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Sample records for climacteric stage women

  1. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

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    Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet. Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach

  2. Intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women

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    Thaiene Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the characteristics and intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study with systematic probabilistic sampling, consisting of 247 women in post menopause, who answered the Questionnaire of Women’s Health. To evaluate the intensity of climacteric symptoms the Menopausal Index of Blatt and Kupperman was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17, a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence intervals for all analyzes were adopted. Results: 36.8% of women had mild climacteric symptoms, 56.3% moderate and 6.9% severe. In descending order hot flushes, irritability and sleep disorders reached the highest intensity ratios. Conclusion: the Menopausal index of Blatt and Kupperman (25.34 showed symptoms of moderate intensity. Hot flushes showed to be the symptom of highest intensity of discomfort.

  3. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

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    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  4. Effect of leptin level upon lipid metabolism in climacteric women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the relationship between leptin and obesity of climacteric women with their lipid metabolism, 110 cases of climacteric women were chosen as observation group, consisting of 69 cases obese subgroup and 45 cases non-obese group, and 60 cases of normal reproduction- age women were arranged as control group. Blood levels of leptin, INS, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, apoA1, apoB, LH, FSH, E-2, T, and P were detected and BMI was calculated. The results showed that blood levels of leptin and INS of obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of non-obese sub-group and control group(P<0.01), and that LDL-C(5.01 mmol/L), TG(2.21mmal/L) and apoB(0.89g/L) levels in obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of control group. Furthermore, an important observation was that in climacteric women group, blood leptin level was positively and significantly correlated with insulin, BMI and several atherogenic blood lipid parameters, including LDL-C, TG and apoB. Thus, a preliminary conclusion might be reached as that the high climacteric level of leptin is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism related to atherogenity, and so leptin and lipid metabolism as a whole should be paid more attention in climateric women, especially those with obesity. (authors)

  5. Hormonal therapy in climacteric women: compliance and its socioeconomic impact.

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    Notelovitz, M

    1989-01-01

    Hormonal therapy can effectively enhance the quality of life for postmenopausal women, and prevent climacteric-related conditions such as osteoporosis. Since long-term therapy is often required, compliance becomes an important issue. This can best be achieved by measurement, documenting the reason for hormone therapy, and by repeated measurement, demonstrating a response to the treatment. Case histories documenting this principle are described.

  6. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  7. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage

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    Alide Salazar-Molina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfaction with their sexual life. Moreover, a slight degree of agreement was found between the sexual life satisfaction reported by women and their partners' perceptions of the women's sexual life satisfaction. Additionally, a slight degree of agreement was reported between the sexual life satisfaction reported by men and their partners' perceptions of the men's sexual life satisfaction. This study provides new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.

  8. VAGINAL MICROECOLOGY IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CLIMACTERIC PERIOD

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    Berihanova R. R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the peculiarities of vaginal microbiocenosis in female patients with metabolic syndrome during peri- and postmenopause. 320 women in the climacteric period aged of 45-70 were examined. Two groups were formed: the main group (160 female patients with metabolic syndrome, the control group (160 women without metabolic syndrome. The average age of women 54.5 ± 7.2 years. Depending on the length of menopause each of the two groups was divided into three subgroups.Microscopy of vaginal smears, the colpocytological analysis, the culture test of vaginal discharge were conducted. The statistical processing of the results was carried out with the help of programme sets Microsoft Office 2010 (MicrosoftExcel and «STATISTICA® for Windows 6.0». A tendency of decreasing frequency of non-specific vaginitis with aging and of increasing frequency of vaginal atrophy, disorders of vaginal biocenosis (lactobacillus deficiency and the domination of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms was discovered. The frequency of vaginal atrophy in women with a length of postmenopause of 10 years and older was 65.9% in the subgroup of in female patients with metabolic syndrome and 63.6% in the subgroup of female patients patients without it. The more observable changes in vaginal biotope were found in women with metabolic syndrome

  9. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Myung-Haeng Hur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total. The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05. There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05. These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  10. Comparative evaluation of course and treatment of climacteric period in women living in radionuclide-contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of heavy forms of climacteric syndrome in territories with density of radioactive contamination up to 15 Ci/km2 is higher than in those living in territories with the level of contamination from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. At treatment of climacteric syndrome during menopause in women living in radionuclide-contaminated territory, preparations containing natural estrogen and gestagens are of higher priority. (Authors)

  11. Self-esteem of hypertensive women with menopause (climacteric) problems

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    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos; Klívia Regina de Oliveira Saraiva

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzed the self-stem of hyper tense women who experience the climacterium. The research was done based in a descriptive study, and it was experienced in a health clinic located in Fortaleza, Ceara. This clinic works attending people who suffer of cardiologic and pulmonary diseases. Twenty hyper tense women, between forty-five and fifty-five years old, took part on this study. The data was colleted using the method of interviewing the patients, and then classifying them in categori...

  12. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial.

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    Nehleh Parandavar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman's life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms.The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012. The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg's general health questionnaire (GHQ, Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention.We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001. In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001. No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135.The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms.

  13. [Climacteric women: a proposal for nursing clinical care based on Freirean ideas].

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    Vidal, Cláudia Rejane Pinheiro Maciel; Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to discuss the concepts of caring and education and propose a strategy for health education as a possibility for clinical nursing care for women in menopause based on the educational principles of Paulo Freire. Over the years, different paradigms of Health Education are conditioned by different strategies, many of them reductionists, which require questioning and implementation of more integral and participatory actions. From this thought, we seek an opportunity for education that includes the "Other" in their complexity, enabling the women in their climacteric phase can also be assisted in full. In this scenario, we visualize the principles of Paulo Freire as a framework to guide this development; it shows a dialectic education, solidarity, without arrogance, articulating the scientific knowledge and popular knowledge, translating his method in a collective work. PMID:23258690

  14. The effectiveness of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors

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    Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was made to assign the effect of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors. Methods: The research was carried between January 2002-February 2003 in the district of Abdurrahman Gazi Primary Health department which lies in the borders of metropolitan municipality of Erzurum. 2761 climacteric women between the age of 40-60 formed the population of the research. In sample selection, because of knowing the frequency of event and the number of individuals in the population; the formula of, n=N . t2 . pq / y2 .(N-1 + t2 . pq was used and samples are assigned as 337. Afterresearch problem had been assigned on 337 women, the research was made control group with pretest-posttest of quasi experimental design on 100 women who were selected proper to the aim of the research, 50 of which was experiment, the rest was control group. But 87 women 44 of which was control, 434 of which was experiment group completed the research. Results: According to the research results, after planned health education given by the researcher, decrease in common menopausal symptoms and increase in point averages of menopausal attitude (t=4.697, p=.000 and health promotion life style behaviors (t=7.127, p=.000 were determined. Conclusion: After planned health education given to the women in climacteric period, positive health behaviors can be developed so as to make women live a more peaceful life. According to these result, it can be suggested to health professionals to mind education programs about climacteric period.

  15. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

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    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  16. Changes of Plasma Concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in climacteric women with hot flushes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ya-qiong; Wu Wei-guang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of serotonin metabolism and the hot flushes in climacteric women.Methods.Ninety eight climacteric women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: Group A: 20 cases of early menopausal transition.Group B: 26 cases of late menopausal transition, with skip of periods 3-12 months.Group C: 28 cases of early postmenopause (1-3 yrs).Group D: 24 cases of late postmenopause(>3-6 yrs).Twelve normal women of reproductive age (24±3yrs) were served as young controls.Fifty two postmenopausal women were subdivided into 3 groups according to the presence or the absence of hot flushes: (1) postmenopausal controls without hot flushz 17 cases, (2) mild hot flushes group: 20 eases,fewer≤5 times/d, (3) severe hot flushes group: 15 cases, more than 5 times/d.Plasma concentrations of tryptophan (TP), 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in all participants by high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence spectrophotometer (HPLC-FS).The relationship between serotonin metabolic parameters and menopause, hot flushes were analysed.Results: (1) Mean 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in climacteric women than those in young controls, especially in Group B.Mean 5-HTP and 5-HT levels were higher and 5-HIAA lower in Group D as compared with those of young controls.(2) Plasma 5-HT levels was positively correlated to luteinizing hormone concentration in postmenopansal women (P<0.01).(3) In the mild hot flushes group, only plasma 5-HTP levels were significantly higher than that in the non-hot flushes group.In severe hot flushes group,plasma 5-HT and 5-HTP contents were significantly higher and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio lower than those in the non-hotflushes groups.Conclusion: The results suggest that the catabolic disorder of serotonin maybe involve in the underling mechanism of

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados a fogachos em mulheres climatéricas e pós-climatéricas Prevalence and factors associated with hot flashes in climacteric and post-climacteric women

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    Iândora Krolow Timm Sclowitz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de fogachos e fatores associados, em mulheres entre 40 e 69 anos de idade, provenientes de uma amostra representativa da população da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizou-se um estudo transversal. O processo de amostragem foi em múltiplos estágios, e a coleta de dados, realizada através de entrevista e questionário auto-aplicado. Foram incluídas 879 mulheres. A prevalência ponto e a prevalência de episódio de fogachos foram, respectivamente, de 30,1% e 53,2%. Os fatores estatisticamente associados a fogachos atuais foram a categoria menopausal de pré-menopausa (RP = 2,33 e pós-menopausa (RP = 2,66; idade de 45 a 49 anos (RP = 1,34 e de 50 a 54 anos (RP = 1,42; status sócio-econômico mais baixo (RP = 2,16; não uso de anticoncepção hormonal após os 40 anos (RP = 1,40; obesidade (RP = 1,39; sobrepeso (RP = 1,32 e viver sem companheiro (RP = 0,80. Dada a alta prevalência do sintoma, é necessário que os serviços de saúde se organizem para lidar com a mulher climatérica.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the prevalence of hot flashes and associated factors among women from 40 to 69 years old, from a population-based sample in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A multi-stage sampling process was used, and data were collected through an interview and a self-applied questionnaire. A total of 879 women were included. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence were 30.1% and 53.2%, respectively. Factors associated with hot flashes were: pre-menopausal status (RP = 2.33 and post-menopausal status (RP = 2.66; age 45-49 years (RP = 1.34 and 50-54 years (RP = 1.42; lower social class (RP = 2.16; no use of a hormonal contraception method after 40 years of age (RP = 1.40; obesity (RP = 1.39 and overweight (RP = 1.32; and not having a partner (RP = 0.80. High prevalence of this symptom indicates that health facilities should be prepared to deal with problems encountered

  18. Relationship of menopausal status and climacteric symptoms to sleep in women undergoing chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rissling, Michelle B.; Liu, Lianqi; Natarajan, Loki; He, Feng; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Goals of work The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, and mood as measured by actigraphy and self-report prior to treatment and at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Patients and methods Data on sleep quality (measured using actigraphy and self-report) and mood were collected prior to treatment and 12 weeks later at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy in 69 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. ...

  19. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

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    Piérard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  20. CLIMATERIO Y POSTMENOPAUSIA: ASPECTOS EDUCATIVOS A CONSIDERAR SEGUN LA ETAPA DEL PERIODO CLIMACTERIC AND POSTMENOPAUSE: EDUCATIVE ASPECTS TO CONSIDER ACCORDING TO THE STAGE OF THE PERIOD

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    ALEJANDRA ARAYA GUTIERREZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo del climaterio es una etapa de transición en la vida de la mujer caracterizada por cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales. Es una etapa dinámica marcada por la repercusión de los cambios hormonales, principalmente por la paulatina disminución de los estrógenos. La presente revisión bibliográfica describe las características generales del periodo, cambios que ocurren y aspectos a educar en las mujeres durante el climaterio y la postmenopausia, con el propósito de dar una visión actualizada de esta etapa que permita planificar cuidados específicos. Las estrategias educativas planteadas se presentan organizadas en etapas, según la problemática de la mujer en este periodoClimacteric is a transitional period in women’s life. It is characterized by dynamic physical, psychological, and social changes caused by gradual plasmatic estrogens’ reduction. The purpose of this literature review is to describe with accurate available information the stages of the climacteric period, understand the relevance of nursing care through this process, and suggest some recommendations to develop educative strategies. Nursing care, considering educative strategies, can be an effective approach towards climacteric’s experience

  1. Mulher no climatério: reflexões sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade Women in the climacteric: reflections on sexual desire, beauty and femininity

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    Cecília Nogueira Valença

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O climatério é um período abrangente da vida feminina, caracterizado por alterações metabólicas e hormonais que trazem mudanças envolvendo o contexto psicossocial. Tendo como referência as alterações de sexualidade vivenciadas no climatério, este trabalho tem por objetivo refletir sobre desejo sexual, beleza e feminilidade da mulher nessa fase. A metodologia adotada consistiu em estudo bibliográfico, em livros e artigos publicados, entre 1999 e 2009. A exigência exacerbada pela beleza eterna e jovialidade é agravada no climatério, no qual o corpo feminino não tem o mesmo vigor físico pelas alterações decorrentes do envelhecimento. A mulher climatérica vive o mito da perda do desejo sexual, todavia, continua a sentir prazer, não devendo deixar de manifestar amor e sexualidade. A visão social estereotipada sobre o papel da mulher (esposa e mãe pode interferir negativamente na visão das mulheres sobre si mesmas e no seu relacionamento com as pessoas e o mundo. Nesse sentido, é importante que as mulheres tenham acesso à informação em saúde para a compreensão das mudanças do período de climatério/menopausa, contemplando e ressignificando tal fase como integrante de seus ciclos de vida e não como sinônimo de velhice, improdutividade e fim da sexualidade.The climacteric is a long period of a woman's life, characterized by metabolic and hormonal alterations that bring changes involving the psychosocial context. Having as reference the sexuality alterations experienced in the climacteric, this literature review aims to reflect on women's sexual desire, beauty and femininity in this phase. The methodology involved a bibliographic study of papers and books published between 1999 and 2009. The exaggerated need of eternal beauty and youth is aggravated in the climacteric, when the female body does not have the same physical vigor due to alterations deriving from aging. The climacteric woman lives the myth of loss of sexual

  2. Estado nutricional e qualidade de vida da mulher climatérica Nutritional status and quality of life of climacteric women

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    Carin Weirich Gallon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Associar a qualidade de vida com o estado nutricional da mulher climatérica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal, no qual foi incluída uma amostra com 200 mulheres climatéricas, de 40 a 65 anos, que responderam a um Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas e questões sobre fatores socioeconômicos, história clínica atual, pregressa e familiar. Para a avaliação antropométrica, foram utilizados índice de massa corpórea (IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e relação cintura/quadril. Para avaliação da qualidade de vida, foi aplicado o MRS-menopause rating scale. RESULTADOS: A média do IMC e da CC foi de 30,1 kg/m² (obesidade grau 1 e 99 cm (risco muito aumentado para doença cardiovascular, respectivamente. Constatou-se consumo aumentado de proteínas e diminuído de fibras, cálcio e vitamina D. A comorbidade mais prevalente foi a hipertensão arterial, 48,5% faziam uso de medicação para doenças cardiovasculares e 23%, de medicações antidepressivas. Quanto à qualidade de vida, foram encontrados resultados significativos relacionados ao IMC, como também à pressão arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Uma intervenção nutricional visando corrigir ou melhorar o consumo alimentar e o perfil antropométrico poderá resultar em benefícios relativos à saúde da mulher climatérica. A prevalência de obesidade, associada com pior qualidade de vida e morbimortalidade, reforça a necessidade de existir um programa de reeducação alimentar no climatério.PURPOSE: To associate the quality of life with the nutritional status of climacteric women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on a sample of 200 climacteric women aged 40 to 65 years who responded to a 24-hour food recall and to questions about socioeconomic factors and current, previous and family medical history. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio were used for anthropometric evaluation. To assess the quality of life, we applied the MRS

  3. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Women Climacteric Insomnia by Plum-Blossom Needle: A Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qing; LI Nai-rong

    2004-01-01

    To observe the treatment of 50 female patients with climacteric insomnia by plum-blossom needle therapy. According to differentiation of symptoms and signs the head, back, belly and other location were tapping. Besides 50 patients were treated with Western medicine as a control group. The result showed the immediate and long-term effect in plum-blossom needle group was better than that in control group (P<0.01).%梅花针叩刺头部,背部和腹部,并根据辨证配穴治疗更年期综合征以失眠为主症的患者50例,并与西药治疗50例相对照,梅花针组近期疗效和远期疗效均好于对照组(P<0.01).

  4. Dysfunctional uterine bleedings of a climacteric period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climacteric period of some women is complicated by dysfunctional uterine bleedings (DUB). Bearing in mind the fact that DUBS are caused by disorder of estrin rhysmic secretion, the paper presents the methods of differential diagnostics for investigations into functional disorders in the hypothalamus -hypophysis - ovaries - uterus system. The preference is given to roentgenologic and radioimmunologic diagnostic methods

  5. Study on nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status%更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨更年期妇女抑郁状态的护理干预效果.方法 将80例更年期抑郁妇女随机分对照组和观察组,每组40例.观察组实施综合护理干预,对照组不予护理干预.采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自评症状量表(SSCL-90)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)对其效果进行评价.结果 干预前两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90得分差异无显著性;干预后两组SDS、SSRS、SSCL-90的得分与干预前及组间比较,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 实施护理干预明显改善患者的抑郁状态,有效地提高患者的生活质量,减轻了社会和家庭的负担,体现了人本关怀的理念.%Objective To research the effect of nursing intervention for climacteric women in depression status. Methods 80 depressed climacteric women were randomly divided into control and observation groups. The observation group was given integration nursing intervention. The Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Social Support Bating Scale (SSBS) were used to evaluate the treatment effective-hess. Results Before nursing intervention, the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL-90 between two groups werenot dif-ferent;and the scores of SDS, SSRS, SCL - 90 were significant difference after the nursing intervention (P <0.01 ). Conclusions The treatment with nursing intervention can improve the depressive state of patients, uplift patients'life quality, lighten the burden of society and patients'familles, and embody the idea of people oriented.

  6. ¿Which is the quality of life in climacteric that have colombian diabetic women when they are assessed with “Menopause Rating Scale”?

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    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most prevalent chronic disease inpostmenopausal. The gradual estrogenic deficiency followed in climacteric, causessymptoms and deterioration of some organs and systems, with negative changes in thequality of life (QOL.Objective: Evaluate the presence and severity of symptoms related with themenopause, just as the QOL that have climacteric women diagnosed with DM type II.Methods: A cross sectional study was done among Colombian women with DM typeII, resident in Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in urban and rural areas, between 40 and 59years, and that are part of the database of the Life Quality in Menopause in ColombianEthnic Groups project (CAVIMEC. They were assessed with “Menopause Rating Scale”(MRS, specific scale of CV to menopausal women, to establish the prevalence andseverity of the menopausal manifestations, the deterioration of the subscales and thetotal score of the scale. The formulary of sociodemographics information and the MRSscale were applied door to door in the women residences. Data is expressed in mean ±DS and percentages.Results: 192 climacteric women suffering from DM type II were assessed with MRS.Average age was 52.3 ± 5.8. Schooling higher than six years: 67.8%. In overweight andobesity: 66.2%. Never smoker: 63.2%. Fifty or more years old: 68.9%. Concomitantlyarterial hypertension: 40.9%. With sexual partner: 58.5%. In postmenopausal: 63.7%,between these the median age of last menstruation was 48.4±4.3 years. The mostprevalent symptoms were hot flashes (70.3%, joint and muscular discomfort (69.2%,physical and mental exhaustation (68.7% and sleep disturbances (68.2%, similar tothose obtained in other Colombian population. The most prevalent severe problem weresexual problems (30.6%. 25% of the women had severe deterioration of the urogenitalsubscale and 16% had severe deterioration in the QOL.Conclusion: Colombian climacteric women with DM have total MRS score similar to

  7. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

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    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  8. Hormones for therapy of climacteric afflictions

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    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western countries hormone replacement therapy (HT is widely used in the treatment of climacteric women who are affected with hot flashes and night sweats. Besides, long-term HT was frequently used to manage the higher risks for osteoporosis and heart attack in postmenopause. Estrogens alone or combined with progestin feature most frequently in HT. Objectives: This HTA report addresses the questions on medical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HT as a treatment of hot flashes and night sweats as well as in the primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopause in general healthy women. Methods: The literature search for articles published after 1998 was conducted in March 2004 in standard medical and economic databases. The analysis included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and economic evaluations considering relevant clinical endpoints in English or German language. The quality of the studies was assessed using checklists corresponding to the study type. Results: HT is highly effective in treating hot flashes in climacteric women. The question of economical efficiency cannot be answered due to the scarce database. As the positive effects (lower risk for fractures and endometrial cancer do not outweigh the negative effects (higher risk for breast cancer and general cardiovascular risk estrogen-progestin combination HT cannot be recommended for primary prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Discussion: The observation period of most of the studies regarding therapy of hot flashes and night sweats were too short to evaluate possible risks of long-term HT. The economic publications assessing HT for this indication varied vastly in terms of applied methods and were not carried out with respect to the German health care system. Conclusions: HT can be recommended in the short-term treatment of hot flashes and night sweats in climacteric

  9. O processo de viver e ser saudável das mulheres no climatério El proceso de vivir y ser saludable de las mujeres y el climaterio The living process and being healthy for women and climacteric

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    Maria de Fátima Mota Zampieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender como se dá o processo de viver de mulheres no climatério. Foi desenvolvido com base na abordagem qualitativa, utilizando multimétodos participativos, com nove mulheres do Núcleo da Terceira Idade (NETI da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas e reuniões de grupos e analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo. Da análise dos dados, emergiram as unidades de significado, que deram origem às seguintes categorias: afirmando-se como mulher; experienciando o climatério e o envelhecimento; interagindo no cotidiano e mantendo as singularidades; abrindo caminhos para a vivência da cidadania. Com base no resultado do estudo, o viver das mulheres no período do climatério mostrou-se como um processo complexo, dinâmico, paradoxal, em que o envelhecimento e a possibilidade de adoecer se colocam como desafios maiores e os avanços nas perspectivas pessoais, culturais e sociais, como conquistas especiais.The aim of this study was to comprehend the living process of women in the period of climacteric. It was developed based on qualitative approach, using multi-participatory methods, with nine women of the Third Age Center (NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil (UFSC. Data was collected through interviews and meetings of groups and analyzed by analysis of the content. From the data analysis, emerged the units of meaning, which led the following categories: affirming one's self as a woman; experiencing the climacteric and ageing; interacting in the day-to-day and maintaining singularities; and opening paths to the experience of citizenship. Based on the result of the study, the living of women in the climacteric period is a complex, dynamic and paradoxical process, in which the aging and the possibility of becoming ill arise as greater challenges, and advances in the personal, cultural and social perspectives as special achievements.

