japan, Agnus Castus Fruit is becoming popular as a raw material for over-the-counter drugs and health food products, though its congenic species, Vitex rotundifolia and Vitex trifolia, have been used as Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit in traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important to discriminate these Vitex plants from the viewpoint of regulatory science. Here we tried to identify putative marker compounds that distinguish between Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit. We analyzed extracts of each crude drug by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and performed differential analysis by comparison of each chromatogram to find one or more peaks characteristic of Agnus Castus Fruit. A peak was isolated and identified as an equilibrium mixture of new compounds named chastol (1) and epichastol (1a). The planar structures of 1 and 1a were determined spectroscopically. Their relative configurations were revealed by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and differential nuclear Overhauser effect-NMR data. Since avoiding contamination from closely related species is needed for the quality control of natural pharmaceuticals, this information will be valuable to establish a method for the quality control of both, Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit products.

  8. The c.1460C>T Polymorphism of MAO-A Is Associated with the Risk of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Słopień

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation of possible relationships between polymorphisms of serotoninergic system genes and the risk of depression in postmenopausal women. Methods. We studied 332 women admitted to our department because of climacteric symptoms. The study group included 113 women with a diagnosis of depressive disorder according to the Hamilton rating scale for depression; the controls consisted of 219 women without depression. Serum 17β-estradiol concentrations were evaluated using radioimmunoassay, while polymorphisms in serotoninergic system genes: serotonin receptors 2A (HTR2A, 1B (HTR1B, and 2C (HTR2C; tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1 and 2 (TPH2, and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction. Results. We found that the 1460T allele of MAO-A c.1460C>T (SNP 1137070 appeared with a significantly higher frequency in depressed female patients than in the control group (P=0.011 and the combined c.1460CT + TT genotypes were associated with a higher risk of depression (P=0.0198. Patients with the 1460TT genotype had a significantly higher 17β-estradiol concentration than patients with the 1460CT genotype (P=0.0065 and 1460CC genotype (P=0.0018. Conclusions. We concluded that depression in postmenopausal women is closely related to the genetic contribution of MAO-A.

  9. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  10. Assessment of the Potential of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments to Maintain Fruit Quality of the Common Fig (Ficus carica L. cv. ‘Bursa Siyahi’ during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan OZKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fig fruit is a unique, climacteric, highly perishable subject to rapid physiological breakdown. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP was tested to delay ripening of black fig (Ficus carica L. cv. ‘Bursa Siyahi’ during storage over two growing seasons. Fruits were pre-cooled to 1 °C for 6 hours and afterwards treated with 500 or 1000 nl l-1 of 1-MCP for 24 hours. Treated fruits were stored for 10 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH and then evaluated. 1-MCP treatments showed that ethylene production, respiration rate, weight loss and concentrations of glucose, fructose and total soluble solids (TSS were negatively correlated to the 1-MCP doses during cold storage (with the exception of TSS in the first year of experiment and respiration rate in the second year of the experiment. In contrast, pulp firmness and colour (ho during cold storage were positively correlated to the 1-MCP applied doses. Results of this study showed that although 1-methylcyclopropene applications slowed down fruit softening during the 10 days of storage, 1-methylcyclopropene appeared to have a relatively limited effect on slowing ripening of ‘Bursa Siyahi’ figs.

  11. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  12. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  13. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.

  14. Effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae in Treatment of Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-qiong SHI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae in the treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice.Methods: Fifty mice performed with bilateral ovariectomy for establishing models of osteoporosis were randomly divided into model group, estradiol group, and high-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 mice with sham operation were selected as control group. High-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups were treated with different doses of Gegen, estradiol group with 17β-estradiol, model group and control group with distilled water for continuous lavage from postoperative 1 month for totally 3 months. The changes of body mass, the uterus mass, fine structure of bone, thighbone density and calcium content of groups were observed.Results: Compared with control group, the different indicators of mice improved in a dose-dependent manner after lavage of Gegen. The above indicators in high- and middle-dose groups were similar to those in control group, and the therapeutic effect in high- and middle-dose groups was as good as or superior to that in estradiol group. However, uterus mass in Gegen-treated groups didn’t increase.Conclusion: Gegen, which has anti-osteoporosis effect like estradiol and doesn’t stimulate uterus, is applicable for the prevention and treatment of climacteric osteoporosis.

  15. Clinical Application Experience of Chaihu Longgu Oyster Soup%柴胡加龙骨牡蛎汤临床应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究柴胡加龙骨牡蛎汤的临床应用及效果。方法回顾性分析柴胡加龙骨牡蛎汤治疗不寐、更年期综合征、抑郁症、偏头痛各1例患者的临床资料。结果4例患者临床症状均明显改善均痊愈出院。结论柴胡加龙骨牡蛎汤治疗不寐、更年期综合征、抑郁症、偏头痛等病症的临床效果显著。%Objective To explore the clinical application and effect of Chaihu Longgu oyster soup. Methods A retrospective analysis entrapement add keel oyster decoction in the treatment of insomnia, menopausal syndrome, depression, the clinical data of 1 case of migraine sufferers. Results The clinical symptoms of 4 patients were cured were signiifcantly improved. Conclusion Entrapement add keel oyster decoction in the treatment of insomnia, climacteric syndrome, depression, migraine and other diseases, the clinical effcacy is signiifcant.

  16. Jasmonic acid involves in grape fruit ripening and resistant against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Pervaiz, Tariq; Zhao, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Jinggui; Qian, Jianpu

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that is regulated by a signal network. Whereas the regulatory mechanism of abscisic acid has been studied extensively in non-climacteric fruit, little is know about other signaling pathways involved in this process. In this study, we performed that plant hormone jasmonic acid plays an important role in grape fruit coloring and softening by increasing the transcription levels of several ripening-related genes, such as the color-related genes PAL1, DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT; softening-related genes PG, PL, PE, Cell, EG1, and XTH1; and aroma-related genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. Lastly, the fruit anthocyanin, phenol, aroma, and cell wall materials were changed. Jasmonic acid positively regulated its biosynthesis pathway genes LOS, AOS, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) and signal pathway genes COI1 and JMT. RNA interference of grape jasmonic acid pathway gene VvAOS in strawberry fruit appeared fruit un-coloring phenotypes; exogenous jasmonic acid rescued this phenotypes. On the contrary, overexpression of grape jasmonic acid receptor VvCOI1 in the strawberry fruit accelerated the fruit-ripening process and induced some plant defense-related gene expression level. Furthermore, jasmonic acid treatment or strong jasmonic acid signal pathway in strawberry fruit make the fruit resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

  17. Physio-Biochemical Changes in Jujube Fruits(Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao) at Mature Stage%灵武长枣果实发育成熟期生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天军; 窦云萍

    2008-01-01

    The changes of physiological and biochemical indices in jujube fruits during the late development were investigated from 6-year-old jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao). The results showed that the flesh firmness decreased slowly from white-green stage to full-red stage, being significantly related with the developmental maturity of jujube fruits negatively, the correlation coefficient reached -0.980 3**. The contents of ascorbic acid and titratable acid in jujube fruits were significantly related with the developmental process of jujube fruits negatively or positively, the correlation coef-ficients were -0.973 1** and + 0.974 6** respectively. The contents of soluble solids, total sugar, and sucrose increased with jujube ripening, while the relative sweetness of jujube fruits showed the same variation pattern, the correlation coefficients were 0.996 6** , 0.988 0** , and 0.982 8**, respec-tively. Befcre white-green stage during fruit development,the accumulation d moncsaccharide was predom/nant in jujube fruits, following a fast accumula-tion of sucrose, indicating that the main component of sugars is sucrose at the crisp-ripe stage. Furthermore, the starch content of the flesh reached the peak at about thirty percentage of jujube maturity, being 51.54 mg/100 g · FW. The respiratory rates varied between 10 mg/(kg·h) and CO2 26 mg/(kg·h) after fruit turning red and before softening, indicating a non-climacteric respiratory type.

  18. Effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae) in Treatment of Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan-qiong; MA Cong; LI Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae) in the treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice. Methods: Fifty mice performed with bilateral ovariectomy for establishing models of osteoporosis were randomly divided into model group, estradiol group, and high-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 mice with sham operation were selected as control group. High-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups were treated with different doses of Gegen, estradiol group with 17β-estradiol, model group and control group with distilled water for continuous lavage from postoperative 1 month for totally 3 months. The changes of body mass, uterus mass, ifne structure of bone, thighbone density and calcium content of groups were observed. Results: Compared with control group, the different indicators of mice improved in a dose-dependent manner after lavage of Gegen. The above indicators in high- and middle-dose groups were similar to those in control group, and the therapeutic effect in high- and middle-dose groups was as good as or superior to that in estradiol group. However, uterus mass in Gegen-treated groups didn’t increase. Conclusion: Gegen, which has anti-osteoporosis effect like estradiol and doesn’t stimulate the uterus, is applicable for the prevention and treatment of climacteric osteoporosis.

  19. Microarray Expression Profiling of Postharvest Ponkan Mandarin(Citrus reticulata)Fruit under Cold Storage Reveals Regulatory Gene Candidates and Implications on Soluble Suqars Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andan Zhu; Wenyun Li; Junli Ye; Xiaohua Sun; Yuduan Ding; Yunjiang Cheng; Xiuxin Deng

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature storage is widely applied to maintain citrus postharvest fruit quality.In this study,the transcriptional and metabolic changes in the pulp tissue of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv."Ponkan"were studied for three successive months under cold storage by Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip and gaschromatography,respectively.As many as 2 161 differentially expressed transcripts were identifiedbased on the bayesian hierarchical model.The statistical analysis of gene ontology revealed thatdefenselstress-related genes were induced quickly,while autophagy-related genes were overrepresentedin the late sampling stages,suggesting that the functional shift may coincide with the subsequent stepsof chilling development.We further classified the potential regulatory components and concluded thatethylene may play the crucial role in chilling development in this non-climacteric fruit.To cope withcomplex events,53 upregulated transcription factors represented regulatory candidates.Within these,the AP2-EREBP,C2H2 and AS2 gene family were overrepresented.Cold storage also causes alterationsin various metabolic pathways; a keen interest is paid in deciphering expression changes of solublesugar genes as increased evidence that soluble sugars act as both osmolytes and metabolite signalmolecules.Our results will likely facilitate further studies in this field with promising genetic candidatesduring chilling.

  20. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  1. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for endometrial protection during estrogen replacement therapy: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depypere, H; Inki, P

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is a well-established method of managing climacteric symptoms in women approaching the menopause, but it is associated with a significant risk of endometrial hyperplasia if unopposed by concomitant progestogen administration. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) offers a highly effective method of minimizing this risk and has additional benefits beyond endometrial protection. The LNG-IUS provides excellent contraception, which may still be necessary in perimenopausal women, and is suitable for women with underlying conditions that may preclude their use of estrogen-containing contraceptive methods. It can effectively manage bleeding problems through the transition from perimenopause into menopause, with many women developing amenorrhea. The LNG-IUS is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile, which generally mirrors that of women of reproductive age using it for contraception only. Moreover, the LNG-IUS plus ERT combination does not appear to be associated with clinically relevant effects on plasma lipids or other markers of cardiovascular risk. Women using the LNG-IUS plus ERT also experience improvements in quality of life, and adherence and continuation rates are high. This review will summarize the clinical evidence for the use of the LNG-IUS plus ERT in peri- and postmenopausal women and present the key attributes of this combined therapy.

  2. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  3. The Lstest Progress Of Oryzanol%谷维素新用途的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秀兰; 郝慧

    2013-01-01

    谷维素是从米糠油中提取出来的一种维生素类药物,临床上用来治疗植物神经功能失调、周期性精神病、脑震荡后遗症、更年期综合征、经前期紧张症、血管神经性头痛等。近年来,该药物被用于高脂血症、室性快速心律失常、Ⅱ型糖尿病、小儿多汗症、小儿神经性尿频、消化性溃疡、肠道易激综合症及菌痢等,疗效较好。%Oryzanol is one of the vitamin drugs extracted from rice bran oil,used for the treatment of vegetative dystonia,periodic psychosis,postconcussion syndrome,climacteric syndrome,Premenstrual stress disorder,Angioneurotic headache etc.In recent years,it is used to treat hyperlipidemia,Ventricular tachyarrhythmia,non-insulin dependent diabetes,hyperhidrosis,Pediatric Neurology urinary frequency,functional dyspepsia,peptic ulcer,irritable bowel syndrome,bacillary dysentery etc,and has achieved good curative effect. The detailed introduction is as follows.

  4. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors.

  5. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  6. Depressão e ansiedade em mulheres climatéricas: fatores associados Depression and anxiety in menopausal women: associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernando Polisseni

    2009-01-01

    ção significativa entre a presença de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade moderada e o aparecimento dessas alterações do humor (pPURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in climacteric women and the probable factors responsible for its occurrence. METHODS: a transversal study that has selected 93 women attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic, from May 2006 to August 2007. Inclusion criteria were: women from 40 to 65 years old who agreed with participating in the project. Exclusion criteria: patients in hormonal therapy, hormone-therapy by implant, DIUs and depo injections in the preceding six months, endocrinopathies leading to menstrual irregularities, hepatopathies, thrombopathies, use of drugs which interfere in the menstrual cycle, anxiolytics and antidepressants (as their use indicates previous diagnosis of mood disorders, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer or psychiatric disease, and patients who had been submitted to radio or chemotherapy. During the interview, four questionnaires were applied: Anamnesis, containing socio-demographic, clinical and living habits data; Blatt-Kupperman's Menopausal Index for climacteric syndrome diagnosis; Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS-A for anxiety diagnosis; and Beck's Depression Inventory for the diagnosis of depression. Descriptive and correlation analysis among the variables, χ2 and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were performed using the Statistica Software program, version 6. RESULTS: the average depression prevalence among the patients was 36.8%, while that of anxiety was 53.7%. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the three phases of climacterium. There was a significant relationship between the presence of moderate climacteric symptoms and the presence of mood alterations (p<0.001. Depression was more frequent in women with anxiety (OR=4.2 and insomnia (OR=4.9, having a job being a protection factor (OR=0.2. Risk factors

  7. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  9. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    A survey based on a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of Danish women aged 40-59 yr living on the island of Fünen (n = 401, response rate = 79%) revealed that the overall prevalence of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 16%, the highest rate being in the 50-54 age group (21......%). Among post-menopausal women the rate was 21% and it was highest of all (37%) in those who had undergone an artificial menopause. The median age at the start of treatment was 44.3 yr among the artificial menopause and 48.9 yr among the natural menopause subjects. About half of the women were treated...... with natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  10. The chimeric repressor version of an Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family member, Sl-ERF.B3, shows contrasting effects on tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Diretto, Gianfranco; Pirrello, Julien; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Giuliano, Giovanni; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening involves a complex interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated transcriptional regulators. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of ethylene signaling, known to regulate the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Although fruit ripening is an ethylene-regulated process, the role of ERFs remains poorly understood. The role of Sl-ERF.B3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit maturation and ripening is addressed here using a chimeric dominant repressor version (ERF.B3-SRDX). Over-expression of ERF.B3-SRDX results in a dramatic delay of the onset of ripening, enhanced climacteric ethylene production and fruit softening, and reduced pigment accumulation. Consistently, genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and in softening are up-regulated and those of carotenoid biosynthesis are down-regulated. Moreover, the expression of ripening regulators, such as RIN, NOR, CNR and HB-1, is stimulated in ERF.B3-SRDX dominant repressor fruits and the expression pattern of a number of ERFs is severely altered. The data suggest the existence of a complex network enabling interconnection between ERF genes which may account for the pleiotropic alterations in fruit maturation and ripening. Overall, the study sheds new light on the role of Sl-ERF.B3 in the transcriptional network controlling the ripening process and uncovers a means towards uncoupling some of the main ripening-associated processes.

  11. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  13. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro E P; Frasse, Pierre; Maza, Elie; Zouine, Mohamed; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pirrello, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangshu Mou

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  15. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  16. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene.

  17. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi João Paulo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

  18. A transcriptomics-based kinetic model for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit: development, validation and exploration of novel regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-05-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is involved in many physiological processes including climacteric fruit ripening, in which it is a key determinant of fruit quality. A detailed model that describes ethylene biochemistry dynamics is missing. Often, kinetic modeling is used to describe metabolic networks or signaling cascades, mostly ignoring the link with transcriptomic data. We have constructed an elegant kinetic model that describes the transfer of genetic information into abundance and metabolic activity of proteins for the entire ethylene biosynthesis pathway during fruit development and ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Our model was calibrated against a vast amount of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data and showed good descriptive qualities. Subsequently it was validated successfully against several ripening mutants previously described in the literature. The model was used as a predictive tool to evaluate novel and existing hypotheses regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. This bottom-up kinetic network model was used to indicate that a side-branch of the ethylene pathway, the formation of the dead-end product 1-(malonylamino)-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC), might have a strong effect on eventual ethylene production. Furthermore, our in silico analyses indicated potential (post-) translational regulation of the ethylene-forming enzyme ACC oxidase.

  19. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  20. 更年期的妇女保健%Menopausal women health care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜翠玲; 赵艳

    2014-01-01

    All the time,many people recognize the one-sided on female climacteric,and it brings great trouble to menopausal women.This paper starts from the psychological and physiological characteristics of menopausal women.It puts forward the necessity and importance of menopausal women health care,and provides practical guidance for menopausal women health care.It is conducive to the effective control and prevention of physical and mental disease in menopause women,and provides a good foundation for reducing blindness.%一直以来,很多人对女性更年期的认识存在片面性,给更年期女性带来很大的困扰。本文从更年期妇女的心理和生理特点分析入手,提出了更年期妇女保健的必要性和重要性,为更年期妇女保健提供了可行性指导,有利于更年期妇女有效地进行身心疾病防治,为减少认知盲目性打下良好的基础。

  1. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  2. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Chilling Injury and Maintains Postharvest Quality in Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lei; ZHENG Yong-hua; ZHANG Yan-fen; WANG Feng; ZHANG Lan; LU Zhao-xin

    2003-01-01

    Zhaohui peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) were treated with 0 (CK), 1, 10 or 100 μmol L-1methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapor at 20℃ for 24 h before stored at 0℃ for 35 d. The untreated fruits showed chilling injury (CI) symptoms after 4 wk of storage, as indicated by increased fruit firmness and reduced extractable juice, which is referred as leatheriness. Treatment with 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA promoted normal ripening and softening, maintained higher levels of extractable juice, titratable acidity, pectinesterase (PE)and polygalacturonase (PG) activities, inhibited increases in fruit fresh weight loss, decay incidence, electrolyte leakage and MDA content, and improved color development, thereby preventing chilling injury symptoms development and maintaining edible quality. MeJA treatment also delayed the climacteric rise in respiratory rate, but promoted ethylene production during the later period of cold storage, suggesting that ethylene may involve in CI development of peaches. These results indicate that 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA treatments could be used to reduce CI development and decay incidence in peaches.

  3. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of isomiroestrol, an identical marker, in White Kwao Krua using a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-04-15

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica or White Kwao Krua (WKK) is a phytoestrogen-rich plant widely used among women to improve climacteric symptoms. Additionally, the tuberous roots of this plant have been added as an active ingredient for skin rejuvenation and breast enlargement effects in various functional foods. However, most of the products on the market containing WKK have not been sufficiently standardized with respect to the active compound or identical marker. To control the quality of these plant materials, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-isomiroestrol antibodies was established for the determination of isomiroestrol, an identical marker in WKK. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against isomiroestrol were generated and their specificity characterized in this study. Monoclonal antibody 12C1 showed higher specificity to isomiroestrol and was thus selected to develop the ELISA. Based on the validation analysis and the tested performance of the developed ELISA in variably sourced WKK samples, the assay can provide an alternative approach that is reliable and highly sensitive for the quantitative analysis of isomiroestrol in plant.

  4. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  5. Respiration during Postharvest Development of Soursop Fruit, Annona muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, J; Paull, R E

    1984-09-01

    Fruit of soursop, Annona muricata L., showed increased CO(2) production 2 days after harvest, preceding the respiratory increase that coincided with autocatalytic ethylene evolution and other ripening phenomena. Experiments to alter gas exchange patterns of postharvest fruit parts and tissue cylinders had little success.The respiratory quotient of tissue discs was near unity throughout development. 2,4-Dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration more effectively than carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 0.4 millimolar KCN stimulated, 4 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid slightly inhibited, and their combination strongly inhibited respiration, as did 10 millimolar NaN(3). Tricarboxylic acid cycle members and ascorbate were more effective substrates than sugars, but acetate and glutarate strongly inhibited.Disc respiration showed the same early peak as whole fruit respiration; this peak is thus an inherent characteristic of postharvest development and cannot be ascribed to differences between ovaries of the aggregatetype fruit. The capacity of the respiratory apparatus did not change during this preclimacteric peak, but the contents of rate-limiting malate and citrate increased after harvest.It is concluded that the preclimacteric rise in CO(2) evolution reflects increased mitochondrial respiration because of enhanced supply of carboxylates as a substrate, probably induced by detachment from the tree. The second rise corresponds with the respiration during ripening of other climacteric fruits.

  6. Extension of the shelf life of guava by individual packaging with cling and shrink films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Seema; Siddiqui, Saleem; Goyal, Ankit

    2015-12-01

    Guava is a climacteric fruit so physico-chemical changes continuously occur after harvest till fruit become unfit for consumption and suffers from post harvest losses. The main objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of individual film in form of Shrink and Cling wrap on shelf life of guava. Fruits were individually packed in polythene bags (LDPE) of 200 gauge thickness by Shrink and Cling wrapping and stored at 7 ± 3 °C. Individual wrapping reduced the magnitude of changes during storage i.e., ripening process drastically as evident from lower total soluble solids, higher ascorbic acid, polyphenol content with lower polyphenol oxidase activity and physiological loss of weight (PLW) was less than 3.5 %. Film wrapping preserved freshness of wrapped fruits as they remained acceptable for whole storage time in contrast to control fruits which turned unacceptable by 15(th) day of storage. Control fruits showed significant compositional changes as well as in polyphenol content, ascorbic acid and reduced number of marketable fruits while Cling and Shrink wrapping enhanced the shelf life by 10 days.

  7. The draft genome of MD-2 pineapple using hybrid error correction of long reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Raimi M.; Saidin, Akzam; Kumar, S. Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the elite pineapple variety, MD-2, has caused a significant market shift in the pineapple industry. Better productivity, overall increased in fruit quality and taste, resilience to chilled storage and resistance to internal browning are among the key advantages of the MD-2 as compared with its previous predecessor, the Smooth Cayenne. Here, we present the genome sequence of the MD-2 pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) by using the hybrid sequencing technology from two highly reputable platforms, i.e. the PacBio long sequencing reads and the accurate Illumina short reads. Our draft genome achieved 99.6% genome coverage with 27,017 predicted protein-coding genes while 45.21% of the genome was identified as repetitive elements. Furthermore, differential expression of ripening RNASeq library of pineapple fruits revealed ethylene-related transcripts, believed to be involved in regulating the process of non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. The MD-2 pineapple draft genome serves as an example of how a complex heterozygous genome is amenable to whole genome sequencing by using a hybrid technology that is both economical and accurate. The genome will make genomic applications more feasible as a medium to understand complex biological processes specific to pineapple. PMID:27374615

  8. Decreasing menopausal symptoms in women undertaking a web-based multi-modal lifestyle intervention: The Women's Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine

    2015-05-01

    Menopausal transition can be challenging for many women. This study tested the effectiveness of an intervention delivered in different modes in decreasing menopausal symptoms in midlife women. The Women's Wellness Program (WWP) intervention was delivered to 225 Australian women aged between 40 and 65 years through three modes (i.e., on-line independent, face-to-face with nurse consultations, and on-line with virtual nurse consultations). All women in the study were provided with a 12-week Program Book outlining healthy lifestyle behaviors while women in the consultation groups were supported by a registered nurse who provide tailored health education and assisted with individual goal setting for exercise, healthy eating, smoking and alcohol consumption. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected on menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale), health related quality of life (SF12), and modifiable lifestyle factors. Linear mixed-effect models showed an average 0.87 and 1.23 point reduction in anxiety (plifestyle intervention embedded within a wellness framework has the potential to reduce menopausal symptoms and improve quality of life in midlife women thus potentially enhancing health and well-being in women as they age. Of course, study replication is needed to confirm the intervention effects.