  10. Relation between plasma oestrone and oestradiol and climacteric symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma levels of oestrone and oestradiol-17β were determined at 20 or 30 minute intervals for up to 24 hours in 26 postmenopausal or ovariectomised women of similar age, weight, and number of years since menopause or operation. Results in women with both superficial dyspareunia and flushes were compared with those in women with flushes only, and with those in symptomless women. Women with superficial dyspareunia had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma-oestradiol, but not of oestrone, than symptomless women. Flushes were not related to plasma-oestrogen. The implications of these findings in relation to the optimum dose of oestrogen for treating climacteric symptoms are discussed. (author)

  11. β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值%Clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climacteric women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺桦; 李针; 渠红霞; 孟凡琳; 王兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨β-受体阻滞剂干预更年期妇女心电图变化的临床价值。方法选取无器质性疾病但有心电图改变的更年期妇女62例,经患者知情同意按照数字表法随机分为治疗组31例,予以β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周;另31例为对照组,不给予任何治疗。观察治疗前后2组间及治疗组心电图指标(心率、心律、ST-T)的改变。结果(1)经β-受体阻滞剂治疗3周后,2组平均心率、心律、ST-T改变(除ST上斜外)比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(2)治疗组治疗前后比较,成对房早、ST上斜和T波倒置虽有改变,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);其余指标均有明显改变,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论β-受体阻滞剂应用于心电图改变的更年期妇女有一定的临床价值。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of beta-receptor blocker intervention on ECG changes in climac-teric women.Methods Sixty-two subjects of climacteric women without organic diseases but with ECG changes were chosen and ran-domly divided into 2 groups:the control group(n=32)and the treatment group(n=30).The subjects of the control group were not giv-en any treatment, while the subjects of the treatment group were given treatment of beta-receptor blocker intervention for 3 weeks.ECG changes ( heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes) were detected both before and after treatment, and then, comparisons were made be-tween the groups and within the groups.Results ( 1 ) After 3 weeks of beta-receptor blocker intervention, significant ECG changes could be noted in heart rate, rhythm and ST-T changes ( except ST cable) in the subjects of the treatment group, with statistical signifi-cance, when comparisons were made between the 2 groups (P0.05).There were significant changes in the remaining parameters, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Beta-receptor blocker had its clinical

  12. Prevalência de sintomas do climatério em mulheres dos meios rural e urbano no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Prevalence of climacteric symptoms in women living in rural and urban areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Inavan Lopes da Silveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sintomatologia climatérica e fatores relacionados entre mulheres dos meios urbano e rural do Rio Grande do Norte. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, descritivo, envolvendo casuística de 261 mulheres climatéricas residentes em Natal e Mossoró (grupo urbano; n=130 e Uruaçu, em São Gonçalo do Amarante (grupo rural; n=131. A sintomatologia climatérica foi avaliada pelo Índice Menopausal de Blatt-Kupperman (IMBK e Escala Climatérica de Greene (ECG. A análise estatística constou de comparações das medianas dos escores entre os grupos e regressão logística. Definiram-se como "muito sintomáticas" as pacientes com escores >20, para ambos instrumentos (variável dependente. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, procedência, alfabetização, obesidade e prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS: o grupo urbano apresentou escores significativamente superiores ao grupo rural, tanto para o IMBK (medianas de 26,0 e 17,0, respectivamente; pPURPOSE: to evaluate climacteric symptoms and related factors in women living in rural and urban areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional study involving 261 women in the climacteric was performed. A total of 130 women from Natal and Mossoró (urban group and 131 from Uruaçu, in São Gonçalo do Amarante (rural group, were studied. Climacteric symptoms were assessed by the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI and Greene Climacteric Scale (GCE. Statistical analysis involved comparison of median between groups and logistic regression analysis. Patients were defined as "very symptomatic" when the climacteric score was >20 for both questionnaires (dependent variable. Independent variables were: age, living area, schooling, obesity and physical activity. RESULTS: the urban group had significantly higher scores than those of the rural group, both for BKMI (median of 26.0 and 17.0, respectively; p<0.0001 and for GCE (median of 27.0 and 16.0, respectively; p<0.0001. For

  13. 武汉市妇女绝经相关因素的调查%Survey on related factors of the climacteric syndrome among women in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢实; 张雅君; 王声萍; 张红菱; 罗宝华; 胡引珍; 吴荣海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic factors associated with the menopausal symptoms among women at the age of 40 to 65 in Wuhan City.Methods From Apr.2014 to Oct , women at the age of 40 to 65 attending health examination in Wuhan City were enrolled in this study.A structured questionnaire was used to collect data of basic information, menopausal status, exercise, important physical diseases and perimenopausal symptoms.Also the menopausal symptoms were evaluated by Greene scale. The menopausal symptoms and its influencing factors were analyzed.Results The top 5 highest scores symptoms in perimenopausal women were fatigue, insomnia, dizziness or weakness, hot flashes, muscle/joint pain(P<0.01).The top highest scores syndromes in perimenopausal women were vasomotor symptoms, anxiety symptoms, somatic symptoms and depression symptoms (P<0.05).While insomnia, hot flashes, fatigue, muscle/joint pain got the highest scores symptoms in postmenopausal women (P<0.05).Vasomotor symptoms and sexual problems got the highest score syndromes in postmenopausal women ( P <0.05 ) .Somatic symptoms had a significant impact on five kinds of menopausal syndromes ( P <0.05 ) .Women at the age of 40 to 50 were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those at the age of 61 to 65 ( P <0.05 ) .Women of increasing BMI were more likely to have vasomotor symptoms( P <0.05 ) .Conclusions There were different menopausal symptoms at each stage of menopause.The main factor contributing to menopausal symptoms were somatic symptoms.%目的:评估武汉市40~65岁妇女自然绝经过程中绝经相关症状的发生及影响因素。方法选取2014年4~10月武汉市参加年度健康体检、年龄40~65岁的956名妇女为调查对象,采用问卷形式调查妇女的基本信息、月经状况、运动锻炼情况、重要躯体疾病以及围绝经期相关症状,用Greene评分法评估绝经症状,分析绝经症状的发生情况及影响因素。结果月经不

  14. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

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    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  15. Autopercepción del estado de salud en climatéricas derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Self-rated health among climacteric women affiliated to Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

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    Svetlana Vladislavovna-Doubova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la autopercepción del estado de salud positivo (APES + o negativo (APES - de mujeres climatéricas e identificar los factores relacionados con la APES-. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de 9 248 mujeres de 40 a 59 años. Las variables dependientes fueron la APES y las independientes las características generales, antecedentes ginecoobstétricos, enfermedades crónicas, actividad física, participación en programas de detección y educación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: Una proporción de 42% de las mujeres refirió APES+ y 58% APES-. Los factores vinculados con APES- fueron primaria completa o menos (RM=1.78; IC95% 1.62-1.95, no tener trabajo remunerado (RM=1.20; IC95% 1.09-1.33, menopausia (RM=1.22; IC95% 1.11-1.33, diabetes (RM=1.88; IC95% 1.65-2.13, hipertensión (RM=2.01; IC95% 1.82-2.22, actividad física irregular (RM=1.30; IC95% 1.12-1.50, sedentarismo (RM=1.395; IC95% 1.23-1.57, falta de integridad de detección (RM=0.82; IC95% 0.75-0.89 y de información sobre el climaterio por parte de los servicios de salud (RM=1.17; IC95% 1.07-1.28. CONCLUSIÓN: Los factores relacionados con APES- son múltiples y algunos, como la información acerca del climaterio y la actividad física, deben fortalecerse.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-rated health (SRH in climacteric women and to identify the factors associated with negative SRH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from 9 248 women aged 40 to 59 years was analyzed. SRH was the dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, history of reproductive and chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in screening and health education programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of women reported positive SRH and 58% reported negative SRH. Factors associated with negative SRH were: low literacy

  16. A Survey on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases and their Risk Factors in Chinese Climacteric Women%围绝经期妇女月经状况与心血管疾病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文欣; 张小松; 陈丽君; 赵更力

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查城市社区围绝经期女性中心血管疾病的患病率及其危险因素,并探讨绝经与心血管疾病危险因素之间的关系。方法采用现况调查的方法入选社区年龄40岁~59岁围绝经期妇女,填写调查问卷,内容包括:人口学特征、月经情况、身高体重、心血管疾病患病情况。根据月经状况将入选人群分为月经规律组、月经不规律组和绝经后期组。结果入选女性中,高血压和冠心病患病率分别为23.5%和7.7%,超重、肥胖、高脂血症及糖尿病的患病率分别为25.3%、2.4%、10.4%和6.2%,三组中绝经后期组超重、肥胖、高脂血症及其糖尿病比例最高。绝经后期组、月经不规律组及月经规律组中高血压的患病率分别为13.6%、5.8%和4.1%,具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。月经不规律组中冠心病患病率高于月经规律组(P<0.01),月经不规律组中高脂血症患病率高于月经规律组(P<0.01)。结论高血压、高血脂、冠心病、肥胖和超重是城市社区围绝经期女性中最常见的心血管疾病。心血管疾病患病率及其危险因素从绝经过渡期即开始增加。%Objectives To investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)and their risk factors in urban climacteric women and explore the relationship between menopause and risk factors of CVDs.Methods In this cross sectional study,788 women were selected by multistage cluster sampling.All subjects lived in Beijing and were investigated with structured interview questionnaire.The response rate was 93.5%.The sample consisted of 242 premenopausal women,187 menopausal transition women (menses change),and 358 postmenopausal women.Results the prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease was 23.5%and 7.7%.The prevalence of overweight,obesity,hyperlipidemia,and diabetes was 25.3%,2.4%,10.4%,and 6.2%,respectively.Among three groups,the proportion of overweight

  17. Ensaio clínico placebo-controlado com isoflavonas da soja para sintomas depressivos em mulheres no climatério Placebo-controlled clinical trial with soy isoflavones for depressive symptoms in climacteric women

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    Rilva Lopes de Sousa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do uso de isoflavonas da soja no tratamento de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com síndrome climatérica. MÉTODOS: estudo experimental placebo-controlado, randomizado e duplo-cego, com 84 pacientes climatéricas atendidas ambulatorialmente no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley, em João Pessoa (PB. Na avaliação de sintomas depressivos empregou-se o Questionário de Auto-avaliação da Escala de Hamilton para Depressão (QAEH-D nas visitas pré-tratamento (VT1 e na 8ª (VT2 e na 16ª (VT3 semana pós-tratamento. O grupo experimental (GExp recebeu extrato de isoflavonas da soja, 120 mg por dia, e o controle (GCont, placebo. A comparação dos escores do QAEH-D entre os grupos em VT1, VT2 e VT3 constituiu a medida primária de eficácia (teste t, p0,05. De VT1 para VT3, evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa de 8,9% na redução dos escores entre os grupos (p=0,03. Não houve correlação da redução dos sintomas depressivos com resposta dos sintomas vasomotores (p>0,05. Houve redução das concentrações de FSH apenas no GExp (p=0,02, sem alterações do estradiol. Não ocorreram eventos adversos clinicamente relevantes. CONCLUSÕES: o efeito do extrato de isoflavonas foi superior ao do placebo, porém de pequena magnitude e apenas após 8 semanas de tratamento. Este pequeno efeito atribuído ao tratamento experimental, de boa tolerabilidade, poderá beneficiar pacientes que têm efeitos colaterais aos estrógenos ou que preferem não usar estes hormônios.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of the use of isoflavones in the treatment of depressive symptoms in climacteric women. METHODS: placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind experimental study with 84 climacteric women who were assisted at the Lauro Wanderley University Hospital Ambulatory, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. In the evaluation of the depressive symptoms the Self-evaluation questionnare of Hamilton's rating scale for

  18. 围绝经期潮热妇女焦虑与抑郁状况的分析%Relation between Hot Flashes and Anxiety, Depression among Climacteric Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧利; 李芬; 于英; 盛秋

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨围绝经期前后妇女潮热与焦虑、抑郁之间的关系.方法:将符合条件的1 206名40~60岁妇女分为潮热组、无潮热组,分别完成调查问卷.问卷具体内容包括一般情况、潮热状况、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS).结果:潮热组妇女SAS和SDS的平均值高于无潮热组妇女(SAS:39.8±7.3 vs 36.0±6.1;SDS:44.1±8.3 vs 40.9±8.9,P均<0.05),潮热组轻度焦虑和抑郁的发生率明显高于无潮热组(焦虑:8.3%vs 3.4%;抑郁:23.3%vs 14.2%,P均<0.05).潮热妇女焦虑、抑郁的发生风险分别是无潮热妇女的4.1倍(95%CI,1.20~13.74)、2.4倍(95%CI,1.15~4.92).重度潮热妇女较轻度潮热妇女SAS和SDS得分均高(SAS:46.4±7.9 vs 38.8±6.6; SDS:43.9±6.9 vs 52.7±12.5,P均<0.05).潮热妇女的月经状况与SAS和SDS得分无关.结论:围绝经期潮热妇女易发生焦虑、抑郁症状,且重度潮热妇女更易发生.对妇女进行潮热治疗时,还应对妇女进行心理疏导.%Objective: To explore the relation of hot flashes, anxiety and depression among climacteric women. Methods: A total of 1 206 eligible women aged 40-60 years were divided into hot flashes group and no hot flashes group. All women were asked to finish the questionnaire. The content of questionnaire included general situation, hot flashes, anxiety (SAS) and depression (SDS) self-rating scale. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS in hot flashes group were higher than those in no hot flashes group (SAS: 39.8 ± 7.3 vs 36.0 ±6.1; SDS:44.1 ± 8.3 vs 40.9 ± 8.9, all P<0.05). The incidences of mild anxiety and mild depression were obviously higher than those in no hot flashes group (anxiety: 8.3% vs 3.4%; depression: 23.3% vs 14.2%; all P< 0.001). The risk of anxiety, depression among hot flashes group were 4.1-fold (OR=4.07,95%CI: 1.20-13.74) and 2.4-fold (OR=2.3S, 95%CI: 1.15-4.92) compared with no hot flashes group, respectively. The mean scores of SAS and SDS in

  19. Relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério Calcium/protein relation of women on the climacteric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina das Neves Girão Montilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação cálcio/proteína da dieta de mulheres no climatério. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foi avaliada a dieta de 154 mulheres entre 35 e 65 anos de idade, atendidas no Ambulatório de Saúde da Mulher Climatérica do Centro de Saúde-Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. Para obtenção do consumo alimentar de cálcio e de proteína, foi realizado inquérito alimentar pelo método ''recordatório de 24 horas''. A avaliação da relação cálcio/proteína foi feita segundo proposta de Massey e Heaney (1998, que é de 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTADOS: O consumo médio de cálcio foi de 624,9 mg; o de proteínas foi 86,7g e a relação cálcio/proteína foi de 7/1 (624,9mg/86,7g. CONCLUSÃO: A população estudada apresenta consumo inadequado dos nutrientes cálcio e proteína, podendo resultar em sérios riscos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the calcium/protein relation of the diet of climacteric women. METHODS: In a transversal study the diet was evaluated of 154 women 35-65 years old and matriculated in the Health Clinic of the Climateric Woman of Health Center of Public Health College of the São Paulo University. The food intake of calcium and protein was food investigated by ''24 hours recall'' method. The evaluation of calcium/protein relation was made according to Massey and Heaney (1998, that is 20/1 (mg/g. RESULTS: The mean of intake of calcium was 624.9 mg; the mean of intake of protein was 86.7 g and the calcium/protein relation was 7/1 (624.9 mg/86.7 g. CONCLUSION: The studied population presents inadequated consumation of the calcium and protein nutrients. It could result in serious risk for health.

  20. Quality of Care in Women With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Joseph; Polissar, Lincoln; Tamimi, Hisham K.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to assess the quality of care received by women with stage I cervical cancer. Through a population-based registry serving 13 counties of western Washington, including Seattle, we identified all women residents in whom local-stage cervical cancer developed between January 1974 and December 1978 (N=369). The cases were subdivided into stage IA (microinvasive) and stage IB (frankly invasive). Quality of care was defined as optimal or suboptimal at the outset of the study; this d...

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Ethylene Climacteric of Melon Fruit by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIU Yi-ding; HAO Jin-feng; BADE Rengui; ZHANG Li-quan; HASI Agula

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Ethylene regulates the ripening process and affects the ripening rate. To screen genes that are differentially expressed at the burst of ethylene climacteric in melon fruit, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate forward and reverse libraries, for which we sequenced 439 and 445 clones, respectively. Our BLAST analysis showed that the genes from the 2 libraries were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell structure, transcription, translation, and defense. Six genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during the differential developmental stage of melon fruit. Our results provide new insight into the understanding of climacteric ripening of melon fruit.

  2. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  3. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jasińska; Katarzyna Żułtak-Bączkowska; Bożena Mroczek; Artur Kotwas; Ewa Kemicer-Chmielewska; Beata Karakiewicz; Andrzej Starczewski

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a com...

  4. Fatores indicadores da sintomatologia climatérica Predicting factors of climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2005-01-01

    women aged between 45 and 60 years was carried out at the Climacterium Outpatient Clinic of Caxias do Sul University, RS, from June to October 2002. Women with previous hysterectomy or under hormonal therapy were excluded. The climacteric symptoms were evaluated by means of the Kuppermann index and the attitudes toward menopause by a specific questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Student's t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: twenty eight percent of the women reported mild climacteric symtoms, whereas 42.3% reported moderate symptoms and 30.7%, intense symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were: irritability (87.1%, arthralgias/myalgias (77.5% and melancholy (73.2%, while the most severe were hot flushes in 60.2% of the women, irritability and insomnia. Attitudes toward menopause, skin color and physical activity were predictors of climacteric symptoms. Positive attitudes toward menopause (p=0.01, white color (p=0.02 and the habit of practicing physical activity (0.04 were associated with less intense climacteric symptoms. Negative attitudes toward menopause were associated with worse climacteric symptoms (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: in the current study, the climacteric symptoms were influenced by psychosocial factors and physical activity, as well as by climacteric hypoestrogenism.

  5. Age, pattern of menopause, climacteric symptoms and associated problems among urban population of Hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the physiology of menopause in the context of the age at menopause, its pattern, climacteric symptoms and associated problems of an urban cohort. In total, 800 women of age 45-59 years, who had reached a natural menopause were interviewed. The data were collected by simple random sampling method. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Physical examination including height, weight and blood pressure check was also carried out at the same time. Data were statistically analyzed through software program SPSS 10.0. The mean age at menopause of subjects was 47.16 years. Duration of climacteric ranged from 2 - 36 months in majority of cases. The marked climacteric symptoms were low backache (75%), headache (70.25%), tiredness (67.75%), limb pain (59.25%), sleep disturbance (53.75%), lack of concentration (49.5%), hot flushes (55.5%) and night sweats (45%). Other associated problems were hypertension (31.5%), ischaemic heart disease (22.25%), diabetes mellitus (15.75%), postmenopausal bleeding (10.5%) and vaginitis (4.2%), respectively. (author)

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence. PMID:27040419

  7. Depressão em mulheres climatéricas: análise de mulheres atendidas ambulatorialmente em um hospital universitário no Maranhão Depression in climacteric women: analysis of a sample receiving care at a university hospital in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Nilva Maia da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O climatério, período de transição entre a fase reprodutiva e não-reprodutiva, ocasiona mudanças biopsicossociais nas mulheres que o vivenciam. A associação entre a maior prevalência de depressão nesse período é, no entanto, ainda controversa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de depressão em mulheres climatéricas atendidas em um hospital universitário numa cidade da Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores associados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e analítico de 70 mulheres climatéricas. O diagnóstico de depressão foi dado segundo critérios diagnósticos da Classificação Internacional de Doenças em um período de seguimento mínimo de 3 meses. Foram investigadas as seguintes variáveis: escolaridade, situação conjugal, renda pessoal, gravidade da depressão segundo escala de Hamilton, presença e intensidade de sintomas climatéricos, menopausa (natural ou cirúrgica, dependência econômica do parceiro, antecedentes familiares de depressão, história prévia de depressão pós-parto, episódios depressivos e transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual, alterações da função sexual e visão positiva ou negativa da menopausa. Resultados: Um percentual de 34,3% das pacientes apresentou depressão, sendo 70,8% destas na categoria leve da escala de Hamilton. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre variáveis socioeconômicas, diminuição da libido e antecedentes familiares de depressão com a presença de depressão. Houve associação entre a presença de depressão e pacientes com sintomas vasomotores (p = 0,03, insônia (p Introduction: The climacteric is a transition period between reproductive and non-reproductive ages that leads to biopsychossocial changes in women who experience it. However, association between a larger prevalence of depression in this period is still controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of

  8. A systematic review of non-hormonal treatments of vasomotor symptoms in climacteric and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, Juergen; Bucher, Kathleen A; Zahner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal climacteric symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats affect 24-93% of all women during the physiological transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Though efficacious, hormonal therapy and partial oestrogenic compounds are linked to a significant increase in breast cancer. Non-hormonal treatments are thus greatly appreciated. This systematic review of published hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for climacteric, and breast and prostate cancer-associated hot flushes, examines clinical efficacy and therapy-related cancer risk modulation. A PubMed search included literature up to June 19, 2014 without limits for initial dates or language, with the search terms, (hot flush* OR hot flash*) AND (clinical trial* OR clinical stud*) AND (randomi* OR observational) NOT review). Retrieved references identified further papers. The focus was on hot flushes; other symptoms (night sweats, irritability, etc.) were not specifically screened. Included were some 610 clinical studies where a measured effect of the intervention, intensity and severity were documented, and where patients received treatment of pharmaceutical quality. Only 147 of these references described studies with alternative non-hormonal treatments in post-menopausal women and in breast and prostate cancer survivors; these results are presented in Additional file 1. The most effective hot flush treatment is oestrogenic hormones, or a combination of oestrogen and progestins, though benefits are partially outweighed by a significantly increased risk for breast cancer development. This review illustrates that certain non-hormonal treatments, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, gabapentin/pregabalin, and Cimicifuga racemosa extracts, show a positive risk-benefit ratio. Key pointsSeveral non-hormonal alternatives to hormonal therapy have been established and registered for the treatment of vasomotor climacteric symptoms in peri- and post-menopausal women.There are indications

  9. Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Formby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available B Formby, F SchmidtThe Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USAObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern.Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily and progesterone (100 mg, daily were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax, in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm.Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be

  10. The non-estrogenic alternative for the treatment of climacteric complaints: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga or Actaea racemosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Haunschild, Jutta; Stecher, Guenter; Schuh, Markus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    In postmenopausal women estrogens in combination with progestins have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints and on osteoporosis but this hormone replacement therapy (HRT) bears the risk of increased mammary carcinomas and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens at low doses have little or no effects on climacteric complaints, at high doses they mimic the effects of estrogens. Therefore other plant derived substances are currently intensively investigated. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) did not bind to estrogen receptors and were shown to be devoid of estrogenic effects on mammary cancer cells in vitro and on mammary gland and uterine histology in ovariectomized rats. In addition in this rat model the special extract CR BNO 1055 inhibited the occurrence of hot flushes and development of osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women CR BNO 1055 reduced major climacteric complaints as effectively as conjugated estrogens and significantly more than placebo. Similar data were published for other European CR preparations whereas 2 US American preparations were ineffective. This was most likely due to the too high doses or due to the adulteration with Asian Cimicifuga preparations. In all European studies neither effects in the uterus nor in mammary glands were observed. The effective compounds in CR are most likely neurotransmitter-mimetic in nature: dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic effects were demonstrated and some have been structurally identified. We conclude that CR extracts at low doses are effective to ameliorate climacteric complaints but are devoid of adverse estrogenic effects. These finding strengthens the role of CR extracts as substitutes for HRT. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Special Issue on Phytoestrogens. PMID:23459142

  11. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    . This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15......From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls...... years. Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  12. Management of women with surgically staged 1 uterine papillary serous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, Laurie; Laroche, Andre; Smith, Lauren; Mazurka, John; Moens, Francois; Hauspy, Jan; Jimenez, Waldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the management and outcomes of women with surgically staged 1 UPSC. Methods. We report on a case series from 2008-2010 from Hamilton Canada. We summarize the data from a literature search on surgically staged 1 UPSC. Results. There is a group women with Stage 1A UPSC with no residual disease at time of surgery who do not require adjuvant therapy. Vault recurrences appear to be lower in women who received adjuvant vault radiation. Chemotherapy appears to confer longer survival for those women with Stage 1B or 1C disease compared of those observed or who had radiation alone. Conclusion. Adjuvant therapy appears to confer benefit in certain groups of women with stage 1 UPSC. A randomized controlled study would clarify the degree of benefit. PMID:21918723

  13. Management of Women with Surgically Staged 1 Uterine Papillary Serous Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Hauspy; Francois Moens; John Mazurka; Andre LaRoche; Lauren Smith; Laurie Elit; Waldo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the management and outcomes of women with surgically staged 1 UPSC. Methods. We report on a case series from 2008–2010 from Hamilton Canada. We summarize the data from a literature search on surgically staged 1 UPSC. Results. There is a group women with Stage 1A UPSC with no residual disease at time of surgery who do not require adjuvant therapy. Vault recurrences appear to be lower in women who received adjuvant vault radiation. Chemotherapy appears to confer longer surv...

  14. Fatores Associados à Obesidade e ao Padrão Andróide de Distribuição da Gordura Corporal em Mulheres Climatéricas Factors Related to Obesity and Android Pattern of Body Fat Distribution in Climacteric Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Filip Raskin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: descrever as características de um grupo de mulheres climatéricas, conhecer a freqüência e os fatores associados à obesidade e ao padrão andróide de distribuição da gordura corporal. Métodos: estudo observacional com 518 pacientes com idade entre 45 e 65 anos em um ambulatório de climatério. Foram considerados a idade, cor, status menopausal, tempo de menopausa, atividade física, tabagismo, dieta, etilismo, antecedentes pessoais e familiares de hipertensão, diabetes, doença cardiovascular, dislipidemia e obesidade. O índice de massa corpórea e a relação das medidas cintura/quadril foram variáveis dependentes. Na análise estatística utilizaram-se os testes de Wilcoxon, c² de Pearson, com nível de significância de 5%, e análise múltipla por regressão logística. Resultados: mais de dois terços das participantes eram não-obesas com perfil andróide e menopausadas. Aproximadamente um quarto tinha atividade física adequada, era tabagista, metade referiu dieta inadequada e um quinto era etilista. Pacientes com perfil andróide apresentaram média etária maior que mulheres com padrão ginecóide. Antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes e história familiar de diabetes relacionaram-se com obesidade e padrão andróide. O status pós-menopausa associou-se significativamente ao perfil andróide. Conclusões: a maioria das mulheres foram não-obesas com perfil andróide, brancas, pós-menopáusicas, sedentárias, não-tabagistas nem etilistas. Os principais fatores associados à obesidade e padrão andróide foram os antecedentes pessoais de obesidade, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, história familiar de diabetes e, particularmente, o status pós-menopausa com o perfil andróide.Purpose: to describe sociodemographic characteristics of a group of climacteric women in order to discover the frequency and the variables associated with obesity and android profile of body fat distribution. Methods

  15. Observation of Climacteric-Like Behavior of Citrus Leaves Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio B. Wetterich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves depends on the detection of ethylene. However, such detection requires a gas chromatographer and complex sample preparation procedures. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic technique for climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves. Our results indicate that the chlorophyll fluorescence presents a time evolution consistent with the ethylene evolution. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to observe the climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves.

  16. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  17. Obstetric outcomes in women with end-stage renal disease on chronic dialysis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L Y; Thia, E W H; Tan, L K

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancies in women on chronic dialysis for end-stage renal disease are high risk, but outcomes appear to have improved with increasing experience and advances in dialysis care. This paper reviews the existing data on outcomes in such pregnancies to enable evidence-based preconception counselling and anticipation of antenatal complications.

  18. Socioeconomic position and stage of cervical cancer in Danish women diagnosed 2005 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Johansen, Christoffer; Høgdall, Claus; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2012-01-01

    To reduce social disparities in cervical cancer survival, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which social position influence cancer prognosis. We investigated the relations between socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, time since last Papanicolau smear, and stage at diagnosis in Danish...... women with cervical cancer....

  19. Job Satisfaction in Dual-Career Women at Three Family Life Cycle Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cron, Elyce A.

    2001-01-01

    Dual-career women (n=197) completed assessments of career attitudes, dyadic adjustment, and family adaptability and cohesion. Cohesion in the early life-cycle and adaptability in the late life-cycle were significant predictors of job satisfaction. Satisfaction increased as each life-cycle stage progressed. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  20. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  1. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women

  2. Efeito de um programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e os hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério The effects of a mixed program of nutritional intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits of obese climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Assunção Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi avaliar o efeito de programa misto de intervenção nutricional e exercício físico sobre a composição corporal e hábitos alimentares de mulheres obesas em climatério. MÉTODOS: Trabalhou-se com 2 grupos de 15 pessoas por 40 semanas: Grupo Dieta (intervenção nutricional e Grupo Exercício (intervenção nutricional e exercício. RESULTADO: As reduções do peso (-2,3kg para Grupo Dieta e -5,3kg para o Grupo Exercício e da circunferência da cintura (-4,8cm para Grupo Dieta e -7,6cm para Grupo Exercício, foram maiores para o Grupo Exercício. Foi verificada evolução positiva na classificação do Índice de Massa Corporal para ambos os grupos, sendo que o Grupo Exercício respondeu melhor ao tratamento. O padrão alimentar foi considerado monótono e com baixo consumo de alimentos regionais. CONCLUSÃO: O programa foi efetivo para perda de peso, em maior intensidade na presença de exercício. A educação alimentar proposta foi capaz de acarretar mudanças nos hábitos alimentares.OBJECTIVE: The effects of a mixed program of nutrition intervention and physical exercise on body composition and feeding habits were evaluated in obese climacteric women. METHODS: Thirty participants were randomly assigned in 2 groups during 40 weeks: Diet Group (nutritional intervention and Exercise Group (nutritional intervention and exercise. RESULTS: Weight reductions (Diet Group 2,3kg/Exercise Group -5,3kg and waist circunference (Diet Group -4,8cm/Exercise Group 7,6cm were greater in Exercise Group. A positive evolution was noticed in the Body Mass Index in both groups, with Exercise Group having better answer to treatment. It was observed a monotonous feeding pattern and low compliance to the consumption of regional typical foods. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the program was effective for weight loss at a higher intensity in the presence of exercise and the feeding education was able to modify the feeding habits.

  3. Validación de un cuestionario para la medición de las creencias sobre el climaterio Validity test of a questionnaire used to measure climacteric beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Chávez-Ayala

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Diseñar un instrumento para medir las creencias sobre las consecuencias sociales, psicológicas y fisiológicas de la etapa del climaterio. Material y métodos. El estudio se realizó de junio a octubre de 2000 en 340 mujeres derechohabientes de la unidad de medicina familiar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (media de edad=49.46, (DE 7.92. Se seleccionó un total de mujeres entre los 40 y 60 años de edad, en virtud del criterio de la Organización Mundial de la Salud: el promedio de edad de la menopausia es de 50 años. El promedio de embarazos en la muestra fue de 3.75 (DE 2.57, y el de hijos nacidos de 3.21 (DE 2.19. El 48.3% de las mujeres eran premenopáusicas, 10.9% perimenopáusicas y 40.6% posmenopáusicas. El instrumento contó con 25 reactivos, y la escala utilizada para evaluar las respuestas fue de tipo Likert con cinco opciones. El tipo de diseño fue observacional exploratorio, de corte transversal multivariado. Se hicieron comparaciones de medias por factor entre los grupos de mujeres premenopáusicas, perimenopáusicas y posmenopáusicas. Resultados. Se realizó un análisis factorial con rotación Varimax, confirmándose cuatro factores: desventajas, (alfa=0.769; ventajas, (alfa=0.839; fisiológico, (alfa=0.659, y psicológico, (alfa=0.711. Conclusiones. El presente instrumento tiene una buena consistencia interna, y mide cuatro grupos de creencias sobre el climaterio: a creencias de desventajas, b creencias de ventajas, c creencias sobre padecimientos fisiológicos, y d creencias de síntomas psicológicos. Las tres dimensiones confirmadas del climaterio han sido propuestas en otros estudios.Objective. To design an instrument for measuring beliefs about the social, psychological, and physiological consequences of women's climacteric stage. Material and Methods. The study included 340 women affiliated to Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del

  4. Brachytherapy boost in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In women with early stage breast cancer brachytherapy (BR) boost allows increase of the dose administered to the tumour bed, following whole-breast irradiation. In the present paper high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy results are presented, in comparison to external electron beam radiotherapy. Results of Phase II and III trials show that both techniques give comparable results regarding efficacy. In most patients satisfying cosmetic results can also be obtained, with acceptable local recurrence rate not exceeding 10 %. (authors)

  5. Sonography of acute appendicitis in pregnant women: diagnostic accuracy by the stage of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women according to the trimester. A retrospective review was performed on 103 pregnant women who underwent sonography with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. The sonographic technique used involved either the graded compression or a non-compression method. All the sonograms were obtained after changing the patient's position and identifying the diseased appendix. The criterion for a sonographic diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the visualization of a non-compressible appendix with a maximal diameter ≥ 6 mm. The sonographic findings were correlated with the surgical findings and clinical follow-up. Acute appendicitis was confirmed by both the surgical and pathological findings in 48 out of 103 pregnant women. Ultrasound established the diagnosis in 34 of the 48 patients with proven appendicitis. There were false-positives in 2 patients and false-negatives in 14 patients. Among the 55 patients who had a normal appendix, 30 patients improved at the clinical follow-up and 25 patients had other intra-abdominal disorders. The diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound was 94% in the first trimester, 81% in the second trimester, and 76% in the third trimester. The overall accuracy was found to be 84%, with a 71% sensitivity and a 96% specificity. No significant difference was found in the diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound according to the trimester in which the acute appendicitis occurred. Therefore, regardless of the stage of gestation, sonography is a valuable procedure for diagnosing acute appendicitis

  6. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programs of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and...

  7. Morbidades e fatores associados em mulheres climatéricas: estudo de base populacional em mulheres com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade Morbidity and associated factors in climacteric women: a population based study in women with 11 or more years of formal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Santos Machado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados a algumas morbidades em mulheres brasileiras de 40 a 65 anos e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Análise secundária de estudo transversal de base populacional, empregando-se um questionário anônimo e autorrespondido por 377 mulheres. Foram avaliadas, com o uso deste instrumento, algumas morbidades (hipertensão, diabetes, insônia e depressão e fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais, clínicos e reprodutivos. A associação entre as morbidades e as variáveis independentes foi avaliada por meio do teste do Χ2. Realizou-se a regressão logística múltipla com critério de seleção stepwise para selecionar os principais fatores associados a cada uma das morbidades. RESULTADOS: Na análise múltipla, a insônia esteve associada à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=2,3 e ao nervosismo (OR=5,1. O relato de depressão esteve associado à autopercepção da saúde péssima/ruim (OR=3,7 e ter lazer péssimo/ruim (OR=2,8. A hipertensão apresentou-se relacionada à obesidade (OR=3,1 e a estar na pós-menopausa (OR=2,6. Já diabetes, à idade acima de 50 anos (OR=3,9 e obesidade à (OR=12,5. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de morbidades foi alta e pior autopercepção da saúde e obesidade foram os principais fatores associados à presença de morbidades.PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with morbidities among Brazilian women aged 40-65 years and with 11 or more years of schooling. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted, using an anonymous self-report questionnaire completed by 377 women. Were evaluated, with this instrument, some morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, insomnia and depression and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and reproductive factors. The association between morbidities and independent variables was evaluated by the Χ2 test. Multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection criteria was used to

  8. Analysis of Clinical Treatment Efficiency for 179 Geriatric Women with Stage I or II Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongwenHuang; MengdaLi; FuyuanLiu; YanfangLi

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficiency of surgery plus radiotherapy and chemotherapy versus radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in the treatment of older patients with stage I or II cervical carcinoma and to seek suitable treatment for such patients. METHODS The clinical data of 179 elderly women with stage la or lib cervical cancer were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred and thirty-four cases underwent radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (Group 1). Forty-five cases underwent radiation therapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy (Group 2). RESULTS The 5-year survival rates in group 1 and group 2 were 78.3% and 49.1%(P=0.04), respectively. The incidence of complications in group1 was 47.0%. Three patients died of complications after radical hysterectomy. The incidence of complications in group 2 was 75.6%. CONCLUSION Elderly patients with stage I or II cervical carcinoma should receive an operation if possible. In addition they should receive adjuvant treatments according to their personal conditions, and be treated with appropriate adjuvant chemo-and/or radiotherapy.

  9. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

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    Ostapenko Valerijus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status. Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Results Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Conclusion Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  10. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Diana S. M.; Gold, Laura S.; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D.; Sullivan, Sean D.; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  11. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

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    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  12. Reference intervals for common thyroid function tests, during different stages of pregnancy in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jian-xia; HAN Mi; TAO Jun; LUO Jun; SONG Meng-fan; YANG Shuai; KHOR Shu-zin

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been widely recognized.Our study was designed to compare two different detection reagents between Abbott and Roche and to establish the gestational-related reference intervals for thyroid function tests (TFT) in Chinese women and to assay the reference ranges with the American Thyroid Association recommended standard.Methods Serum samples were collected from 693 normal pregnant Chinese women and divided into five groups according to their gestational age:9-13,16-20,24-28,32-34 and 37-40 weeks.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were determined by two different detection reagents:Abbott Architect l 2000 and Roche Cobas Elecsys 600.The reference ranges of the TFT indexes were calculated according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB).The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of each stage were calculated,and the results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variances,t-test,and Spearman correlation analysis.Results Thyroid hormone levels varied greatly among different gestational stages.TSH levels,as assessed via two different TSH ELISA kits showed consistent changing pattern during pregnancy and displayed linear correlation (P <0.001).In 9-13 gestational weeks,TSH levels were significantly lower than that of other groups; and in 37-40 gestational weeks,it was higher than that of other groups (all P <0.001).TSH reference ranges determined by Roche detection reagent in each group were higher than those by Abbott detection reagent (P <0.01 respectively).FT4 levels were higher in 9-13 gestational weeks than that of other groups (P <0.001).FT4 levels determined by Roche reagent were higher than Abbott reagent in 9-13 weeks,(P <0.001),and lower in 24-28 and 37-40 weeks (P <0.001 and P=0.016,respectively).The TSH level was correlated with FT4 levels in 9-13 gestational weeks by detection reagents (for Abbott reagent,r=-0.319 for FT4 P <0

  13. Contraceptive intentions among Christian women in India: a multi-stage Logit model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyati Joshi

    2014-06-01

    Results: Though spatial factors affect both Christian and non-Christian women, SLI directly affect Christian womens' intention while it operates through education for non-Christian women. The best model for future contraceptive intention among Christian women is affected by unmet need operating through standard of living. Conclusions: The study finds two different paths of causation affecting future contraceptive intentions of Christian and non-Christian women with separate policy concerns and suggests that paths to future contraceptive intentions of Christian women may act as a social learning through diffusion process for non-Christian women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 523-532

  14. Couples' Support-Related Communication, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction among Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…

  15. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.

    2008-01-01

    A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...

  16. Breast cancer in kurdish women of northern Iraq: incidence, clinical stage, and case control analysis of parity and family risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Banaz M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in the Middle-East occurs in relatively young women and frequently presents as advanced disease. A protective effect of multiparity is not apparent, and high familial risk is reported in some countries. This study investigates breast cancer rates and clinical stage related to age in the Kurdish region of Iraq and evaluates risk associated with parity and family history. Findings are compared with nearby countries and the West. Methods Sulaimaniyah Directorate of Health records identified 539 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2006-2008. Clinical survey forms were completed on 296 patients and on 254 age-matched controls. Age specific incidence rates were calculated from Directorate of Health population estimates. Results Average patient age was 47.4 ± 11 years and 59.5% were pre-menopausal. Diagnosis was at clinical stage 1 for 4.1%, stage 2 for 43.5%, stage 3 for 26.0%, and stage 4 for 8.1% of patients. For 18.2%, stage was unknown. Annual breast cancer incidence rates per 100,000 women peaked at 168.9 at age 55 to 59 and declined to 57.3 at 60 and above. Patients had an average of 5.0 ± 3.3 children compared to 5.4 ± 3.5 for controls, P = 0.16. A first degree family member had breast cancer among 11.1% of patients and 2.1% of controls (P 50% of these patients and controls being ≥50 years old. No statistically significant relationship was found between tumor stage and age, P = 0.59. Conclusions In Kurdish Iraq, breast cancer is predominantly a disease of pre-menopausal women having multiple pregnancies. For younger patients, breast cancer incidence was similar to the West and possibly higher than many Middle-Eastern countries, but unlike the West, the estimated rates declined markedly in the elderly. The familial breast cancer risk for both older and younger women was within the general population risk of Western countries. Clinical stages were advanced and indicated delays in diagnosis that were

  17. Gender features of depressive disorders in women

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    N. A. Tyuvina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the data available in the literature and the results of their investigations of the gender features of depressive disorders in women. They analyze the results of studies relating to gender differences in the neurohormonal system from the embryonic period, as well as those in the lateralization of neuromorphofunctional provision of emotions. Based on their clinical observations, the authors discuss the varying roles of menopause in the etiopathogenesis of climacteric, psychogenic, and endogenous depression; in these forms of depression, menopause may be a cause, ground, or trigger, respectively. The influence of endocrine and sociopsychological factors on the development of postpartum depression is considered. The authors unveil the diagnostic and predictive value of premenopausal syndrome with depressive disorders at different stages of a depressive episode: the prediction of depression when depressive symptoms appear in the premenopausal period, as well as the reduction of premenopausal depressive disorders as evidence of intermission. Based on the data available in the literature, the authors consider the clinical features of depression in women: earlier onset; more frequent depressive episodes; greater presentation of atypical symptoms (anxiety, fatigue, increased appetite, weight gain, hypersomnia, and signs of somatization, as well as rarer suicidal tendencies as comparedto men. It is concluded that the gender features of depression in women are due to the whole complex of gender factors, such as neurophysiological, neuroendocrine, and sociopsychological ones.

  18. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  19. Phytoestrogens for menopausal bone loss and climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Women have always looked for non-hormonal options to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent menopausal bone loss. The use of complementary and alternative medicine for these purposes has particularly increased after the publication of the Women's Health Initiative's results suggesting that there might be more risks than benefits with hormone replacement. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens that, although less potent than estradiol, bind to the estrogen receptor and can function as estrogen agonists or antagonists. Soy isoflavones extracted from soy are the phytoestrogens most commonly used by menopausal women. Because typical Western diets are low in phytoestrogens and taking into account the general difficulty in changing dietary habits, most clinical trials in Western women have used isoflavone-fortified foods or isoflavone tablets. Although some women might experience a reduction in the frequency or severity of hot flashes, most studies point towards the lack of effectiveness of isoflavones derived from soy or red clover, even in large doses, in the prevention of hot flashes and menopausal bone loss. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'. PMID:23246986

  20. The Pathogenesis of Climacteric Syndrome and Principle of Acupuncture Treatment Based on TCM Theory about Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xiaoming; Du Yuanhao; Shi Xuemin

    2005-01-01

    The brain is the sea of marrow, stores the cerebral spirit and dominates all the life activities of the human body, which are the basic TCM knowledge about the brain. Based on this knowledge, the pathogenesis of climacteric syndrome is considered as consumption and deficiency of kidney-essence, and incoordination between the brain and kidney. The principle of acupuncture treatment should be soothing the mind and tonifying the kidney.

  1. Effect of LI4 Acupressure on Labor Pain in the First Stage of Labor in Nuliparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi M; Firoozi M; Esmaili H

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objective: Labor pain management is one of the most important procedures of midwifery cares. Acupressure, a non-pharmacological method of labor pain relief, is an available, easy to use, inexpensive, and without side effect method of pain relief. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LI-4 acupressure on labor pain in women during first stage of labor. Methods & Materials: A single blind randomized clinical trial study was carried out on 83 primip...

  2. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Colón-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.

  3. Role of sucrose phosphate synthase in sucrose biosynthesis in ripening bananas and its relationship to the respiratory climacteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, N L; Pharr, D M; Huber, S C

    1990-09-01

    During ripening of bananas (Musa spp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup]), there is a massive conversion of starch to sucrose. Also during ripening there is a rise in respiration known as the respiratory climacteric. In this study changes in carbohydrate content, activities of starch and sucrose metabolizing enzymes, and respiration were measured to assess their potential interrelationships. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased dramatically during the first 4 days after initiation of ripening by ethylene treatment. Starch concentration decreased and sucrose concentration increased during this time period. Developmental changes in sucrose phosphate synthase activity were measured with limiting substrate (plus Pi) and saturating substrate concentrations. Activities were not parallel under the two assay conditions, providing tentative evidence that kinetically different forms of the enzyme may exist at different stages of ripening. Sucrose accumulation rate was most highly correlated with sucrose phosphate synthase activity assayed with limiting substrate concentrations (plus Pi). The cumulative amount of CO(2) respired during ripening was positively correlated with sugar accumulation (R(2) = 0.97). From this linear regression it was calculated that a constant 0.605 millimoles of CO(2) was evolved per mole of sucrose formed throughout ripening. Using this quantity, the percentage of the total respiratory ATP produced which was required for the conversion of starch to sucrose was calculated assuming different models for carbon export from the amyloplast. The results suggest that sucrose biosynthesis during ripening constitutes a significant sink for respiratory ATP. PMID:16667688

  4. The Relationship between AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and the Follicular Phase in Late Reproductive Stage Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the analysis of the relationships between the genotypes of the AMH and AMH receptor type 2 genes, hormone levels and the menstrual cycle in a group of Polish women in the late reproductive stage. The study was conducted using a measurement-based method (body weight and height, laboratory method (serum hormone levels AMH, FSH and E2, and genetic analysis (DNA isolated from whole blood by a salting-out method. The study involved 345 healthy, late-reproductive-stage women from Poland, aged 42.3 ± 4.5 years. The analysis demonstrated that neither the T/T and G/T+G/G genotypes of the AMH Ile49Ser polymorphism (rs10407022, nor the A/A and the G/A + G/G genotypes of the AMHR2 2482 A > G polymorphism (rs2002555, nor the C/C and C/T + T/T genotypes of the AMH polymorphism (rs11170547 were statistically significantly related (p > 0.05 to such factors as age, BMI, hormone (FSH and E2 levels and ovarian parameters (AMH in the follicular phase. No relationships were found between ovarian parameters (FSH, E2, AMH and genetic variants of AMH (rs10407022 and AMHR2 (rs11170547, rs2002555 in healthy women in the late reproductive stage.