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  10. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Yuan, Bing; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Qi; Leng, Ping

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during tomato fruit ripening. To study the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by ABA, the SlNCED1 gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis, was suppressed in tomato plants by transformation with an RNA interference (RNAi) construct driven by a fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20-50% of that in control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to the carbon that normally channels to free ABA as well as the ABA metabolite accumulation during ripening to be partially blocked. Therefore, this 'backlogged' carbon transformed into the carotenoid pathway in the RNAi lines resulted in increased assimilation and accumulation of upstream compounds in the pathway, chiefly lycopene and β-carotene. Fruit of all RNAi lines displayed deep red coloration compared with the pink colour of control fruit. The decrease in endogenous ABA in these transgenics resulted in an increase in ethylene, by increasing the transcription of genes related to the synthesis of ethylene during ripening. In conclusion, ABA potentially regulated the degree of pigmentation and carotenoid composition during ripening and could control, at least in part, ethylene production and action in climacteric tomato fruit.

  11. Postharvest quality of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal stored under ambient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is an important genetic resource that has been traditionally used for a variety of purposes, including food, medical and cosmetics applications. The objective of this study was evaluated the quality and the period of postharvest shelf life of cocona 'Mosquet", through the physical, chemical and physiological characterization of fruits stored under the ambient conditions. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from an orchard, washed with tap water and soaked in a solution of the fungicide Prochloraz (49.5 g/100 L of water for 5 minutes. After air drying, the fruits were packed in plastic containers and stored at 24 ± 2 ºC and relative humidity 60 ± 5% for 15 days. The fruits developed a respiratory climacteric respiratory patern and remained fit for consumption up to day 6 of storage, that is, without visual symptoms of loss of water and firmness. At this stage, the fruits showed firmness of 117,42 kPa, soluble solids of 6.62º Brix and citric acid of 1.22 %.

  12. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  13. Tomato Fruit Cell Wall Synthesis during Development and Senescence : In Vivo Radiolabeling of Wall Fractions Using [C]Sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, E J; Gross, K C; Ng, T J

    1989-02-01

    The pedicel of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv ;Rutgers') of different developmental stages from immature-green (IG) to red was injected on the vine with 7 microcuries [(14)C(U)]sucrose and harvested after 18 hours. Cell walls were isolated from outer pericarp and further fractionated yielding ionically associated pectin, covalently bound pectin, hemicellulosic fraction I, hemicellulosic fraction II, and cellulosic fraction II. The dry weight of the total cell wall and of each cell wall fraction per gram fresh weight of pericarp tissue decreased after the mature-green (MG) stage of development. Incorporation of radiolabeled sugars into each fraction decreased from the IG to MG3 (locules jellied but still green) stage. Incorporation in all fractions increased from MG3 to breaker and turning (T) and then decreased from T to red. Data indicate that cell wall synthesis continues throughout ripening and increases transiently from MG4 (locules jellied and yellow to pink in color) to T, corresponding to the peak in respiration and ethylene synthesis during the climacteric. Synthesis continued at a time when total cell wall fraction dry weight decreased indicating the occurrence of cell wall turnover. Synthesis and insertion of a modified polymer with removal of other polymers may produce a less rigid cell wall and allow softening of the tissue integrity during ripening.

  14. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious' pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol. Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  15. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  16. Ripening-related gene from avocado fruit : ethylene-inducible expression of the mRNA and polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, D J; Sirevåg, R; Christoffersen, R E

    1992-02-01

    Fruit ripening involves a series of changes in gene expression regulated by the phytohormone ethylene. AVOe3, a ripening-related gene in avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass), was characterized with regard to its ethylene-regulated expression. The AVOe3 mRNA and immunopositive protein were induced in mature fruit within 12 hours of propylene treatment. The AVOe3 mRNA levels reached a maximum 1 to 2 days before the ethylene climacteric, whereas the immunopositive protein continued to accumulate. RNA selected by the pAVOe3 cDNA clone encoded a polypeptide with molecular mass of 34 kilodaltons, corresponding to the molecular mass of the AVOe3 protein determined by immunoblots. The protein was soluble, remaining in solution at 100,000 gravity and eluted as a monomer on gel filtration. Because of its pattern of induction and relationship to an ethylene-related gene of tomato, the possible involvement of AVOe3 in ethylene biosynthesis is discussed.

  17. Uwarunkowania zaburzeń snu u kobiet stosujących hormonalną terapię zastępczą i niestosujących hormonalnej terapii zastępczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wilczak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms accompanying the changes occurring in a female organism in the climacteric period constitutemore frequently a major health-related problem and via its influence on the quality of life, they also becomesocial-related problems concerning many millions of women worldwide.The aim of the study was to estimate the conditioning of sleeping disorders in women using and not usinghormonal replacement therapy (HRT.90 patients between 15 and 80 years of age participated in the study (M = 49.81; SD = 11.69. Psychologicaltests and sleeping disorders tests that were used: Courtauld Emotional Control, Beck Depression Inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth SleepinessScale, Athens Insomnia Scale. The analysis of the results included first of all measuring of r-Pearson’s correlationbetween sleeping disorders such as difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or awakening too early andgroups of variables such as the level of psychic life (satisfaction with life as a positive indicator and depressionas an indicator of disorders, control of emotions (anger, depression and anxiety as well as general control indicatorand self-esteem (general self-esteem, competences, being loved, popularity, leadership features, self-control,moral self-acceptance, physical attractiveness, vitality, integration of identity, defensive self-enhancement.

  18. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  19. Molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene (CcETR1) in coffee trees, its relationship with fruit development and caffeine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Porras, José; Campa, Claudine; Poncet, Valérie; Noirot, Michel; Leroy, Thierry; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    To understand the importance of ethylene receptor genes in the quality of coffee berries three full-length cDNAs corresponding to a putative ethylene receptor gene (ETR1) were isolated from Coffea canephora cDNA libraries. They differed by their 3'UTR and contained a main ORF and a 5'UTR short ORF putatively encoding a small polypeptide. The CcETR1 gene, present as a single copy in the C. canephora genome, contained five introns in the coding region and one in its 5'UTR. Alternative splicing can occur in C. canephora and C. pseudozanguebariae, leading to a truncated polypeptide. C. pseudozanguebariae ETR1 transcripts showed various forms of splicing alterations. This gene was equally expressed at all stages of fruit development. A segregation study on an inter-specific progeny showed that ETR1 is related to the fructification time, the caffeine content of the green beans, and seed weight. Arabidopsis transformed etiolated seedlings, which over-expressed CcETR1, displayed highly reduced gravitropism, but the triple response was observed in an ethylene enriched environment. These plants behaved like a low-concentration ethylene-insensitive mutant thus confirming the receptor function of the encoded protein. This gene showed no induction during the climacteric crisis but some linkage with traits related to quality.

  20. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  1. Model Arrhenius untuk Pendugaan Laju Respirasi Brokoli Terolah Minimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Imamah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed broccoli are perishable product because it still has some metabolism process during the storage period. One of the metabolism process is respiration. Respiration rate is varied depend on the commodity and storage temperature. The purpose of this research are: to review the respiration pattern of minimally processed broccoli during storage period, to study the effect of storage temperature to respiration rate, and to review the correlation between respiration rate and temperature based on Arrhenius model. Broccoli from farming organization “Agro Segar” was processed minimally and then measure the respiration rate. Closed system method is used to measure O2 and CO2 concentration. Minimally processed broccoli is stored at a temperature of 0oC, 5oC, 10oC and 15oC. The experimental design used was completely randomized design of the factors to analyze the rate of respiration. The result shows that broccoli is a climacteric vegetable. It is indicated by the increasing of O2 consumption and CO2 production during senescence phase. The respiration rate increase as high as the increasing of temperature storage. Models Arrhenius can describe correlation between respiration rate and temperature with R2 = 0.953-0.947. The constant value of activation energy (Eai and pre-exponential factor (Roi from Arrhenius model can be used to predict the respiration rate of minimally processed broccoli in every storage temperature

  2. Interactions among cooling, fungicide and postharvest ripening temperature on peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Trujillo, J. Pablo; Cano, Antonio; Artes, Francisco [Postharvest and refrigeration Lab., Dept. of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. 'Miraflores') harvested at the firm-ripe stage, treated or not with 2 g l{sup -1} iprodione, were cooled or not at 1{sup o}C and ripened at 15 or 20{sup o}C and 95% RH for 10 days. During ripening, weight loss, fungal development and changes in quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ground and flesh color), and carbon dioxide and ethylene production were monitored. Cooling alone or combined with iprodione avoided Rhizopus nigricans decay during ripening at either ripening temperatures. A skin damage not previously reported on fungicide treated peach was observed at 20{sup o}C. Cooled fruit ripened at 15{sup o}C showed an anomalous respiration rate and ethylene production after the climacteric peak, a loss of firmness and a drop in titratable acidity after 7 days of storage, and reduced endo-polygalacturonase activity in presence of continuous pectinmethylesterase activity during the first week. Cooling before ripening at 20{sup o}C led to the best flavor without excessive total losses. These results helped in the optimization of warming cycles during cold storage used to avoid chilling injuries development on peaches. (Author)

  3. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  4. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1 Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2 Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT. (3 Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

  5. Effects of di-zhen granules on catecholamine transmitter and gonadotropin of clamacteric rats with Deficiency of yin brings about the interior heat-syndrome%地贞颗粒对更年期拟阴虚内热证大鼠儿茶酚胺递质 及促性腺激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤劲松; 胡随瑜; 向群辉; 李霞玲; 陈昌华; 王勇华

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were given with some kindsof hot property of herb to produce model of Deficiency of yin brings about the interior heat-syndrome. The weight, water drinking volume, and body temperature of model rats were observed at the process of producing model and the treatment of di-zhen granules. Hypothalamic NE, DA and plasma NE, E concentration were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and serum E2, FSH, LH levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were that after having been given the hot property of herbs for 2 weeks, the model rats increased water drinking volume and body temperature, which is similar to the appearance of patients with Deficiency of yin brings about the interior heat syndrome, and after having heen treated with di-zhen granules, the water drinking volume and temperature of model rats decreased significantly (P<0.01). The hypothalamic NE, DA, plasma NE, E, and the serum FSH, LH of the group treated with di-zhen granules were significantly lower than that of the model group and the normal group(P<0.01). The results show that our model mentioned above possesses some characteristic features of the human climacteric syndrome which exhibits Deficiency of yin brings about the interior heat-syndrome. Di-zhen granules may regulate the function of GnRH neurons and other neurotic nucleus in hypothalamus, and then rectify the endocrine disorders of climacteric.%给15月龄SD雌性大鼠灌服热性中药制造更年期拟阴虚内热证大鼠模型。观测造模前、后及地贞颗粒、盖福润治疗后大鼠的体重、饮水量、肛温的变化。测定各组动物下丘脑去甲肾上腺素(NE),多巴胺(DA),血浆NE,肾上腺素(E),血清雌二醇(E2),促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)值。结果显示:造模后,大鼠饮水量增加、肛温上升。地贞颗粒治疗后,大鼠饮水量减少、肛温下降(P<0.01)。地贞颗粒组下

  6. Resistencia mecánica, tasa respiratoria y producción de etileno de caqui 'Fuyu' durante el almacenamiento Mechanical resistance, respiratory rate and the ethylene production of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Dussán-Sarria

    2008-10-01

    during the postharvest period independently of the conservation conditions. The Young's modulus varied between 3,695.3 and 968.2 kPa. The harvest index of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' influenced the Young's modulus values during the storage. The persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' showed a respiratory pattern characteristic of climacteric fruits and exhibited a maximum ethylene evolution at the climacteric peak.

  7. Comportamiento fisiológico de la pera variedad Triunfo de Viena (Pyrus communis L. durante el período poscosecha Physiological performance of pears (Pyrus communis L., cv. Triunfo de Viena during postharvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La pera variedad Triunfo de Viena es una fruta producida en Colombia y actualmente no se dispone de una red de frío para su manejo poscosecha. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer el comportamiento fisiológico de la pera variedad Triunfo de Viena en tres condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa: 3ºC y 85%, 11ºC y 80%, 18ºC y 75%. La pera variedad Triunfo de Viena es un fruto climatérico, cuyo punto de máxima intensidad respiratoria puede desplazarse en el tiempo dependiendo de las condiciones de almacenamiento. Para las condiciones estudiadas, el climaterio se presentó en el día 22 (35,87 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, en el día 36 (28,59 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 y en el día 93 (15,72 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 del almacenamiento, para las temperaturas de 18ºC, 11ºC y 3ºC respectivamente. La pérdida de peso presentó una relación lineal y directa respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento, siendo mayor con temperaturas de 18ºC y 11ºC. La acidez titulable y el pH no presentan grandes variaciones durante el almacenamiento. La intensidad respiratoria, la pérdida de peso, la relación SST/AT y la firmeza de la pulpa, son las características que representan mejor la evolución de la madurez de las peras variedad Triunfo de Viena.The pear cv. Triunfo de Viena is a fruit produced in Colombia, but at present time there is no cool chamber to handle it. The objective of this work was to determine the pear's physiological performance under three conditions of temperature and relative humidity: 3ºC and 85%, 11ºC and 80%, 18ºC and 75%. The pear cv. Triunfo de Viena is a climacterically fruit, which its maximum point of respiratory rate could vary according to the storage conditions. For the evaluated conditions, the number of days required to reach the climacteric-like peak was 22 (35,87 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, 36 (28,59 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 93 (15,72 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1, at temperatures of 18ºC, 11ºC and 3ºC respectively. The weight loss presented a linear and direct

  8. Desenvolvimento do maracujá doce em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Fruit development of sweet passion fruit in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Robson Ribeiro Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as mudanças físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do maracujá doce, da antese até o completo amadurecimento na planta. Os frutos apresentaram formato ligeiramente oblongo, padrão de desenvolvimento sigmoidal simples e padrão climatérico para a respiração. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases: divisão celular até 4,70 dias após a antese (daa, expansão celular de 4,70 daa até 28,94 daa e maturação, de 28,94 daa a 91 daa. Na primeira fase, há pouco incremento nas dimensões do fruto, altas taxas respiratórias, crescimento acelerado da espessura do pericarpo e coloração do pericarpo verde-claro. Na fase seguinte, há intenso desenvolvimento das dimensões do fruto, ganho acelerado de massa da matéria fresca e coloração do pericarpo verde-intenso. Na terceira fase, há tendência à estabilização das dimensões, desenvolvimento de polpa acentuado, o teor de sólidos solúveis aumenta, os teores de vitamina C e acidez titulável diminuem. O pico do climatério foi registrado aos 63 daa. No último dia de avaliação, aos 91 daa, a polpa (suco + sementes representava 24,46% da massa da matéria fresca total do fruto, o pericarpo respondia por 74,10% e as sementes isoladas, por 3,14%.The physical, chemical and physiological changes during the development of sweet passion fruit, from anthesis to ripening in the plant, were evaluated. Fruits had a slightly oblong shape, a simple sigmoidal pattern of development and climacteric pattern for respiration. Fruit development was divided into three phases: cell division up to 4.70 days after anthesis (daa; cell expansion from 4.70 daa to 28.94 daa and maturation from 28.94 to 91 daa. In the cell division phase, there is little increase in fruit size, high respiratory rates, rapid growth of the pericarp thickness, and pericarp of clear green color. In the cell expansion phase, there is intense development of the fruit

  9. Os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa The meanings attributed to the voice by menopause women

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    Maria Aparecida Miranda de Paula Machado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados de 148 mulheres nos prontuários médicos, entre fevereiro de 2000 e outubro de 2001, no Programa da Saúde da Mulher no Climatério, do ambulatório de ginecologia de um hospital na cidade de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. Dentre a população total foram selecionadas intencionalmente 30 mulheres entre 48 e 59 anos, que não se consideravam profissionais da voz, no mínimo há 12 meses em amenorréia, e que foram entrevistadas com um roteiro temático, constituído de questões semi-estruturadas. Cada entrevista foi gravada e transcrita. A descrição, análise e interpretação foram fundamentadas pelas representações sociais, por meio do discurso do sujeito coletivo, com aproximações à hermenêutica-dialética. RESULTADOS: Os 27 discursos coletivos estruturados denotaram o relacionamento da voz às características biológicas, psicológicas e aspectos sociais do cotidiano, com a identificação de mudanças vocais no decorrer da vida. CONCLUSÕES: Foi possível observar representações sociais de natureza comunicacional e funcional, que salientaram a voz como elemento de constituição da identidade pessoal, concebida na pertinência social. A pesquisa sugere novas investigações fundamentadas nas ciências sociais, simultâneas aos estudos epidemiológicos, e a necessidade de se refletir sobre o processo de terapêutica vocal aplicado sobre uma laringe mais vulnerável, além de priorizar uma proposta de assistência integral à mulher no climatério, com enfoque sobre a saúde da voz.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed to the voice by menopausal women. METHODS: Data were collected from 148 medical records of women seen in the Climacteric Women Health Program of the Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia Gynecology Outpatient Clinic in Curitiba, Brazil, between February 2000 and October 2001. Of them, 30 women aged

  10. Ripening pattern of guava cv. Pedro Sato Padrão de amadurecimento de goiaba cv. Pedro Sato

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    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava is a fruit with high respiration rates and a very short shelf life. Since information on its respiration pattern is contradictory, the objective was to study the changes occurring in the fruit during ripening and to relate them to the respiration behavior of this fruit. Guavas were picked at the half-ripe stage and stored for 8 days at 22 ± 1 ºC and 78 ± 1% relative humidity. The analyses conducted were: peel and pulp coloration, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, and ethylene production. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters analyzed apparently do not coincide and are ethylene-independent. There was an accentuated ethylene production during ripening, starting from the 4th day. The ethylene synthesis continued increasing up to the 8th day, when the fruits were already decomposing. It was observed that the firmness decreased sharply in the first three days of ripening, and the skin and pulp color changed during ripening. The TSS, total soluble solids, and the TTA, total titratable acidity, practically did not change during the ripening, even with the increased ethylene production. It can be concluded that guava is a fruit that presents characteristics of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.A goiaba apresenta altas taxas de respiração e uma vida útil muito curta, e como as informações sobre o padrão respiratório são contraditórias, objetivou-se estudar mudanças ocorridas no fruto durante o amadurecimento e relacioná-las ao comportamento respiratório desses frutos. Foram colhidas goiabas no estádio "de vez" e armazenadas por 8 dias à temperatura ambiente (22 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa de 78 ± 1%. As análises realizadas foram: coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e produção de etileno. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que todas as variáveis analisadas aparentemente não coincidem e independem da s

  11. Prevalência de osteoporose em mulheres na pós-menopausa e associação com fatores clínicos e reprodutivos Prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and association with clinical and reproductive factors

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    Lúcia Costa-Paiva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de osteoporose e fatores clínicos e reprodutivos associados à diminuição da densidade mineral óssea de mulheres climatéricas. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo de corte transversal em que foram avaliados 473 prontuários de mulheres acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do CAISM/Unicamp, que estavam em amenorréia há pelo menos 12 meses e tiveram a densidade da massa óssea avaliada por densitometria óssea no Setor de Medicina Nuclear. Foram avaliados: idade, cor, índice de massa corporal, escolaridade, tabagismo, idade à menarca, idade à menopausa, paridade, uso de terapia de reposição hormonal e densidade óssea. A analise estatística foi realizada por meio de regressão logística ajustada por idade e uso de terapia de reposição hormonal. RESULTADOS: a média etária foi de 53,9 anos (DP ±7,1 e a média da idade à menopausa, de 45,9 anos (DP ±6,9. Na coluna lombar, a prevalência de osteoporose (L2-L4 foi de 14,7% e de osteopenia, 38%, ao passo que no fêmur foi de 3,8 e 32,7%, respectivamente. A regressão logística mostrou que as variáveis associadas à densidade óssea da coluna lombar foram: escolaridade, idade na menarca, idade à menopausa e índice de massa corporal. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de osteoporose e osteopenia foi alta. A maior idade, menor escolaridade, menarca tardia, menopausa em idade mais precoce e menor índice de massa corporal foram fatores identificados como de risco para diminuição da massa óssea na população estudada.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in climacteric women and analyze the influence of general and reproductive risk factors on bone mineral density. METHODS: a cross-sectional study with the evaluation of the 473 hospital records of climacteric women followed up at the Menopause Outpatient Facility of CAISM/Unicamp, between 03/28/2000 and 04/17/2001. These women were at least 12 months in amenorrhea and presented the results of

  12. 北京妇产医院就诊妇女更年期症状发生率的调查研究%Investigation on the prevalence of menopausal symptoms of women in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚美; 阮祥燕; 田玄玄; 张颖; 武红琴; 刘玉兰; 甄洁; Diethelm Wallwiener; Alfred O.Mueck

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对更年期妇女健康状况的调查,了解妇女在绝经后的特征。方法对就诊于首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院门诊的绝经后妇女进行更年期症状评分。建立数据库,应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析。结果194名妇女完成调查,出现更年期症状的前5位症状依次为疲乏(79.38%)、失眠(76.80%)、易激惹(74.23%)、抑郁(67.01%)、心悸(67.01%),绝经后妇女为膝关节疼痛(100.00%)、阴道干燥(100.00%)、尿失禁(100.00%)、疲乏(77.68%)、失眠(75.89%)。其中性交疼痛和蚁走感的发生率低于50.00%,潮热的发生率为55.36%。对194名妇女相关性分析显示:高卵泡刺激素( follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)值、较大年龄、文化程度低妇女更年期症状重。结论北京妇产医院就诊的更年期妇女的更年期症状分布不同于西方妇女的更年期症状,年龄、教育程度、FSH 可能与更年期症状有相关性,总胆固醇( total cholesterol , TC )、三酰甘油(triglyceride,TG)、高密度脂蛋白(high density lipoprotein cholesterol,HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)、孕酮(progesterone,P)、睾酮(testosterone,T)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)与更年期症状相关性不明显。%Objective To investigate climacteric symptoms and the health status of perimenopausal women in Hospital .Methods The questionnaire survey was carried out on menopausal women .SPSS 17 .0 software was used to analyze the data .Results There are 194 women completed the survey.The five most frequent symptoms in menopausal women were fatigue (79.38%), insomnia(76.80%), irritability(74.23%), depression(67.01%), palpitation(67.01%), while in postmenopausal women were knee pain (100%), vaginal dryness(100%), urinary

  13. INHIBICIÓN DE LESIONES POR FRÍO DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya A TRAVÉS DEL CHOQUE TÉRMICO: CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA Inhibition of Chillyng Injury in Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruit by Heat Shock: Catalese, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase

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    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    Full Text Available En los ensayos de almacenamiento de pitaya a temperatura ambiente de Bogotá (18 ºC se encontró que esta fruta tiene un comportamiento climatérico con un máximo en la respiración luego de tres días de iniciado el almacenamiento. En el máximo climatérico la actividad de catalasa fue máxima, en tanto que en la etapa de senescencia las actividades de peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa exhibieron valores máximos. El choque térmico inhibió las lesiones por frío, vistas en los frutos refrigerados a 2 °C, este choque incrementó la actividad de catalasa y peroxidasa y disminuyó la actividad de polifenoloxidasa, respecto a los frutos refrigerados sin tratamiento de choque térmico. Los resultados muestran que la catalasa está en relación directa con la vida útil del fruto, mientras que polifenoloxidasa guarda estrecha relación con el deterioro. La peroxidasa manifiesta su acción antioxidante con la generación de pardeamiento, en frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente, si bien en los tratados con choque térmico, su acción antioxidante no va de la mano con el incremento en el pardeamiento, por lo que en este caso, su expresión fue favorable. Los resultados encontrados se constituyen en un aporte en la búsqueda de técnicas que permitan mayores tiempos de vida en anaquel de los frutos.In the storage of yellow pitaya fruit at room temperature in Bogotá (18 ºC, it was found that this fruit has a climacteric behavior with a maximum in the respiration after 3 days of its storage. In the climacteric the activity of catalase was higher, while in the senescence stage the activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase exhibited maximum values. The heat shock inhibited the chilling injury, shows in the fruits refrigerated at 2 °C, this heat shock increased the activity of catalase and peroxidase and it delayed the activity of polyphenoloxidase, regarding the fruits refrigerated without treatment of heat shock. The results show that

  14. Senescência pós-colheita de inflorescências de esporinha (Consolida ajacis Postharvest senescence of Consolida ajacis inflorescences

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    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de inibidores da ação e síntese de etileno sobre a longevidade, respiração e produção de etileno em inflorescências de Consolida ajacis Nieuwl. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente condicionadas em 5% de sacarose e em 1 mM de tiossulfato de prata (STS em combinação, ou não, com 5% de sacarose por 30 minutos, e pulverizadas com 0,5, 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 mM de ácido aminooxiacético (AOA e com 5, 10, 15 e 20 mM de ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS. A senescência da flor de C. ajacis foi caracterizada pela produção climatérica de etileno e CO2, que atingiu níveis máximos aos seis dias após a colheita, coincidentes com os estádios tardios da abscisão e murchamento das flores. A longevidade prolongou-se 2,46 vezes nas flores condicionadas com 1 mM de STS. Porém, a adição de 5% de sacarose ao STS reduziu a longevidade das flores. O condicionamento das hastes com 5% de sacarose ou pulverização com 2 mM de AOA e 20 mM de AAS não prolongou a longevidade ou inibiu a respiração e o etileno climatéricos. O STS foi efetivo em reduzir a respiração e a produção de etileno.This work had the objective of evaluating the influence of inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis on the longevity, respiration and ethylene production of Consolida ajacis Nieuwl. inflorescences. The inflorescences were harvested and immediately pulsed with 5% sucrose, 1 mM silver thiosulfate (STS combined or not with 5% sucrose for 30 minutes or sprayed with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM aminooxiacetic acid (AOA and 5, 10, 15 and 20 mM acetylsalicylic acid (ASA. Flower senescence of C. ajacis was characterized by the presence of climacteric ethylene and CO2 production, reaching maximal evolution at the sixth day after harvest, which were coincident with the later phases of the flower abscission and wilting. Longevity of flowers pulsed with 1 mM STS increased by 2.46-fold compared to control flowers. However, when

  15. Avaliação da capacidade orgástica em mulheres na pós-menopausa Assessment of orgasmic capacity of postmenopausal women

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    Sonia Regina Lenharo Penteado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a capacidade orgástica (durante a relação sexual e/ou a masturbação solitária de mulheres pós-menopausadas, saudáveis e sem tratamento hormonal com fatores climatéricos, psicossociais, comportamentais, hormonais e interpessoais. MÉTODOS: De um total de 999 mulheres avaliadas com idade entre 41 e 60 anos, selecionaram-se 60 mulheres saudáveis, sexualmente ativas, com pelo menos um ano de amenorréia, útero íntegro, relacionamento estável com parceiro capacitado ao coito e não usuárias de terapia hormonal. Elaborou-se um modelo estatístico de regressão logística que avaliou a capacidade de orgasmo (variável dependente em função de 17 variáveis independentes, que representavam fatores psicossociais, comportamentais, interpessoais, climatéricos e hormonais. RESULTADOS: A capacidade orgástica está significativamente correlacionada à prática da masturbação (p=0,000, ao gostar de abraçar e acariciar o corpo do parceiro (p= 0,036 e à presença de secura vaginal (p=0,021. CONCLUSÕES: Nas mulheres pós-menopausadas avaliadas, a capacidade orgástica relacionou-se positivamente com o relacionamento mais afetivo com o companheiro e com a prática da masturbação. Mulheres que apresentam secura vaginal, mas que praticam a masturbação e mantêm relacionamento afetivo com o parceiro, conseguem obter o mesmo número ou um número maior de orgasmos se comparados à freqüência do coito.OBJECTIVE: To correlate the capacity of healthy postmenopausal women to have orgasms (during intercourse or by solitary masturbation with psychosocial, behavioral, climacteric, hormonal and interpersonal factors. METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety-nine women (aged from 41 to 60 years underwent physical and supplementary tests and answered questionnaires regarding sexual behaviour. Sixty healthy women, sexually active, with one or more years of amenorrhea, without hormone therapy and with a partner capable of intercourse

  16. Influência do ácido giberélico na degradação do amido durante o amadurecimento da banana Influence of gibberellic acid in the starch breakdown during banana ripening

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    Maria Rosecler Miranda Rossetto

    2004-03-01

    of chlorophyll and in mangoes the GA3 was responsible for decrease the activity of amylases and peroxidases. The banana, climacteric fruit, have as main power plant the starch. The starch of banana, depending of the variety, is reduced during the climaterium of value that vary of 12 the 20% to less than 1%, when the fruit is ripened, and the sacharose can increase up to 12 fold, in this time. In hydrolysis of the starch, the amylases seems to play a basic role in the beginning of this degradation, therefore it is given credit that only endoamylases is capable to attack entire granules, supplying substratum performance of other enzymes until the formation of sugars. The aim of this employment was to evaluate the effect of the giberelin A3 in the ripening of the banana, focusing the degradation of the starch. It was observed that the infiltrated phytohormone did not be under influence of the respiratory climacteric, however delayed the degradation of the starch and the accumulation of soluble sugars in at least two days and the peak of total activity of amylases also it was been slow.

  17. Sexualidade no período climatérico: situações vivenciadas pela mulher Sexualidad en el período cilmatérico: situaciones vivenciadas por la mujer Sexuality in the climateric period: situations experienced by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rodrigues Fernandez

    2005-06-01

    , ofreciendo subsidios para la asistencia a la salud de la mujer contemplando la dimensión sexual.Descriptive study aimed at identifying the aspects that women, cared for at a Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics, consider positive and negative in exercising their sexuality in the climacteric phase. Data was collected through individual interviews, using the technique of critical incidents. The 45 women that were interviewed mentioned 86 situations, of which 41 (47.7 percent were considered positive and 45 (52.3 percent negative. The situations were classified in three categories: relationship with a partner, intercourse and the woman as a social being. The results showed that these women gave priority to the quality of the relationship and to the demonstration of emotion in a romantic context. They highlighted their dissatisfaction with their self-image and with the existence of sexual dominance of the men over women. The study made possible a wider understanding regarding the climacteric period, thus offering subsidies for an assistance to women's health that contemplates the sexual dimension.

  18. Caracterização da qualidade de vida segundo o estado menopausal entre mulheres da Região Sul do Brasil Characterization of the quality of life by menopausal status among women in the South region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar a qualidade de vida de mulheres climatéricas residentes na Região Sul segundo o estado menopausal delas. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas 236 mulheres com idades entre 40 e 65 anos, durante feira de saúde realizada em cidade do Sul do Brasil, em março de 2005. Na avaliação da qualidade de vida, utilizou-se a versão brasileira do instrumento Menopause Rating Scale. RESULTADOS: das entrevistadas, 133 eram pré-menopáusicas e 103 pós-menopáusicas. As primeiras referiram sintomas climatéricos moderados e severos em 37,6% e 24,0%, respectivamente, enquanto as mulheres pós-menopáusicas, relataram sintomas moderados e severos em 36,9% e 39,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Os escores globais de qualidade de vida não mostraram diferenças entre os grupos estudados (p=0,12, ainda que o grupo pré-menopáusico tenha referido mais sintomas psicológicos (p=0,05 e o pós-menopáusico mais sintomas somato-vegetativos (pOBJECTIVES: to characterize the quality of life of climacteric women residing in the South region by menopausal status. METHODS: two hundred and thirty-six women aged between 40 and 65 were interviewed during a health fair held in March 2005 in a city in the South of Brazil. Their quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Menopause Rating Scale. RESULTS: of those interviewed, 133 were pre-menopausal and 103 post-menopausal. Moderate and severe climacteric symptoms were reported by 37.6% and 24.0% of the former, respectively, while 36.9% and 39.4% of the post-menopausal women reported moderate and severe symptoms, respectively. There were no differences between the two groups studied in terms of overall scores on the quality of life scale (p=0.12, although the pre-menopausal group reported more psychological symptoms (p=0.05 and the post-menopausal group more somatic-vegetative (p<0.01 and urinogenital (p=0.01 symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: quality of life was not influenced by menopausal status

  19. ERα基因多态性与更年期焦虑抑郁发生的相关性%Correlation between polymorphism of estrogen receptor a gene and anxiety and depression during menopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伯荣; 胡佳佳; 张慧敏; 张敏; 邓燕华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索ERa基因多态性与更年期焦虑抑郁发生的相关性.方法:收集更年期焦虑抑郁患者78例(焦虑抑郁组)和无焦虑抑郁症状的更年期妇女72例(对照组),采用限制性片段酶切基因多态性分析方法(RFLP)分析所有样本的Pvu II、Xba I基因多态性,采用Greene更年期症状量表分析临床症状群的特征,采用心理症状评分(HAMD,HAMA)评定样本的抑郁焦虑程度,采用简易精神智力评定量表(MMSE)评定认知功能.结果:①焦虑抑郁组的MMSE评分和E,,P水平较对照组下降(P 0.05),Logistics 回归分析显示,ERa基因型与各症状群无相关性.ERa基因型与MMSE的评分呈现负相关(r=0.108,P=0.033).结论:ERa基因的Pvu II和Xba I的等位基因与焦虑抑郁障碍的发生无相关性,ERa Pvu II的Pp基因型与焦虑抑郁障碍的认知功能下降相关.%Objective: To explore the correlation between polymorphism of estrogen receptor α gene and anxiety and depression during menopause.Methods: 78 menopausal women with anxiety and depression ( anxiety - depression group) and 72 menopausal women without anxiety and depression (control group) were selected, RFLP was used to analyze the polymorphisms of Pvu Ⅱ and Xba Ⅰ ,GreeneClimacteric -Scale was used to analyze the characteristics of clinical symptoms, Psychological symptom scores (HAMD, HAMA) were used to assess the degrees of anxiety and depression, MMSE was used to assess the cognitive function.Results: The MMSE score, estrogen and progesterone levels in anxiety - depression group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0.01 ).The scores of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms and somatic symptoms in anxiety- depression group assessed by Greene -Climacteric -Scale were significantly higher than those in control group, the score of vasomotor symptoms decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ).There was no significant difference in allele frequency and genotype of estrogen receptor

  20. Direct targets of the tomato-ripening regulator RIN identified by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Higuchi, Naoki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes in fruit ripening produce key attributes of fruit quality including color, taste, aroma and texture. These changes are driven by the highly regulated and synchronized activation of a huge number of ripening-associated genes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a typical climacteric fruit, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN is one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, required for both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent pathways. Although we previously identified several direct RIN targets, many additional targets remain unidentified, likely including key ripening-associated genes. Here, we report the identification of novel RIN targets by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Transcriptome comparisons by microarray of wild-type and rin mutant tomatoes identified 342 positively regulated genes and 473 negatively regulated genes by RIN during ripening. Most of the positively regulated genes contained possible RIN-binding (CArG-box) sequences in their promoters. Subsequently, we selected six genes from the positively regulated genes and a ripening regulator gene, CNR, and assayed their promoters by quantitative ChIP-PCR to examine RIN binding. All of the seven genes, which are involved in cell wall modification, aroma and flavor development, pathogen defense and transcriptional regulation during ripening, are targets of RIN, suggesting that RIN may control multiple diverse ripening processes. In particular, RIN directly regulates the expression of the ripening-associated transcription factors, CNR, TDR4 and a GRAS family gene, providing an important clue to elucidate the complicated transcriptional cascade for fruit ripening.

  1. PROGRESSION VARIANTS OF CHRONIC SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Gusev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fourteen groups of patients have been investigated and divided into 2 classes. The first class included the following cohorts of patients: relatively healthy persons, age 18 to 55 yrs (n = 50; elderly persons 60 yrs old, as well as senior persons (n = 22; persons with chronic adnexitis, women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy (n = 16; climacteric syndrome (n = 16; autoimmune thyroiditis (n = 29. The second class of patients included following cohorts: elderly persons with chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI II-III stage (n=49; valvular cardiac disease (rheumatism, n = 15; psoriatic arthritis (n = 12; reactive arthritis (n = 17; antiphospholipid syndrome, a sub-group in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (n = 5; systemic lupus erythematosus (n=49; decompensated atherosclerosis of femoral artery (n = 38; end-stage renal disease (n = 42. Plasma cytokines (TNFαα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, acute-phase C-reactive protein (CRP, cortisol, troponin I, myoglobin, D-dimers, interleukin-2 soluble receptor (IL-2sR, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP were determined in all the patients, by means of immune chemiluminescent technique (Immulite; Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, USA. The integral indices of systemic inflammatory reaction (SIR have been calculated, i.e., a Reactivity Coefficient (RC and a Reactivity Level (RL. In the patients belonging to Class 1 cohorts, an absence of chronic systemic inflammation features was revealed, despite of some signs of systemic inflammatory response. Meanwhile, a majority of Class 2 patients have shown the signs of chronic systemic inflammation stage I to III.

  2. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  3. Analysis of Career Burnout of Middle-aged Career Women%中年职业女性的职业倦怠之分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2012-01-01

    中年职业女性工作压力大、烦恼多,她们在这段时期面临家庭的压力,如子女升学就业、父母的赡养照料;要面临工作的压力,如知识的更新、评职晋级、人际关系冲突;还要面临生理的变化,如更年期综合症的冲击等。这些方面造成她们更早地进入职业倦怠期。文章着重分析了中年职业女性职业倦怠的生理和心理特征,探寻通过社会、组织、家庭和自身等途径,帮助中年职业女性干预职业倦怠,促进中年女性的职业心理健康。%Middle-aged career women are confronted with pressures and vexation during their work life. They face all kinds of pressures in this period, household pressure such as their children's education and job-hunting, supporting and taking care of their parents; pressure from their own work such as the updating of knowledge, promotion in their position and interpersonal relationship problems; physiological and mental pressure such as climacteric syndrome. All these factors force them to enter into career burnout early. This paper focuses on the analysis of the physiological and psychological features of middle-aged career women with career burnout and seeks ways to help middle-aged career women to solve the problem of career burnout and promote the health in their professional psychology through social, organizational, family and personal means.

  4. Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Oleksandr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’, winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’, and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’ w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3 for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  6. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-08-06

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were ‘disease and defense’ (16.5%) and ‘metabolism’ (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of ‘Barhi’ fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  7. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were 'disease and defense' (16.5%) and 'metabolism' (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of 'Barhi' fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  8. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Biological Networks during Table Grapevine (‘Fujiminori’) Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Kekun; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoying; Bao, Yiqun; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine berry development is a complex and genetically controlled process, with many morphological, biochemical and physiological changes occurring during the maturation process. Research carried out on grapevine berry development has been mainly concerned with wine grape, while barely focusing on table grape. ‘Fujiminori’ is an important table grapevine cultivar, which is cultivated in most provinces of China. In order to uncover the dynamic networks involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism in ‘Fujiminori’ fruit, we employed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and analyzed the whole transcriptome of grape berry during development at the expanding period (40 days after full bloom, 40DAF), véraison period (65DAF), and mature period (90DAF). The sequencing depth in each sample was greater than 12×, and the expression level of nearly half of the expressed genes were greater than 1. Moreover, greater than 64% of the clean reads were aligned to the Vitis vinifera reference genome, and 5,620, 3,381, and 5,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between different fruit stages, respectively. Results of the analysis of DEGs showed that the most significant changes in various processes occurred from the expanding stage to the véraison stage. The expression patterns of F3’H and F3’5’H were crucial in determining red or blue color of the fruit skin. The dynamic networks of cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism were also constructed. A total of 4,934 SSR loci were also identified from 4,337 grapevine genes, which may be helpful for the development of phylogenetic analysis in grapevine and other fruit trees. Our work provides the foundation for developmental research of grapevine fruit as well as other non-climacteric fruits. PMID:28118385

  9. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  10. Cloning of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA-regulated ethylene production in detached young persimmon calyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; ZHANG GuangLian; LI XiangXin; WANG LiangHe; ZHENG ZhongMing

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the typical climacteric fruits,persimmons (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) produce higher levels of ethylene when they are detached from trees at a younger stage.In order to obtain detailed information on the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in ripening,we cloned the DKNCED1,DKACS2,and DKAC01 genes from the calyx.Water loss was first noted in the calyx lobe,and DKNCED1 was highly expressed 1 d after the fruits were detached,coinciding with an increase in the ABA content.Then,the DKACS2 and DKAC01 genes were expressed after some delay.In the calyx,the ABA peak was observed 2 d after the fruits were harvested,and this peak preceded the ethylene peak observed on day 3.The fruit firmness rapidly decreased on day 4,and the fruits softened completely 6 d after they were harvested.The increases in the expressions of ABA,ethylene,and the genes in the calyxes occurred earlier than the corresponding increases in the pulp,although the 3 increases occurred on different days.Exogenous ABA treatment increased ABA concentration,induced expression of both ACS and ACO,and promoted ethylene synthesis and young-fruit softening;by contrast,treatment with NDGA inhibited the gene expressions and ethylene synthesis and delayed young-fruit softening.These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in the detached young persimmon fruits is initially triggered by ABA,which is induced by water loss in the calyx,through the induction of DKACS2 and DKAC01 expressions.The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses into the pulp tissue,where it induces autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis,resulting in an abrupt increase in ethylene production.

  11. A fruit-specific plasma membrane aquaporin subtype PIP1;1 is regulated during strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Paula; Bustamante, Claudia; Martínez, Gustavo; Alleva, Karina; Sutka, Moira; Civello, Marcos; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2008-04-01

    Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit ripening, the role and contribution of water pathways are still barely considered. Our aim was therefore to characterize aquaporins, proteins that render the molecular basis for putative regulatory mechanisms in water transport. We focused our work on strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) fruit, a non-climacteric fruit of special interest because of its forced brief commercial shelf life. A full-length cDNA was isolated with high homology with plasma membrane (PM) intrinsic proteins (named FaPIP1;1), showing a profile with high expression in fruit, less in ovaries and no detection at all in other parts. Its cellular localization was confirmed at the PM. As reported in other plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 (PIP1s), when expressing the protein in Xenopus leavis oocytes, FaPIP1;1 shows low water permeability values that only increased when it is coexpressed with a plasma membrane intrinsic protein subtype 2. Northern blotting using total RNA shows that its expression increases during fruit ripening. Moreover, functional characterization of isolated PM vesicles from red stage fruit unequivocally demonstrates the presence of active water channels, i.e. high water permeability values and a low Arrhenius activation energy, both evidences of water transport mediated by proteins. Interestingly, as many ripening-related strawberry genes, the expression pattern of FaPIP1;1 was also repressed by the presence of auxins. We therefore report a fruit specific PIP1 aquaporin with an accumulation pattern tightly associated to auxins and to the ripening process that might be responsible for increasing water permeability at the level of the PM in ripe fruit.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  13. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  14. Olfactory perception in women with physiologically altered hormonal status (during pregnancy and postmenopause

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    Savović Slobodan N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olfaction is considered to be the ability to: perceive, conduct and recognize scents and odors. With its numerous connections to the limbic system and reticular formation, the olfactory system affects regulation of numerous vegetative functions, visceral functions and sexual behavior. Since estrogen and progesterone protect the olfactory function, changes in their levels in particular physiological states in women (in pregnancy and postmenopause exert an influence on the ability to feel and recognize smells. It has its role in creating emotions and adjustment of visceral and vegetative response to particular emotional states. Also, it represents the connection between higher cortical functions and the endocrine system. Material and methods Our investigation was performed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic in Novi Sad. The research included 80 healthy women classified into 4 groups; 20 women aged between 20 and 30; 20 women in the first trimester of pregnancy aged between 20 and 30; 20 premenopausal women aged between 41 and 50; and 20 women at least 3 years in postmenopause, aged between 41 and 50. For our research we used an olfactometer and the Fortunato-Niccolini method. Results and discussion In pregnancy the thresholds of perception (TP and identification (TI of examined substances were slightly lower in comparison to nonpregnant women of the same ages, but without any statistical significance (p>0.05. In climacteric-postmenopausal women there was a significant decrease of olfactory ability in comparison to nonmenopausal women of the same ages (p<0.01. Conclusion All changes of the olfactory function in pregnancy are explained by mental changes of pregnant women as well as their hormonal status. Significant decrease of olfactory ability in postmenopause is explained by decline in sexual hormone levels.

  15. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

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    Yogev Rosianski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  16. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  17. Conserved changes in the dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes across species. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the investigated set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the investigated species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening across species.

  18. 赤霉素对番茄保鲜效果的影响%The Preservation Effects of Tomato by Gibberellin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任邦来; 靳文生

    2012-01-01

    The deteriorated tomotoes were soaked for 30s with 40mg/L,80mg/L,and 120mg/L GA3(gibberellins) solutions and stored for up to 33 d at regular temperature.The effects of preservation of GA3 on tomtoes were studied.The results showed that GA3 could inhibit the peak time of respiratory rate of the climacteric in ripening tomato fruit and reduce the respiration rate.It could keep the hardness,soluble solids,titratable acid and vitamin C of tomoto.Meanwhile,it could decrease the water evaporation and weightlessness rate of fruit.The better concentration of GA3 that coated tomotoes fruit in preservation was 80mg/L.%将变色期番茄果实浸入浓度为40mg/L、80mg/L、120mg/L的赤霉素溶液中30s,在常温下贮藏33d,研究赤霉素对番茄果实保鲜效果的影响。结果表明,赤霉素处理能推迟番茄果实呼吸跃变的出现时间,降低呼吸强度峰值;对保持果实硬度、可溶性固形物、维生素C、可滴定酸有较好作用;能减少水分蒸发,降低果实失重率。使用浓度为80mg/L的赤霉素溶液对番茄果实进行涂膜处理有较好的保鲜效果。

  19. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Dianbo; Shi, Jin; Li, Ren; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of melatonin on the postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit was carried out. The tomatoes were immersed in exogenous melatonin for 2h, and then the related physiological indicators and the expression of genes during post-harvest life were evaluated. Compared with control check (CK), the 50 µM melatonin treatment significantly increased lycopene levels by 5.8-fold. Meanwhile, the key genes involved in fruit colour development, including phytoene synthase1 (PSY1) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), showed a 2-fold increase in expression levels. The rate of water loss from tomato fruit also increased 8.3%, and the expression of aquaporin genes, such as SlPIP12Q, SlPIPQ, SlPIP21Q, and SlPIP22, was up-regulated 2- to 3-fold under 50 µM melatonin treatment. In addition, 50 µM melatonin treatment enhanced fruit softening, increased water-soluble pectin by 22.5%, and decreased protopectin by 19.5%. The expression of the cell wall modifying proteins polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase1 (PE1), β-galactosidase (TBG4), and expansin1 (Exp1) was up-regulated under 50 µM melatonin treatment. Melatonin increased ethylene production by 27.1%, accelerated the climacteric phase, and influenced the ethylene signalling pathway. Alteration of ethylene production correlated with altered 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS4) expression. The expression of ethylene signal transduction-related genes such as NR, SlETR4, SlEIL1, SlEIL3, and SlERF2, was enhanced by 50 µM melatonin. The effect of melatonin on ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and ethylene signalling may contribute to fruit ripening and quality improvement in tomato. This research may promote the application of melatonin on postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit as well as other horticultural productions in the future.