  5. Attitudinal Differences toward Women Managers by Students at Different Stages of Their Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi-Bello, Tope; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous research studies that have investigated the attitude toward women managers across the globe. Most of the findings indicate that positive and negative attitudes toward women managers can be influenced, among other things, by cultural variables. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the attitude of…

  6. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SF, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SF, FA and Vitamin Bn levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages. Methods: Levels of serum SF, fore acid and Vitamin B12 were detected with RIA in 132 pregnant women of different gestational stages and 35 controls (non-pregant women). Results: Serum SF, folic acid and VitB12 levels were significantly lower in pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester than those in controls (Pl2 levels were low in late pregnancy predisposing to development anemia. (authors)

  7. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  8. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  9. Profile of prognostic factors in 1022 Indian women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The outcome of breast cancer treatment can vary in different geographic and ethnic groups. A multivariate analysis was performed for various prognostic factors in 1022 Indian women with pathologic Stage I-II breast cancer treated between 1980 and 2000 with standard breast-conserving therapy with or without systemic adjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: At a mean follow-up of 53 months, the outcomes studied were local failure, locoregional failure, and distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: The median pathologic tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1-5 cm), and axillary lymph node metastasis was present in 39% of women. The actuarial 5- and 10-year OS and DFS rate was 87% and 77% and 76% and 68%, respectively. Lymphovascular emboli or invasion (LVI) was the strongest independent adverse factor for all failure and survival (local failure, hazard ratio 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.83; OS; hazard ratio, 2.01, 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.99). Lymph node metastasis was also an independent adverse factor for local failure, locoregional failure, distant failure, DFS, and OS (hazard ratio, 1.55, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.30). Age ≤40 years increased the incidence of local recurrence, and patients with inner quadrant tumors had inferior DFS. The incidence of LVI was significantly greater in women with lymph node metastases than in node-negative women (p < 0.001) and in women with Grade 3 tumors than in those with Grade 1 or 2 tumors (p = 0.001). Conclusion: In Indian women, LVI was the strongest independent prognostic factor for OS, DFS, and local recurrence, irrespective of nodal status and systemic adjuvant treatment. Although LVI may not be a contraindication for BCT, as has been proposed by certain groups, it is necessary to define its role in prospective studies in determining local and systemic treatment

  10. Fat necrosis in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the incidence of clinical, pathological and radiological fat necrosis (FN) in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) for early-stage breast cancer and to study certain variables associated with it. Methods and materials: Between May 2000 and August 2008, 171 women were treated with APBI using high dose rate (HDR) BRT. Patients were treated to a dose of 34 Gy/10 fractions/1 week with two fractions/day after intraoperative/postoperative placement of catheters. Results: At a median follow up of 48 months (SD: 28) 20 women developed FN with median time to detection being 24 months (range: 4–62 months, SD: 20). Actuarial 5 and 7 year FN rate was 18% and 23%, respectively. Grade 1 FN was seen in 4, grade 2 in 8 and grade 4 in 8 women. Additional investigations such as aspiration/biopsy were done in 9 patients. Volume of excision was the only significant factor affecting FN (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Actuarial FN rate of 18% at 5 years in our study was comparable to other reported series of FN. Median time of detection of FN was 24 months. Higher volume of excision resulted in an increased incidence of fat necrosis.

  11. Pressures from Work, Self, and Home in the Life Stages of Married Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Douglas T.

    1975-01-01

    Following Lopata's (1966) model of the life cycle of the married woman's role, it was predicted and found that a woman's life stage would be related to her role pressures (work, home, self, and time), conflict, and satisfaction. Age and number of roles were not as strongly related to these variables as was life stage. (Author)

  12. A nested case-control study of adjuvant hormonal therapy persistence and compliance, and early breast cancer recurrence in women with stage I-III breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence. Methods: A nested case–control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiati...

  13. A nested case–control study of adjuvant hormonal therapy persistence and compliance, and early breast cancer recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, T I; Cahir, C; Sharp, L.; Bennett, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence. Methods: A nested case–control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiation, were matched to contr...

  14. Concerns of Women in Educational Research and Development at Three Stages of Professional Development: Student Years, Early Postdoctoral Years, and Intermediate Professional Years. Research Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Ruth B.

    Some of the problems that exist for women in educational research and development and ways in which better opportunities for advanced levels of training and job advancement could be provided are described. Three stages of women's professional development are considered: the student years, the early postdoctoral years (one-to-five years after the…

  15. Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have examined the effect of breast implants after mastectomy on long-term survival in breast cancer patients, despite growing public health concern over potential long-term adverse health effects. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics. Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival. In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old

  16. From Culturally Defined to Self-Defined: Career Stages of Women Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    Women's participation in school administration is low and actually declining, despite legislation, affirmative action, and special programs. This article views the research guiding educational policy as useful, but concerned with ancillary issues. After a literature review of sex discrimination, administrator gender differences, role conflicts,…

  17. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; ZHANG, BO; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2009-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as ‘Luoyangqing’ (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as ‘Baisha’ (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3...

  18. Expression profiling of cervical cancers in Indian women at different stages to identify gene signatures during progression of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression

  19. HEALTH EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR WOMEN IN CLIMACTERIC: GRANTS FOR NURSING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Lyra Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:. Conhecer a assistência prestada pelo enfermeiro à mulher no climatério identificando estratégias de educação em saúde no atendimento à mesma. Metodologia:. Realizado levantamento de dados sobre o tema entre 2001 a 2010 seguindo leitura analítica alcançando bibliografia potencial com 10 artigos e 1 monografia divididos em três categorias. Resultados e discussão:. Algumas obras demonstram que as mulheres desconhecem a educação pela enfermagem, constatado pela falta de informações dessas pacientes. Conclusão:. O enfermeiro como educador se insere como grande estímulo, beneficiando estas mulheres com informações, com variados métodos desempenhados buscando vivenciar estas alterações fisiológicas de forma mais saudável permitindo a transformação consciente da realidade. Educar em saúde tornou-se uma das atribuições que o enfermeiro desempenha em toda sua área de atuação e, portanto perpassa todos os níveis de assistência à saúde.

  20. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Saller, Reinhard; Hess, Lorenzo; Melzer, Jörg; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Juergen; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa) have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo). Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic), assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients' self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL), responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65-19.35) score points, P < 0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55-11.39) score points, P = 0.0003 for 6.5 mg). QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women. PMID:23346194

  1. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo. Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic, assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients’ self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL, responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35 score points, P<0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39 score points, P=0.0003 for 6.5 mg. QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women.

  2. Can Locoregional Treatment of the Primary Tumor Improve Outcomes for Women With Stage IV Breast Cancer at Diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of locoregional treatment (LRT) of the primary tumor on survival in patients with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 733 women referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency between 1996 and 2005 with newly diagnosed clinical or pathologic M1 breast cancer. Tumor and treatment characteristics, overall survival (OS), and locoregional progression-free survival were compared between patients treated with (n = 378) and without (n = 355) LRT of the primary disease. Multivariable analysis was performed with Cox regression modeling. Results: The median follow-up time was 1.9 years. LRT consisted of surgery alone in 67% of patients, radiotherapy alone in 22%, and both in 11%. LRT was used more commonly in women with age <50 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0–1, Stage T1–2 tumors, N0–1 disease, limited M1 burden, and asymptomatic M1 disease (all p < 0.05). Systemic therapy was used in 92% of patients who underwent LRT and 85% of patients who did not. In patients treated with LRT compared with those without LRT, the 5-year OS rates were 21% vs. 14% (p < 0.001), and the rates of locoregional progression-free survival were 72% vs. 46% (p < 0.001). Among 378 patients treated with LRT, the rates of 5-year OS were higher in patients with age <50, ECOG performance status 0–1, estrogen receptor–positive disease, clear surgical margins, single subsite, bone-only metastasis, and one to four metastatic lesions (all p < 0.003). On multivariable analysis, LRT was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.94, p = 0.009). Conclusion: Locoregional treatment of the primary disease is associated with improved survival in some women with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Among those treated with LRT, the most favorable rates of survival were observed in subsets with young age, good performance status, estrogen receptor

  3. Fulvestrant With or Without Lapatinib in Treating Postmenopausal Women With Stage III or Stage IV Breast Cancer That is Hormone Receptor-Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  4. Similar Survival With Breast Conservation Therapy or Mastectomy in the Management of Young Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate survival outcomes of young women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) or mastectomy, using a large, population-based database. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, information was obtained for all female patients, ages 20 to 39 years old, diagnosed with T1–2 N0–1 M0 breast cancer between 1990 and 2007, who underwent either BCT (lumpectomy and radiation treatment) or mastectomy. Multivariable and matched pair analyses were performed to compare overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Results: A total of 14,764 women were identified, of whom 45% received BCT and 55% received mastectomy. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 0.5–17.9 years). After we accounted for all patient and tumor characteristics, multivariable analysis found that BCT resulted in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.04; p = 0.16) and CSS (HR, 0.93; CI, 0.83–1.05; p = 0.26) similar to that of mastectomy. Matched pair analysis, including 4,644 BCT and mastectomy patients, confirmed no difference in OS or CSS: the 5-, 10-, and15-year OS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 92.5%, 83.5%, and 77.0% and 91.9%, 83.6%, and 79.1%, respectively (p = 0.99), and the 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 93.3%, 85.5%, and 79.9% and 92.5%, 85.5%, and 81.9%, respectively (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Our analysis of this population-based database suggests that young women with early-stage breast cancer have similar survival rates whether treated with BCT or mastectomy. These patients should be counseled appropriately regarding their treatment options and should not choose a mastectomy based on the assumption of improved survival.

  5. Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p 0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15–20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age 0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater risk of LRR than those with pN0 disease. Patients with pNmic in association with young age, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease experienced 10-year LRR rates of ∼15–20%, warranting consideration of locoregional RT.

  6. Effectiveness of a low dose testosterone undecanoate to improve sexual function in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Tungmunsakulchai, Reuthairat; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Snabboon, Thiti; Panyakhamlerd, Krasean; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Taechakraichana, Nimit

    2015-01-01

    Background Adding testosterone to hormonal therapy could improve sexual function and general well-being among women during climacteric. We evaluated the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate on sexual function in postmenopausal women utilizing the standardized questionnaire FSFI score. Methods Postmenopausal women with sexual complaints and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) ≤ 26.5 were enrolled in to this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly a...

  7. Development of Patients' Decision Aid for Older Women With Stage I Breast Cancer Considering Radiotherapy After Lumpectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Alimonte, Laura [Department of Radiation Therapy, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Angus, Jan [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Paszat, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Metcalfe, Kelly [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary [Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Center of Informed Choice, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon); Warner, Eiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Franssen, Edmee [Consultant Statistician, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Szumacher, Ewa, E-mail: Ewa.Szumacher@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for older women with Stage I, pathologically node negative, estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer who are considering adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy and to examine its impact on patients' decision making. Methods and Materials: A PtDA was developed and evaluated in three steps according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework: (1) needs assessment (n = 16); (2) Pilot I to examine PtDA acceptability (n = 12); and (3) Pilot II, a pretest posttest (n = 38) with older women with estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer after lumpectomy who were receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Measures included patients' satisfaction with the PtDA, self-reported decisional conflict, level of distress, treatment-related knowledge, and choice predisposition. Results: The PtDA is a booklet that details each adjuvant treatment option's benefits, risks, and side effects tailored to the patient's clinical profile; includes a values clarification exercise; and includes steps to guide patients towards their decision. On the basis of qualitative comments and satisfaction ratings, all women thought that the PtDA was helpful and informative. In comparison with their baseline scores, patients had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in decisional conflict (adjusted mean difference [AMD], -7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.50 to 12.59); increased clarity of the benefits and risks (AMD, -10.86; CI, -20.33 to 21.49); and improved general treatment knowledge (AMD, 8.99; CI, 2.88-10.28) after using the PtDA. General trends were also reported in the patients' choice predisposition scores that suggested potential differences in treatment decision after PtDA use. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that this PtDA may be a helpful educational tool for this group of women. The quality of care for older breast cancer patients may be

  8. Development of Patients’ Decision Aid for Older Women With Stage I Breast Cancer Considering Radiotherapy After Lumpectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for older women with Stage I, pathologically node negative, estrogen receptor–positive progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer who are considering adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy and to examine its impact on patients’ decision making. Methods and Materials: A PtDA was developed and evaluated in three steps according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework: (1) needs assessment (n = 16); (2) Pilot I to examine PtDA acceptability (n = 12); and (3) Pilot II, a pretest posttest (n = 38) with older women with estrogen receptor–positive progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer after lumpectomy who were receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Measures included patients’ satisfaction with the PtDA, self-reported decisional conflict, level of distress, treatment-related knowledge, and choice predisposition. Results: The PtDA is a booklet that details each adjuvant treatment option’s benefits, risks, and side effects tailored to the patient’s clinical profile; includes a values clarification exercise; and includes steps to guide patients towards their decision. On the basis of qualitative comments and satisfaction ratings, all women thought that the PtDA was helpful and informative. In comparison with their baseline scores, patients had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in decisional conflict (adjusted mean difference [AMD], −7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], −13.50 to 12.59); increased clarity of the benefits and risks (AMD, −10.86; CI, −20.33 to 21.49); and improved general treatment knowledge (AMD, 8.99; CI, 2.88–10.28) after using the PtDA. General trends were also reported in the patients’ choice predisposition scores that suggested potential differences in treatment decision after PtDA use. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that this PtDA may be a helpful educational tool for this group of women. The quality of care for older breast cancer patients may

  9. Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Poel, Bram; Vandenzavel, Nick; Smet, Cindy; Nicolay, Toon; Bulens, Inge; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Vandoninck, Sandy; Hertog, Maarten LATM; Derua, Rita; Spaepen, Stijn; Vanderleyden, Jos; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Nicolai, Bart M.; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solanum lycopersicum or tomato is extensively studied with respect to the ethylene metabolism during climacteric ripening, focusing almost exclusively on fruit pericarp. In this work the ethylene biosynthesis pathway was examined in all major tomato fruit tissues: pericarp, septa, columella, placenta, locular gel and seeds. The tissue specific ethylene production rate was measured throughout fruit development, climacteric ripening and postharvest storage. All ethylene intermediate...

  10. 腹针治疗更年期综合征40例%Abdominal acupuncture for 40 cases of climacteric syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾群; 朱文罡

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric syndrome,so-called symptoms before and after menopause in TCM,encompasses a series of symptoms due to disorder of endocrine and autonomic nerve caused by declination of ovary function during perimenopausal period.In western medicine,the major treatment is hormone replacement therapy.However,different opinions exist on estrogen application and its safety,which shows more contraindications and adverse reactions combined.From 2004,the author has applied abdominal acupuncture on 40 cases of climacteric syndrome.

  11. Identification of a Predictive Biomarker for the Beneficial Effect of Keishibukuryogan, a Kampo (Japanese Traditional Medicine, on Patients with Climacteric Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor β gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients’ profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12 weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients’ climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype. No relationship between the patients’ profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it.

  12. Local Recurrence in Women With Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates Over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Joycelin, E-mail: canavanjoycelin@gmail.com [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T.; Smith, Sally L. [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether local recurrence (LR) risk has changed over time among women with stage I breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5974 women aged ≥50 years diagnosis with pT1N0 breast cancer from 1989 to 2006, treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and LR outcomes were compared among 4 cohorts stratified by year of diagnosis: 1989 to 1993 (n=1077), 1994 to 1998 (n=1633), 1999 to 2002 (n=1622), and 2003 to 2006 (n=1642). Multivariable analysis was performed, with year of diagnosis as a continuous variable. Results: Median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Among patients diagnosed in 1989 to 1993, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2002, and 2003 to 2006, the proportions of grade 1 tumors increased (16% vs 29% vs 40% vs 39%, respectively, P<.001). Surgical margin clearance rates increased from 82% to 93% to 95% and 88%, respectively (P<.001). Over time, the proportions of unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status decreased (29% vs 10% vs 1.2% vs 0.5%, respectively, P<.001), whereas ER-positive tumors increased (56% vs 77% vs 86% vs 86%, respectively, P<.001). Hormone therapy use increased (23% vs 23% vs 62% vs 73%, respectively, P<.001), and chemotherapy use increased (2% vs 5% vs 10% vs 13%, respectively, P<.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of LR over the 4 time periods were 2.8% vs 1.7% vs 0.9% vs 0.8%, respectively (Gray's test, P<.001). On competing risk multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis was significantly associated with decreased LR (hazard ratio, 0.92 per year, P=.0003). Relative to grade 1 histology, grades 2, 3, and unknown were associated with increased LR. Hormone therapy use was associated with reduced LR. Conclusion: Significant changes in the multimodality management of stage I breast cancer have occurred over the past 2 decades. More favorable-risk tumors were diagnosed, and margin clearance and systemic therapy use

  13. Local Recurrence in Women With Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates Over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether local recurrence (LR) risk has changed over time among women with stage I breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5974 women aged ≥50 years diagnosis with pT1N0 breast cancer from 1989 to 2006, treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and LR outcomes were compared among 4 cohorts stratified by year of diagnosis: 1989 to 1993 (n=1077), 1994 to 1998 (n=1633), 1999 to 2002 (n=1622), and 2003 to 2006 (n=1642). Multivariable analysis was performed, with year of diagnosis as a continuous variable. Results: Median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Among patients diagnosed in 1989 to 1993, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2002, and 2003 to 2006, the proportions of grade 1 tumors increased (16% vs 29% vs 40% vs 39%, respectively, P<.001). Surgical margin clearance rates increased from 82% to 93% to 95% and 88%, respectively (P<.001). Over time, the proportions of unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status decreased (29% vs 10% vs 1.2% vs 0.5%, respectively, P<.001), whereas ER-positive tumors increased (56% vs 77% vs 86% vs 86%, respectively, P<.001). Hormone therapy use increased (23% vs 23% vs 62% vs 73%, respectively, P<.001), and chemotherapy use increased (2% vs 5% vs 10% vs 13%, respectively, P<.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of LR over the 4 time periods were 2.8% vs 1.7% vs 0.9% vs 0.8%, respectively (Gray's test, P<.001). On competing risk multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis was significantly associated with decreased LR (hazard ratio, 0.92 per year, P=.0003). Relative to grade 1 histology, grades 2, 3, and unknown were associated with increased LR. Hormone therapy use was associated with reduced LR. Conclusion: Significant changes in the multimodality management of stage I breast cancer have occurred over the past 2 decades. More favorable-risk tumors were diagnosed, and margin clearance and systemic therapy use

  14. Staging the axilla in women with breast cancer:the utility of preoperative ultrasound-guided needle biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nehmat Houssami; Robin M.Turner

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative staging of the axilla in women with invasive breast cancer using ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (UNB) identiifes approximately 50% of patients with axillary nodal metastases prior to surgical intervention. Although moderately sensitive, it is a highly speciifc staging strategy that is rarely falsely-positive, hence a positive UNB allows patients to be triaged to axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) avoiding potentially unnecessary sentinel node biopsy (SNB). In this review, we extend our previous work through an updated literature search, focusing on studies that report data on UNB utility. Based on data for 10,934 breast cancer patients, sourced from 35 studies, a positive UNB allowed triage of 1,745 cases (simple proportion 16%) to axillary surgical treatment: the utility of UNB was a median 19.8% [interquartile range (IQR) 11.6%-26.7%] across these studies. We also modelled data from a subgroup of studies, and estimated that amongst patients with metastases to axillary nodes, the odds ratio (OR) for high nodal disease burden for a positive UNB versus a negative UNB was 4.38 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.13, 6.13],P<0.001. From this model, the estimated proportion with high nodal disease burden was 58.9% (95% CI: 50.2%, 67.0%) for a positive UNB, whereas the estimated proportion with high nodal disease burden was 24.6% (95% CI: 17.7%, 33.2%) if UNB was negative. Overall, axillary UNB has good clinical utility and a positive UNB can effectively triage to ALND. However, the evolving landscape of axillary surgical treatment means that UNB will have relatively less utility where surgeons have modiifed their practice to omission of ALND for minimal nodal metastatic disease.

  15. Surgery Should Complement Endocrine Therapy for Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocrine therapy (ET is an integral part of breast cancer (BC treatment with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of curative treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the survival of elderly postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage BC treated with ET alone, without radiation or chemotherapy, versus ET plus surgery. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study based on a prospective database. The medical records of postmenopausal BC patients referred to the surgical oncology service of two hospitals during an 8-year period were reviewed. All patients were to receive ET for a minimum of four months before undergoing any surgery. Results. Fifty-one patients were included and divided in two groups, ET alone and ET plus surgery. At last follow-up in exclusive ET patients (n=28, 39% had stable disease or complete response, 22% had progressive disease, of which 18% died of breast cancer, and 39% died of other causes. In surgical patients (n=23, 78% were disease-free, 9% died of recurrent breast cancer, and 13% died of other causes. Conclusions. These results suggest that surgical resection is beneficial in this group and should be considered, even for patients previously deemed ineligible for surgery.

  16. Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupe, Krystine [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater

  17. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed. PMID:11185870

  18. Síndrome do climatério: inquérito populacional domiciliar em Campinas, SP Climacteric syndrome: a population-based study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Orcesi Pedro

    2003-12-01

    prevalence of climacteric, urogenital and sexual symptoms in a population of Brazilian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive population-based study was conducted. The selection of 456 women aged 45-60 years, living in Campinas, SP, in 1997, was done through area cluster sampling, according to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Data were collected via home interviews, using structured pretested questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test; a probability of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The degree of climacteric symptoms was analyzed through circulatory and psychological indices. Analysis of the main components was used to determine symptom interrelationships. RESULTS: The most prevalent symptoms were nervousness (82%, hot flushes (70%, headache (68%, irritability (67% and sweating (59%. Hot flushes, sweating and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in the peri and postmenopausal phases. The frequency (severity of vasomotor and psychological symptoms did not vary according to the menopause phase. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27.4%. Complaints of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were infrequent. Decreased libido was the most frequent sexual complaint. It was observed that some climacteric complaints were interrelated. The first cluster included hot flushes and sweating (vasomotor cluster. The second cluster included nervousness, depression and irritability (psychological cluster. The third cluster included dizziness and palpitation (atypical cluster. CONCLUSION: Climacteric symptoms in this population were highly prevalent and similar to those described in developed Western countries.

  19. Alterations in Circulating miRNA Levels following Early-Stage Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Resection in Post-Menopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Zeuthen, Pernille; Binder, Harald; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-01-01

    alterations were also observed in an independent data set. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on prospectively collected serum samples from 24 post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer before surgery and 3 weeks after tumor resection using global LNA...... design and the same qPCR profiling platform, resulting in limited agreement. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 4 circulating miRNAs exhibited significantly altered levels following radical resection of primary ER+ breast cancers in post-menopausal women. These specific miRNAs may be involved in tumorigenesis and...

  20. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A-M; Neff, A

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  1. The Impact of Comorbidities on Outcomes for Elderly Women Treated With Breast-Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Breast cancer incidence increases with age and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly women, but is not well studied in this population. Comorbidities often impact on the management of breast cancer in elderly women. Methods and Materials: From 1979 to 2002, a total of 238 women aged 70 years and older with Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast underwent breast-conservation therapy. Outcomes were compared by age groups and comorbidities. Median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 70-89 years). Age distribution was 122 women (51%) aged 70-74 years, 71 women (30%) aged 75-79 years, and 45 women (19%) aged 80 years or older. Median follow-up was 6.2 years. Results: On outcomes analysis by age groups, 10-year cause-specific survival rates for women aged 70-74, 75-79, and 80 years or older were 74%, 81%, and 82%, respectively (p = 0.87). Intercurrent deaths at 10 years were significantly higher in older patients: 20% in those aged 70-74 years, 36% in those aged 75-79 years, and 53% in those 80 years and older (p = 0.0005). Comorbidities were not significantly more common in the older age groups and did not correlate with cause-specific survival adjusted for age. Higher comorbidity scores were associated with intercurrent death. Conclusions: Older age itself is not a contraindication to standard breast-conservation therapy, including irradiation. Women of any age with low to moderate comorbidity indices should be offered standard breast-conservation treatment if otherwise clinically eligible

  2. Role of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) versus conventional imaging for breast cancer presurgical staging in young women or with dense breast

    OpenAIRE

    Biglia, N.; Bounous, V.E.; Martincich, L.; Panuccio, E.; Liberale, V.; Ottino, L.; Ponzone, R; Sismondi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of breast cancer is currently uncertain. The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative MRI compared to conventional imaging in detecting breast cancer and the effect of pre-operative MRI on the surgical treatment in a subgroup of women with dense breasts, young age, invasive lobular cancer (ILC) or multiple lesions. Methods Between Jan...

  3. Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women in different stages of reproductive life: a semantic, cross-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Marván, Maria Luisa; Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    College students in southeastern Mexico (n = 185) and the northeastern United States (n = 96) utilized a semantic differential scale to rate subtypes of women: a menstruating woman, a menopausal woman, a pregnant woman, a premenstrual woman, a woman with a hysterectomy, a teenage girl, a woman in love, and a woman with a young baby. Americans reported significantly more negative attitudes than Mexicans did toward a menstruating woman, a premenstrual woman, a teenage girl, and a pregnant woman. Participants chose more positive words to describe a teenage girl, a woman in love, a pregnant woman, and a woman with a young baby, which is suggestive of a pronatal bias. Participants also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Men scored significantly higher than women on hostile sexism. Mexicans scored significantly higher than Americans on both hostile and benevolent sexism. Sexism scores are related to attitudes toward premenstrual, menstruating, and menopausal women; women with a hysterectomy; and women with a young baby. PMID:23627400

  4. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

  5. Increasing Stages of Social Activism and Responsiveness to the National Agenda: How Women Experience Membership in the American Association of University Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marilyn Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The problem investigated in this study was how individuals participate in the local units of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and particularly how their participation relates to the program and policy initiatives of the national association. The purpose was to understand and describe how individuals experience branch membership, how they respond to the current program and policy initiatives of the association, and to examine some of the differences between members with rega...

  6. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  7. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  8. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  9. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, Mirjam E., E-mail: m.mast@mchaaglanden.nl [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, Mark W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Petoukhova, Anna L. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, Astrid N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, Joop H.M. [Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, Henk [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  10. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55–64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55–64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55–64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  11. I won't, I might, I am": undergraduate women and stages of change for participation in leadership development activities

    OpenAIRE

    McComb, Tina Ann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model to examine undergraduate women’s intention to participate in leadership activities and to identify variables related to their differential participation. Use of the Stages of Change framework extends the examination of student leadership to those not yet involved in leadership activities and recognizes individual intentions for becoming involved, as opposed to only considering actions. ...

  12. Effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康) on Senile Sexual Hormone and Expression of Estrogen Receptor in Bone of Climacteric Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of Compound Recipe Gengniankang (更年康,GNK) with that of hormone replacement treatment (HRT) on climacteric female rats with osteoporosis, and to investigate the roles of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Methods: Climac-teric female rats with osteoporosis were chosen and divided into three groups (GNK group, HRT group and control group). Apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells was measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferae mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Serum level of estrdiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT) technology was used to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in bone. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by double energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Results: In the climacteric rats, BMD, serum E2, ER mRNA expression in bone decreased remarkably, and serum FSH, LH and apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells increased obviously. After treating with GNK, all the indexes were reversed except serum E2. The increase of E2 was not significant. Conclusion:GNK is effective on climacteric osteoporosis female rats. Its role is performed not by increasing serum E2 but by enhancing ER in the bone and inhibiting apoptosis of ovarian granulose cells. GNK can deter further exhaustion of ovarian function.

  13. Disparities in late stage diagnosis, treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural residence among women in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markossian, Talar W; Hines, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the outcomes of late stage breast cancer diagnosis, receiving first course treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural/urban residence in Georgia. The authors used cross-sectional and follow-up data (1992-2007) for Atlanta and Rural Georgia cancer registries that are part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (N = 23,500 incident breast cancer cases in non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic African Americans). Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazard models revealed that compared to whites, African American women had significantly increased odds of late stage diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, p = 0.0001) and unknown tumor stage (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0001), decreased odds of receiving radiation (OR = 0.93, p = 0.041) or surgery (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0001), and increased risk of death following breast cancer diagnosis (hazard rate ratio [HR] = 1.50, p = 0.0001). Increased age was significantly associated with the odds of late/unknown stage at diagnosis, worse treatment, and survival. Women residing in rural areas had significantly decreased odds of receiving radiation and surgery with radiation (OR = 0.59, p = 0.0001), and for receiving breast-conserving surgery compared to mastectomy (OR = 0.73, p = 0.005). Factors affecting each level of the breast cancer continuum are distinct and should be examined separately. Efforts are needed to alleviate disparities in breast cancer outcomes in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22591230

  14. The Experience of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Women Treated for Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Palle, Connie; Moeller, Ann M;

    2016-01-01

    -assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 12 women, and interview data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four overarching themes emerged: "surgery was a piece of cake," "recovering physically after surgery," "going from being off guard to being on...... in the robotic technique and recovered quickly physically, they lacked information about what went on in the operation theatre and about their new anatomy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patient education about the normal postoperative course in regard to vaginal bleeding, bowel function, and level of...... physical activity is needed. Individualized information about anatomical changes after surgery is warranted, preferably using anatomical drawings. Potentially, the women could benefit from attending a nursing clinic during the first postoperative months....

  15. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  16. Development in self-reported arm-lymphedema in Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer in 2005 and 2006 – A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving;

    2014-01-01

    contrast to 30% treated with ALND. However, 19% of women treated with ALND and not reporting lymphedema in 2008 had developed lymphedema by 2012. In conclusion lymphedema remains a frequent problem, years after treatment for breast cancer, though, number of women reporting lymphedema and overall severity......The main purpose of this nationwide follow-up study was to examine the development of self-reported lymphedema in the population of women with early-stage breast cancer in Denmark. In 2008 and 2012 two identical questionnaires were sent to the women aged 18-70 years treated for unilateral primary...... breast cancer in 2005 and 2006. 2293 women (87%) reported on lymphedema in 2008 and 2012. Overall 37% reported lymphedema in 2008 while 31% reported lymphedema in 2012 and severity of symptoms decreased. 50% of women treated with SLNB and reporting lymphedema in 2008 did not report symptoms by 2012 in...

  17. Physical rehabilitation as the base component of treatment and rehabilitation women sick with gonarthrosis of the third radiological stages of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriychuk O.Y.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitations of women, patients given in relation to the programs are resulted, on gonarthrosis to the roentgenologic stage. The changes of indexes expressed of the pain feeling are analysed, morning constraint, pain index and amplitude of motions in joints for patients. 132 patients took part in research. As an index of amplitude of motions information of the active unbending was utillized in a knee-joint. Testing was conducted in three months and six months. Probed and determined a pain index at passive and active motions in a knee. The complex program of physical rehabilitation is offered. The program included a medical physical culture, massotherapy, mechanotherapy, physiotherapy, dietotherapy, psychological support and educational programs. Rehabilitation on the author program set positive changes intensity of the pain feelings, morning constraint, pain index and amplitude of motions, in a knee.

  18. Long-term radiation sequelae after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer: an observational study using the LENT-SOMA scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Late toxicity according to the late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, and analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria and cosmetic outcome (graded by physicians) were evaluated in 590 of 2943 women with early-stage breast cancer who were irradiated between 1983 and 1995 using the following fractionation schedules: group A, 1983-1987, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 60 Gy; group B, 1988-1993, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 55 Gy, group C, 1994-1995, 2.0 Gy 5x/wk to 55 Gy. Results: LENT-SOMA Grade 3-4 toxicity was observed as follows: group A (median follow-up 171 months; range 154-222 months), fibrosis 16% (7 of 45), telangiectasia 18% (8 of 45), and atrophy 4% (2 of 45); group B (median follow-up 113 months; range 78-164 months), pain 2% (8 of 345), fibrosis 10% (34 of 345), telangiectasia 10% (33 of 345), arm edema 1% (2 of 345), and atrophy 8% (27 of 345); and group C (median follow-up 75 months, range 51-96 months, n = 200), occurrence of Grade 3-4 late morbidity ≤2%. The cosmetic outcome was very good to acceptable in 78% (35 of 45) of patients in group A, 83% (286 of 345) in group B, and 94% (187 of 200) in group C. Conclusion: In our population, the long-term side effects after breast-conserving therapy were not rare, but were mainly asymptomatic. The LENT-SOMA breast module is a practical tool to assess radiation-induced long-term toxicity

  19. How do women trade-off benefits and risks in chemotherapy treatment decisions based on gene expression profiling for early-stage breast cancer? A discrete choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Deal, Ken; Bombard, Yvonne; Leighl, Natasha; MacDonald, Karen V; Trudeau, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gene expression profiling (GEP) of tumours informs baseline risk prediction, potentially affecting adjuvant chemotherapy decisions for women with early-stage breast cancer. Since only 15% will experience a recurrence, concerns have been raised about potential harms from overtreatment and high GEP costs in publicly funded healthcare systems. We aimed to estimate preferences and personal utility of GEP testing information and benefit–risk trade-offs in chemotherapy treatment decisions. Design, setting and intervention Based on literature review and findings from our qualitative research (focus groups, interviews with patients with breast cancer and medical oncologists), we developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey and administered it via an internet panel. The DCE included 12 choice tasks with 5 attributes and 3 alternatives considering orthogonality, D-efficiency and level balance. Participants The DCE survey was administered to 1004 Canadian women from the general population. Main outcome measures Preferences were analysed using conditional logit and hierarchical Bayes and evaluated for goodness of fit. We conducted simulation analyses for alternative scenarios. Results GEP test score indicating likely benefit from chemotherapy was the most important attribute. Doctor's clinical estimate of the risk of cancer returning, trust in your cancer doctor and side effects of chemotherapy (temporary and permanent) were relatively less important but showed significant differences among levels. In the scenario analyses, 78% were likely to choose chemotherapy in a high-risk scenario, 55% in a moderate-risk scenario and 33% in a low-risk scenario, with the other attributes held constant. A high GEP score was more important in influencing the choice of chemotherapy for those at intermediate clinical risk. Conclusions GEP testing information influences chemotherapy treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer and varies depending on clinical risk

  20. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate use and risk of contralateral breast cancer and recurrence in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Shi, Jiaxiao M; Habel, Laurel A; Song, Jun; Chung, Joanie W-L; Avila, Chantal C; Schottinger, Joanne E; Cheetham, T Craig; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Haque, Reina

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of bisphosphonates (BP) in reducing risk of second breast cancer and recurrence in observational studies has been minimally studied. We examined the association of oral BP use on risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and recurrence in 16,781 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer from 1996 to 2007, treated with tamoxifen, and followed through December 31, 2009 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC, n = 8857) and Southern California (KPSC, n = 7924). Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacy information were extracted from electronic medical records and cancer registries. CBC was identified from cancer registries, and recurrences from electronic health records and chart reviews. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) treating BP use and hormonal therapy as time-varying variables. After mean 6.4 years of follow-up, 494 (3.0 %) women developed CBC. BP use post-breast cancer diagnosis (>93 % alendronate) ranged from 14.5 to 24.9 % at both study sites. Overall, there was no association of BP use with reduced risk of CBC (ever use, HR = 0.96; 95 % CI 0.67-1.38 and continuous use, HR = 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88, 1.20). Similar null associations were observed for recurrence (ever use, HR = 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82, 1.17 and continuous use, HR = 1.00; 95 % CI 0.92, 1.09). Associations varied somewhat by site yet confidence intervals overlapped. BP use was not associated with reduced risk of recurrence or new primary disease among women diagnosed with early breast cancer and treated with tamoxifen. PMID:27002508

  1. Clinical outcome analysis of 98 elderly women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing modified radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhilong Jia; Baoxia Su

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical results and prognosis for early elderly patients after surgery and to explore the rational treatment. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2008, 98 early elderly breast cancer patients aged ≥ 65 years were treated with surgery, of which 52 patients received modified radical mastectomy and 46 patients received simple mastectomy. Results: Sixty-four (65.3%) patients had comorbidities including coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, etc. After a median follow up of 56 months (21 to 280 months), the 5-year cumulative survival rate of breast modified radical mastectomy group and mastectomy group were 84.0% and 82.7%, separately (P = 0.653). The 5-year recurrence rate were 3.8% and 8.1%, separately (P = 0.504). Conclusion: The simple mastectomy is suitable for the treatment of early elderly breast cancer patients for its lower complication and recurrence rate. Early old women with breast cancer may be safely treated by simple mastectomy. Our findings suggest that modified radical mastectomy does not significantly increase the overall survival.

  2. Second cancers after conservative surgery and radiation for stages I-II breast cancer: identifying a subset of women at increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the risk and patterns of second malignancy in a group of women treated with conservative surgery and radiation in a relatively contemporary manner for early-stage invasive breast cancer, and to identify a subgroup of these women at increased risk for a second cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1978 to 1994, 1,253 women with unilateral Stage I-II breast cancer underwent wide excision, axillary dissection, and radiation. The median follow-up was 8.9 years, with 446 patients followed for ≥10 years. The median age was 55 years. Sixty-eight percent had T1 tumors and 74% were axillary-node negative. Radiation was directed to the breast only in 78%. Adjuvant therapy consisted of chemotherapy in 19%, tamoxifen in 19%, and both in 8%. Factors analyzed for their association with the cumulative incidence of all second malignancies, contralateral breast cancer, and non-breast cancer malignancy were: age, menopausal status, race, family history, obesity, smoking, tumor size, location, histology, pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and the use and type of adjuvant therapy. Results: One hundred seventy-six women developed a second malignancy (87 contralateral breast cancers at a median interval of 5.8 years, and 98 non-breast cancer malignancies at a median interval of 7.2 years). Nine women had both a contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of a second malignancy were 5% and 16% for all cancers, 3% and 7% for contralateral breast cancer, 3% and 8%, for all second non-breast cancer malignancies, and 1% and 5%, respectively, for second non-breast cancer malignancies, excluding skin cancers. Patient age was a significant factor for contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. Young age was associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, while older age was associated with an increased the risk of a second non-breast cancer

  3. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD) in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT) in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patie...

  4. Efeitos do Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e sexuais na pós-menopausa Effects of Trifolium pratense on the climacteric and sexual symptoms in postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Del Giorno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do tratamento com Trifolium pratense nos sintomas climatéricos e na satisfação sexual de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado com placebo. Foram selecionadas 120 mulheres na faixa etária de 45 anos a 65 anos com sintomas climatéricos, amenorreia superior a um ano e sem tratamento nos últimos seis meses. Após a seleção, foram divididas em dois grupos: GT -receberam Trifolium pratense na dose de 40 mg, 1 capsula/dia; GP -receberam placebo (controle, contendo lactose, 1 cápsula/dia. A duração do tratamento foi de 12 meses. As pacientes foram avaliadas clinica e laboratorialmente antes do tratamento e com quatro, oito e 12 meses de tratamento. Foi empregado também o Índice Menopausal de Kupperman (IMK e o Inventário de Satisfação Sexual Golombok Rust. No final do estudo, cada grupo tinha 50 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais após quatro meses de tratamento pelo IMK, principalmente em relação aos fogachos, comparando os dados antes do tratamento nos dois grupos, porém, não houve diferença significante entre os grupos. Não houve melhora na sexualidade antes e após o tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento por 12 meses com Trifolium pratense, na dose de 40mg/dia, não promoveu melhora significante dos sintomas menopausais e na satisfação sexual.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of treatment with Trifolium pratense on climacteric symptoms and sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study was prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. We selected 120 women, aged between 45 and 65 years with climacteric symptoms, with absence of menstruation (amenorrhea for more then one year and without any treatment in the last six months. After selection, women were divided into two groups: GT received 40 mg of Trifolium pratense (one capsule per day; GP received placebo

  5. Initial clinical experience with the MammoSite breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present the results of the initial clinical testing of the MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy patients were enrolled in a multicenter prospective trial testing the applicator for safety and performance. Fifty-four patients were implanted, and 43 patients were ultimately eligible for and received brachytherapy as the sole radiation modality after lumpectomy. Patients were staged T1N0M0 with negative pathologic margins and age >45 years. A dose of 34 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions over 5 days prescribed to 1 cm from the applicator surface using 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy. A minimum skin-to-balloon surface distance of 5 mm was required for treatment. Device performance, complications, and cosmesis were assessed. Results: Computed tomography imaging post-balloon inflation showed 8, 14, and 21 patients with 5-6 mm, 7-9 mm, and >10 mm of skin spacing, respectively. Two patients were explanted because of inadequate skin spacing and 7 because of suboptimal conformance of the surgical cavity to the applicator balloon. One patient was explanted because of positive nodal status and another because of age. The most common side effects related to device placement included mild erythema, drainage, pain, and echymosis. No severe side effects related to implantation, brachytherapy, or explantation occurred. Side effects related to radiation therapy were generally mild with erythema, pain, and dry desquamation being the most common. At 1 month, 88% of patients were evaluated as having good-to-excellent cosmetic results. Conclusions: The MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy applicator performed well clinically. All eligible patients completed treatment. Side effects were mild to moderate and self-limiting. Skin-balloon surface distance and balloon-cavity conformance were the main factors limiting the initial use of the device

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay may inform adjuvant systematic treatment decisions in women with early stage breast cancer. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the RS-assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axilliary lymph-node negative breast cancer (ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC) from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. We developed a Markov model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We evaluated adjuvant therapy separately in post- and pre-menopausal women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. We assumed that the RS-assay would reclassify pre- and post-menopausal women among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and guide adjuvant systematic treatment decisions. The model was parameterized using 7 year follow up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba administrative databases, and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2010 CAD. Future costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. The RS-assay compared to CCP generated cost-savings in pre-menopausal women and had an ICER of $60,000 per QALY gained in post-menopausal women. The cost effectiveness was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified as intermediate risk by the RS-assay who receive adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of relapse in the RS-assay model. The RS-assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system and should be considered for adoption in women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. However, ongoing assessment and validation of the assay in real-world clinical practice is warranted

  7. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and hypercoagulability. Results from the Prospective Collaborative Danish Climacteric Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars F.;

    2003-01-01

    norethindrone acetate, (E). E(2) combined with local delivery of levonorgestrel and (F). E(2)V plus medroxyprogesterone. HRT-induced changes in the concentration of inhibitors of coagulation and markers of fibrin turnover during 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Significant decreases of antithrombin and protein......-normalised ratio were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of HRT in six groups of healthy postmenopausal women: (A). no HRT (reference group), (B). continuous oestradiol valerate (E(2)V) plus cyproterone acetate, (C). cyclic E(2)V plus cyproterone acetate, (D). continuous combined oestrogen (E(2)) plus...

  9. The differential diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Arkad'evna Tyuvina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine reorganization in a menopausal woman is frequently accompanied by the development of the climacteric syndrome with concomitant mental disorders. Furthermore, various mental disorders, depressions in particular, can manifest themselves in this period. The paper presents the results of examining 150 women aged 41 to 65 years who had depressive disorders in menopause. Based on the findings, the author considers depressions of varying genesis occurring in women in the pre- and postmenopausal periods, their association with menopausal symptoms and social factors. She outlines the differential diagnosis of depressions and the basic principles of their therapy, including indications for and contraindications to hormone replacement therapy and the use of psychotropic drugs.

  10. Conhecimento, percepções e assistência à saúde da mulher no climatério Conocimiento, percepciones y asistencia a la salud de la mujer en lo climaterio Knowledge, perceptions and assistance to woman's health in the climacteric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira Berni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As vivências do climatério foram o objeto deste estudo, em pesquisa descritivo-qualitativa com mulheres das cidades de Canoas e Porto Alegre, RS. A coleta de informações utilizou entrevista semi-estruturada em 15 mulheres entre 41 e 59 anos de idade. A interpretação e análise basearam-se na análise de conteúdo. As mulheres expressam confusão sobre o significado do climatério, relacionando-o aos sintomas que associam ao envelhecimento. Reconhecem tratar-se de uma fase da vida com aspectos também positivos e a vivem sem maiores preocupações.As percepções das mulheres sobre o climatério são fragmentadas e a assistência médica o trata como doença passível de tratamento. Portanto, o profissional enfermeiro, pela presença interativa constante na vida dessas mulheres, pode ajudar a desmistificar e ressignificar esse processo na vida da mulher.Las vivencias del climaterio fueron el objeto de este estudio, en investigación descriptiva-cualitativa con mujeres de las ciudades de Canoas y Porto Alegre, RS. La recolección de informaciones utilizó entrevista semiestructurada con 15 mujeres entre 41 y 59 años de edad. La interpretación y el análisis se basaran en el análisis de contenido. Las mujeres expresan confusión acerca del significado de climaterio, relacionándolo con los síntomas que asociados al envejecimiento. Reconocen tratarse de una fase de la vida con aspectos también positivos y la viven sin mayores preocupaciones. Las percepciones de las mujeres acerca del climaterio son fragmentadas y la asistencia médica lo trata como enfermedad factible de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, el profesional enfermero, por su presencia interactiva constante en la vida de esas mujeres, puede ayudar a desmistificar y a re-significar ese proceso en la vida de la mujer.The experience of the climacteric period is the object of the present descriptive-qualitative study with women from the cities of Canoas and Porto Alegre, RS. The

  11. Reflections on sexuality during the climacteric Reflexiones sobre la sexualidad durante la vivencia del climaterio Reflexões sobre a sexualidade durante a vivência do climatério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselane Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and phenomenological study based on reports of women between 48 and 55 years old with spontaneous menopause for 12 months or more. Results evidenced five theme categories that were analyzed and interpreted based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's theoretical-philosophical reference framework. Among the categories that emerged from reports, the theme "reflecting on sexuality" was emphasized, and is presented with a view to understanding the existential aspects of the climacteric experience, focusing on the exercise of sexuality.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de abordaje fenomenológico, realizado a partir del relato de mujeres con edad entre 48 y 55 años que habían presentado menopausia espontánea hace 12 meses o más. Los resultados mostraron cinco categorías temáticas que fueron analizadas e interpretadas con base en el marco teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Entre las categorías que surgieron de los relatos sobresalió el tema" Reflexionando sobre la sexualidad" que será presentado con el objetivo de comprender los aspectos existenciales de la vivencia del climaterio con énfasis en la sexualidad.Estudo qualitativo de abordagem fenomenológica, realizado a partir do depoimento de mulheres entre 48 e 55 anos que haviam apresentado menopausa espontânea há 12 meses ou mais. Os resultados evidenciaram cinco categorias temáticas que foram analisadas e interpretadas à luz do referencial teórico filosófico de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Dentre as categorias que emergiram dos depoimentos destacou-se o tema: "refletindo sobre a sexualidade", que será apresentado com o objetivo de compreender os aspectos existenciais da vivência do climatério com ênfase no exercício da sexualidade.

  12. Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smo...

  13. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  14. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX, mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1 has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1 shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms.