  20. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.

  1. Delayed ripening and improved fruit processing quality in tomato by RNAi-mediated silencing of three homologs of 1-aminopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aarti; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2013-07-15

    The ripening hormone, ethylene is known to initiate, modulate and co-ordinate the expression of various genes involved in the ripening process. The burst in ethylene production is the key event for the onset of ripening in climacteric fruits, including tomatoes. Therefore ethylene is held accountable for the tons of post-harvest losses due to over-ripening and subsequently resulting in fruit rotting. In the present investigation, delayed ripening tomatoes were generated by silencing three homologs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) gene during the course of ripening using RNAi technology. The chimeric RNAi-ACS construct designed to target ACS homologs, effectively repressed the ethylene production in tomato fruits. Fruits from such lines exhibited delayed ripening and extended shelf life for ∼45 days, with improved juice quality. The ethylene suppression brought about compositional changes in these fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. Further, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits has led to the altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts, especially the up-regulation of PA biosynthesis and ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism genes and down-regulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits. Also, the chimeric gene fusion can be used as an effective design for simultaneous silencing of more than one gene. These observations would be useful in better understanding of the ethylene and PA signaling during fruit ripening and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules in affecting fruit quality traits.

  2. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  3. Experience of XIA Gui-cheng on menopausal syndrome%夏桂成治疗更年期综合征的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红娟; 夏桂成

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces professor XIA Gui-cheng on female menopausal syndrome knowledge of etiology and pathogenesis and treatment methods. Professor XIA think that the incidence of the disease is due to women's menopause heart-renal-uterus the reproductive axis function disorder, essentially the menopause kidney-yin deficiency, decane water shortages, kidney water cannot aid on heart, the occurrence of heart (including liver) fire too strong, the heart is not calm, appear hot flashes sweating, upset insomnia and other symptoms of menopausal syndrome. The disease for a long time can lead to Yu Huo, blood stasis, phlegm and other lesions, formation of climacteric complex and stubborn disease state. Treatment should be nourishing kidney yin, soothe the nerves, and the combination of psychological counseling, if necessary, with appropriate hormone replacement therapy.%文章介绍了夏桂成教授对妇女更年期综合征病因病机的认识及治疗方法.夏老师认为该病的发生是由于妇女更年期心-肾-子宫生理生殖轴功能的紊乱,本质上是更年期肾阴亏虚,癸水不足,肾水不能上济于心,发生心(包括肝)火偏旺、心神不宁,出现潮热汗出、心烦失眠等更年期综合征症状.该病日久可导致郁火、血瘀、痰浊等病变,形成更年期复杂和顽固的状态.治疗上应滋肾养阴,清心安神,并结合心理疏导,必要时配以适当的激素替代治疗.

  4. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process.

  5. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya: MADURACIÓN Y SENESCENCIA Catalase, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase from Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruits: Ripening and Senescense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO NARVÁEZ CUENCA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre algunos síntomas de deterioro y la actividad de enzimas vinculadas tanto con el pardeamiento como con el sistema antioxidante en frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y almacenados durante 15 días a 24 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. En los frutos enteros se evaluaron la intensidad respiratoria y el color externo; en la corteza se determinaron la actividad de catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO. Los frutos exhibieron un comportamiento climatérico luego de seis días de la cosecha. El pardeamiento de la corteza tuvo una relación directa con la actividad de POD y PFO. La máxima actividad de CAT observada en el climaterio responde al balance adecuado con la alta producción de H2O2 esperada en ese momento.We evaluate the relation between some symptoms of deterioration and the activity of enzymes entailed with both the browning and the antioxiding system in fruits of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya, harvested in its physiological maturity and stored for 15 days at 24°C and 85% of relative humidity. In the whole fruits, the respiratory intensity and the external colors were evaluated; further, the activity of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO was studied in the peel of the fruit. The fruit exhibited a climacteric behavior six days after the date of the harvest. The browning of the peel had a direct relation with the activity of POD and PPO. The maximum observed activity of CAT in the climacterium, responds to the proper balance with the high production of H2O2 expected at that moment.

  6. Preservation Effect of Phytic Acid on Tomato%植酸对番茄保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任邦来; 赵波

    2012-01-01

    以变色期番茄为材料,分别采用浓度为0.05%、0.1O%、0.15%的植酸溶液浸泡30s,在室温下贮藏33d,研究不同浓度植酸溶液涂膜处理对番茄果实的保鲜效果。结果表明,植酸溶液处理能推迟番茄果实呼吸跃变时呼吸高峰的出现时间,降低呼吸强度峰值;对保持果实硬度、可溶性固形物、维生素C、可滴定酸有较好作用;能减少水分蒸发,降低果实失重率;其中浓度为0.1O%的植酸溶液对番茄果实进行涂膜处理保鲜效果最好。%The deteriorated tomotoes were soaked for 30s with phytic acid of 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% and stored for up to 33d at regular temperature. The effects of preservation Of different concentrations of phytic acid in the coating treatment on tomatoes were studied. The results showed that phytic acid could inhabit the peak time of respiratory rate of the climacteric in ripening tomato fruit, reduce the respiration rate and could keep the hardness, soluble solids, titratable acid and vitamin C of tomoto. Meanwhile,it could decrease the water evaporation and weightlessness rate of fruit. The best concentration of phytic acid that coated tomotoes fruit in preservation was 0.10%.

  7. Determinants of Menopausal Symptoms among Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Setorglo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The onset of menopause is unique to every woman with varying symptoms which have implications on health and well-being. This study evaluated the perception, knowledge and beliefs about menopause and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 280 menopausal women aged 45 years and older in the Accra Metropolis of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and experience of menopausal symptoms were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric data on weight, height, % body fat and MUAC were also taken. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented as means and frequencies. Predictors of menopausal symptoms were determined by logistic regression. The mean age of onset of menopause was (48±2.9 years with 98.2% having some knowledge of the signs and symptoms of menopause. The most frequently reported menopausal symptoms by the women were: night sweats (83.2%, hot flashes (76.4%, mood swings (72.5% and vaginal dryness (71.4%. The significant predictors for the occurrence of the most common symptoms reported were: age at onset of menstruation, age of start of menopause, body weight and % body fat. There was a decreased risk of experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness as age at menopause increased. Menopausal transition was determined by both vasomotor and urogenital symptoms. Counseling and support are needed to enable women manage the symptoms better. Most women have heard of and know what menopause is.

  8. Individual shrink wrapping extends the storage life and maintains the antioxidants of mango (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') stored at 8 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D V Sudhakar; Shivashankara, K S

    2015-07-01

    Freshly-harvested mature green mangoes (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') were individually shrink wrapped using two semi-permeable Cryovac films® (D-955 and LD-935) and a locally available LDPE film. The shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit were stored at 8 °C for 5 weeks and transferred to ambient conditions for subsequent ripening, to study the feasibility of alleviation of chilling injury (CI) and to determine shrink wrapping effect on fruit quality. Shrink wrapped mangoes of 'Banganapalli' and 'Alphonso' cultivars packed in D-955 (15 μm thickness) film could be stored for 5 weeks at 8 °C in fresh and unripe green condition. After storage, these cultivars respectively lost only 0.5 and 1.4 % mass in case of shrink wrapping as compared to 5.8 and 6.9 % loss in non-wrapped fruit. After removal from low temperature and unwrapping, shrink wrapped mangoes showed normal respiratory behaviour with production of CO2 and ethylene peaks (climacteric peaks) during ripening, whereas non-wrapped fruit did not show any respiratory peaks. Shrink wrapped mangoes ripened normally within a week at ambient temperature (24-32 °C and 60-70 % RH) with good surface yellow colour (reflected by hue and chroma values), edible softness, retention of nutritional quality and acceptable organoleptic quality. These quality parameters were better in fruit wrapped with D-955 film compared to LD-935 and LDPE films. Total carotenoids in terms of β-carotene content were significantly higher in shrink wrapped fruit when compared to non-wrapped fruit. Among different shrink films, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging abilities were higher in LD-935 wrapped fruit in case of 'Alphonso' cultivar whereas these were on par in LD-935 and D-955 film wrapped fruit in case of 'Banganapalli' cultivar.

  9. Comparison of ripening processes in intact tomato fruit and excised pericarp discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Huysamer, M; Stotz, H U; Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M

    1990-12-01

    Physiological processes characteristic of ripening in tissues of intact tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined in excised pericarp discs. Pericarp discs were prepared from mature-green tomato fruit and stored in 24-well culture plates, in which individual discs could be monitored for color change, ethylene biosynthesis, and respiration, and selected for cell wall analysis. Within the context of these preparation and handling procedures, most whole fruit ripening processes were maintained in pericarp discs. Pericarp discs and matched intact fruit passed through the same skin color stages at similar rates, as expressed in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color space, changing from green (a(*) red (a(*) > 15) in about 6 days. Individual tissues of the pericarp discs changed color in the same sequence seen in intact fruit (exocarp, endocarp, then vascular parenchyma). Discs from different areas changed in the same spatial sequence seen in intact fruit (bottom, middle, top). Pericarp discs exhibited climacteric increases in ethylene biosynthesis and CO(2) production comparable with those seen in intact fruit, but these were more tightly linked to rate of color change, reaching a peak around a(*) = 5. Tomato pericarp discs decreased in firmness as color changed. Cell wall carbohydrate composition changed with color as in intact fruit: the quantity of water-soluble pectin eluted from the starch-free alcohol insoluble substances steadily increased and more tightly bound, water-insoluble, pectin decreased in inverse relationship. The cell wall content of the neutral sugars arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose steadily decreased as color changed. The extractable activity of specific cell wall hydrolases changed as in intact fruit: polygalacturonase activity, not detectable in green discs (a(*) = -5), appeared as discs turned yellow-red (a(*) = 5), and increased another eight-fold as discs became full red (a(*) value +20). Carboxymethyl-cellulase activity, low in extracts

  10. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance.

  11. Cases of the acupuncture in treating the menopause of the Pishen Yangxu type disease%针灸在更年期脾肾阳虚型疾病中的运用举隅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦莉莉; 楼国平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate therapeutic effects of the acupuncture and moxibustion therapy on treating women's climacteric syndrome of yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney. Methods: Abdominala cupuncture Yinqi Guiyuan combined with moxibustion therapy of Shenque in treating the menopause of Pishen Yangxu. Diarrhea cases edema low back pain was treated with distribution point. Results: After three courses of treatment to cure the cases respectively, the symptoms had improved significantly. Conclusion:Abdominala cupuncture Yinqi Guiyuan combined with moxibustiontherapy of Shenque has a good therapeutic effect, is worthy of promotion.%  目的:探讨针刺结合艾灸疗法在妇科临床中对更年期脾肾阳虚型疾病的治疗作用。方法:设定腹针引气归元为主结合神阙艾灸疗法的协定处方取穴和操作,针对更年期脾肾阳虚型的泄泻案、浮肿案、腰痛案酌情再取配穴,进行治疗。结果:每个案例经过3个疗程治疗,症状都得到明显改善。结论:腹针引气归元为主结合神阙艾灸疗法,作为治疗更年期脾肾阳虚型疾病的协定处方,在临床中得到很好的运用,值得推广使用。

  12. Validation of the traditional Chinese version of the Menopausal Rating Scale with WHOQOL-BREF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-c; Wen, S-h; Hwang, J-s; Huang, S-c

    2015-10-01

    Objective To assess the criterion validity, construct validity and test-retest reliability of the traditional Chinese language version of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS-TC version). Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study covering hospital and community samples of 317 women aged 39-62 years. Two questionnaires were administered, namely, the MRS-TC version, made up of 11 items in three dimensions, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. The internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. To evaluate criterion validity, the relationship between the individual items and dimension scores of both instruments was estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to assess convergent and discriminant validity; construct validity was evaluated by comparing the mean scores of menopausal and non-menopausal women for each of the MRS dimensions. Results The final questionnaire comprised 11 items in three dimensions. The intra-class correlation (ICC) for the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.83 to 0.93; values of Cronbach's α for psychological, somatic, and urogenital symptom domains were 0.88, 0.68, and 0.59, respectively. For the convergent and discriminant validity, the correlations between the individual questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF were significant; those with the MRS dimensions were significantly negatively associated for the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Conclusion The MRS-TC version using the traditional Chinese language is a reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing menopausal symptoms and global quality of life in climacteric women.

  13. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  14. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.

  15. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND CASTRATION FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书文; 和新盈; 石景森; 赵东利; 李明众; 王诚; 薛文华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of external high-intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) castration for breast cancerous patients after mastectomy if they are at a high risk of recurrence. Methods: We recruited 52 consecutive patients with primary operable breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with excision of regional lymph nodes. Patients were positive for ER and PR immuno- cytochemical staining, node-positive, un-menopause, over 40 years old and were divided into two groups randomly. For castration, 26 patients received one or two times of HIFU treatment within five days, and the other patients received radiotherapy with DT 18Gy/9 f/11days. During and after the treatment, local changes and systemic response of the patients were observed. Results: After 1 month treatment, levels of serum E1 and E2 were significantly decreased compared to before treatment in HIFU groups (P<0.01 and P<0.001). The same changes were occurred in radiotherapy(RT) groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The levels of serum E1 or E2 in RT groups were higher than in HIFU groups (P<0.05). The symptom distribution of 'climacteric syndrome' of HIFU groups were significantly different from RT groups (P<0.01). The follow-up time was 4 months. The incidence of amenorrhea was 100% in all patients. No serious complications were seen. The temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate of the patients were almost normal. Conclusion: We have shown that the use of HIFU in the castrating of patients with breast cancer is feasible, safe and effective. This technology may provide a rapid noninvasive alterative to conventional bilateral oophorectomy or RT castration.

  16. Cloning and molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene, MiERS1, expressed during mango fruitlet abscission and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Dahan, Yardena; Maayan, Inbar; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2011-08-01

    We isolated and characterized a mango (Mangifera indica L.) cDNA homolog of the ethylene receptor gene ERS1, designated MiERS1. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a second gene with homology to MiERS1. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of MiERS1 were first studied during fruitlet drop and compared with those of a previously identified MiETR1 gene that encodes an ETR1-type ethylene receptor. Experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants in which fruitlet abscission was induced by ethephon treatment. Northern analysis revealed a notable increase in MiERS1 mRNA levels in the fruitlet's activated abscission zone within 24 h of ethephon application, followed by a decreasing pattern 48 h post-treatment. A transient, albeit lesser, increase in MiERS1 mRNA levels was also observed in treated fruitlet seed and mesocarp tissues. In contrast, in the abscission zone, accumulation of MiETR1 transcript remained unchanged; a temporal increase in MiETR1 transcript level was observed in the fruitlet mesocarp, whereas in the seed, MiETR1 expression had already dropped by 24 h. Expression profiles of MiERS1 and MiETR1 were then studied during fruit ripening. In agreement with a previous study and coinciding with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, RNA blot analysis revealed that during fruit ripening, MiETR1 mRNA level increases in both mesocarp and seed tissues. Unexpectedly, however, in those same tissues, MiERS1 transcript accumulation was barely detected. Collectively, our data highlight MiERS1's possible specific function in regulating fruitlet abscission rather than fruit ripening.

  17. ENDOTHELIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KLYMADINON IN EXPERIMENTAL OVARIECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Anishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Endothelial protective and antithrombogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa standardized extract (Klimadynon, Bionorica, Germany in comparison with ethinylestradiol in experimental ovariectomy were investigated. Extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (klimadynon contents phytoestrogens, that was the basis for studying of its effects in hypoestrogenic conditions for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in climacteric syndrome as an alternatively of hormonal replacement therapy.The course administration of klimadynon (100 mg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days decelerated the formation of intravascular thrombosis which was initiated by application of 10% FeCb solution on carotid artery. The ethinylestradiol in this conditions intensified prothrombogenic effect of application of 10% FeCh: blood flow in carotid artery stoped to 5 minutes of experiment and mass of the thrombus was on 28% more, than in control rats. For studying of possible mechanisms antithrombogenic action of klimadynon antiplatelet and vasodilator activity of endothelium were studied in rats after bilateral ovariectomy in comparison with effects of ethinylestradiol (25 µg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days. Treatment with klimadynon as well as ethinylestradiol increased the antiplatelet activity of endothelium, restoring its activity to level in sham-operated animals. The endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independence vasodilation by using of acetylcholine (5 µg/kg and of sodium nitroprusside (30 µg/kg. respectively, were investigated. Coefficient of endothelium dysfunctions (CED was estimated as ratio: area over curve of arterial pressure after sodium nitroprusside intravenous injection to value of this index after injection of acetylcholine. In rats after bilateral ovariectomy CED was increased by 66% in comparison with CED value in sharm-operated rats. The klimadynon and ethinylestradiol treatment decreased CED on 42% and 28% correspondingly in comparison

  18. Microbial Community in a Sediment-Hosted CO2 Lake of the Southern Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, F.; Kuypers, M. M.; Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakamura, K.; Treude, T.; Ohkubo, S.; Nakaseama, M.; Gena, K.; Chiba, H.; Hirayama, H.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Horikoshi, K.; Boetius, A.

    2006-12-01

    One-carbon assimilating (micro-)organisms play an important role for global carbon cycling; however, the increasing level of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere has exceeded the capacity of natural biological feedback, hence as greenhouse gasses it is expected to cause climacteric change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, a variety of options have been discussed, including a disposal of CO2 into the deep ocean. However, the impact of CO2 disposal on deep-sea ecosystems as well as of the consequent microbiological feedback remains largely unknown. At the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough, we observed a natural liquid CO2 lake in sediments overlying elemental sulfur and CO2 hydrates at a water depth of 1380m. The liquid CO2 droplets were composed of 85% CO2 and 14% methane with hydrogen below the detection limit. We found high abundances (>109 cm-3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10&^{7} cm-3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. Molecular ecological study based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the key groups in these sediments were: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria, and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes (mcrA, cbbL) related to one- carbon assimilation as well as the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or methane dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. We propose that the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  19. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  20. Summary on Physiology, Biochemistry and Storage for Postharvest Banana Fruit%香蕉采后生理及贮藏保鲜研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振东; 郑涛; 林秀香

    2013-01-01

    香蕉是典型的呼吸跃变型水果,不耐贮藏和运输.香蕉保鲜技术长期受到业界关注,专家、学者进行了多方面的研究,但目前该问题仍未得到根本解决.笔者从香蕉采后品质变化、生理生化变化、影响香蕉贮藏保鲜的因素及贮藏保鲜技术方面,综述了国内外20多年来的研究概况,从采后生理研究和保鲜技术2个方面,指出了当前香蕉采后贮藏保鲜研究仍存在的一些问题,提出了从宏观生理水平逐步深入到微观分子水平进行研究,探索更为直接有效的香蕉耐贮保鲜方法.%Banana is a typical climacteric fruit. It can not be storage for a long time. The banana storage technique has been given a long-term attention by the industry, and many studies have been made by experts and scholars. Thus, it is still not thoroughly solved. In this paper, the overview in the aspects of the storage and fresh-keeping technique of banana research in recent years, which were the changes of postharvest quality, physiology and biochemistry, the effect factors of the storage and the storage technique, were measured. With the study of the postharvest physiology and the storage technique, it was pointed out that some problems were still existed in the storage of banana, and it could be studied from macroscopic physiological levels gradually into molecular level to explore more direct and effective methods for improving the banana storability.

  1. 采收期对京白梨果实细胞壁代谢及货架品质的影响%Effect of Harvest Date on Cell Wall Metabolism and Fruit Quality of Jingbaili Pear during Shelf-Life Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建梅; 齐秀东

    2015-01-01

    The Jingbaili pear fruit, with different harvest dates, were used to study the change of cell wall metabolism and fruit shelf-quality during ripening and softening. The results showed that the fruits picked in harvest stageⅠandⅡhave highest hardness and chlorophyll content , lowest soluble solids content , unsteady respiration rate and slowly ripening rate, meanwhile, there was a significant difference in cell wall metabolism between harvest stage II and harvest stage III, IV and V, meaning fruit maturity is not enough at harvest stage II. The fruit of harvest stageⅤwere easy to aging with no respiratory climacteric peak and higher activities in cell wall enzymes, which showed that fruit of this period were overripe. However, the harvest timeⅢandⅣ(135-142th day after florescence) was the optimal harvest date because the fruits were of suitable maturity, and exhibited the normal physiological metabolism and good quality during storage.%研究了不同采收期京白梨果实后熟软化过程中细胞壁代谢和货架品质的变化。结果表明,采期Ⅰ和采期Ⅱ果实硬度大,叶绿素含量高,可溶性固形物含量低,呼吸速率不稳定,软化进程缓慢。采期Ⅱ的果实细胞壁代谢与采期Ⅲ、采期Ⅳ和采期Ⅴ存在显著差异,表明果实成熟度不够。采期Ⅴ果实无明显呼吸跃变峰,细胞壁酶活性高,果实软化后易衰老,货架期短,表明该期果实已经完熟。而采期Ⅲ和采期Ⅳ(盛花后135 d~142 d)的果实呼吸、细胞壁代谢、品质变化正常,具有适宜的采收成熟度。

  2. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  3. [Therapeutic concepts in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig-Bruckner, G; Ziegler, R

    1994-11-01

    long time to reduce complaints and to improve musculoskeletal function in order to prevent falls. Different agents influencing bone metabolism by inhibition of bone resorption (estrogens, calcitonin, bisphosphonates) or stimulation of bone formation (fluoride) are used in manifest osteoporosis to increase bone stability. But the present efficacy to avoid further fractures has not been shown sufficiently for all available agents, so that a final evaluation and recommendation can't be done. Therapy decisions in manifest osteoporosis are often influenced by the possible side effects of the drugs (bleeding, gastrointestinal problems, joint pain), other, not bone-related effects of the drugs (improvement of climacteric complaints, pain relief) and other concomitant diseases and medications.