  15. Personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome%男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭汉珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome and summarize the coping styles.Method 32 patients with male climacteric syndrome involved in the investigation of personality characteristics and coping styles by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).As a control,another 32 healthy subjects were enrolled for the controlled investigation.Results In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on extraversion(E)was significantly lower than that of the control group,the scores on neuroticism(N)and lie(L)were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.01).In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on active coping style was significantly lower than those of the control group and the scores on negative coping style score were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.01).Conclusions The patients with male climacteric syndrome is characterized with incomplete catharsis and emotional lability.They tend to suppress their negative emotions and take passive coping styles.%  目的探讨男性更年期综合征患者个性特征及应对方式。方法采用艾森克人格问卷(eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)和简易应对方式量表对32例男性更年期综合征患者进行性格特征和应对方式调查,并选择32例健康人进行对比。了解男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式状况。结果更年期综合征组中内外向(E)维度得分明显低于对照组,情绪稳定性(N)维度及掩饰性(L)维度得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01);更年期综合征组患者积极应对方式得分明显低于对照组,消极应对方式得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01)。结论男性更年期综合征患者具有不完善的宣泄和情绪不稳定性,过分压抑自己的负性情绪特点,而且倾向于采取消极的应对方式。

  16. TOWARDS COLLABORATION BETWEEN PUBLIC WELFARE AGENCIES AND MASS ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA TO BRING ABOUT A TURNING POINT STAGE IN THE LIVES OF BATTERED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourit Segev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the promoting and impeding factors that advance the turning point in thelives of battered women. The subject is important because of the contribution of the turning pointstage to the ability of women to leave the violent relationship and the way in which the publicwelfare agencies become involved in order to help the victim to advance towards the turning point.The article also reviews the influence of the entertainment media in shaping the positions of thepublic regarding marital violence, the presentation of battered women in the media, and theconnection between their media presentation and their advancement towards the turning point inreality.The research is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, and focuses on contentanalysis. The qualitative content analysis included 40 journal articles, 1 documentary film and onedrama series, the personal interviews included 8 social workers and 6 journalists, and the focusgroup included 8 battered women. The findings indicate an awareness of battered women in thevarious media, and of a gap between the perception of social workers and the journalists regardingthe role of the media in raising social problems.The article calls for cooperation between the media and the professionals in order to construct messages of empowerment that will enable women to advance towards the turning point in theirlives.

  17. A Comparison of Psychological Functioning in Women at Different Stages of In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Using the Mean Affect Adjective Check List

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, P.; C. Martin; Thong, J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives were to identify the stage/s of IVF treatment where a woman is most vulnerable to psychological stress, and to assess the Mean Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL) as a measure of psychological functioning during IVF treatment, which has hitherto not been reported.

  18. Proteomic analysis of nipple aspirate fluid from women with early-stage breast cancer using isotope-coded affinity tags and tandem mass spectrometry reveals differential expression of vitamin D binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) allows for qualitative and quantitative analysis of paired protein samples. We sought to determine whether ICAT technology could quantify and identify differential expression of tumor-specific proteins in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) from the tumor-bearing and contralateral disease-free breasts of patients with unilateral early-stage breast cancer. Paired NAF samples from 18 women with stage I or II unilateral invasive breast carcinoma and 4 healthy volunteers were analyzed using ICAT labeling, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography, and MS. Proteins were identified by sequence database analysis. Western blot analysis of NAF from an independent sample set from 12 women (8 with early-stage breast cancer and 4 healthy volunteers) was also performed. 353 peptides were identified from tandem mass spectra and matched to peptide sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Equal numbers of peptides were up- versus down-regulated. Alpha2HS-glycoprotein [Heavy:Light (H:L) ratio 0.63] was underexpressed in NAF from tumor-bearing breasts, while lipophilin B (H:L ratio 1.42), beta-globin (H:L ratio 1.98), hemopexin (H:L ratio 1.73), and vitamin D-binding protein precursor (H:L ratio 1.82) were overexpressed. Western blot analysis of pooled samples of NAF from healthy volunteers versus NAF from women with breast cancer confirmed the overexpression of vitamin D-binding protein in tumor-bearing breasts. ICAT tandem MS was able to identify and quantify differences in specific protein expression between NAF samples from tumor-bearing and disease-free breasts. Proteomic screening techniques using ICAT and NAF may be used to find markers for diagnosis of breast cancer

  19. Clinical factors are not the best predictors of quality of sexual life and sexual functioning in women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. den Oudsten; G.L. van Heck; A.F.W. van der Steeg; J.A. Roukema; J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively assessed the impact of breast cancer (BC) on women's sexual lives. Therefore, this study examines the determinants of quality of sexual life (QOSL), sexual functioning (SF), and sexual enjoyment (SE) at 6 and 12 months after surgical treatment. Methods: All

  20. Las ciencias sociales como discurso de la salud reproductiva. El ejemplo del climaterio femenino The social sciences as discourse in reproductive health. The example of female climacteric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lolas Stepke

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como ejemplo la construcción del climaterio femenino por parte de la medicina, de la opinión profana y de las ciencias sociales, se examinan los modelos de interrelación entre estos discursos y se propone la tesis de que la aportación de las ciencias sociales consiste en una reformulación de la base cognitiva de las profesiones de la salud en un nivel de integración.Climacteric is constructed by medicine, lay knowledge, and the social sciences. This article examines the interrational models involving these different discourses and proposes that the contribution of the social sciences lies in a reformulation of the cognitive base of the health professions at an integrative level.

  1. Clinical outcomes of prospectively treated 140 women with early stage breast cancer using accelerated partial breast irradiation with 3 dimensional computerized tomography based brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the clinical outcomes of women with early breast cancer (EBC) treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) using 3 dimensional computerized tomography (3DCT) based planning. Materials and methods: During August 2005 to January 2013, 140 women with EBC were treated prospectively with APBI using high dose rate (HDR) MIB. After 3DCT based planning patients were treated to a dose of 34 Gy/10 #/1 week with bid regimen. Results: Median age was 57 years and tumor size 2 cm (range: 0.6–3.2 cm). Infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC) was the most common histology; grade III tumors were seen in 82%. Median dose homogeneity index (DHI) was 0.76 (range: 0.49–0.85). The median coverage index (CI) of the cavity was 90% (61.4–100) and 80.5% (53.6–97.4) for planning target volume (PTV). Median follow up was 60 months (1–102 months). The 5 and 7 year local control rates (LC) were 97% and 92% respectively. Her2 positivity was the only prognostic factor which had an adverse impact on LC (p = 0.01). Five and 7 year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OAS) were 93%, 84%, 97.5% and 89% respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes at last follow up were seen in 87 (77%) women. Conclusions: 3DCT based MIB results in excellent long term outcomes and good to excellent cosmesis. Her2 positivity has an adverse impact on LC rates

  2. Contribution of three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy for women affected by bulky stage II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni, Delphine; Natarajan-Ame, Shanti; Meyer, Philippe; Niederst, Claudine; Bourahla, Khalil; Noel, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the outcome and dose distribution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by helical tomotherapy in women treated for large supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin’s disease. Material and methods A total of 13 patients received adjuvant radiation at a dose of 30 Gy to the initially involved sites with a boost of 6 Gy to those areas suspected of harboring residual disease on the simulation CT scan. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months, the two-year progression-free surviv...

  3. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple...... linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27 % lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59 % lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...

  4. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Patrik (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Div. of Oncology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)); Fohlin, Helena (Oncologic Centre, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  5. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  6. Estadiamento inicial dos casos de câncer de mama e colo do útero em mulheres brasileiras Initial staging of breast and cervical cancer in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler

    2005-11-01

    nas regiões onde estes hospitais estão localizados houve melhora na detecção precoce destes tipos de câncer.PURPOSE: to analyze time trends in the clinical staging at the moment of diagnosis in patients with breast and cervix cancer based on data produced by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. METHODS: in the first part of this study we identified the published documents describing clinical staging of patients at the moment of diagnosis. Considering their scarcity and poor representativity we conducted the second part of this study through an active search for information. A form was sent via regular mail to all cancer centers in the country (n=173 requesting information about the tumor site and stage at diagnosis by year, in the period of 1995-2002. The statistical analysis was performed using the "R" statistical package. The results are reported as percentage and boxplots. RESULTS: in the first part of the study (1990-1994 we described data from 18 hospitals concerning 7,458 patients with breast cancer and 7,216 patients with cervix cancer. The median of the percentage of cancers diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III or IV was 52.6 and 56.8%, respectively. In the second part of the study (1995-2002 data were collected from 89 cancer hospitals and 7 chemotherapy or radiotherapy clinics. There was a total of 43,442 cases of breast cancer and 29,263 of cervix cancer. The response rate based on the potential contact list was 55%. The median percentage of patients in advanced stage was 45.3% for breast cancer and 42.5% for cervix cancer. CONCLUSIONS: few studies have examined the time trends in staging of cancer at diagnosis in Brazilian hospitals. Data obtained from Hospital Cancer Registries showed that in the last decade there was a reduction in the percentage of cervix and breast cancer at the advanced stage. This reduction can be due to an improvement in early detection of these cancers.

  7. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Linda C., E-mail: Linda.watson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Interdisciplinary Practice, Community Oncology, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gies, Donna [Department of Radiation Oncology Nursing, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thompson, Emmanuel [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary Faculty of Science, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomas, Bejoy [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services-Cancer Care, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Psychosocial Oncology, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from

  8. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy’s questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using

  9. Long-term results of breast-conserving treatment for early-stage breast cancer in Japanese women from multicenter investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many clinical data regarding breast-conserving treatment have already been reported from European and North American countries, few clinical data with long-term follow-up have been reported from Japan. We collected information on therapeutic and possible or developed prognostic factors and follow-up data for Japanese women who had received breast-conserving treatment consisting of wide excision of the primary tumor, axillary dissection and radiotherapy for unilateral breast cancer considered suitable for breast-conserving treatment from 18 Japanese major breast cancer treating hospitals; 1561 patients were registered. The median follow-up period was 77 months. Five-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 89.4 and 95.9%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free rate was 96.3%. The patients with histologically positive margins (P<0.0001) or estrogen receptor negative tumor (P=0.0340) or younger than 40 years old (P<0.0001) developed statistically significantly more local recurrences. Adjuvant endocrine therapy was essential for the estrogen receptor positive patients to have a lower local recurrence rate. Endocrine therapy did not change the local recurrence rate among estrogen receptor negative patients at all. Multivariate analysis showed histological margin status and the combination of estrogen receptor status and endocrine therapy were independent prognostic factors for local recurrence. The 5-year local recurrence rate of Japanese breast cancer patients who were treated with breast-conserving treatment using radiotherapy was 3.7%. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence were histological margin status and the combination of estrogen receptor status and adjuvant endocrine therapy. (author)

  10. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  11. HIV em mulheres de meia-idade: fatores associados HIV in middle-aged women: associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Valadares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV tem aumentado significativamente entre mulheres de meia-idade. Nesta revisão foi feito um levantamento de estudos recentes que buscam identificar possíveis fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo HIV em mulheres climatéricas. São abordados diversos fatores associados, como: sintomas climatéricos, mudança de comportamento do parceiro sexual frente a novos medicamentos, negociação sobre o uso de preservativos em relações sexuais, comportamento de risco para HIV, autoestima global e autoestima sexual, história pregressa de abuso sexual, uso de drogas, estereótipo da vida sexual na maturidade, uso de terapia antirretroviral e abordagem da função sexual.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has increased considerably among middle-aged women. In this work we reviewed recent studies aimed at identifying possible factors related to HIV infection in climacteric women. Several associated factors are considered, such as: climacteric symptoms, partner's change in sexual behavior in face of new drugs, negotiation for use of condoms in sexual intercourse, risk behavior for HIV, global self-esteem and sexual self-esteem, history of sexual abuse, use of drugs, stereotypes of sex life in maturity, use of antiretroviral therapy and approach to sexual function.

  12. Evaluation of bone alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vieira Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a reduction in mortality, thus contributing to an increase in the number of women with HIVࢧAIDS who reach the climacteric period, experience decline in ovarian function, and develop complications of viral infection and HAART, which can accelerate bone loss. The aim of this study was to detect possible alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected women by panoramic radiography. The study comprised a total of 120 women above 40 years of age who were divided into the following two groups: women who are HIV positive (Group I and women with no known HIV infection (Group II. Measurement of the following three radiomorphometric indexes was performed by panoramic radiography: Mental Index (MI, Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI and Antegonial Depth (AD. A total of 70% of women in the control group and 50% of women in the HIV group were in the postmenopausal period, and the average values of both MI (p = 0.0054 and AD (p < 0.0001 for this period were lower in the HIV group than in the control group. For patients who were in the premenopausal period, the average AD was lower in the HIV group than in the control group (p = 0.0003. Despite the difference in the average age between groups, greater bone resorption in the mandible was found in the group of HIV-positive women.

  13. Effect of exercise on the auditory discrimination task in perimenopausal women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, R-J; Wu, H-Y; Chen, H-J; Yan, Y-J

    2016-06-01

    Background The climacteric phase of menopausal transition (perimenopause) is marked by reproductive hormone fluctuations and reduced cognitive capacity. Exercise enhances neurocognitive performance. However, auditory perceptual sensitivity has not been examined. Purpose This study aimed to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on the response speed (reaction time) and error rate during auditory processing among perimenopausal women. Methods Three pitches (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) were used during a simple auditory discrimination task, which was performed before and after exercise. We included 14 perimenopausal women and 17 right-handed young women (aged 46-54 years and 18-22 years, respectively). To achieve similar exercise intensity in both groups, we proposed two types of physical activities for each group. Mixed models statistics were used to analyze the reaction time and error rate before and after training in the two groups. Results Perimenopausal women exhibited a significantly longer reaction time than young women during the baseline auditory discrimination task (p performance differs between the two groups. Aerobic exercise improves auditory discrimination performance specifically for perimenopausal women. These results provide preliminary evidence concerning the acoustic features of middle-aged women, underscoring the importance of exercise for preventing decline in auditory cognitive function in perimenopausal women. PMID:26940827

  14. Women and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, Jane; Shepherd, Susan

    2010-12-01

    It is now clear that women doctors will soon make up the majority of the medical workforce. Research shows that women often prefer part time and flexible working, and are inclined to favour some specialist fields over others. Although these facts are widely known, as yet it appears that little account has been taken of their economic and organisational consequences. All doctors require sound careers advice, but women doctors reported that this is often poor or inconsistent. Women's preference for flexible working at certain stages of their careers could be a major advantage in health service planning; models need to be developed that recognise women's willingness to work in new ways. Although women are under-represented in positions of national leadership, there is no evidence to suggest that they are disadvantaged in their endeavours, or unwilling to deliver the commitment necessary. However, they may need timely advice and encouragement to reach their full potential. PMID:21413474

  15. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  16. Determinants of Menopausal Symptoms among Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Setorglo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The onset of menopause is unique to every woman with varying symptoms which have implications on health and well-being. This study evaluated the perception, knowledge and beliefs about menopause and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 280 menopausal women aged 45 years and older in the Accra Metropolis of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and experience of menopausal symptoms were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric data on weight, height, % body fat and MUAC were also taken. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented as means and frequencies. Predictors of menopausal symptoms were determined by logistic regression. The mean age of onset of menopause was (48±2.9 years with 98.2% having some knowledge of the signs and symptoms of menopause. The most frequently reported menopausal symptoms by the women were: night sweats (83.2%, hot flashes (76.4%, mood swings (72.5% and vaginal dryness (71.4%. The significant predictors for the occurrence of the most common symptoms reported were: age at onset of menstruation, age of start of menopause, body weight and % body fat. There was a decreased risk of experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness as age at menopause increased. Menopausal transition was determined by both vasomotor and urogenital symptoms. Counseling and support are needed to enable women manage the symptoms better. Most women have heard of and know what menopause is.

  17. A mulher coronariopata no climatério após a menopausa: implicações na qualidade de vida The post menopausal climacteric woman with coronary artery disease: implications to quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.C. DE S. FAVARATO

    2001-12-01

    coronary artery disease (CAD proved by angiography undergoing treatment at The Heart Institute (InCor - University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil (CAD group. This group was compared with 50 women (55.1±5.4 years old without clinical evidence of coronary artery disease (control group from a primary health care center, Centro de Saúde Escola Geraldo de Paula Souza, São Paulo - FSP- USP. The quality of life was assessed by a structured interview and by Medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36 validated to the Brazilian population. RESULTS: They were homogenous regarding age of the last menstruation period: 49±3.9 years old in CAD and 49.2±3 years old in controls. The groups were also similar in education level, marital status (64% of CAD and 45% of controls were married; and 18% of CAD and 24% of controls were widowhood. The active working satatus was more frequent in controls than in CAD (52% vs. 14%; p= 0.0001. Both groups showed similar perceptions in their sexual experience. The evaluation of quality of life by SF-36 showed better scores for the control group in: physical functioning (84 vs. 50.5, role physical (84 vs. 45,5 , general health (87.2 vs. 59.1, vitality (69.7 vs. 51,4, p<0.0001; and total score of mental components (70.4 vs. 58.6, p = 0.028. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease alters the quality of life of climacteric women by limiting the physical capacity to perform ordinary daily activities and by intensifying emotional conflicts usually present in this phase of life.

  18. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim;

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  19. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

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    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  20. Freqüência da atividade sexual em mulheres menopausadas Factors related to frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados à freqüência da atividade sexual entre mulheres pós-menopáusicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 206 mulheres pós-menopáusicas entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário da região Sul do Brasil entre junho e outubro de 2002. A atividade sexual foi avaliada pelo número de relações sexuais no último mês e a sintomatologia climatérica pelo Índice de Kupperman. Na análise estatística, fez-se regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Das mulheres pesquisadas, 176 (85% eram sexualmente ativas. Cerca de 60,6% relataram diminuição da atividade sexual após a menopausa, o que atribuíram principalmente à impotência sexual do parceiro (41,7%. Aproximadamente 25,7% negaram satisfação com o intercurso sexual. Na análise por regressão linear múltipla, associaram-se à atividade sexual a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women METHODS: A cross-section study of 206 postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age was made at a university health care service in the South of Brazil between June and October 2002. Evaluations were made of sexual activity according to the number of sexual intercourses in the previous month and the climacteric symptoms using the Kupperman index. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 176 (85% women were sexually active. Although 60.6% reported a decrease in sexual activity after menopause, mostly attributing it to the husband's sexual impotence (41.7%. Approximately 25.7% stated they had no satisfaction with sexual intercourse. By means of multiple linear regression analysis the following aspects were associated to sexual activity: age (p<0.1, degree of sexual satisfaction (p=0.01, and climacteric symptomatology (p=0.02. As age increased the climacteric symptoms were more intense and sexual activity was less

  1. O olhar dos responsáveis pela política de saúde da mulher climatérica La mirada de los responsables por la política de la salud de la mujer climatérica The look of the responsible ones for the politics of health of woman climacterics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Regional Co-ordination's Health of Rio Grande do Sul, in the perspective of the Responsible ones for the politics of woman's health. The search of climacterics was characterized for being in function of the symptoms and typical complaints of this phase and, doubts how much to a possible gestation. It has necessary looking for practices the constitutional law of the completeness, preserving the rights already conquered by the women and to extend the attendants services, so that they can correspond in such a way quantitative as qualitatively to the demands, to the necessities of promotion, prevention and recovery of the health of the users of the brazilian system of health.

  2. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care. PMID:26653073

  3. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M

    1997-01-01

    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately. PMID:21590195

  4. The effect of TCM acupuncture on hot flushes among menopausal women (ACUFLASH study: A study protocol of an ongoing multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borud Einar K

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After menopause, 10–20% of all women have nearly intolerable hot flushes. Long term use of hormone replacement therapy involves a health risk, and many women seek alternative strategies to relieve climacteric complaints. Acupuncture is one of the most frequently used complementary therapies in Norway. We designed a study to evaluate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care together with self-care is more effective than self-care alone to relieve climacteric complaints. Methods/Design The study is a multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Participants are postmenopausal women who document ≥7 flushes/24 hours and who are not using hormone replacement therapy or other medication that may influence flushes. According to power calculations 200 women are needed to detect a 50% reduction in flushes, and altogether 286 women will be recruited to allow for a 30% dropout rate. The treatment group receives 10 sessions of Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care and self-care; the control group will engage in self-care only. A team of experienced Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncturists give acupuncture treatments. Discussion The study tests acupuncture as a complete treatment package including the therapeutic relationship and expectation. The intervention period lasts for 12 weeks, with follow up at 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint is change in daily hot flush frequency in the two groups from baseline to 12 weeks; secondary endpoint is health related quality of life, assessed by the Women's Health Questionnaire. We also collect data on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnoses, and we examine treatment experiences using a qualitative approach. Finally we measure biological variables, to examine potential mechanisms for the effect of acupuncture. The study is funded by The Research Council of Norway.

  5. Intimate partner violence towards women

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Laura; Casteel, Carri

    2010-01-01

    Between 10% and 70% of women may have been physically or sexually assaulted by a partner at some stage, with reported assault rates against men about one quarter of the rate against women. In at least half of people studied, the problem lasts for 5 years or more. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with socioeconomic and personality factors, marital discord, exposure to violence in family of origin, and partner's drug or alcohol abuse.Women reporting IPV are more likely tha...

  6. WOMEN'S NEEDS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACE, LOIS W.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE HOW WOMEN'S FELT NEEDS FOR EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES RELATE TO EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE THE HOME, STAGE IN THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE, AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION. WOMEN RANDOMLY SELECTED IN LIVINGSTON COUNTY, MISSOURI, WERE SENT A QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERCEIVED EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, PREFERRED MEANS OF RECEIVING INFORMATION, AND PERSONAL…

  7. Biological and Social Factors Related to Women's Health during Climateric Factores biológicos y sociales relacionados con la salud de la mujer durante el climaterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia María Rivas Alpízar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the life of women, being extended to 30 years after menopause, undergoes an environmental impact that overlaps the clinical expression of the cessation of reproductive function. This increases the need to provide, at this stage, a comprehensive care. Objective: To identify some biological and social factors related to women's health during climateric. Methods: Descriptive and cross sectional study conducted in 307 women from 40 to 59 years old in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos, from January to December 2006. Through household interviews, a form that allowed collecting general, clinical and medical support information was filled. Results: 56.3% of women experienced mild climacteric syndrome, circulatory (77.2% and psychological (60% symptoms being the most referred ones. The average age of menopause onset was between 47 and 51 years old. It appeared earlier in smokers. The age of menarche, the number of pregnancies and births and menstrual patterns were not related to the age of menopause onset. 44% of women were hypertensive, 41.4% were pre-obese and 100% were sedentary. 81.8% of them did not seek for medical support. Hormonal therapy was prescribed for 32.1% of patients. Conclusions: Despite the risk factors and the chronic diseases that were detected, women interviewed did not seek for medical support, even when they presented discomfort to some extent. This was caused by the lack of information on this stage of life and the inexistence of specialized multidisciplinary consultations in Primary Health Care.