  4. Effect of Half-dose and Standard-dose Conjugated Equine Estrogens Combined with Natural Progesterone or Dydrogesterone on Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xue; Yan Deng; Yan-Fang Wang; Ai-Jun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background:Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been proven to have beneficial effects on several components of metabolic syndrome.However,the effects vary according to different regimens,dosages,and duration of MHT.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of standard-dose 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and half-dose 0.3 mg CEE daily with different progestogens in a continuous sequential regimen on postmenopausal metabolic parameters in generally healthy postmenopausal women.Methods:A prospective,open-label,randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015.Totally 123 Chinese postmenopausal women with climacteric symptoms were included in this study and were randomly assigned to three groups:Group A received CEE 0.3 mg/micronized progesterone (MP) 100 mg daily;Group B received CEE 0.625 mg/MP 100 mg daily;and Group C received CEE 0.625 mg/dydrogesterone 10 mg daily.Drugs were given in a continuous sequential pattern.The duration of treatment was 12 months.Clinical,anthropometrical,and metabolic variables were measured.Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat analysis,using Student's t-test and analysis of variance.Results:A total of 107 participants completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the data analysis.At 12 months of treatment,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A significantly increased,and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,fasting glucose,and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly decreased in Groups B and C,compared with baseline (all P < 0.05).Among the three groups,only Group C showed significantly increased triglycerides compared with baseline (1.61 ± 0.80 mmol/L vs.1.21 ± 0.52 mmol/L,P =0.026).Each group showed a neutral effect on total cholesterol,lipoprotein A,apolipoprotein B,and fasting insulin levels.No cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events occurred in the three groups.Conclusions:Among Chinese postmenopausal women,half-dose CEE was

  5. 高压静电场处理对红元帅苹果采后品质的影响%Effect of high voltage electrostatic field on the post-harvest quality of "red delicious" apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颉; 李里特; 叶青; 丹阳

    2003-01-01

    该研究利用自制的高压静电场保鲜实验台产生的-50 kV/m和-100 kV/m高压静电场处理红元帅苹果,贮藏过程中每4d测定1次果实呼吸强度、内源乙烯释放量、果实硬度和可溶性固形物含量变化,并在贮藏结束时,对果实品质进行感官评定.实验结果表明:高压静电场处理使红元帅苹果的乙烯释放高峰推迟4 d,乙烯释放高峰值显著低于对照,并且使果实呼吸跃变推迟8 d.高压静电场处理苹果,在20℃条件下贮藏24 d,果实硬度和可溶性固形物含量显著高于对照,果实新鲜程度、脆性、硬度、粉性、甜味和苹果味等感官指标显著比对照好(p<0.01),表明高压静电场处理对保持红元帅苹果的采后品质具有显著作用.%In this study, "red delicious" apples were treated with -50 kV/m and -100 kV/m of high voltage electrostatic field(HVEF) from the freshness-keeping test stand made by self. During the storage, the respiration rate, endogenous ethylene, flesh firmness and soluble solids content of the samples were determined once every 4 days. At the end of the storage, sensory evaluation was carried. Conclusions were made: by HVEF, the peak of ethylene producing was delayed by 4 days and the value of the peak was smaller than CK significantly. The climacteric of the respiration was delayed by 8 days. After being treated by HVEF and stored in the condition of 20℃ for 24 days, the firmness and soluble solid contents were much higher than CK's. Moreover, the greenness degree, crispness, firmness, mealiness, sweetness, apple flavor and so on were much better than CK(p<0.01). The last conclusion was made that HVEF played an important role in keeping the quality of "red delicious" apples.

  6. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

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    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  7. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, L.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Dilley, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biophysics

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C0{sub 2} at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C0{sub 2} is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO{sub 2}. It has been suggested that CO{sub 2}acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO{sub 2} is know to affect O{sub 2} binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe{sup +2}/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction

  8. 水杨酸对番茄保鲜效果的影响%The Preservation Effects of Salicylic Acid on Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任邦来; 张燕

    2012-01-01

    以变色期番茄为材料,分别采用浓度为0.1g/L.0.5g/L、1.0g/L的水杨酸溶液浸泡20min,在室温下贮藏33d,研究不同浓度水杨酸溶液涂膜处理对番茄果实的保鲜效果。结果表明,水杨酸处理能推迟番茄果实呼吸跃变时呼吸高峰的出现时间,降低呼吸强度峰值;对保持果实硬度、可溶性固形:l勿、维生素C、可滴定酸有较好作用;能减少水分蒸发,降低果实失重率。使用浓度为0.5g/L的水杨酸溶液对番茄果实进行涂膜处理有较好的保鲜效果。%The deteriorated tomatoes were soaked with 0.1g/L, 0.5g/L, 1.0 g/L SA (salicylic acid) solutions for 20min and stored for up to 35d at regular temperature. The preservation effects of different concentrations of salicylic acid in the coating treatment on tomatoes were studied. The results showed that salicylic acid could inhabit the peak time of respiratory rate of the climacteric in ripening tomato fruit and reduce the respiration rate. It could keep the hardness, soluble solids, titratable acid and vitamin C of tomato. Meanwhile, it could decrease the water evaporation and decrease weightlessness rate of fruit. The better concentration of salicylic acid that coated tomatoes fruit in preservation was 0.5g/L.

  9. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

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    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  10. ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING IN PERIMENOPAUSE

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    Shivaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women, 70% of the gynaecological problems are due to AUB. In the United States, 11% of the hysterectomies are performed for AUB per year. During climacteric, ovarian activity declines leading to anovulation or irregular maturation of follicles. Therefore, the menstrual cycles are often anovulatory and irregular leading to AUB. Prolonged anovulatory periods with unopposed oestrogen stimulation lead to endometrial hyperplasia. This increases the risk of endometrial cancers. Over a decade the progression of endometrial hyperplasia to carcinoma is as follows: Simple hyperplasia - 1%, Complex hyperplasia - 3%, Simple hyperplasia with atypia - 8% and Complex hyperplasia with atypia 29% [Jeffcoate]. AIMS The objective of this study is to correlate the symptoms and the various menstrual patterns to the histopathological diagnosis, so that this knowledge can be applied for an early evaluation and diagnosis of the complications of AUB, and thus arrive at a timely and effective therapeutic strategies. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 314 patients of peri-menopausal age group presenting with AUB in the Department of Gynaecology at SVMCH and RC, Ariyur, Pondicherry, between 2011 and 2014. The study sample consisted of 314 samples of endometrium obtained by dilation and curettage as a day care procedure. RESULTS Menorrhagia is the predominant symptom, 128 cases [40.8%] and was associated with proliferative, secretory and hyperplastic endometrium. Metrorrhagia cases were 53 [16.9%], which predominantly showed secretory followed by proliferative histological pattern. There were 4 cases of Endometrial carcinoma [1.27%]. Simple hyperplasia with atypia were 10 cases [3.29%] and Complex hyperplasia with atypia cases were 7 [2.33%]. CONCLUSION AUB in perimenopausal period is very significant, as it accounts for about 70% of all gynaecologic outpatients. Endometrial hyperplasia is a precursor of

  11. Clinical observation on 28 cases of acupuncture in the treatment of menopausal insomnia with Ningshen Decoction%宁神汤结合针灸治疗更年期失眠28例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 肖宝香; 何秀清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the divine decoction combined with clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in the treatment of menopausal insomnia. Methods 56 patients with climacteric insomnia patients, randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 28 cases in each. The treatment group: treated by Ningshen decoction combined with acupuncture therapy. Control group:treated with diazepam 5mg qd+oryzanol 20mg TID treatment. 3 weeks to 1 course of treatment, observation of patients with clinical effect after 1 courses of treatment. Results treatment group total effectiveness 92.8%, the comparison group total effectiveness 75%, patients in the treatment group were sleep improved significantly better than the control group, P <0.05, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion the self-made Ningshen decoction combined with acupuncture therapy can effectively intervene menopause insomnia, improve and reduce the symptoms of insomnia patients relapse, effective for clinical treatment of menopausal insomnia, relieve the symptoms of menopause syndrome to provide new ways and methods.%目的探讨宁神汤结合针灸疗法治疗更年期失眠的临床疗效。方法选择更年期失眠患者56例,随机分为对照组和治疗组各28例。治疗组:予自拟宁神汤并结合针灸治疗。对照组:予安定5mg qd+谷维素20mg tid治疗。3周为1疗程,1疗程后观察患者临床效果。结果治疗组总有效率92.8%,对照组总有效率75%,治疗组患者睡眠情况改善明显优于对照组,P <0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论自拟宁神汤结合针灸疗法能有效干预更年期失眠症,明显改善并减少复发患者失眠症状,为临床有效治疗更年期失眠症、缓解更年期综合征提供新的途径和方法。

  12. Are we drawing the right conclusions from randomised placebo-controlled trials? A post-hoc analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial

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    Bone Kerry M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assumptions underlying placebo controlled trials include that the placebo effect impacts on all study arms equally, and that treatment effects are additional to the placebo effect. However, these assumptions have recently been challenged, and different mechanisms may potentially be operating in the placebo and treatment arms. The objective of the current study was to explore the nature of placebo versus pharmacological effects by comparing predictors of the placebo response with predictors of the treatment response in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of a phytotherapeutic combination for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. A substantial placebo response was observed but no significant difference in efficacy between the two arms. Methods A post hoc analysis was conducted on data from 93 participants who completed this previously published study. Variables at baseline were investigated as potential predictors of the response on any of the endpoints of flushing, overall menopausal symptoms and depression. Focused tests were conducted using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Based on these findings, analyses were conducted for both groups separately. These findings are discussed in relation to existing literature on placebo effects. Results Distinct differences in predictors were observed between the placebo and active groups. A significant difference was found for study entry anxiety, and Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS scores, on all three endpoints. Attitude to menopause was found to differ significantly between the two groups for GCS scores. Examination of the individual arms found anxiety at study entry to predict placebo response on all three outcome measures individually. In contrast, low anxiety was significantly associated with improvement in the active treatment group. None of the variables found to predict the placebo response was relevant to the treatment arm. Conclusion This study was a post hoc analysis

  13. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

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    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits.

  14. 呼吸代谢调控桃果实采后抗氧化活性研究进展%Progress on Antioxidant Capacity of Postharvest Peach Fruit Regulated by Respiratory Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敏华; 杨震峰; 陈伟; 苏新国

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory metabolism is one of the most important physiological activities of posthavest climacteric fruit, and is also closely related to the biosynthesis of different bioactive compounds. This paper concluded the effect of respiratory metabolism on the biosynthesis and metabolism of antioxidant composition ( such as phenolic acid, flavonol, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin and carotenoids) and key enzymes expressions in postharvest peach fruit of different varieties ( Red-flesh, Yellow-flesh, and White-flesh) . Based on investigations from the respiration pathway, the paper also discussed the specific mechanism of respiratory metabolism involved in the biosynthesis of such antioxidant compounds, expounded the molecular basis of the biosynthetic pathway and regulation of key enzymes of flavonoids and carotenoids, and clearifed the role and regulation of storage environmental conditions on the antioxdiant properties and antioxidant compounds of harvested fruits during storage. These would provide theoretical basis for regulation of antioxidant compounds metabolism and finally improve the nutritional quality in postharvest fruits.%桃果实为典型的跃变型果实,需要经历呼吸跃变才能成熟可食。呼吸代谢是跃变型果实采后重要的生理活动之一,与果实采后抗氧化物质的形成存在密切的联系。本文从桃果实采后呼吸跃变生理入手,总结了桃果实采后主要酚酸、黄酮醇、黄烷-3-醇、花色苷和类胡萝卜素消长的规律,并进一步从桃果实采后呼吸代谢中间产物及关键酶与上述次生物质代谢关键酶的基因表达水平探讨呼吸代谢对果实采后抗氧化能力的影响作用,明确呼吸代谢在桃果实采后抗氧化活性过程中的可能作用机制。

  15. The Clinical Curative Effect of Fushuneng Lotion and Vitamin E Capsules Treatment of Menopausal Vaginitis%探讨妇舒能洗剂与维生素E胶丸治疗更年期阴道炎临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红彦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妇舒能洗剂与维生素E胶丸治疗更年期阴道炎临床疗效。方法本文选取我院于2013年8月~2014年8月收治的80例更年期阴道炎患者,将其按照数字抽签方式随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组采用醋酸清洗液联合保妇康栓进行治疗,治疗组采用妇舒能洗剂与维生素E胶丸进行治疗,对比两组患者的临床疗效和阴道健康评分情况。结果治疗组患者的阴道健康评分情况结果显示,其中良好12例,中等27例,较差1例,和对照组对应指标结果对比存在显著性差异(P<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论更年期阴道炎患者采用妇舒能洗剂与维生素E胶丸开展治疗过程,能够有效的提高患者的阴道健康评分状况。%Objective To investigate the Fushuneng lotion with vitamin E capsule to treat menopause vaginitis clinical curative effect.Methods this article selects in August 2013 to August 2014, 80 patients with climacteric vaginitis, it shall, in accordance with the digital lottery were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, control group adopts acetic acid cleaning lfuid joint insured Fukangshuan treatment, treatment group can use Fushuneng lotion with vitamin E capsule treatment, compared two groups of patients with the clinical efifcacy of grading and vaginal health. ResultsThe treatment group patients, according to the results of vaginal health score of 12 cases of good, medium 27 cases, 1 case of poor, and the control group results of corresponding index exists significant difference (P<0.05), with statistical significance.Conclusion Menopause vaginitis were treated by Fushuneng lotion with vitamin E capsule to carry out the treatment process, can effectively improve the patient's vagina health score, is worth popularizing in clinical application.

  16. The Human Thirst for Water Under Global Change: What and where are the Future Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Fant, C.; Gao, X.; Strzepek, K.; Reilly, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The future of water availability and security is of paramount importance. A climacteric challenge toward the future sustainability of this precious resource is to identify where and when water may become substantially limited in the coming decades and what are the key drivers. The sustainability of water resources are affected by many factors that include: population, wealth, energy, land use, as well as climate. Yet, prediction systems are challenged by uncertainties in models and observational support as well as the practical and theoretical limits-to-prediction of the Earth's systems. This limits any one forecast of a potential future as actionable information - and the scientific community has moved toward risk-based assessments to provide a likelihood of outcomes - to the fullest extent possible. We present a synopsis of recently published and ongoing analyses from experiments with the MIT Integrated System Model (IGSM) linked to a Water Resource System (WRS). These experiments address the future of water stress in a global context as well as with regional lenses over the United States and a large portion of Southern and Eastern Asia. By 2050, global economic growth and population change can lead to an additional 1.8 billion people living under at least moderate water stress, with 80% located in developing countries. Combined, socioeconomic growth and uncertain climate change lead to a 1.0-1.3 billion increase of the world's 2050 projected population living with overly exploited water conditions—where total potential water requirements will consistently exceed surface water supply. Using a large ensemble of scenarios that are consistent across economics, emissions, climate, population, etc., we develop risk portfolios of water stress over a large portion of Asia (Figure 1) and isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth (population and wealth) and climate change. We find the number of people under water stress more than doubles from about 800 million to 1

  17. Fatores associados à qualidade de vida após menopausa Factors related to quality of life in post-menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 323 mulheres pós-menopáusicas com idade entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário de atenção ao climatério entre junho e outubro de 2002. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através do Women's Health Questionnaire. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t de Student e a análise de variância, seguidos de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: A qualidade de vida se mostrou comprometida entre a população estudada, em especial nos domínios relacionados a sintomas somáticos, humor deprimido e ansiedade. Por meio de análise multivariada, constatou-se que quanto menor a escolaridade (pOBJECTIVE: To assess quality of life of postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-section study of 323 women between 45 and 60 years of age attended at a university climacteric clinic from June to October 2002was carried out. Quality of life was assessed by the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t Test and analysis of variance, followed by multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: This study found quality of life impaired especially in the domains related to somatic symptoms, depressed mood, and anxiety. Multivariate analysis showed that lower educational level (p<0.01, frequency of sexual activity (p<0.01 and the confirmation of previous clinical co-morbidities (p=0.03 were associated to the worst scores of quality of life. On the other hand, regular physical activity was related to better quality of life (p=0.01. Hormone therapy, in particular, was not related to quality of life (p=0.48. CONCLUSION: Quality of life was found not only to be influenced by biological factors, but also by psychossocial and cultural factors. Middle aged women frequently attributed eventual symptoms associated to clinical co-morbidities or previous emotional difficulties to menopause, distorting their

  18. The effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in the psychological well-being of menopausal women

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    Eugenia Vlachou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the psychological situation of menopausal women have often been examined in the past. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychological disorders that arise in menopausal women receiving Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in comparison to those not receiving HRT. Material and Method: The sample of the study included 216 menopausal women, 40-60 years old, divided into two groups and examined twice in a six months period apart. The first group included 100 women receiving HRT for at least three months period, while the second group included116 women not receiving HRT. A demographic inventory, the Greene Climacteric Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the CES-D Depression Scale were used. Results: 46.3% of women were taking HRT while 53.7% were not. In the first interview the mean values of the Greene Scale were for the first group 13.21±9.61 and for the second one 25.33±12.25, (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 9.17±6.93 and 28.65±13.25 respectively, (p<0.001. In the Hamilton scale at the first interview the mean values of the first group were 5.74±8.29 and for the second one 19.28±11.90 (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 4.43±7.75 and 19.47±11.75 respectively (p<0.001 and were above the threshold of a clinically anxiety syndrome. The mean values of the CES-D in the first interview were 10.33±7.58 in the first group and 11.20±11.22 in the second one (p<0.001, while at the second interview were 8.61±6.25 and 11.82±11.59 respectively (p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the education level interprets 49.4%, 28.4% and 17.1% of the variable, for Greene, Hamilton and CES-D scales respectively (Β=-4.563, p<0.001, Β=-3.012, p=0.005 και Β=-4.175, p<0.001 respectively. Conclusions: HRT seem to provide significant improvement in menopausal psychological symptoms. Further studies are needed in order to clarify relative

  19. 细胞分裂素类生长调节剂对青花菜采后衰老的影响%Effects of Cytokinin Growth Regulators on Senescence of Harvested Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Florets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云莉; 王成荣; 王然; 杨绍兰; 刘宪路

    2009-01-01

    Application of cytokinin growth regulators, KT (Kinetin), 6-BA (Benzyladenine), and CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-pheuylurea] on delaying senescence of harvested broccoli florets was studied. The results showed that use of KT, 6-BA or CPPU on harvested broccoli delayed floret yellowing and chlorophyll degradation, decreased respiration and ethylene production rate, postponed climacteric time, and retarded membrane permeability loss. The content of endogenous ABA was lower and the levels of IAA and GA were higher in the broccoli treated with 6-BA and CPPU than those in the control during 12-84 h. The treated effects enhanced with increasing concentration in the study. The CPPU treatment (40 mg·L~(-1)) was most effective in delaying the broccoli yellowing, followed by 6-BA and KT.%以青花菜'绿皇后'品种为试材,研究了25℃条件下细胞分裂素类生长调节剂KT、6-BA和CPPU对延缓青花菜采后衰老的效果.结果表明:3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂处理均在不同程度上延缓了青花菜花蕾黄化和叶绿素分解,推迟了呼吸和乙烯跃变峰出现的时间,降低了峰值,并维持了细胞膜稳定性.内源激素测定结果表明,6-BA和CPPU处理使青花菜花蕾在试验的前期阶段(12~84 h)一直保持相对较高的内源IAA和GA水平,相对较低的内源ABA水平.3种细胞分裂素类生长调节剂以CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最为明显,其次是6-BA,KT效果最弱.延缓青花菜采后衰老效果随着处理的浓度增加而增加,以40 mg·L~(-1)CPPU延缓青花菜衰老效果最佳.

  20. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  1. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żułtak-Bączkowska, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena; Kotwas, Artur; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women's health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study Aim of the study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women's health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA), and health practices (HP). Material and methods The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). Results The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents). There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often). There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions Older women attached greater importance to positive mental

  2. 香蕉果实XET cDNA的克隆及其在成熟软化的果实果皮和果肉中的表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆旺金; 中野隆平; 久保康隆; 稻叶昭次; 蒋跃明

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening through disassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationship between fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a full length cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA contains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding a predicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DEIDFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalytic domain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in the pulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatment of fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening of the peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptional level.%木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶(Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase,XET)通过分解细胞壁半纤维素多糖的主要成分--木葡聚糖而参与果实软化.为了阐明香蕉(Musa acuminata.Colla cv.GrandNain)果实成熟过程中的软化与细胞壁代谢酶XET基因表达模式的关系,采用RT-PCR和RACE-PCR方法,首次从成熟香蕉果实果肉中分离了编码XT基因的全长cDNA(MA-XET1,全长1 095 bp

  3. Impacto da atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade: estudo de base populacional Impact of physical activity on quality of life in middle-aged women: a population based study

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    Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    -aged women. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 370 women aged 40 to 65 years-old recruited from a population-based sample. Enrollment took place in Basic Health Units in each health district of the city (North, South, East, and West from June to September 2011. According to the Municipal Health Department of the City, 20,801 women were assisted at the Basic Health Units during a one-year period. The sample size calculation was stratified by district and based on a 95% confidence level with a power of 80%, as well as an error estimate of 5% and it was considered proportional to the number of patients classified as having adequate quality of life (indicator >26 in the general population. Data were collected while women waited for their routine appointment at the Health Unit. WHOQOL-Bref was used to evaluate the quality of life, and menopause rating scale (MRS was used to determine climacteric symptoms. The level of physical activity was assessed by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. To obtain the classification of PA levels, we used three categories: sedentary, moderately active, and very active. Statistical analysis was performed using the Minitab software, version 16. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 49.8 years-old (±8.1 and they were predominantly Caucasian (72.7%, married (61.6%, non-smokers (93.5%, and had High School education (47.8%. Using the WHOQOL, mean scores were found to be significantly different between the groups (low, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, classified according to the domains of quality of life (p<0.01. Concerning physical activity and climacteric symptoms, significant differences were found for all domains: psychological (p<0.01, vegetative-somatic (p<0.01, and urogenital (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity improves quality of life in middle-aged women.

  4. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

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    Veronika A. Myasoedova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6 were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020; low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS; high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038; triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by

  5. Effects of appropriate dehydration treatment on physiology and biochemistry of Actinidia arguta during postharvest stored under 20 ℃%采后适当失水处理对软枣猕猴桃20℃下生理生化变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丹; 张博; 李书倩; 翁霞; 刘长江; 辛广

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed at investigating the effecf of dehydration treatment on postharvest physiology of Actinidia arguta Sieb. et Zucc. [Method] The fruits were stored at room temperature(20± 0.5)℃ after dehydration treatment, and the dehydration rate was 2%, 4% and 6%, respectively. The effect of dehydration treatment on postharvest physiology of Actinidia arguta was discussed. [Result]The results demonstrated that appropriate dehydration could both restrain the respiration intensity of Actinidia arguta and postpone the peak time, and also could inhibite the release of ethylene, postpone the peak of ethylene and the arrival of climacteric. The peak valume was reduced by this treatment. Proper dehydration could reduce pectinase activity, and inhibit decomposition of pectin during the whole storage. This treatment maintained the fruit firmness and flavor, and therefore, the fruit maturation and aging process were delayed. Among the three dehydration rates, 4% of fruit dehydration had a significant performance. When the fruits treated with dehydration of 4% stored 10 days, the decay rate was 37.23%, which was significantly lower than that of the other treatment groups(P<0.05). [Conclusion]Thus the experiment indicated that dehydration rate of 4% had fairly good effects on the storage and fresh-keeping of Actinidia arguta.%[目的]为了探讨失永处理对采后软枣猕猴桃生理生化变化的影响,[方法]以软枣猕猴桃为试验材料,研究了失水率分别为0、2%、4%、6%的软枣猕猴桃,在温度(20±0.5)℃条件下贮藏过程中生理生化变化.[结果]结果表明,适当失水处理可有效抑制软枣猕猴桃果实的呼吸作用,降低呼吸强度和推迟呼吸高峰出现;同时也抑制乙烯的释放量,推迟乙烯高峰和呼吸跃变的到来,并降低其峰值;适当失水处理也明显降低了软枣猕猴桃的果胶酶活性,抑制了果胶的降解,保持了果实硬度和风味,从而延缓软枣猕猴

  6. Effects of erzhibaihe extraction on the anxiety behavior of the female castrated rats%二至百合浓缩膏对去势雌性大鼠焦虑行为学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳冉; 翟建英; 岳枫; 张瀚涛; 陈霞; 刘丹; 李晋生

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨二至百合浓缩膏对去势雌性大鼠(双侧卵巢切除术)焦虑行为学的影响。方法3~4月龄Wistar雌性大鼠随机分成5组,假手术对照组,模型组,二至百合高、中、低剂量组。除假手术组,其余用手术摘除双侧卵巢建立去势更年期大鼠模型,给药组分别给予二至百合浓缩膏水溶液(1.92、0.96、0.48g/kg),假手术空白对照组和模型对照组给予相应容量的蒸馏水,连续45d。采用高架十字迷宫和明暗箱实验,观察实验大鼠行为学的变化。结果二至百合高剂量组可显著减低模型大鼠高架十字迷宫实验中OT%,与模型组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。二至百合高、中剂量组亦可显著升高大鼠明箱停留时间和穿箱次数,与模型组比较差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论二至百合浓缩膏具有较好的改善去势雌性模型大鼠焦虑症状的作用。%Objective To study the effects of Erzhibaihe extraction on the anxiety behavior of the female castrated rats. Methods 3-4 month-old female wistar rats were randomized into five groups with pseudo-operated group,model group,erzhibaihe high dose group, Medium dose group and low dose group. All rats were established the models of climacteric syndrome with ovariectomized surgical except pseudo-operated group. Treatment group were given Erzhibaihe extraction(1.92,0.96,0.48 g/kg)for 45 days, pseudo-operated group and model group rats were given corresponding volumes of distilled water.Then the elevated plus-maze test and light-dark transitions test were performed to observe behavior changes of rats. Results Compared with pseudo-operated group,the OE%(open arm entry percent)and OT%(open arm time percent)of model group rats were significantly reducedin the elevated plus-maze test.The OT% of Erzhibaihe high dose group were significantly reduced,and there were significantly differenceswith model group.In the light

  7. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas serranas Influence of storage temperature on postharvest quality of feijoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Velho

    2011-03-01

    color (hue angle; hº, and incidence of flesh and skin browning, and rots. Fruit stored at 23 ºC exhibited a climacteric, reaching a peak of respiration rates between the 4th and 5th days. Fruits stored at 4 ºC had lower respiration and ethylene production rates. Fruit stored at 23 ºC had more substantial decreases of SSC, TA, and hº of the skin, and increases of skin browning and decay incidence, compared to fruit stored at 4 ºC. The storage at 4 ºC was more effective to reduce respiration and ethylene production, to preserve the quality attributes (SSC, TA, and hº of the skin, and to reduce the severity of skin browning and decay, without avoiding the development of flesh browning. The storage potential of feijoas at 23 ºC is less than one week as a result of flesh browning and skin browning development and decay.

  8. Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Evolución del Patrón Respiratorio, Enzimático y de Etileno del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget en los Últimos Cuatro Estadios Secuenciales de Madurez

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    Pedro L Undurraga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709, color break (BBCH 801, yellow (BBCH 807, and orange (BBCH 809. The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, polygalacturonase (PG, and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in the respiratory rate. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme increased from the green stage to color break, while the enzymes PME, cellulase, and PG showed a constant reduction from the green to the orange stage, and PPO showed no change over the four stages studied. With regards to quality, from color break onwards soluble solids increased to 11.8 °Brix and titratable acidity dropped from 0.67 to 0.28 g L-1 malic acid. Based on these results, the conclusion is that towards the end of its development loquat cv. Golden Nugget evidence enzymatic and ethylene behavior similar to that of climacteric fruits.Existe controversia sobre el patrón respiratorio del níspero (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Con el fin de aportar información sobre este aspecto, frutos del cv. Golden Nugget entre 50-70 g, fueron cosechados en cuatro estadios de madurez; verde (BBCH 709, quiebre de color (BBCH 801, amarillo (BBCH 807, y anaranjado (BBCH 809. Los parámetros evaluados en cada estadio fueron: sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, relación sólidos solubles acidez, respiración, generación de etileno y la actividad de las enzimas pectin metil esterasa (PME, peroxidasa, polifenoloxidasa (PPO, poligalacturonasa

  9. Representaciones socio-culturales sobre la menopausia: Vivencias del proceso en mujeres residentes en Albacete (España Socio-cultural representations about menopause: Experiences of the process in resident women in Albacete, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Gómez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Acercamiento a las representaciones sociales constitutivas de un fenómeno biológico-biográfico denominado climaterio, mediante los significados atribuidos por medio de los saberes, actitudes y comportamientos socioculturales de las mujeres en este periodo de su vida. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo mediante siete grupos focales (37 mujeres. Población de estudio: mujeres entre 45-55 años, residentes en la ciudad de Albacete. Resultados: proceso identificado con la edad biológica de las mujeres, con atributos negativos por su relación con el envejecimiento. Se relaciona también con la imagen social de la mujer y los roles socioculturales asignados clásicamente a este colectivo. Esta combinación de factores las conduce hacia un periodo de su vida tildado como "edad crítica", construcción en la que priman elementos biográficos sobre biológicos. Conclusión: Reconocer la "Variabilidad" de la vivencia del proceso. Esto entraría en conflicto con la actual tendencia biomédica, de protocolizar ciertas etapas relacionadas con el ciclo vital de las personas, intentando generar adscripciones unitarias basadas en entidades médicas construidas con fines operativos e instrumentales. Reconocer la "Vulnerabilidad" que supone la confluencia de diversas circunstancias, que las conducen, no sólo a enfrentarse con cambios físicos, emocionales y socioculturales, propios de esta etapa, sino a la realización de una evaluación retrospectiva crítica y profunda de la experiencia de vida, de la autobiografía.Objective: Approach to the social representations constituent of a biological-biographical phenomenon denominated climacteric, by means of the meanings attributed through socio-cultural knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the woman in this period of their life. Methodology: Qualitative study by means of seven focal groups (37 women. Population of study: women between 45-55 years, residents in the city of Albacete. Results: Process

  10. Efficacy and Safety Investigation of Kuntai Capsule for the Add-back Therapy of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist Administration to Endometriosis Patients: A Randomized,Double-blind, Blank-and Tibolone-controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Ming Chen; Hong-Yan Gao; Yi Ding; Xia Yuan; Qing Wang; Qin Li; Guo-Hua Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background:As a Chinese Traditional Medicine product,Kuntai capsule could improve the peri-menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.But it is still not clear whether Kuntai capsule has a good effect on alleviating peri-menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment.The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of Kuntai capsule,on peri-menopausal symptoms in endometriosis (EMS) patients,with postoperative GnRH-a treatment.Methods:Ninety EMS ovarian cyst women with postoperative GnRH-a administration were enrolled in the study,and were randomly divided into Kuntai group,Tibolone group,or blank Control group.The therapeutic strategy in Kuntai group was 4 Kuntai capsules tid,po for 12 weeks after the first GnRH-a injection,while Tibolone 2.5 mg qd,po for 12 weeks in Tibolone group.There was no drug addition in Control group.Climacteric complaints were evaluated by Kupperman menopausal index (KMI) and hot flash/sweating score.Liver and renal functions,lipid profile,serum sex hormone levels and endometrial thickness were measured,and the frequency of adverse events in Kuntai and Tibolone groups was recorded.Results:(l) Before GnRH-a therapy,the baseline parameter results were comparable in the three groups (P > 0.05).(2) After GnRH-a therapy,KMI and hot flash/sweating scores in all the three groups increased significantly (P < 0.05).At the 4th week after GnRH-a therapy,KMI and hot flash/sweating score results were as follows:Control group > Kuntai group > Tibolone group (P < 0.05); at the 8th and 12th week after GnRH-a therapy,KMI and hot flash/sweating score in Control group were significantly higher than the other two groups (P < 0.05),and no significant difference was identified between Kuntai and Tibolone group (P > 0.05).(3) No statistical change took place in the liver and renal functions and lipid profile in all the three groups after the treatment (P > 0.05).(4) The

  11. 10 years of Vertigo Clinic at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusesi, Abiodun D; Abubakar, J

    2016-11-01

    The clinician's major role in management of the dizzy patient involves determining what dizziness is vertigo, and what vertigo is of central or peripheral origin. These demand attention to details of history, otolaryngological workup including vestibular assessment, and often use of diagnostic and management algorithms. There is paucity of published reports of the management outcomes of peripheral vestibular diseases from Africa. Two tertiary care otologist-led dedicated vertigo clinics are located in Abuja, Nigeria. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients presenting with features of peripheral vestibular diseases attending the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria (between May 2005 and April 2014) and CSR Otologics Specialist Clinics (May 2010 to April 2014) was carried out. Both institutions adopted the same diagnostic and management protocols. Data extracted from anonymized databases created for this study include age, sex, vertigo duration (acute 12 weeks), dizziness handicap inventory score at presentation and at subsequent visits, otological and vestibular findings, ice-water caloric testing results, other investigation outcomes, treatments offered and outcomes. 561/575 (97.5 %) of the cases recorded had peripheral vestibular disease. The male-to-female ratio was 290:271. The mean age of the subjects was 44.7 years. Duration of vertigo at presentation was acute in 278 subjects and chronic in 283 subjects. Identifiable clinical diagnostic groups include BPPV (n = 200), Meniere's disease (n = 189), cervicogenic vertigo (n = 35), labyrinthitis (n = 32), Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) (n = 32), cholesteatoma/perilymph Fistula (n = 10), climacteric vertigo (n = 8) and unclassified vertigo (n = 55). Migraine-associated vertigo recorded the highest DHI score (95 % CI 75 ± 4.3), followed by cholesteatoma/perilymph fistula (95 % CI 72 ± 6.1) and labyrinthitis (95 % CI 62 ± 1.9). Pure tone audiometry (95 % CI 67.3 ± 3

  12. Research advances on Maca%玛咖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏; 徐丽; 宋晖; 马清; 张译; 杨崇仁

    2015-01-01

    玛咖(Lepidium meyeniiWalp)(Maca)为十字花科独行菜属一年生或两年生草本植物,原产海拔3500~4500 m的南美安第斯山区,为当地常用蔬菜。我国本世纪初引种以来种植面积不断扩大,云南为主要种植地区。玛咖含有丰富的蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪酸、纤维、维生素和矿物质含量,具有较高的营养价值,有“南美人参”之誉。此外,玛咖含有玛咖酰胺、玛咖烯、生物碱、芥子油苷、甾醇和类固醇等主要次生代谢物。药理活性研究表明,玛咖具有抗疲劳、增强免疫力、提高生育力、抗炎症、抗癌、抗氧化、抗病毒、降血压、缓解抑郁和治疗女性更年期综合征等多种作用。前期大量文章已对玛咖的化学成分和生理活性研究进展进行综述。本文对玛咖的安全性评价、玛咖成分的检测方法以及以不同色型玛咖的成分比较分析研究概况进行综述。%Maca (Lepidium meyeniiWalp), an annual or biennial herb of Brassicaceae family, is native in the South American Andean mountain, especially above sea level to the altitude 3500~4500 m. Maca has been used as vegetable by the local people. Since the beginning of this century, Maca was introduced into China at the beginning of this century. Up to now, Maca has been planting widely in Yunnan province of China. Maca riches in proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, fibers, vitamins and mineralizes. It has high nutritional value as well as some secondary metabolites, such as macamides, macaenes, alkaloids, glucosinolates and steroids. It is reported that Maca has many biological activates, such as anti-fatigue, immune enhancing, fertility improving, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-virus, blood pressure lowering and treatment of female climacteric syndrome. Research advances in chemical constituents and biological activity of Maca has already been reviewed in previous articles. The current article

  13. Atmosfera modificada e controle de etileno para bananas 'Prata-Anã' cultivadas na Amazônia Setentrional Brasileira Atmospheric modification and ethylene's control in posthaverst, for 'Prata-Anã' bananas cultivated in the Setentrional Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Souza Prill

    2012-12-01

    presence of ethylene adsorption sachet had the best maintenance in the color peel, delay of the climacteric peak, as the delay in the starch degradation, lowest increments of soluble solids and titratable acidity, the lowest concentration of ethylene inside the LDPE bags and delay and decrease of enzyme activity. The combination of the use of LDPE bags with the sachet of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 resulted in the delay of ripening fruits of bananas 'Prata Anã', when stored at 12 ºC. It can be attributed this beneficial effect by the presence of the sachet in the adsorption of ethylene and, consequently, in the action of ethylene in the fruit ripening, delaying the senescence of bananas 'Prata Anã'.

  14. Qualidade de vida de mulheres com câncer de mama Quality of life in breast cancer survivors

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    Délio Marques Conde

    2006-03-01

    to the perception of QOL are reasons for debate, since the concept of QOL is directly related to the social and cultural context in which the individual is inserted. Age at diagnosis, chemotherapy, type of surgery, climacteric symptoms, relationship between the couple, and sexuality are several factors associated with QOL in women with breast cancer. QOL associated with different antineoplastic therapies may help patients and physicians choose the best therapeutic modality. Towards this end, the current article addresses various aspects of QOL of breast cancer women, and presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on the topic.

  15. Fisiologia pós-colheita de frutos da palmeira Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae Postharvest physiology of Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae palm fruits

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    Paulo Santelli

    2009-09-01

    . vinifera fruits suffered chilling injury when stored at 8 ºC and the damaged fruits failed to ripen upon return to 25ºC storage. Subjected to low water loss in high humidity chambers M. vinifera fruit-storage life tripled when compared to less humid storage environment (65 to 85%, also at 25 ºC. The hard M. vinifera fruit peel became more gas permeable as it loses firmness and tight scale arrangement during ripening and also during storage at stressful chilled temperatures. Intercellular gaseous volume was low in M. vinifera fruits, a fact that may increase susceptibility to impact injury caused by a tendency of the hard peel scales to split or unglue. As it ripens the fruit pulp became soft, as recorded by a penetrometer, thus reducing transport resistance, the fruit becoming susceptible to even modest compression. M. vinifera had typical climacteric ripening behavior with the CO2 peak occurring two days after the ethylene peak. The internal CO2 and O2 curves were different from those of previously described fruits because there was a great reduction in peel diffusion resistance caused by the formation of openings between the hard peel scales during ripening.

  16. Controle da antracnose na pós-colheita de bananas-'prata' com produtos alternativos aos agrotóxicos convencionais Postharvest control of antracnose in 'prata' bananas with alternatives products to conventional pesticides

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    Ricardo José Zimmermann de Negreiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos alternativos aos agrotóxicos convencionais foram avaliados no controle da antracnose causada por Colletotrichum musae em pós-colheita de bananas 'Prata' [Musa spp. (AAB]. Foram utilizados buquês com três frutos, com diâmetro médio de 32 mm a 36 mm, no estádio pré-climatérico, com coloração de casca totalmente verde. Os frutos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de conídios de C. musae, na concentração de 2,5x10(5 conídios/mL e mantidos em câmara úmida a 25 ºC, por 24 horas. Após esse período, foram pulverizados com as caldas dos produtos alternativos extrato cítrico 'Biogermex', óleo de nim 'Organic Neem' e óleo de alho 'Probinatu', na concentração de 10,0 mL/L, óleo de pimenta-longa e óleo de cravo-da-índia na concentração de 5,0 mL/L e quitosana na concentração de 10,0 mg/mL, além do fungicida Tectoï SC (tiabendazol na concentração de 0,65 mL/L. Água destilada foi utilizada como tratamento-testemunha. Os frutos tratados com quitosana, óleo de nim e óleo de alho tiveram a severidade da doença reduzida. O óleo de alho foi o produto mais eficiente, com redução também da incidência da doença. A qualidade dos frutos não foi depreciada por nenhum dos tratamentos alternativos nas concentrações utilizadas.Alternatives products to conventional pesticides in the control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae after harvest of 'Prata' banana [Musa spp. (AAB] were evaluated. Fruits with an average diameter of 32-36 mm were selected at the pre-climacteric stage, with a peel color index of 1 (totally green peel. Hands were subdivided into clusters of three fruits. The fruits were sprayed with a conidial suspension of C. musae at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(5 conidia/mL and were kept in a moist chamber at 25°C for 24 hours. After this period, fruits were sprayed with the alternative products 'Biogermex' citric extract, 'Organic Neem' oil and 'Probinatu' garlic oil at a concentration of 10.0 m

  17. Analysis of Misdiagnosis Cause of 44 Patients with Primary Hyperthyroidism%原发性甲状腺功能亢进症44例误诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析总结原发性甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)的损伤机制和误诊原因.方法 对我院1999~2009年收治并误诊的44例原发性甲亢的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组误诊为冠心病9例,肠易激综合征及慢性结肠炎8例,多发性肌炎6例,心肌炎、更年期综合征各5例,周期性瘫痪3例,特发性水肿、心律失常及焦虑、抑郁各2例,精神分裂症及药物性肝损害各1例.44例均经放射性131I和甲状腺功能检查确诊为原发性甲亢.确诊后予抗甲状腺治疗,其中24例同时使用升白细胞药物,8例同时使用保肝药物治疗.44例治疗4~8周后症状、体征均明显缓解,甲状腺功能恢复正常;出院后抗甲状腺药物减量维持12~24月,29例长期缓解,15例行131I治疗.结论 原发性甲亢临床表现复杂多样,症状不典型者易误诊,对高度怀疑该病者,应及时行甲状腺功能检查,以早期诊断及治疗.%Objective To analyze and summarize the consent of injury mechanism and misdiagnosis causes of primary hyperthyroidism to improve diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 44 patients with hyperthyroidism admitted to our hospital during 1999 and 2009 and 44 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 9 patients were misdiagnosed as coronary heart disease, 8 irritable bowel syndrome and chronic colitis, 6 polymyositis, 5 myocarditis, 5 climacteric syndrome, 3 periodic paralysis,2 idiopathic edema, 2 arrhythmia and anxiety disorder 2 depression, 1 schizophrenia and 1 drug induced liver injury. 44 patients were diagnosed as primary hyperthyroidism by 131 I and thyroid function examination. All the patients received anti-thyroid treatment after diagnosis, 24 patients received immunostimulant, and 8 used hepatic drugs at the same time. 4 to 8 weeks after treatment, all the symptoms in 44 patients were relieved significantly, and thyroid function returned to normal. Antithyroid drug dosage was reduced and maintained for 12

  18. Physiological and Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Soursop Fruit (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Caracterización Fisiológica y Físico-Química del Fruto de la Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fruit consumption is increasing around the world, just as its population. The World Health Organization recommends a minimum consumption of fruit 120 kg/person - year. Fruits such as soursop provide nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidants which are vital to human health, as well as bioactive substances such as vitamin C, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids, among others. In this research, soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita fruits were collected at physiological maturity in two production seasons for their physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production and physiological loss of weight and physico-chemical characterization (pulp, seeds and skin yield, total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity, pH and firmness. We found that ethylene production peaked at day 6 after-harvest, scoring 133.2 mL kg-1 h-1. This parameter was found to increase during postharvest, with peaks on days 4 and 6, coinciding with the climacteric peaks of biphasic respiration, the largest of which reached a value of 186.9 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1. This is probably the starter for the cascade of events that feature the ripening process, among which changes in TSS, acidity and fruit firmness were outstandingly visible.Resumen. En el mundo, el consumo de frutas es creciente, al igual que la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda un consumo mínimo de 120 kg/persona al año. Frutas como la guanábana aportan nutrientes, fitoquímicos y antioxidantes de vital importancia para la salud humana, además de sustancias bioactivas como vitamina C, flavonoides, antocianinas y carotenoides, entre otros. En la presente investigación, frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, fueron recolectados en estado de madurez fisiológica o de cosecha, en dos épocas de producción, para determinar sus características fisiológicas (tasa de respiración, producción de etileno y pérdida fisiológica de peso, y físico-químicas (rendimiento en pulpa

  19. Select estrogens within the complex formulation of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin® are protective against neurodegenerative insults: implications for a composition of estrogen therapy to promote neuronal function and prevent Alzheimer's disease

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    Brinton Roberta

    2006-03-01

    . Coadministration of two out of three neuroprotective estrogens, 17β-estradiol, equilin and Δ8,9-dehydroestrone, exerted greater neuroprotective efficacy than individual estrogens. Computer-aided analyses to determine structure/function relationships between the estrogenic structures and their neuroprotective activity revealed that the predicted intermolecular interactions of estrogen analogues with ER correlate to their overall neuroprotective efficacy. Conclusion The present study provides the first documentation of the neuroprotective profile of individual estrogens contained within the complex formulation of CEE at concentrations commensurate with their plasma levels achieved after an oral administration of 0.625 mg CEE in women. Our analyses demonstrate that select estrogens within the complex formulation of CEE contribute to its neuroprotective efficacy. Moreover, our data predict that the magnitude of neuroprotection induced by individual estrogens at relatively low concentrations may be clinically undetectable and ineffective, whereas, a combination of select neuroprotective estrogens could provide an increased and clinically meaningful efficacy. More importantly, these data suggest a strategy for determining neurological efficacy and rational design and development of a composition of estrogen therapy to alleviate climacteric symptoms, promote neurological health, and prevent age-related neurodegeneration, such as AD, in postmenopausal women.