    Fundamento: la vida de la mujer, que se ha  extendido 30 años después de la menopausia, recibe un impacto del medio sobre la expresión clínica del cese de la función reproductiva, lo cual incrementa la necesidad de brindarles en esta etapa una atención integral. Objetivo: identificar

  8. Clinical observation of Tiancan Zhuangyang Powder in treating the male climacteric syndrome%天蚕壮阳散治疗男性更年期综合征临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轩; 何清湖; 刘朝圣; 卢杰宁; 萧汉达; 陈粉莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Tiancan Zhuangyang Powder(TCZYP)on the male climacteric syndrome (kidney yang deficiency type).Methods 106 patients with the kidney yang deficiency type of male climacteric syndrome were randomly divided into 2 groups.Treatment group of 53 cases were given TCZYP and control group of 53 cases was given testosterone undecanoate (TU)(Andriol).Before and after treatment of 8 weeks,the 2 groups' PADAM score and serum testosterone (T) were tested and analysised.Results Changes of each symptom PADAM score of treatment group were better than those of control group (P<0.05).After threatment the serum testosterone of 2 groups were significantly elevated,but there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P>0.05).Conclusion TCZYP is effective in the treating kidney yang deficiency type of male climacteric syndrome.%目的 观察天蚕壮阳散治疗肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征(PADAM)的临床疗效.方法 符合肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征病人106例随机分为2组,治疗组53例,以天蚕壮阳散口服;对照组53例,口服十一酸睾酮胶囊(安特尔).治疗8周后对两组治疗前后PADAM评分及血睾酮(T)变化情况进行统计分析.结果 治疗组PADAM各症状评分变化优于对照组(p<0.05);治疗后2组T值均明显升高(P<0.01),但两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 天蚕壮阳散能有效治疗肾阳虚型男性更年期综合征.

  9. Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction – Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Nowakowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women’s life satisfaction. Material and Methods: The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40–57 years. The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. Results: The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p = 0.04912, gynecological care (p = 0.00325, hormone replacement therapy (HRT (p = 0.01523 and assessment of life satisfaction (p = 0.0325. Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman’s place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. Med Pr 2015;66(3:351–358

  10. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  11. Mild hyperthyroidism with inappropriate secretion of TSH in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custro, N; Scafidi, V

    1986-02-01

    In a previous study on the function of the hypothalamus - pituitary - thyroid axis, about 10% of postmenopausal women with the climacteric syndrome were found to have borderline high values of T3 and T4 and signs of pituitary decreased sensitivity to the suppressive effect of increased thyroid hormones. The present report concerns 5 women in the first phase of their menopause who showed a mild hyperthyroidism under basal conditions and after suppression test with liothyronine. Each patient had borderline increased levels of serum total and free T4 and T3 and a marked TSH responsiveness to exogenous TRH. After liothyronine, the serum levels of T4, FT4, TSH and the responsiveness to TRH-test clearly decreased. These data suggest an inappropriate TSH secretion with a decreased pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormones. These cases could represent a modification of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis associated with that of the gonadal axis, secondary to the absence of rapid adaptation of neurotransmitters. PMID:3082097

  12. Avanços na elucidação dos mecanismos de ação de Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. nos sintomas do climatério Advances on the elucidation of mechanisms of action of Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. in climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar os avanços ocorridos para a compreensão da atuação terapêutica de Cimicifuga racemosa, um fitoterápico utilizado no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres nas quais a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é contra-indicada. A revisão bibliográfica possibilitou concluir que existem quatro principais hipóteses para esclarecer a base mecanística de ação: indução de apoptose por meio da ativação de caspases, inibição do ciclo celular em G1 por alteração de proteínas reguladoras, efeito central em receptor 5HT e ação estrogênica evidenciada pela inibição seletiva dos receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina. Porém, é incipiente a produção científica abordando as bases moleculares que sustentem os referidos mecanismos de ação. Ainda há necessidade de elucidação quanto à possível existência de pelo menos mais um receptor estrogênico que possa ser o alvo de ligação para as substâncias ativas de C. racemosa, bem como avançar no conhecimento da atividade reguladora seletiva de receptores estrogênicos já evidenciada em estudos de farmacologia experimental.The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to

  13. Women's Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historic overview of the conditions and obstacles encountered by women in pursuing careers in astronomy. Highlights the accomplishments and contributions made by successful women in the field. Reviews the current status and climate associated with women in astronomy and the sciences in general. (ML)

  14. Women with Alzheimer's May Keep Verbal Skills Longer Than Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157801.html Women With Alzheimer's May Keep Verbal Skills Longer Than Men Gender ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, women tend to remember words better than ...

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for climacteric symptoms in breast cancer patients experiencing treatment-induced menopause: design of a multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature menopause is a major concern of younger women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer. Non-hormonal medications show a range of bothersome side-effects. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and physical exercise can have a positive impact on symptoms in naturally occurring menopause. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of these interventions among women with breast cancer experiencing treatment-induced menopause. Methods/design In a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of CBT/relaxation, of physical exercise and of these two program elements combined, in reducing menopausal symptoms, improving sexual functioning, reducing emotional distress, and in improving the health-related quality of life of younger breast cancer patients who experience treatment-induced menopause. 325 breast cancer patients (aged Discussion Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise are potentially useful treatments among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment-induced, premature menopause. For these patients, hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are contraindicated or have a range of bothersome side-effects. Hence, research into these interventions is needed, before dissemination and implementation in the current health care system can take place. Trial registration The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1165 and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00582244.

  16. Estrogen therapy: from women's choice to women's preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, M

    2002-06-01

    The climacteric is not an illness, but the menopause is an event that troubles a woman's present life and puts her future life at risk. One would like to think that, for the woman of the new millennium, the menopause has simply become what it is: a feminine milestone that marks the transition and path to another period of life. She appears younger than her mother was at her age, she has given birth when she decided to, she has had the number of children she wanted, and her social and professional roles are well defined. Nevertheless, none of this makes much difference--the 'change of life' is still something difficult to live through, a bend to negotiate, each woman going at her own pace, using her own means, with the cards that life has already dealt her. Where do we gynecologists come in, what part have we to play in our patients' lives? Sometimes, we need to be less discreet and ask some of those questions women may have trouble voicing aloud. Let us try to help them to talk about their mood changes, the changes in their body, and their anxiety about osteoporosis and aging. Shame or fear of ridicule are still often among the ideas on the menopause and, by preventing honest answers from being given, often modify the scientific statistics on menopausal women--especially as women are often at a loss to know which of the different opinions to believe. The media air their news, the medical community offers its dissent, while friends recount frightening stories. Between the danger of offending Mother Nature and the risk of missing out on the progress of science, what is the right modus operandi that helps to add quality to the quantity of life still there to be enjoyed after the menopause? The doctor-patient relationship is of the utmost importance here, since an atmosphere of confidence and trust is the basis of mutual comprehension. By understanding the patient's needs, her desires, and her ways of coping with the situation, the physician will enable her to accept

  17. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control ...

  18. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  19. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  20. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion of...

  1. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neoadjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lötzke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neoadjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI (n=45 or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI (n=47. Measurements were obtained before (t0 and after the intervention (t1 as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2 using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p<0.05 but not under YI (t0 to t2. Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 a direct effect (t0 to t1; p<0.001 of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p<0.001 were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase.

  2. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t0) and after the intervention (t1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t0 to t2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t0 to t1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase. PMID:27019663

  3. Women's Experience of Miscarriage: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Donna P.; Bass, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Physicians lack knowledge on how to help women who have miscarried deal with their emotional distress. We interviewed 16 women 4 and 12 weeks after a miscarriage. The women described their experience of miscarriage and perceptions of what helped or hindered their emotional recovery, particularly physicians' actions. A grief reaction that can be divided into five stages and that was modified through the support of family and friends was identified. The intensity of the grief was related to the...

  4. The Women In and Behind the Rhymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju

    2002-01-01

    Notes that an unusually large number of Chinese nursery rhymes provide realistic depictions of women's life experiences over the long history of China. Describes how they tell about women's fears and concerns as well as hopes and dreams and even sufferings. Divides those rhymes into three categories that represent three stages of a woman's life.…

  5. MR staging accuracy for endometrial cancer based on the new FIGO stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been frequently used to determine a preoperative treatment plan for gynecologic cancers. However, the MR accuracy for staging an endometrial cancer is not satisfactory based on the old FIGO staging system. Purpose: To evaluate MR accuracy for staging endometrial cancer using the new FIGO staging system. Material and Methods: Between January 2005 and May 2009, 199 women underwent surgery due to endometrial cancer. In each patient, an endometrial cancer was staged using MR findings based on the old FIGO staging system and then repeated according to the new FIGO staging system for comparison. Histopathologic findings were used as a standard of reference. Results: The accuracy of MRI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma stage I, II, III, and IV using the old FIGO staging system were 80% (159/199), 89% (178/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, compared to 87% (174/199), 97% (193/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, when using the new FIGO staging criteria. The overall MR accuracy of the old and new staging systems were 51% (101/199) and 81% (161/199), respectively. Conclusion: MRI has become a more useful tool in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancers using the new FIGO staging system compared to the old one with increased accuracy

  6. A method to predict breast cancer stage using Medicare claims

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Grace L.; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In epidemiologic studies, cancer stage is an important predictor of outcomes. However, cancer stage is typically unavailable in medical insurance claims datasets, thus limiting the usefulness of such data for epidemiologic studies. Therefore, we sought to develop an algorithm to predict cancer stage based on covariates available from claims-based data. Methods We identified a cohort of 77,306 women age ≥ 66 years with stage I-IV breast cancer, using the Surveillence Epidemiology an...

  7. [Ovarian stimulation by a new therapeutic principle for the treatment of complications of the climacteric. Results of a double-blind crossover study with a defined spleen dialysate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, C P; Lübow, H; Schmitz, H

    1986-07-01

    In a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study (test period 8 weeks) the spleen dialysate Solcosplen is tested for effectiveness and tolerance in 40 women, i.e. 14 pre- resp. 26 postmenopausal women in two consecutive periods (test periods I and II). The treatment begins in the first week of each test period with 2 ampoules i.m. t.i.d. and is to be continued for the following 7 weeks with 2 dragees b.i.d. Besides the incidence of clinical symptoms there intensity is summarized in a graded form to the Kupperman index. For further objectifying the therapeutic results vaginal-cytological examinations and radioimmunological analyses of estradiol (E2), LH, FSH and DHEA-S are carried out. The courses of therapy are frequented on a balanced basis. The progress of clinical symptoms shows in respect of incidence of appearance and intensity measured in Kupperman index in Phase I as well as in the cross-over statistically clear reciprocity, which demonstrates - with homogeneous prefindings - significantly differing results of treatment in favour of the dialysate. In the intraindividual comparison of judging the effectiveness by the physician and patient yields significant preferences for the verum. Side-effects were not observed. The proven effectiveness of the spleen dialysate within this study is explained by the stimulation of the ovarian residual function during menopause. It is discussed and compared to the presently applied monotherapeutic E2-substitution. PMID:3533088

  8. Health related quality of life of women in TEACH, a randomised placebo controlled adjuvant trial of lapatinib in early stage Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Frances M; Smith, Ian E; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate health related quality of life (HRQOL) in TEACH, a phase III randomized placebo controlled trial of 12 months of adjuvant lapatinib in HER2 positive (HER2+) early breast cancer which demonstrated marginal benefit in disease-free survival. METHODS: Women on TEACH completed...... the Short Form 36-item health survey (version2; SF-36v2) at the baseline, six and 12 months after therapy initiation and six monthly thereafter. Mean changes were compared between treatment groups for two summary measures (Physical and Mental Component Summary scores; PCS and MCS) and eight domain...... measures (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health), and in patients discontinuing therapy. A five-point change was deemed a Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID). Response analysis compared the proportion of...

  9. Women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nurse midwives This list may not be all-inclusive. References Freund K. Approach to women's health. In: ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  10. Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.

  11. Smokefree Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Most Recent 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke… Read full story: 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke » share 4 Benefits of Quitting Smoking Many women ...

  12. Climateric: fatigue or third stage of the general adaptation syndrome Climaterio: fatiga o tercera etapa del síndrome de adaptación general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alvarez Gaviria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of climacteric has been subject of debate. Most opinions agree in that it arises exclusively from natural selection. In this paper the author argues that, besides this reason there is another, even more important; for him, climacteric is the final response to fatigue or the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, just as in elderly people there is a loss of the capacity of proliferation of fibroblasts and lack of response to insulin. From a genetic point of view, this corresponds to an antagonic pleiotropy: the genetic program that has made the human adrenergic and corticotropic systems hyperactive, has also caused that they do not reach senescence intact. High concentrations of stress hormones during youth and adulthood in humans, as compared to chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans, and the hormonal cascade reactions elicited by them are meaningfully related to our most conspicuous illnesses, our genotype/phenotype and, in the long term, with climacteric. Se ha conjeturado a menudo sobre las razones del climaterio y la mayoría de los autores sostiene que es un fenómeno que surge exclusivamente de la selección natural. Aquí asumimos que, aunque esa sea parte de la explicación, no es la razón primordial. Así como con la edad se da la pérdida, por ejemplo, de la capacidad proliferativa de los fibroblastos y de la sensibilidad a la insulina, el climaterio podría corresponder no más que a la fatiga o tercera etapa del Síndrome de Adaptación General. En un enfoque genético correspondería, pues, a una pleiotropía antagónica: el programa genético que ha hecho hiperactivos a los sistemas adrenérgico y corticotrópico del ser humano, evitaría también que llegara incólume al punto final de senescencia. Las altas concentraciones de hormonas de estrés en la juventud y la edad adulta que distinguen a nuestra especie, comparada con el chimpancé, el gorila y el orangután, y las reacciones hormonales en cascada que

  13. Women Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Jiangyong County,a remote place in central China's Hunan Province,has been gathering more attention due to a strange-looking language passed down exclusively by women for hundreds of years. The language,which is called nushu,or women's script,is said to originate from Chinese square-block characters,but the orthography and pronunciation are quite different from all other branches of Chinese dialects.

  14. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

  15. Staging in oesophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plukker, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate staging defines groups for stage-specific treatment, minimising inappropriate treatment. Application of dedicated staging methods - including 16-64 multidetector computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and positron emission tomography (PET)

  16. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  17. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  20. Transvaginal Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Stage III and Stage IV Uterovaginal and Vault Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiksha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    The result of transvaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation technique, as part of the vaginal repair procedure for massive uterovaginal (Pelvic Organ Prolapse stage III and stage IV and vault prolapse) is evaluated. A total of 32 women were included in the present case series. Marked uterovaginal prolapse was present in 28 women and four had vault prolapse following hysterectomy. Patients with vault prolapse and marked uterovaginal prolapse underwent sacrospinous colpopexy. The mean follow-up p...

  1. Predictors of change in mental health and distress among women attending a women's shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hoyeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is detrimental to mental health. The Domestic Violence Survivor Assessment (DVSA, which includes a mental health assessment, is often used to evaluate abuse survivors in a counseling situation. The DVSA seeks to outline the cognitive state of women as per the stages of change as they attempt to move toward a life with no IPV. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore predictors of change in mental health and distress among women who entered a women's shelter more than once. Methods: Women entering a women's shelter more than once over a 3-year period were assessed by a trained social worker using the DVSA. A logistic regression analysis examined relationships between the chosen characteristics and the participants’ mental health through the DVSA stages of change. Results: We analyzed complete data for 94 women who entered the shelter a mean of 3.3 times (range 2–8 over a mean period of 16.1 days (range: 1–391. Thirty-six women (36/94; 38.3% progressed through the stages. The average number of visits among women who progressed through the stages was 4. Our multivariable logistic regression showed women who had more visits to the shelter were almost twice as likely to progress through the stages compared to women who entered the shelter fewer times (OR=1.928; 95% CI=1.292–2.877; p=0.001. In the univariate analysis, only increased number of visits was significantly associated with progressing through the stages of change (OR=1.694; 95% CI=1.237–2.322; p=0.001. The other factors were not significantly associated with a change in mental health and distress (p>0.05. Conclusions: Women who enter women's shelters more frequently may be more likely to progress through the DVSA mental health stages compared to other women. Women's shelters may be helpful in assisting progression through the stages of change, thereby improving their mental health after abuse.

  2. Doença arterial coronária no climatério e exclusão social Coronary artery disease in climacteric and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Lima Medeiros

    2007-04-01

    disease (that is responsible for the highest number of deaths in the city of São Paulo has been neglected. This is an area of great importance and social impact especially in developing countries. Women, in particular, are living longer now, and they may face the disease and survive many years after menopause. In Brazil, research about this theme is in its early phases and the importance of CAD in women still is underestimated, even when statistical data show that it has been increasing. This descriptive research aimed to establish the relationship between the socio-economic-cultural profile and social exclusion indicators in women after menopause and with CAD in treatment at the Coronary Diseases clinic of Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. The results could help us to better understand the disease and the patients' needs and point out effective actions to guide secondary prevention programs. The dialog between different areas of knowledge, such as Medicine, History, and Social Work, enabled a broad understanding of the studied phenomena, bringing to light social exclusion and gender discrimination aspects experienced by the patients that, till that time, had not been known and valued by the multidisciplinary team.

  3. Efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract on menopausal syndrome in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ting-ping; SUN Ai-jun; XUE Wei; WANG Ya-ping; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Ying; LANG Jing-he

    2013-01-01

    Background It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms.But the durations reported were usually short.This paper compares the clinical effects of different regimens of three-month course on climacteric symptoms in Chinese women,so as to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga foetida extract.Methods This was a prospective,randomized trial.Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into 3 groups to take different kinds of medicine for 3 months; participants were given Cimicifuga foetida extract daily in group A (n=32),given estradiol valerate and progesterone capsule cycle sequentially in group B (n=32),and given estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate cycle sequentially in group C (n=32).The questionnaires of Kupperman menopause index,Menopause-Specific Quality of Life,and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were finished before and after the treatment.The status of vaginal bleeding and breast tenderness was recorded every day.Results Eighty-nine participants (89/96,92.7%) completed the treatment.Kupperman menopause index decreased after taking the medicine for 3 months in each group (with all P<0.001),but the score after the treatment was higher in group A than in the other 2 groups.Except for the score of sexual domain in group A (P=0.103),the scores of all domains of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life decreased significantly after the treatment in all groups (with all P≤-0.01).Score of anxity decreased significantly in group A (P=0.015) and B (P=0.003).Incidence of breast tenderness was 12.9% (4/31) in group A,36.7% (11/30) in group B,and 14.3% (4/28) in group C.Incidence of vaginal bleeding was 6.5% (2/31) in group A,26.7% (8/30) in group B,and 82.1% (23/28) in group C.Conclusions Cimicifuga foetida extract is effective and safe in the treatment of menopausal syndrome.It is worth extending its use in the treatment of climacteric

  4. Autocuidado de mujeres en etapa de menopausia en Toluca, Mexico Autocuidado de mulheres na etapa da menopausa em Toluca, México Self care of women in the menopause stage in Toluca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Martínez Garduño

    2008-03-01

    úde.The woman in the menopause is exposed to risk factors that increase with the self-care. The objective was to identify self care practices in the menopause. Quantitative study, exploratory, with a sample of simple random probability, using the EPI INFO 2000, with 95% trust limit, 5% maximum error, in 354 women. Was observed a self-care deficit, mostly in alimentary habits, showing overweight and obesity (27%; the noise it is a factor that interfere in the sleep, the average sleep was about 5 to 7 hours; 40% don’t do physical exercise; 17.9% don’t do the uterine cervical cancer examination; 37.7% don’t do the breast self exam, without social security. 52.3% only go to the doctor when is ill. The frequent manifestations in the climatery are irregular bleeding, suffocation, fatigue and lack of libido. There aren’t enough information in this group of women, being the nurse who must assume the function of health educator.

  5. Revisiting Erikson's Views on Women's Generativity, or Erikson Didn't Understand Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Linda N.

    The past 15 years have brought a re-evaluation of women's adult development in light feminist thinking. However, many outdated assumptions in psychological theory remain comfortably ensconced; to challenge these ideas, some misrepresentations of women's experience are examined. The focus is on Erik Erikson's explanation of the second stage of…

  6. Rebellious Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  7. Reexamining Gender Issues in Erikson's Stages of Identity and Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Elisabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of writers have argued that Erikson's stages of identity and intimacy do not address the experience of women accurately. This article contends that such claims come out of a serious misreading of Erikson's work, and shows that the stages as they stand are not incompatible with the idea that there are relational components of identity…

  8. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men. PMID:12317441

  9. Representaciones socio-culturales sobre la menopausia: Vivencias del proceso en mujeres residentes en Albacete (España Socio-cultural representations about menopause: Experiences of the process in resident women in Albacete, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Gómez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Acercamiento a las representaciones sociales constitutivas de un fenómeno biológico-biográfico denominado climaterio, mediante los significados atribuidos por medio de los saberes, actitudes y comportamientos socioculturales de las mujeres en este periodo de su vida. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo mediante siete grupos focales (37 mujeres. Población de estudio: mujeres entre 45-55 años, residentes en la ciudad de Albacete. Resultados: proceso identificado con la edad biológica de las mujeres, con atributos negativos por su relación con el envejecimiento. Se relaciona también con la imagen social de la mujer y los roles socioculturales asignados clásicamente a este colectivo. Esta combinación de factores las conduce hacia un periodo de su vida tildado como "edad crítica", construcción en la que priman elementos biográficos sobre biológicos. Conclusión: Reconocer la "Variabilidad" de la vivencia del proceso. Esto entraría en conflicto con la actual tendencia biomédica, de protocolizar ciertas etapas relacionadas con el ciclo vital de las personas, intentando generar adscripciones unitarias basadas en entidades médicas construidas con fines operativos e instrumentales. Reconocer la "Vulnerabilidad" que supone la confluencia de diversas circunstancias, que las conducen, no sólo a enfrentarse con cambios físicos, emocionales y socioculturales, propios de esta etapa, sino a la realización de una evaluación retrospectiva crítica y profunda de la experiencia de vida, de la autobiografía.Objective: Approach to the social representations constituent of a biological-biographical phenomenon denominated climacteric, by means of the meanings attributed through socio-cultural knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the woman in this period of their life. Methodology: Qualitative study by means of seven focal groups (37 women. Population of study: women between 45-55 years, residents in the city of Albacete. Results: Process

  10. Breast cancer relapse stage I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer has always been the most common malignancy in women and is the leading cause of death in women, study relapses Stages I and II therapeutic guidelines applied in the service Mastology the 1985 - 1989, was our first objective, the database used was Clinical history, which gave us all the material necessary, treatments were: In tumors up to 3 cm node-conserving surgery plus treatment N0 with ionizing radiation on the breast tangential C0G0 in tumors greater than 3 cm or less with N1 was modified radical mastectomy according to node status for the study of the part and the receiver adjuvant treatment conducted. (Author)

  11. Analysis of CYP1A1 and COMT polymorphisms in women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, J P; Camargo-Kosugi, C M; Carvalho, C V; Silva, F C; Silva, I D C G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to obtain a comprehensive panel of genetic polymorphisms present only in genes (cytochrome P-450 1A1--CYP1A1 and catechol-O-methyl transferase--COMT) within the metabolic pathway of sex steroids and determine their possible associations with the presence or absence of cervical cancer. Genotypes of 222 women were analyzed: a) 81 with cancer of the cervix treated at the Cancer Hospital Alfredo Abram, between June 2012 and May 2013, with diagnosis confirmed surgically and/or through histomorphological examination; and b) 141 healthy women who assisted at the Endocrine Gynecology and Climacteric Ambulatory, Department of Gynecology, UNIFESP-EPM. These polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and visualized on 3% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. We found a significant association between the frequency of the CYP1A1 polymorphism and the development of cervical cancer. A statistical difference was observed between patient and control groups for CYP1A1 polymorphism genotype distributions (P COMT gene polymorphism genotype distributions between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05) or between other risk variables analyzed. The CYP1A1 gene involved in the metabolic pathway of sex steroids might influence the emergence of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer in women who carry a mutated allele, and result in 1.80 and 13.46 times increased risk for women with heterozygous or homozygous mutated genotypes, respectively. PMID:26782546

  12. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  13. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  14. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  15. Grassroots Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in Russia over the last 10 years have had a profound effect on Russian women’s lives. Economic reform has brought poverty, insecurity and high levels of anxiety and stress to much of the population, both male and female. The impact of these changes on women was amplified in the early 1990s by their structural positioning both within the workforce and within the population, brought about by the legacies of the Soviet planned economy, Soviet attitudes to gender and long established demographic trends. Alongside these historical influences, ‘new’ essentialist attitudes towards gender and the appropriate roles and responsibilities of women in post-Soviet Russian society have been strongly promoted through the media, political and social discourses, imposing new pressures and dilemmas on many post-Soviet Russian women. Numerous women’s organisations have been established in Russia since the early 1990s, many of them with a specific remit of helping Russian women to overcome the upheavals and hardships which they face. Struggling to survive themselves with very few resources and minimal external support, Russia’s grassroots women’s organisations have nonetheless offered practical help and advice and emotional support and solidarity to their members. This paper is based on the findings of a period of intensive fieldwork carried out in 1995-6 with grassroots women’s organisations in Moscow and three Russian provincial centres. It will present the aims, activities and impact of the groups studied. It will also investigate the ways in which these groups and their membership positioned themselves in relation to the development of essentialist attitudes and opinions on gender within Russia on the one hand, and a dialogue with ‘western’ feminist theory and practice on the other.