  20. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

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    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el

  1. 农村妇女围绝经期综合症现况调查%INVESTIGATION ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF MENOPAUSAL SYNDROME IN RURAL WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉珍; 陈长香; 李向飞; 吴安娜; 邢琰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解广大农村地区围绝经期妇女围绝经期综合症发生情况及相关因素,为农村围绝经期妇女的健 康教育提供依据.[方法]采用统一的问卷在黑龙江、河南、陕西、河北、四川5省随机调查900名45~55岁围绝经期妇女,问卷由基本资料部分、改良更年期Kupperman评分表和抑郁量表(CES-D)组成.[结果]农村围绝经期妇女围绝经期综合症患病率为79.30%,主要症状依次为疲乏、情绪波动、失眠、骨关节痛、头痛、性生活、眩晕、感觉异常、抑郁疑心、潮热出汗、泌尿感染和心悸.围绝经期综合症的发生与年龄、子女数量、关注围绝经期知识、一般疾病治疗和家庭功能等因素有关.同时围绝经期综合症影响抑郁,有统计学意义,P<0.01.[结论]围绝经期综合症严重影响妇女健康,应采取有针对性的措施.%[Objective] To understand the vast rural areas in menopausal women of menopausal syndrome incidence and related factors, the menopausal women in rural areas to provide evidence of health. [Methods] One unified questionnaire was taken to investigate 900 menopausal women aged 45-55 years cases in Heilongjiang, Henan, Shanxi, Hebe and Sichuan Province, and some basic information were randomly surveyed from the questionnaire, including menopausal Kupperman score table and Depression Scale (CES-D) form. [Results] Rural menopausal syndrome prevalence was 79.30%, the main symptoms were fatigue, mood swings, insomnia, bone and joint pain, headache, sexual life, dizziness, abnormal sensation, depression, suspicion, hot flushes out Khan, urinary tract infection and heart palpitations. Climacteric syndrome was related to age, number of children, concerns of menopausal knowledge, general disease treatment and family function and other factors. Penopausal syndrome also affected depression, there was significant difference (P < 0.01). [Conclusion] Menopausal Syndrome seriously affected the

  2. 二氧化氯浸泡对双孢蘑菇褐变的抑制效应及其机理分析%Suppression of ClO2 Treatment on Browning and the Analysis of Browning Mechanism of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 田世龙; 颉敏华; 李守强; 张欣; 程建新; 葛霞

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect on postharvest physiology and enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus of ' W2000', with C1O2 treatment in low-temperature storage. This study produced the following results: with C1O2 treatment and storing at 0℃ , respiration rate drops obviously,and the arrival of respiratory climacteric has been postponed,decreased 29. 2% and delayed 5 d; Enzyme activities of PPO and POD were significantly suppressed in C1O2-treated mushrooms, and restrained the accumulation of phenolic oxidation products,as well as slowing the browning rate of fruiting body. Stored 20 d, total phenolic content was only 0. 81 jamol/mg. Besides, impregnating with C1O2 could slow the decreasing speed of hardness of fruiting body,helps soluble solids content to be well maintained, while retarding the cap opening. C1O2 treatment could effectively extend the storage period, maintain the high quality. Therefore,the commercial value of mushrooms has been greatly improved. In conclusio|i,the handling of dipping mushrooms in 120 mg · L-1 C1O2 solution and stored at 0°C is very useful in keeping A. bisporus of 'W2000' fresh.%以‘W2000’双孢蘑菇为试验材料,设清水(CK)和ClO2浸泡(120mg· L-1)2个处理,研究ClO2浸泡处理在低温贮藏条件下对双孢蘑菇采后品质、生理及相关酶活性的影响.结果显示:ClO2浸泡处理配合0℃低温贮藏可显著降低双孢蘑菇的呼吸强度,推迟呼吸高峰的出现时间,呼吸强度较CK降低29.2%,并使呼吸高峰推迟5d出现;同时能够有效抑制子实体多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,控制酚类氧化产物的积累,减缓子实体褐化进程,贮藏20 d时,处理的总酚含量仅为0.81μmol/mg.另外,ClO2处理还可延缓子实体硬度的下降,保持其可溶性固形物的含量,并抑制开伞,有效延长双孢蘑菇的贮藏期.研究表明,ClO2处理+低温贮藏对双孢蘑菇具有较理想的保鲜

  3. Study on Spectrum of Diseases Related to Kidney Deficiency Based on Literature Co-word Analysis%基于文献共词分析的肾虚证候疾病谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树春; 刘洋; 宋昊; 郑洪新

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the spectrum of diseases related to kidney deficiency. Articles on kidney deficiency published from 1991 to 2010 were collected from the CBM online. Medical subject headings (MeSH) were extracted and calculated with BICOMB. The co-occurrence matrix was built. The SPSS and NetDraw were applied to the analysis of the high-frequency MeSH on related diseases. The results showed that kidney deficiency have a close relationship with diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), such as infertility, impotence, climacteric syndrome, asthma, uterine bleeding, enuresis, menstrual disorder, amenorrhea, and etc. The kidney deficiency is also closely related to diseases in modern medicine, such as infertility, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, anemia, chronic renal failure, asthma, hypertension, nephritis, and etc. The spectrum of diseases related to kidney deficiency is concluded in both TCM and modern medicine. The relationship of kidney deficiency and spectrum of disease in both TCM and modern medicine has been revealed through bibliometrics.%目的:探讨肾虚证候相关的中医和西医疾病谱.方法:通过主题词途径扩展检索1991~2010年间的肾虚专题研究文献,析出中医类和西医类疾病高频主题词,建立词篇矩阵和共现矩阵.利用SPSS和NetDraw等软件进行聚类和可视化处理,分析与肾虚证候相关的疾病分布.结果:检索获得肾虚证候相关研究文献2230篇,抽取主题词2172个,出现14128次.聚类和可视化结果显示,肾虚证候与不孕不育、阳萎、更年期综合症、腰痛、哮喘、月经失调、遗尿、痹证、崩漏、功血等中医病症关系密切;与不孕不育、骨质疏松、糖尿病、贫血、肾衰、肾炎、哮喘、高血压、前列腺炎、骨关节炎等西医疾病存在密切联系.结论:依据文献共词分析结果,显示出肾虚证候所涉及的中西医疾病谱,并从文献计量学角度探讨了肾虚证候与中

  4. Depoimentos de mulheres sobre a menopausa e o tratamento de seus sintomas The opinion of women on menopause and treatment of its symptoms

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    Ana Lúcia Valadares

    2008-08-01

    40 and 65 years of age, with 11 years or more of formal education. Some women added spontaneous comments to the end of the questionnaire on sexuality handed out by research assistants and self-responded anonymously. There were those who provided comments at the end of the questionnaire and those who did not. The groups were compared with respect to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics using Pearson's chi-square test. Comments were transcribed in their entirety to a computerized file for thematic content analysis, and units of meaning were identified and classified. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of the women (114/378 provided comments. Significantly more women with lower income levels provided comments as compared to those with higher income levels. The principal identified categories of analysis were: a uncertainty and/or confusion, mainly with regard to anguish, stress and doubts about menopause; b symptoms that lead to negative feelings, such as hot flushes, vaginal dryness and mood changes; and c hormone replacement therapy, fears and perception of a lack of conviction in the physicians who prescribe it. CONCLUSION: The comments indicate that more attention must be given to the problems perceived in climacteric women with a special emphasis on those of the lower incomes levels.

  5. Caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración de plátano Hartón (musa AAB Simmonds en dos sistemas de producción Physical-chemist and physiologic characterization in the Harton plantain ripening process (Musa AAB Simmonds in organic and conventional production systems

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    José Luis Barrera V

    2010-01-01

    between the treatments (organic and conventional during the ripening process, were observed signifi cant differences in the variables resistance, °Brix, pH, acidity; on the contrary in the variables reduction sugar, total sugar, starch they were a similar behave. The respiration index in organic plantain reached the high climacteric to 14 days and the conventional to 7; indicating that organic present a better behave postharvest facilitating its commercialization.

  6. Prevalência de distúrbios do sono na pós-menopausa Sleep disturbance prevalence in postmenopausal women

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    Helena Hachul de Campos

    2005-12-01

    an FSH which equaled or exceeded 30 mU/ml; they should not be undergoing hormone therapy, and should display normal laboratory test results. The patients with severe clinical diseases and/or decompensated were excluded; also the ones with suspicion of carcinoma of endometrium and/or breast cancer, a BMI over 30 kg/m² and those who ingested hypnotic drugs. The patients followed a routine climacteric check-up, answered a questionnaire about sleep and underwent an all-night PSG recording. Frequencies in percentage of emerging sleep complaints based on the questionnaire and those pertaining to PSG diagnosis were then calculated separately. RESULTS: the subjective prevalence of insomnia was 61% against 83% in the PSG recordings. The prevalence of apnea reported was 23% against 27% in the PSG. The subjective restless legs syndrome prevalence was 45%, and the objective, 27%. CONCLUSION: there was a high prevalence of sleep disturbances in postmenopausal patients, specially insomnia, apnea and restless legs.

  7. Avaliação do crescimento e da maturação pós-colheita de pêras da cultivar shinsseiki Evaluation of growth and postharvest ripening of shinsseiki pears

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    SERGIO RICARDO BOLTE LOMBARDI

    2000-12-01

    temperature, for 18 days. Seven evaluations took place, at three-day intervals. 'Shinsseiki' pears show growth curve of the simple sigmoidal type, evolution in the weight gain and total soluble solids (TSS, reduction in total titrable acidity (TTA and flesh firmness with the complete growth. After postharvest treatments, fast evolution of the superficial color was observed, with increasing CEPA concentrations. A significant weight loss and reduction in the flesh firmness were observed. Small increases in the values of TTA and TSS and a constant ratio TSS/TTA were found. Pears of the cultivar Shinsseiki have a climacteric behavior and a 50 mg L-1 CEPA solution is enough to anticipate ripening in 9 to 12 days.

  8. 三种方法治疗围绝经期女性情绪障碍的比较%Comparison of Three Kinds of Regimens Dealing with Women Emotional Disorder during Perimenopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 钟智勇; 韩自力; 王相兰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the best regimen dealing with perimenopausal women emotional disorder.[Methods]Sixtytwo perimenopausal women with emotional disorder screened by SAS and SDS were randomly registered into three different groups (20 for paroxetine combined with psychological therapy, 21 for paroxetine combined with hormone replace treatment and psychological therapy, 21 for hormone replace treatment combined with psychological therapy), and they accepted four weeks,observation.Every patient accepted the assessment of these rating scales (including Greene, HAMA, HAMD) one time before and after treatment, and only one test for TESS after treatment.[Results]All regimens improved the score of Greene and HAMA, but there was no statistical difference between different regimens.HRT combined with psychological therapy did not effectively improve the score of HAMD, Both paroxetine combined with psychological therapy and paroxetine combined with HRT and psychological therapy improve the score of HAMD much more than HRT combined with psychological therapy (P=0.018).There is no significant difference of TESS score between different regimens (P = 0.08).[Conclusion]considering that latent, far-reaching serious disadvantages, the regimen of paroxetine combined with psychological therapy deserves to be advocated in our clinical practice.%[目的]探讨治疗女性围绝经期情绪障碍的合适方案.[方法]将经Zung氏焦虑自评量表(Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale/SAS)、Zung氏抑郁自评量表(Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale/SDS)筛选后具有抑郁和/或焦虑的围绝经期女性62例随机进入组1(帕罗西汀+心理治疗20例)、组2(帕罗西汀+心理+HRT(Hormone Replacement Treatment)治疗21例)和组3(HRT+心理治疗21例)治疗4周.所有患者在治疗前后均进行一次更年期症状主诉量表(Greene's Climacteric Scale)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(Hamilton Anxiety Scale/HAMA)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton Depression Scale/HAMD)的评

  9. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe coincidência entre os sintomas do climatério e o aparecimento acentuado dos sinais de envelhecimento da pele. Estudos, em modelos animais, mostraram que o estrógeno é uma espécie de mediador crítico na cicatrização de feridas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da influência da terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH em anastomoses de cólon, feitas em ratas. MÉTODOS: Utilizam 3 grupos de ratas Wistar, um grupo de ooforectomizadas com TRH feita com 50mg de estrógeno e 2 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, um de ooforectomizadas e sem TRH e um de ratas laparotomizadas e não ooforectomizadas. Realizaram a ooforectomia e a confirmação da condição hormonal após 28 dias. Em seguida instituíram a TRH ou de solução fisiológica, diariamente. Após 2 meses fizeram uma colotomia esquerda com anastomose término-terminal e estudaram a resistência e a densidade de colágeno com 7 e 14 dias. RESULTADOS: As anastomoses dos cólons das ratas sem TRH eram menos resistentes do que as do grupo controle tanto no 7.º dia (p=0,0488 como no 14.º dia (p=0,0115. A densidade de colágeno foi menor no 7.º dia (p=0,0210 com menor presença de colágeno I (p=0,0023 e de colágeno III (p=0,0470. No 14.º dia estas diferenças permaneceram significantes. Nas anastomoses dos cólons das ratas com TRH as diferenças, em relação ao grupo controle, não foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A falta dos hormônios ovarianos leva à menor resistência e atrasa a maturação de anastomoses do cólon, em ratas e estas deficiências são compensadas pela TRH.PURPOSE: The symptoms of the climacteric coincide with the marked appearance of signs of skin aging. Studies on animal models have shown that estrogen is a critical mediator in wound healing. The authors report a study of the influence of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT on colon anastomoses performed in female rats. METHODS: Three groups of Wistar rats were used: one submitted to oophorectomy

  10. The promotion of geomorphosites on salt from Sovata - Praid and Turda using cultural and scientific tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, B.; Irimus, I.; Petrea, D.

    2012-04-01

    these lakes are used for external treatment. The holes resulting from exploitation were arranged and turned into treatment rooms for those affected by respiratory diseases. Localities Praid and Sovata from rural settlements, have become balneary resorts, that use these salt resources by multiple forms of tourism: spas, climatic, cultural, recreational and scientific. In Turda has developed both health, climacteric and recreational tourism, as well as cultural and historical tourism, given the historical relics that are housed here. The design of applicative segment of geomorphological sites on salt recovery, through tourism activities is the objective of our work. Methodological argumentation is supported by the objective motivation, of geomorphosites on salt capitalization, by the content of syllabus and specialization of geography of tourism and territorial planning, from the Faculty of Geography, Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca. The syllabus content argues the need for knowledge of geomorphosites genesis, their morphology, touristic valences, urbanistic valences, and the possibility of recovery, through forms and types of tourism, namely, urban, agricultural, industrial forms and types of exploitation. Key words: salt, geomorphosites, Praid, Turda, recovery

  11. 妇女围绝经期综合征125例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 125 female patients suffering from perimenopausal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and psychological status of women suffering fiom perimenopausal syndrome so as to provide some evidence for prevention and treatment. Methods From 2008 to 2010 125 women who diagnosed with perimenopausal syndrome in Gynecology Department of College Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University were investigated. Results For patients with perimenopausal syndrome, the incidence rates of symptoms of mind and neurosis, of genitourinary tract, of vasomotion, and of bone and arthrosis were 48.0% , 38.4% , 36.0%, 12.0% respectively. There were 62.4% patients who had clinical manifestations in 3 systems at same time. The incidence rates of crossness and impatience, anxiety and dread were 58.4% and 45.6% , respectively, which were much higher than those of other abnormal psychological manifestations (X2 = 104. 634, P < 0. 001 ). Conclusion Most women during perimenopausal period have mild complaints. Climacteric health care, suitable diet, keeping healthy psychology and symptomatic treatment are needed. Indication and contraindication should be clarified for severe cases, and a low dosage of estrogen can produce satisfactory therapeutic effect if used reasonably.%目的 了解围绝经期综合征妇女的临床表现和心理状况,为认真做好防治提供依据.方法 对2008年至2010年在西安交通大学医院妇科门诊就诊的125例临床诊断为围绝经期综合征的妇女进行调查.结果 在围绝经期综合征患者中,精神与神经症状、泌尿生殖道症状、血管舒缩症状、骨和关节症状的发生率分别为48.0%、38.4%、36.0%、12.0%,同时出现3个系统以上临床表现的患者占62.4%."固执、急躁"和"焦虑、恐惧"心理的发生率分别为58.4%和45.6%,明显高于其他异常心理表现(χ2=104.634,P<0.001).结论 围绝经期妇女多数患者症状较轻,只要注意围绝经期保健和合理饮食,保持健康心理,对症治疗即可;对重症

  12. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    .7%. The lowest reported symptoms were "facial hair" at 16.1% followed by "dissatisfied with my personal life" at 18.1%. Cronbach′s alpha scores, measuring the internal consistency of questions in each domain for physical, vasomotor, psychosocial and sexual were 0.883, 0.853, 0.697 and 0.805, respectively. The Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient between domains indicated that there is highly significant concordance between the four domains (P < 0.001.Conclusion: A large number of factors were associated with experiencing menopausal symptoms and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women. The current study showed that climacteric symptom in menopausal Arab women is less than Western women, which may be influenced by socio-economic, genetics, environment and parity.

  13. Biological and Social Factors Related to Women's Health during Climateric Factores biológicos y sociales relacionados con la salud de la mujer durante el climaterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia María Rivas Alpízar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the life of women, being extended to 30 years after menopause, undergoes an environmental impact that overlaps the clinical expression of the cessation of reproductive function. This increases the need to provide, at this stage, a comprehensive care. Objective: To identify some biological and social factors related to women's health during climateric. Methods: Descriptive and cross sectional study conducted in 307 women from 40 to 59 years old in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos, from January to December 2006. Through household interviews, a form that allowed collecting general, clinical and medical support information was filled. Results: 56.3% of women experienced mild climacteric syndrome, circulatory (77.2% and psychological (60% symptoms being the most referred ones. The average age of menopause onset was between 47 and 51 years old. It appeared earlier in smokers. The age of menarche, the number of pregnancies and births and menstrual patterns were not related to the age of menopause onset. 44% of women were hypertensive, 41.4% were pre-obese and 100% were sedentary. 81.8% of them did not seek for medical support. Hormonal therapy was prescribed for 32.1% of patients. Conclusions: Despite the risk factors and the chronic diseases that were detected, women interviewed did not seek for medical support, even when they presented discomfort to some extent. This was caused by the lack of information on this stage of life and the inexistence of specialized multidisciplinary consultations in Primary Health Care.

    Fundamento: la vida de la mujer, que se ha  extendido 30 años después de la menopausia, recibe un impacto del medio sobre la expresión clínica del cese de la función reproductiva, lo cual incrementa la necesidad de brindarles en esta etapa una atención integral. Objetivo: identificar

  14. 不同贮藏方式对核桃鲜果采后生理及贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Different Storage Methods on Postharvest Physiology and Storage Quality of Fresh Walnut Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曦; 张润光; 韩军岐; 张有林

    2015-01-01

    different periods of storage. After storage for 120 d, walnut shell color, endotesta color, kernel flavour of total fresh walnut fruit were evaluated, respectively. Then, the appearance of fresh walnut husk, shell and kernel were taken photo.[Result]The results showed that the fresh walnut fruit with green husk is respiration climacteric fruit and fresh walnut without green husk is non-respiration climacteric fruit. The content of moisture, lipid, and oil iodine value presented a reduced trend, but the acid value, peroxide value, LOX activity, and MDA content of fresh walnut kernel showed a increased trend and SOD activity, CAT activity, reducing sugar content, protein content showed no visible change. The contrast treatment showed the worst preservation effect and green husk browning index reached 0.27 after storage for 40 d. However, the green husk browning index of vacuum-package with plastic bag storage was only 0.18 after storage for 120 d. The result also showed that the treatment of vacuum-package with plastic bag could effectively prevent browning of green husk, maintain the moisture of kernel, slow down the change rate of oil acid value, iodine value and peroxide value, keep the activities of SOD and CAT at a high level, inhibit the generation of MDA. By evaluating the sensory quality after storage for 120 d, the treatment of vacuum-package with plastic bag gained the highest score in every single project. [Conclusion] The lower the concentration of O2 in storage circumstances, the better the effect of conservation. After plucked with carpopodium in walnut commercial mature period, pre-cooled at 4.0℃ for 3 d, and vacuumed with LDPE plastic bag using vacuum pack machine, the storage life of walnut could reach 120 d at (1.0±0.5)℃ and RH 90%-95%. Its pericarp browning index of fresh walnut was low, and the color, aroma, taste and shape remained good.

  15. Combination of modified atmosphere packaging and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment suppress decreasing of wax composition of apples during cold storage%气调包装与1-MCP结合抑制苹果蜡质成分降低

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓庆; 饶景萍; 朱守亮; 杨青珍

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨红富士苹果在贮藏过程中主要蜡质成分特别是与油腻相关的蜡质成分变化,以及贮藏过程中果实主要品质指标的变化规律,研究了聚氯乙烯袋(PVC)自发气调包装(MAP)与1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)结合处理(MAP+1-MCP)对(0±1)℃冷藏过程中红富士苹果蜡质成分和果实贮藏品质的影响。结果表明:在贮藏过程中,对照(不做任何处理)的蜡质总量一直降低,MAP 和 MAP+1-MCP 处理的在贮藏一个月后升高,随后贮藏的过程中降低。所有处理和对照中,二十九烷和二十七烷含量降低,十六烷酸和9,12-十八碳二烯酸含量升高,二十九-10-醇和二十九-10-酮含量先降低再升高。MAP和MAP+1-MCP能够抑制蜡质总量和其他成分相应的变化。MAP 和 MAP+1-MCP 均能延缓果实硬度的下降、可溶性固形物和可滴定酸的降解速度,降低固酸比率和失重率,抑制呼吸速率和乙烯释放速率,且可以抑制苹果贮藏后期油腻的发生。无论从对蜡质成分的影响,还是对果实贮藏品质的影响来看,MAP+1-MCP的效果优于MAP。PVC气调包装结合1μL/L1-MCP是较为理想的长时间保鲜红富士苹果的处理方式。研究结果可为生产上科学有效的长期贮藏红富士苹果、解决贮藏后期果实油腻问题提供参考。%Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a very useful method in postharvest storage for fruits and vegetables by altering the gaseous environment of the stored commodities. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a potent inhibitor of ethylene action, and has been extensively researched in a variety of horticultural crops, especially climacteric fruits. Greasiness is a problem for apples following their prolonged storage. At present, the storage quality and physiology property of fruits and vegetables treated with MAP or a combination of MAP and 1-MCP have been studied, however, there are few reports about the

  16. 围绝经期妇女抑郁症状影响因素调查%Investigation on the effect factors of depression symptom among perimenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾磊; 杜莉; 施红; 钱晓敏; 谭晶; 秦敏; 纪若思; 沈谦; 朱丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the current situation and effect factors of depression symptom among perimenopausal women and their psychological health demands in partial urban areas in Shanghai. Methods: General condition questionnaire, modified menopausal Kupperman assessment scale, social support rating scale (SSRS), patient health questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9) and menopausal mental health care attitude and need scale were used to survey 935 women aged 45 ~ 59 years old who received general investigation in a community in Shanghai from December 2010 to February 2011. Results: The incidence of depression in perimenopausal women was 24. 8%. The incidences of depression in native women and floating women were 22. 7% and 50. 7%, respectively. The effect factors of depression in perimenopausal women included census registration, the degree ofdysmenorrhea, children leaving their home for a long time within one year, serious diseases, cacesthesia, arthralgia and myalgia, climacteric syndrome, subjective support rating, objective support rating,and so on. The consciousness and knowledge of health care in perimenopausal women: 39. 8% of the perimenopausal women did not care about mental health care, 69. 5% of the perimenopausal women obtained health knowledge from media mainly, and 61.9% of the perimenopausal women obtained health knowledge from newspapers and magazines mainly. Conclusion: The incidence of depression among perimenopausal women is high. It is associated with a variety of social, psychological and biological factors. Mental health care provided for perimenopausal women should be included in women health work.%目的:探讨上海市部分城区围绝经期妇女抑郁症状发生现状、影响因素及其心理保健需求.方法:采用一般情况调查表、改良更年期Kupperman评分量表、社会支持评定量表、病人健康问卷抑郁量表、围绝经期妇女心理卫生保健态度及需求调查表,于2010年12月~2011

  17. Low dose and short-term therapy of tibolone reduces the cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Bi-lu; Cheng Jing; Ye Lian

    2004-01-01

    A decreased from (1.8±0.3)mg/dl to (1.7±0. 3) mg/dl significantly (P<0.05), fasting glucose decreased from (5. 6±0.8)mmol/L to (3.9±1.1) mmol/L significantly (P<0.01) and no significant differences in BMI,FSH, LH, E2, tPA, hs-CRP, NO, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoB were found after treatment. In group B, there were no significant differences in other parameters found after treatment except Kupperman score and PAI-1.Conclusions: 1.25 mg/d tibolone short-term therapy was associated with improved fibrinolytic factors and decreased Kupperman score, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose level. 0. 625 mg/d tibolone therapy resulted in decrease Kupperman score and improvement of fibrinolytic factors. These changes relieve climacteric symptoms and may have some benefits on preventing the development of cardiovascular disease. An increased testosterone and free testosterone levels in 1.25 mg dose of tibolone therapy may increase energy level, general wellbeing and sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Low dose tibolone replacement therapy is a convenient effective HRT for postmenopausal women

  18. Efeitos da Corticosteroidoterapia na Uretra e na Bexiga de Ratas Castradas antes e durante Reposição Estrogênica Effects of Corticosteroids in the Urethra and Bladder of Castrated Female Rats before and during Estrogen Replacement Teraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista dos Santos Junior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do uso de corticóides sobre os vasos e o epitélio da bexiga e da uretra de ratas. Método: utilizaram-se 54 ratas, divididas em 5 grupos: Grupo I - dez ratas castradas; Grupo II - onze ratas castradas que receberam succinato sódico de prednisolona, na dose de 15 mg/kg de peso, por via intraperitoneal durante 26 dias; Grupo III - doze ratas castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na mesma dose associado ao 17 beta-estradiol na dose de 10 mg/kg, subcutâneo, nos últimos 5 dias antes de serem sacrificadas; Grupo IV - onze ratas castradas que receberam placebo por 26 dias; Grupo V - dez ratas não-castradas que receberam o mesmo corticosteróide, na dose e duração do grupo II. Resultados: observou-se na bexiga do grupo castrado que recebeu corticosteróide uma média de 1,8 vasos, número semelhante ao que recebeu corticosteróide e estrogênio, contra 0,8 vasos no grupo com placebo. Já na uretra, identificaram-se 0,7 vaso no grupo com corticosteróide, contra 0,9 vaso do grupo com corticosteróide associado ao estrogênio e 0,4 vaso no grupo placebo. Quanto à mucosa, observou-se que a espessura do epitélio vesical passou de 14,1 mm do grupo placebo para 20,6 mm no que recebeu corticosteróide e para 22,6 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Da mesma maneira, a espessura do epitélio uretral passou de 12,4 mm no grupo controle para 15,1 mm no grupo com corticosteróide e para 16,7 mm com corticosteróide e estrogênio. Conclusões: a prednisolona, na dose e na duração utilizadas, aumentaram o número de vasos e a espessura do epitélio da bexiga e da uretra.Purpose: the effects of corticosteroids on the female urinary tract are not well understood, specially in climacteric women with or without estrogen replacement therapy. We studied the effects of corticosteroids on the blood vessels and epithelium of the bladder and urethra of female rats. Method: fifty-four female rats were used, divided into

  19. 肝硬化患者合并非妊娠异常子宫出血的诊断和治疗%The diagnosis and treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 王玲; 刘敏; 白玉清

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肝硬化患者合并非妊娠异常子宫出血(AUB)的临床诊断和治疗特点.方法 对2008年10月-2009年10月在地坛医院住院的432例女性肝硬化患者按随机数字法抽取病历100份,检索其月经史;回顾性分析2005年12月-2009年12月诊断和治疗的72例肝硬化合并非妊娠AUB患者的临床资料.采用SPSS10.0软件进行统计分析,构成比用x2检验.结果 100例肝硬化住院女性患者中,61例(61%)有AUB记载,平均年龄(45.4±3.6)岁.4年间到妇科诊断和治疗的非妊娠AUB肝硬化患者72例,处于围绝经期患者58例(80.6%).代偿期及失代偿期肝硬化AUB患者中月经过多者分别为42.5%(17/40)、68.8%(22/32),两组患者比较,x2=7.189,P=0.027,差异有统计学意义.因AUB大出血急诊入院患者18例,代偿期及失代偿期肝硬化患者分别为6例、12例,两组患者比较,x2=4.80,P=0.028,差异有统计学意义.52例行诊断性刮宫,39例(75.0%)患者内膜有病理变化.随访3个月到1年,共随访67例,药物保守治疗的患者58.8%(10/17)有效;子宫切除的16例患者均无术后并发症发生.结论肝硬化女性患者非妊娠AUB的发生率较高,多发生在围绝经期,大部分患者子宫内膜有不同程度的病理变化.失代偿期肝硬化非妊娠AUB患者出血模式以月经过多为主,并且易发生子宫急性大出血.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in nonpregnant hepatic cirrhosis patients and to assess the treatment and curative effects of AUB. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 72 nonpregant AUB patients treated in Ditan Hospital from October 2008 to October 2009. Data were assessed with SPSS 10.0 and the constituent ratio was examined by chisquare tests. Results 58 out of the 72 nonpregnant AUB patients were climacteric patients (80.56%).Approximately 42.5% and 68.8% ( x 2 = 7.189, P = 0.027) of the AUB patients were diagnosed with compensated and

  20. 逆针“关元”“三阴交”对去卵巢大鼠下丘脑-垂体-卵巢轴的影响%Effects of Preventive-electroacupuncture of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凯; 田素领

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of preventive-electroacupuncture (PEA) at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "San-yinjiao"(SP 6)on hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO)activities in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and to compare the specificity of efficacy of acupoints. Methods Sixty-two female SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (n = 6), sham-operation (sham) group (n = 6), model group (n = 6), PEA-Guanyuan (CV4, PEA-CV4) group (n=11), PEA-Sanyinjiao (SP6, PEA-SP 6) group (n=11), complementary (C)-PEA-CV 4 (n=11) and C-PEA-SP 6 group (n = 11). Climacterium model was duplicated by removing the bilateral ovaries. Before OVX, electroacupuncture (EA, 2 Hz/100 Hz, ) was applied to bilateral SP 6, CV 4 for 20 min, once every other day for 15 times. For rats of the C-PEA-CV 4 and C-PEA-SP 6 groups and 12 days after the OVX, PEA was applied to CV 4 and SP 6 again, once every other day for 5 times. For rats of the sham group, a little of fat nearby the ovary was removed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the contents of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus, follicule-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the hypophysis, and estrogen (E2) in the uterus. Results In comparison with the normal group, uterus E2 content was decreased significantly (P0. 05). Conclusion Preventive EA of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sa-nyinjiao"(SP 6) can function in up-regulating uterus E2 level, and down-regulating pituitary FSH and LH contents and hypothalamic GnRH level in OVX rats, which may contribute to its efficacy in relieving climacteric syndrome in clinic.%目的:观察逆针“关元”“三阴交”穴对去卵巢大鼠下丘脑-垂体-卵巢(HPO)轴的调节作用,探讨腧穴主治作用的特异性.方法:选取3月龄SD大鼠,设正常对照组(6只)、假手术组(6只)、模型组(6只)、逆针关元组(11只)、逆针三阴交组(11只)、逆针关元续针组(11只)、逆针三阴交续针组(11只),共7组.4

  1. 成人特发性孤立性ACTH缺乏症三例临床分析并文献复习%Analysis of three patients with adult idiopathic isolated ACTH deficiency and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清华; 陈康; 陆菊明; 母义明; 窦京涛; 吕朝晖; 巴建明; 李江源; 潘长玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adult idiopathic isolated ACTH deficiencv(AIIAD) is an underestimated disorder which is frequently misdiagnosed.In this paper,we presented 3 new cases of AIIAD and summarized the clinical characteristics by analyzing these cases and available literature for further understanding this disease.Methods Three cases of AIIAD in our hospital from 1998 to 2003 were retrospectively identified.Data of clinical features,laboratory findings,and response to treatment were collected.The clinical characteristics and pertinent literature were reviewed and analysed.Results These 3 cases of AIIAD aged 52-68 years old were misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated for 7 months to 4 years.All three cases presented the symptoms of fatigue and loss of weight at the onset,and were misdiagnosed as climacteric syndrome,thyroiditis,and gastrointestinal disease.The prevalence of AIIAD was very low,and it was thought to be an underestimated disorder.Through analyzing the 3 cases and literature review,the clinical features of this disease were summarized as follows:(1) Most patients were aged over 40 years and had no history of glucocorticoid medication.(2) Clinical presentations were insidious,with symptoms such as fatigue and weight loss.(3) Patients usually had no excessive pigmentation.(4) Hypogonadism in men and amenorrhea in women could be present.(5) Blood chemistry usually revealed hyponatremia but rarely hyperkalemia.(6) Blood lymphocytosis and eosinophilia were common.(7) Plasma ACTH and cortisol levels markedly decreased with normal secretion of other pituitary hormones.(8) High prevalence of thvroid disorder or positive anti-thyroid autoantibodv.(9) Usually the other accompanied autoimmune diseases might be ameliorated with glucocorticoid replacement.(10) MRI revealed no structural pituitary defects except for empty sella.(11) No evidence of infiltration,trauma,surgery,infection,and radiotherapy of the pituitary gland was found.Conclusions AIIAD is an unspecified and

  2. Ultrasound combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment improves quality of immature strawberry%超声波结合弱酸性电位水处理改善商熟期草莓采后品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛枝; 刘东红; 丁甜; 徐玉亭; 钟建军

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of strawberries is preferable because of its nutritional value and special flavor. The ripe strawberry has an extremely short postharvest life because it is highly susceptible to mechanical injury, microbiological decay, and physiological deterioration. On the other hand, the strawberry is non-climacteric and will not ripen after harvest, therefore it has to be picked when fully ripened for the best eating quality. Current methods used for preventing undesirable changes of fruit attributes during storage have a detrimental effect on nutritional properties. Therefore, it’s necessary to find appropriate methods to extend the shelf life and maintain the quality of the strawberry. The investigations of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) used in postharvest fruits and vegetables have gained much attention in recent years. Ultrasound is one of the newest nonthermal methods to extend the shelf life of fruits during storage. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is regarded as a novel and promising alternative method of disinfection in fresh products. It is hoped that ultrasound and SAEW could play a role in the preservation of the strawberry. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ultrasound and SAEW on the quality of an immature strawberry. The impact of SAEW and ultrasound, separately or in combination, on total aerobic bacteria and yeast and mold was studied. Quality attributes including firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C (VC), and anthocyanin content were also investigated. Results showed that ultrasound and SAEW alone or combined significantly removed about 0.52, 1.07, 1.29 lg CFU/g for total aerobic bacteria and 0.30, 0.93, 1.18 lg CFU/g for yeast and mold, respectively. And the treated samples also maintained relatively low microbial loads during storage. It was observed that the three treatments changed the respiratory characteristic of strawberries and a

  3. The Correlation Between Menopausal Symptoms and Period of Menopause in 3343 Menopause Women%3343例妇女更年期症状与绝经时段的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂广宁; 王小云; 杨洪艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To investigate the prevalence of climacteric symptoms in women during menopausal transition and postm-enopause, and to investigate the correlation between menopausal symptoms and period of menopause. Methods: Study participants were Chinese women aged 45 - 59 years who come from 8 cities in china and participated in Cross - sectional survey. The participants were interviewed by kupperman index (KI) and general condition. Results ;3343 women were interviewed. The mean age was (49. 64 ±4. 75). The incidence of aching in muscle and joints,insomnia,hot flushes and sweating,irritability,palpitations,dizziness, depression, urinary symptoms,sexual intercourse pain and skin formication were statistically significant at different menopausal period. The incidence of hot flushes and sweating(83. 2% ) ranked first in women 1-2 years after menopause. Meanwhile, the incidence of painful intercourse (63% ) and urinary tract symptoms (64. 6% ) ranked first in postmenopausal women after 2 -5 years. The highest symptoms for postmenopausal women over 5 years were bone and joint muscle pain (92. 8% ), palpitations (73. 5% ) .dizziness (73. 5% ) .headache (68. 1% ). Conclusion-.The menopausal symptoms were common in Chinese women during menopausal transition and postmenopause. The incidence of menopausal symptoms in different menopause period are different. The primary clinical manifestations during early menopause (1-2 years) areVasomotor symptoms. The major symptoms during middle menopause (2 -5years) are symptoms of urinary genital atrophy, meanwhile,Osteoporosis and abnormal psychological symptoms are the majority during late menopause (over 5 years).%目的:了解妇女更年期症状发生情况及症状与绝经时段的相关性.方法:在中国8个城市41~60岁更年期妇女中进行横断面调查,调查社会人口学资料及更年期症状(采用kupperman index量表).结果:共完成3343例有效人群的调查,平均年龄为(49.64±4.75)

  4. Resposta da aplicação do 1-MCP em frutos de mamoeiro 'Golden' em diferentes estádios de maturação Responses of 1-MCP applications in 'Golden' papaya fruits on differents maturation stages

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    Maximiliano Silva de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de fatores que influenciam no processo de amadurecimento é fundamental para o planejamento do processo de comercialização, principalmente em frutos com padrão de respiração climatérico e perecível, como é o caso do mamão. Nesse trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação do 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre o amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro nos estádios 0; 1 e 2 de maturação. O 1-MCP diminui a produção de etileno (≈79% e a taxa respiratória (≈45%, principalmente em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação. O uso deste inibidor da ação do etileno retardou a perda de coloração verde da casca dos frutos, principalmente em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação. Houve redução na perda de firmeza do fruto e do mesocarpo nos estádios 1 e 2. Entretanto, em frutos no estádio 0 de maturação, a firmeza do mesocarpo manteve-se alta, o que pode comprometer a aceitação destes frutos pelo consumidor. O teor de sólidos solúveis não foi influenciado pela aplicação do 1-MCP. O efeito do 1-MCP na redução da atividade das enzimas PME e PG foi maior em frutos nos estádios 0 e 1 de maturação em comparação a frutos no estádio 2 de maturação. A atividade da PME demonstrou crescente aumento ao longo do período de armazenamento, porém a atividade da PG permaneceu baixa ao longo dos cinco primeiros dias, com aumento posterior. Os resultados mostraram que a PME exerce influência significativa na perda de firmeza da polpa nos primeiros dias, com atuação posterior da PG. O 1-MCP mostrou-se eficiente em retardar o processo de amadurecimento de frutos de mamoeiro, tornando-se mais eficiente quando associado a estádios de maturação iniciais.The study of factors that influence the process of ripening is critical for planning the marketing process, mainly in standard breathing climacteric and perishing fruits, as it is the case of papaya. In this work it was evaluated the effect of the application of 1-MCP (1

  5. Avaliação das pressões sistólica, diastólica e pressão de pulso como fator de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST Evaluation of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure as risk factors for severe coronary arteriosclerotic disease in women with unstable angina non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction

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    José Marconi Almeida de Sousa

    2004-05-01

    from March 1993 to August 2001, and the risk factors for CHD were studied. During examination the pressures, at the aortic root, and coronary obstructions were visually assessed by 2 interventional cardiologists, and those stenosis over 70% were considered severe. RESULTS: Eight-one per cent of the population was white and 18.3% was black. Mean age was 59.2±11.2 years, and it was significantly higher in patients with severe coronary lesions: 61.9 ± 10.8 years versus 56.4 ± 10.8 years; smoking, diabetes mellitus and climacteric were more frequent in patients with CHD. The average mean arterial pressure and mean systolic blood pressure was the same in both groups, however, average left ventricle diastolic pressure (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001, and aortic pulse pressure were significantly greater in patients with CHD (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, while average aortic diastolic pressure was significantly greater in patients without CHD (79.8 ± 16 x 75.3 ± 17.5, p=0.003. In the multivariated analysis, pulse pressure > 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 were independently associated with severe CHD with odds ratio of 2.12 and 2.09, p 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 mmHG determined risk two times greater of severe coronary disease.

  6. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de butiá em função do estádio de maturação na colheita e do manejo da temperatura Postharvest quality of jelly palm fruits as a result of maturity stage at harvest and temperature management

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-02-01

    of jelly palm fruits. The fruits were harvested at three maturity stages (green, yellow-green, and yellow and stored at 0 2°C and 20 2°C. Fruits stored at 0 2°C showed better retention of firmness, green color of the skin, total titratable acidity (TTA, and total soluble solids (TSS than fruits stored at 20 2°C. Fruits harvested at the green maturity stage showed the best benefit from cold storage for postharvest preservation, despite of its poorest sensorial quality, characterized by the higher values of TTA and lower values of TSS than fruits harvested at yellow-green and yellow maturity stages. Fruits stored at 0 2°C did not show any symptom of chilling injury. Along the entire storage period, the fruits did not exhibit a climacteric respiratory pattern. Fruits harvested at different maturity stages did not show significant difference in terms of respiration rates. Thee increment of storage temperature from 0 to 30°C significantly increased the respiration rates from 50.26 to 658.35nmol CO2 kg-1 s-1. This respiratory increase followed a sigmoid model, with a rapid increase between 0 and 10°C, and a more modest increase towards the temperature of 30°C. There was a positive effect of immediate cooling after harvest on fruit retention of firmness, skin green color, and TTA, but not on TSS. Since jelly palm fruit is highly perishable, it should be harvested at the yellow-green maturity stage and then immediately stored at 0°C to preserve its postharvest quality.

  7. Efeitos da isoflavona de soja sobre os sintomas climatéricos e espessura endometrial: ensaio clínico, randomizado duplo-cego e controlado Effects of soy-derived isoflavone on hot flushes and endometrial thickness: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial

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    Vera Maria Gomes de Moura Sena

    2007-10-01

    involved 90 postmenopausal patients aged 45-60 years old attended at the Outpatient Menopause Clinic. All patients had been experiencing hot flashes accompanied or not by other hypo-estrogenic symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive either two soy capsules containing 50 mg of soy-derived isoflavone or two identical placebo capsules, twice a day for 12 weeks in a double-blind fashion. Each patient was observed for 12 weeks, with two evaluations being made, one at baseline and the other at the end of the study. At each time point, the patients were given a diary to record the severity of the climacteric symptoms experienced, assessed with a modified Kupperman index, using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The intensity of hot flashes was also assessed separately. The patients were also submitted to a transvaginal echography for the measurement of endometrial thickness. Yates chi2, ANOVA or t de Student and Mann-Whitney were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: no significant difference was detected in the Kupperman index (64 versus 82, p>0,05 or in the hot flashes (20 versus 20, p>0,05 between the isoflavone and placebo groups. No significant difference was either detected concerning the Kupperman index and hot flashes before and after treatment, when the two groups were analyzed separately. No difference was detected in the endometrial thickness either in the isoflavone or the placebo group (0.28 versus 0.26 mm, respectively, p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: our results indicate that 100 mg of isoflavone are not more effective than placebo in reducing hot flashes and hypo-estrogenic symptoms in postmenopausal women and present no effect on the endometrium thickness.

  8. Prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e massa óssea em mulheres na pós-menopausa Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e suas repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e a densidade mineral óssea (DMO em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Métodos: trata-se de estudo transversal com recuperação de dados de prontuários de pacientes acompanhadas em ambulatório de climatério. Critérios de inclusão: mulheres na pós-menopausa com dosagem do hormônio estimulador da tiróide (TSH e de tiroxina livre (T4-L. Critérios de exclusão: hipertiroidismo e carcinoma de tiróide. Considerou-se hipotiroidismo subclínico valores de TSH superiores a 5,0 mUI/mL e T4-L normal. Foram selecionadas 320 pacientes (idade 55,2±6,4 anos divididas em 3 grupos: função tiroideana normal (n=208, hipotiroidismo subclínico (n=53 e hipotiroidismo clínico sob tratamento (n=59. Foram analisados dados clínicos, uso de terapia hormonal, índice de massa corpórea (IMC=kg/m², perfil lipídico (colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos e DMO da coluna lombar e fêmur. Na análise estatística, as diferenças entre as médias dos grupos foram comparadas utilizando-se a análise de variância (ANOVA. Para múltipla comparação, assumindo que a variância era diferente entre os grupos, utilizou-se o método de Tukey. RESULTADOS: o hipotiroidismo subclínico foi diagnosticado em 16,1% dos casos. Os grupos foram homogêneos quanto às características clínicas, IMC e perfil lipídico e uso de terapêutica hormonal. Nas pacientes com hipotiroidismo subclínico ou clínico encontrou-se menor freqüência de osteopenia na coluna lombar e fêmur quando comparadas às eutiroidianas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. METHODS: a cross-sectional study with survey of data from medical records of patients attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria: postmenopausal women with measured thyroid

  9. Quality of life and menopausal symptoms in women with liver transplants Qualidade de vida e sintomas da menopausa em mulheres transplantadas hepáticas

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    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess quality of life and climacteric symptoms in women with and without liver transplants. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 52 women undergoing follow-up at a university hospital in southeastern Brazil from February 4th, 2009 to January 5th, 2011. Twenty-four of these women were 35 years old or older and had undergone liver transplantation at least one year before study entry. The remaining 28 women had no liver disease and were matched by age and menstrual patterns to the patients with transplants. The abbreviated version of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Correlations between MRS and the WHOQOL-BREF were established by correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the study was 52.2 (±10.4 years and the mean time since transplantation was 6.1 (±3.3 years. Women with liver transplants had better quality of life scores in the environment domain (p=0.01. No difference was noted between the two groups in any domain of the MRS. For women in the comparison group, there was a strongly negative correlation between somatic symptoms in the MRS and the physical domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e os sintomas do climatério em mulheres com e sem transplante de fígado. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 52 mulheres em acompanhamento ambulatorial em um hospital universitário na região sudeste do Brasil no período de 04/02/09 a 05/01/11. Dessas mulheres, 24 tinham 35 anos ou mais e haviam sido submetidas a transplante de fígado a pelo menos um ano antes do início do estudo. As outras 28 mulheres não tinham doença hepática e suas idades e padrões menstruais eram similares ao das transplantadas hepáticas. Para avaliação da

  10. Amadurecimento de manga 'Ubá' com etileno e carbureto de cálcio na pós-colheita Ripening of 'Ubá' mango using ethylene and calcium carbide

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-02-01

    chambers at 18.1±0.7°C and 90±3% RH, for 24h. After the treatment, the fruits were kept under the same conditions of temperature and RH, and were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of storage. Ethylene and CaC2 increased mass loss of the fruits. Mangoes treated with CaC2 showed the respiratory climacteric peak at 3, 6, 9, 9 and 12 days of storage for the concentrations 160, 80, 40, 20 and 0g m-3, respectively. Fruits treated with ethylene showed the peak at 3, 3, 6, 6 and 12 days of storage for the concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50 and 0mL m-3, respectively. All concentrations of CaC2 and ethylene accelerated the loss of firmness, the increase of soluble solids and carotenoids, the reduction of acidity and the change in color of skin and pulp. However, these products also increased electrolyte leakage and decreased ascorbic acid content. Fruits treated with ethylene showed sharper firmness loss compared with fruits treated with CaC2. On the other hand, solute leakage was higher in fruits treated with CaC2. Soluble solids content increased with increasing concentrations of CaC2 and ethylene. The concentrations of 20g of CaC2 and 50mL of ethylene per chamber m³ were sufficient to accelerate and uniformize ripening of 'Ubá' mango.

  11. Analysis of bone microarchitecture related to anthropometry in climateric women Análisis de la microarquitectura ósea relacionada con la antropometría en mujeres postmenopáusicas

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    F. Giolo De Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is one of the most important public health problems involving a high percentage of costs in the medical care system. Reliable diagnostic techniques for an early detection of bone deterioration and studies of factors that influence its development in menopausal women are crucial. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone microarchitecture and anthropometry in climacteric women. Methods: Women were recruited at the Menopause Clinic, University Hospital of FMRP/USP, and submitted to anthropometry and to the evaluation of bone quality (Ultrasound Bone Profile Index, UBPI and quantity (Amplitudedependent Speed of Sound, AD-SoS- by phalangeal quantitative osteosonography (DBM Sonic BP. Descriptive analysis of the data was reported and a multiple linear regression was performed using the software SAS® 9.0. Results: 71 patients aged 58 ± 7 y were studied: 28% had BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m², 35% BMI 24.9-29.9 and 37% BMI > 30. Mean AD-SoS was 2059 ± 79 m/s and mean UBPI was 0.67 ± 0.13. Considering AD-SoS the dependent variable, there was no statistically significant relationship between age (p = 0.20, BMI (p = 0.76, fat mass by bioelectrical impedance (p = 0.42 and by anthropometry (p = 0.95. The variables had very low effect on the UBPI when it was considered the dependent variable. Conclusions: The relation between bone microarchitecture and the anthropometry of the women studied shows that, the greater the bone quantity, the better the anthropometric parameters, without statistically significance. This work was a cross-sectional study on a small sample that needs to be validated in a prospective design.Introducción y objetivo: La osteoporosis es uno de los problemas más importantes de la Salud Pública e involucra un elevado porcentaje de los costos del Sistema de Salud. Es decisiva la aplicación de técnicas confiables de diagnóstico para la detección precoz del deterioro óseo y estudios de los