  16. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  17. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...

  18. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

        CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, jean.chow.roderick@gmail.com http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...

  19. Experimental Study on Influence Xuzao Gengping Prescription in Sex Hormones of Female Rats Climacteric Hypertension%虚燥更平方对雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)性激素影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽萍; 林雪

    2011-01-01

    Obctiveje: To study the clinical efficacy of Xuzao Gengping Prescription on the female climacteric hypertension rats and analyzes theirs sex hormones index before and after the treatment, observe the changes of index.To explore on influence Xuzao Gengping prescription in sex hormones.Methods:the female climacteric hypertension rat model, Randomly divided into blank group, Chinese traditional medicine group, the model group, observe three group, estrogen ( E2 ), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ),T ( testosterone ), corpus luteum ( LH ), progesterone ( PRO ), prolactin ( PRL )level, and statistical analysis is made.Results: Xuzao Gengping Prescription can make the female rat climacteric hypertension of Chinese traditional medicine group after the treatment, E2 raiseded levels, T, FSH reduced levels, a statistically significant ( P<0.05 ), PRO, PRL, LH was not statistically significant ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions:( 1 )Xuzao Gengping Prescription has certainly regulate function to improve the levels of sex hormones of female climacteric hypertension.( 2 ) Through the Chinese traditional medicine group and the model group related indexes and levels of sex hormones, female climacteric hypertension rats with the occurrence and development of hypertension relation, disorder sex hormone index may participate the patho-physiological course of menopausal hypertension in female.%目的:运用虚燥更平方作用于治疗雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期),观察大鼠性激素指标治疗前后的变化,探讨虚燥更平方对性激素的影响.方法:将雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)模型,随机分成空白组、模型组、中药组,观察3组雌激素(E2)、促卵泡刺激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)、促黄体生成素(LH)、孕酮(PRO)、催乳素(PRL)水平,并做统计分析比较.结果:虚燥更平方可使雌性大鼠高血压病(更年期)中药组治疗后血清E2水平升高,T、FSH水平降低,三者有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:(1)虚燥更平方对改善

  20. Influência dos sintomas climatéricos sobre a função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade Influence of menopausal symptoms on sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência dos sintomas climatéricos na função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo populacional de corte transversal, com amostra de 370 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos, atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Natal, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário referente s características sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentais das mulheres. A função sexual foi avaliada pelo Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, enquanto os sintomas do climatério pelo Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTADOS: No grupo estudado, 67% das mulheres apresentaram risco de disfunção sexual (FSFI≤26,5. Todos os domínios do FSFI (desejo, excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dor apresentaram escores mais baixos nas mulheres com risco de disfunção sexual (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of climacteric symptoms on the sexual function in middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was conducted on a sample of 370 middle-aged women, aged 40 to 65 years-old, cared for at the Basic Health Units in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. We used a questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, while the menopause symptoms by the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTS: In the studied group, 67% of the women reported risk for sexual dysfunction (FSFI≤26.5. All FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were lower in women with risk for sexual dysfunction (p<0.001. The arousal, orgasm, and pain domains were most likely to contribute to lower FSFI scores. All somatovegetative, urogenital, and psychological MRS symptoms were more elevated in women with risk for sexual dysfunction, being significant for all comparisons (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of

  1. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  2. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  4. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer staging tells how much your cancer has spread. Knowing ... your body. How good are these tests at staging lung cancer? If your biopsy finds cancer cells, this is ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  6. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  7. Dynamic Stage Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian von Hofen[GER

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.

  8. Staging Bipolar Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Reinares, M.; Rosa, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder, early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made to apply clinical staging to bipolar disorder. The staging model in bipolar disorder suggests a progression from prodro...

  9. Two-Stage Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Murray K.; Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    Two stochastic processes, or "arms," that yield dichotomous responses are available for use in a two-stage decision problem. During the first stage, arms are chosen sequentially; the resulting observations are discounted by a fixed value $\\beta$. A single arm must be used in the second stage, in which observations are not discounted. The decision to end the first stage is based on the data obtained. Optimal strategies are considered in the presence of the random discount sequence that arises ...

  10. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  11. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  13. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  14. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  15. Changing roles of women: reproduction to production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachapaetayakom, J

    1988-12-01

    The status of women in the countries included in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) varies widely from home labor and childbearing to social and political participation. In countries where the total fertility rate is high (over 6), such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, the status of women is low. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, along with India, Sri Lanka, and China, also have the lowest levels of per capita income. The education of women is one of the earmarks of social development. Education enables women to delay marriage, reduce fertility, and participate in the economy. Between 1970 and 1980, the female literacy rate increased 10% in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines; and 5% in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal. Women's participation in the labor force is determined both by the stage of development of the country and by cultural factors. In Muslim countries the level of women's participation in the labor force is low. In Thailand and China it is very high. Women with the most education are likeliest to work in professional and administrative jobs. Self-employed women tend to have as little status and as many children as unpaid family workers, and women working in agriculture are almost as badly off. In Asia and the Pacific, except for Muslim countries, women have participated actively in family planning programs. In several countries in the region, women have been active in politics, but mostly at the local level. If women are to be integrated into the development process in the countries of Asia and the Pacific, attention must be given to their education and employment, to increasing the role of men in household and child rearing duties, and to research in the interrelations of population processes, women's status, and socioeconomic development. PMID:12282180

  16. Prevalence of hypertension among reproductive age group tribal women in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Appala Naidu

    2016-04-01

    Results: Among the study women, 40.6% belonged to prime tribe groups (PTG and 36% of women had debts. Two fifths (40.7% of tribal women were normotensive and another two fifths (42.1% were in pre-hypertensive stage. Stage-1 hypertension was observed in 16.3% of study women. Non- PTGs and women with debts had significantly high prevalence of hypertension when compared to other groups. Conclusions: Prevalence of HTN was more in tribal women when compared to national prevalence indicating the need of screening of blood pressures in tribal communities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1224-1228

  17. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  18. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You ...

  19. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  20. Women in physics in Cyprus: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the status of women in science, physics in particular, in Cyprus. We describe the development of physics in the country, focusing on the contributions and participation of women. We present statistical data for the last several years, reviewing the percentage of women who are pursuing physics as a subject of study or as a profession. We report the gender ratios at different career stages and find that while women are well represented in undergraduate studies, female physicists are underrepresented in senior positions. We discuss factors that might affect the career evolution of women in physics in Cyprus.

  1. Why the Scientific Pipeline Is Still Leaking? Women Scientists and Their Work-Life Balance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary scholarly discourse, the under-representation of women in science is often explained by the phenomenon of women "in the pipeline". The pipeline carries a flow from one stage to another, and the flow of women diminishes between the stages. Based on the literature and qualitative studies, it can be inferred that one of…

  2. Lymphadenectomy in surgical stage I epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svolgaard, Olivia; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Nielsen, Marie Louise S; Nedergaard, Lotte; Mosgaard, Berit J; Lidang, Marianne; Mogensen, Ole; Kock, Kirsten Friis; Blaakaer, Jan; Staehr, Estrid; Søgaard-Andersen, Erik; Grove, Anni; Høgdall, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the extent of lymphadenectomy performed in women presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer macroscopically confined to the ovary. Furthermore, the effect of lymphadenectomy on overall survival is evaluated. DESIGN: A prospective nationwide case-only study. SETTING: Denmark......: Descriptive and survival analyses of data from Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The annual proportion of women with surgical stage I disease who received lymphadenectomy and the survival in the two groups. RESULTS: Of 2361 women with epithelial ovarian cancer, 627 were identified...... 2005-2011. SAMPLE: All women registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database from 1 January 2005 to 1 May 2011, presenting with a tumor macroscopically confined to the ovary without visible evidence of abdominal spread at the time of the initial exploration (surgical stage I). METHOD...

  3. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  4. Fertility in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results. PMID:27098490

  5. The other stage

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher Stephen Williamson

    2012-01-01

    An interactive electroacoustic music composition and solo mixed-media performance realized as an alternatively-staged one-night concert event. This project examines the tradition of staging live electronic music and the role of a solo computer music composer-performer. It is a four-movement interactive work with an appended generative music system performed solo within an alternative stage layout. It is derived from an interdisciplinary practice of combining electroacoustic music and electro...

  6. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  7. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet ...

  8. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  9. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  11. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Women Published April 11, 2014 Print Email ... Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy Eating Healthy Aging For Women Latest Content 1 2 ...

  12. Abstracting women: essentialism in women's health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, J; Kirkham, S R; Hayes, V

    1998-01-01

    Women's desire to take control of their own bodies creates a natural affinity between the projects of feminism and women's health research. Feminists have used the categories of woman/women, gender, and sex as foundation terms to designate the subject of feminist theories. Universal categories, which have been exposed as essentialist by postmodern and poststructural critiques, create falsely unified subject positions that fail to account for the diversity of women and also fail to acknowledge the situated interests of the dominant groups whose perspectives they reflect. Because it adopts these same categories, research in women's health is also permeated with this essentialized understanding, whether or not it is overtly feminist. In this paper, we point out the dangers of the unreflective use of woman/women, gender, and sex in women's health research. We conclude, that for political purposes, however, a carefully considered "strategic essentialism" can be warranted in research aimed at improving women's health. PMID:9849195

  13. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  14. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations......Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  15. Stages of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanoma cells. The disease is metastatic melanoma, not lung cancer. The method used to stage melanoma is based mainly on the thickness of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The staging of melanoma depends on the following: The thickness ...

  16. PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, INSOMNIA AND DETERIORATION OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN HYSTERECTOMYZED WOMEN (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2014-04-01

    deterioration of the quality of life. Four of each ten women had severe deterioration of the quality of life with predominance in the urogenital area. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:235-246. KEYWORDS Hysterectomy, Sexual dysfunction, Quality of life, Insomnia, Climacteric

  17. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.

  18. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  19. The effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in the psychological well-being of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Vlachou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the psychological situation of menopausal women have often been examined in the past. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychological disorders that arise in menopausal women receiving Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT in comparison to those not receiving HRT. Material and Method: The sample of the study included 216 menopausal women, 40-60 years old, divided into two groups and examined twice in a six months period apart. The first group included 100 women receiving HRT for at least three months period, while the second group included116 women not receiving HRT. A demographic inventory, the Greene Climacteric Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the CES-D Depression Scale were used. Results: 46.3% of women were taking HRT while 53.7% were not. In the first interview the mean values of the Greene Scale were for the first group 13.21±9.61 and for the second one 25.33±12.25, (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 9.17±6.93 and 28.65±13.25 respectively, (p<0.001. In the Hamilton scale at the first interview the mean values of the first group were 5.74±8.29 and for the second one 19.28±11.90 (p<0.001, while at the second interview the mean values were 4.43±7.75 and 19.47±11.75 respectively (p<0.001 and were above the threshold of a clinically anxiety syndrome. The mean values of the CES-D in the first interview were 10.33±7.58 in the first group and 11.20±11.22 in the second one (p<0.001, while at the second interview were 8.61±6.25 and 11.82±11.59 respectively (p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the education level interprets 49.4%, 28.4% and 17.1% of the variable, for Greene, Hamilton and CES-D scales respectively (Β=-4.563, p<0.001, Β=-3.012, p=0.005 και Β=-4.175, p<0.001 respectively. Conclusions: HRT seem to provide significant improvement in menopausal psychological symptoms. Further studies are needed in order to clarify relative

  20. DIFFICULTIES OF DIAGNOSTICS HYPERANDROGENISM AT WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, N.; Dimitriadi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The volume of examination of 25 fertile women with mean age 26 years (range 19-40 years) with menstrual irregularity and suspicion of hyperandrogenism were studied retrospectively. Clinical displays of elevated androgen levels was not assessed in patients at the first stage of examination. Non-standard methods of definition serum free testosterone were used.

  1. Motivating Women to Adopt Positive Financial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Megan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    In a strengths-based study, 17 women ages 25 to 54 participated in focus groups to identify their motivations for positive financial behavior change. Performing a thematic analysis of data, evidence shows they progressed through the Transtheoretical Model stages of change. Emotion, family influence, and life transitions helped participants…

  2. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get Other FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information for Patients Page Last Updated: 04/07/2016 Note: If you ...

  3. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  4. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  5. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Alice S Forster; Dodd, Rachael H.; Lorraine Tucker; Rachel Laming; Sarah Sellars; Julietta Patnick; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at a...

  6. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  7. Women in Education, Science and Leadership in New Zealand: A Personal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In global terms, the position of women in New Zealand society is relatively strong and at one stage in the early 2000s many senior roles were occupied by women. Equality of opportunity for women in leadership in science and the community has been a focus of attention in New Zealand in government, education, and the sciences for at least two…

  8. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  9. Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority. PMID:12179106

  10. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  11. Staging uterine cervical carcinoma with low-field MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the validity of low-field MR in staging cervical cancer compared to clinical staging. Material and Methods: A total of 95 women entered the study over a 3-year period. MR examinations with a 0.1 T resistive magnet using a body coil and clinical staging according to the FIGO recommendations were performed within 2 weeks from clinical diagnosis. T1- and T2-weighted sequences were obtained in transversal and sagittal acquisitions, and an additional T1 before and after contrast (randomisation to 0.1 or 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. gadodiamide). Treatment decisions on surgery or radiation therapy were made solely on the clinical staging. Results: Sixty-one patients were found to be eligible for surgery. In 5 women, the pathological results revealed a more advanced stage of the disease than assessed by clinical staging. MR correctly staged 4 of the 5 but otherwise tended to overstate the disease. Contrast enhancement significantly reduced this trend (p<0.05) regardless of the contrast medium dose used. Divided into two groups, an operable (less than stage 2b) and an inoperable group (more than stage 2a), the clinical staging correctly classified 57 patients (accuracy 92%) compared to 52 patients with MR using contrast enhancement (accuracy 84%). The specificity was no higher than 31%, whereas the reproducibility of the MR assessment was fairly good with kappa values around 0.65 for both intra- and interobserver variations. Conclusion: In the present set-up, clinical assessment was superior to low-field MR in staging cervical cancer. When using contrast enhancement, the staging accuracies of low-field MR were comparable to the ones reported for techniques with higher tesla values, whereas the specificity and reproducibility errors were lower. The method, therefore, needs to be optimised

  12. Effects of repeated mammographic screening on breast cancer stage distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A randomised controlled trial of mass screening for breast cancer by single-view mammography was begun in Sweden in 1977. All women aged 40 and older and resident in the counties of Koppaberg and Oestergoetland were enrolled. The present report is confined to the Oestergoetland study, which started in 1978 and comprised 92934 women. After randomisation, which was done on the basis of communities rather than individuals, 47001 women were allocated to the study group and offered repeated mammographic screening; 45933 were allocated to the control group. As compliance among women over 74 years of age was poor these were excluded from the present report. The yearly incidence of stage II or more advanced breast cancers after the initial screening round up to and including the second was reduced by 40 per cent in the study group compared with the controls. This effect was less marked in the age group 40-49. After 5.5 years average from the date of entry the absolute number of women with stage II-IV disease in the control group exceeded that for the study group by 44, whereas there was a large excess of cancer in situ and stage I cancer in the study group. (orig.)

  13. Where Do the Women Stand?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE legal status of women in acountry is an important benchmarkof the degree of civilization and progressof that country. In the establishment ofthe People’s Republic of China and itsconstruction of the legal system, the legalframework to protect women’s rights andbenefits is improving. Chinese women’slegal status has witnessed great, profoundchange. The construction of the legal system toprotect women’s legal interests has been athree-tiered process: The first stage was from 1949 to theearly 1950s. At the first meeting of all of

  14. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  15. Recalled, Present, and Predicted Satisfaction in Stages of the Family Life Cycle in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Mollie S.; Smart, Russell C.

    1975-01-01

    Satisfaction in family living was studied in a New Zealand sample of 191 men and 285 women in the eight stages of the family life cycle. Results were compared with Rollins and Feldman's American sample. (Author)

  16. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  17. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  18. 系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心效果的研究%The effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy among maternal women in different postpartum stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率的效果。方法:选取在广州市3所三级甲等综合性医院妇产科住院分娩的313例产妇为研究对象,按住院顺序分为对照组148例,实验组165例。向对照组实施母乳喂养口头宣教,对实验组应用《实用母乳喂养手册》实施面对面、一对一的哺乳知识与技能指导并于产后5周、11周实施母乳喂养电话指导2次。比较两组产妇在产后3天、6周、3个月时的母乳喂养自信心量表(BSES)评分及纯母乳喂养率。结果:产后3天和6周时,实验组产妇的BSES评分高于对照组(P<0.001);产后3天、6周、3个月时,实验组的纯母乳喂养率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:系统化护理干预能显著提高产妇的母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率。%Objective: To explore the effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efifcacy and exclusive breastfeeding rate among maternal women in different stages. Methods: The control group (n=148) received routine care with verbal education about breastfeeding. The study group (n=165) received synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention, which composed of a practical handbook on breastfeeding, breastfeeding skills guiding through face-to-face and one-to-one education at bed-side in hospital, two telephone follow-ups related to breastfeeding at 5 and 11 weeks postpartum. All the participants completed Breastfeeding Self-Efifcacy Scale (BSES) in the hospital, at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Results: At 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum, the mean scores of BSES in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.001). At 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention could improve maternal women' breastfeeding self

  19. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  20. New School Stages for Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James Hull

    A new and dynamic approach to auditorium stage design is presented. Contents include--(1) modified proscenium stage plan--a definition, (2) benefits of a modified proscenium stage plan, and (3) details of a modified proscenium stage plan--basic concepts, a typical layout, projection systems, and scenic design for space stage. (RH)

  1. [Women's organizations in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women

  2. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  3. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...... Rønsholdt’s Documentary Concert (2013) and Johannes Kreidler Fremdarbeit (2009)....

  4. Assistência à mulher climatérica: novos paradigmas Atención a la mujer climatérica: nuevos paradigmas Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional é uma realidade demográfica brasileira. Como conseqüência, espera-se, nos próximos anos, um aumento progressivo na procura dos serviços de saúde por mulheres com queixas relacionadas ao climatério. Paralelamente, a assistência ao climatério tem passado por uma modificação de paradigmas, impondo aos profissionais de saúde uma mudança de atitude. Reconhece-se que o climatério é influenciado tanto por fatores biológicos, como por fatores psicossociais e culturais, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para uma assistência mais qualificada e humanizada. Este artigo propõe refletir sobre as mudanças de paradigmas na assistência ao climatério, destacando a multidisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, no sentido acolher melhor essa parcela da população e proporcionar-lhe um cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando o saber da sensibilidade, voltado a uma melhor qualidade vida.Envejecimiento poblacional es una realidad demográfica brazilian. Consecuentementese espera un aumento progresivo de la búsqueda en los servicios de salud del país por mujeres con quejas relacionadas al climaterio. La asistencia al climaterio ha pasado por un cambio de paradigmas que han impuesto a los profesionales de la salud. El climaterio es influenciado por factores biológicos, factores psicosociales y culturales, cuyo conocimiento es fundamental para la planificación de una asistencia. Artículo se propone reflexionar sobre los cambios de paradigmas, el abordaje multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario, en el sentido de recibir mejor esta parcela de la población y proporcionarle un cuidado integral e individualizado, aproximando el saber de la sensibilidad, y el tener como objetivo a una mejor calidad de vida.Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Stages of Change Model Applied to Mammography Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Nguyen, Thuan; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Menon, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Application of behavior change theories to ethnically diverse groups is limited. In a secondary analysis of intervention study data, we tested the validity of the transtheoretical model (TTM) of change among Chinese American immigrant women. Three hundred mammography non-adherent women were randomized to an intervention or control group. Compared with contemplators (60%), precontemplators reported higher perceived mammography barriers (p Chinese women's stages of change has significant potential to decrease breast cancer screening disparities. PMID:26712817

  6. Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Harvey, Vernon; Ramsaroop, Reena; Elwood, Mark; Scott, Nina; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regiona...

  7. Influencing factors in the pregnancy rate in obese women undergoing artificial insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Sánchez-Cruzat Albertín

    2013-01-01

    The impact of obesity on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatments is debatable. Several studies show that obese women have worse outcomes after undergoing fertility treatment. The researches show a worse response to ovulation induction. In the ovarian stimulation stage these women produce fewer follicles. Fertilization rates are poorer and the embryo quality is lower in young women suffering from obesity. According to some studies, pregnancy rates are lower in obese women and there is ...

  8. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...

  9. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  10. Stages of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Childbirth and beyond Mom-to-be tools Government in action on pregnancy Pregnancy in Spanish ( en español ) Subscribe to Stages of pregnancy email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Pregnancy > You're pregnant: Now what? Pregnancy This ...

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  12. Stages of economic growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    Detroit : Macmillan Reference USA, 2008 - (Darity, W.), s. 79-82 ISBN 978-0-02-865973-2. - (International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Vol. 8) R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : economic growth * stages * political consequencies Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Immunization for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization History Vaccine Safety Articles Resources Personal Stories Vaccine Education Videos Research Articles ACOG Resources Resources & Links ACOG Update on Zika Virus Pregnancy Attention pregnant women! Pregnant women, their ...

  14. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are major public health problems and violations of women's human rights. Recent global prevalence figures indicate that about 1 ... disseminating information and supporting national efforts to advance women's health and rights and the prevention of and response to violence ...

  15. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  16. How Women Changed History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivienne; Gill; 袁爱萍

    2003-01-01

    Men sometimes say, "We are better and cleverer than women. Women never invent things. We do. " It is true that men have invented a lot of useful things: the alphabet, machines, rockets, and guns, too.

  17. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  18. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women ...

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit ...

  20. Women in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  1. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  2. Acne in hirsute women

    OpenAIRE

    Lumezi, Besa Gacaferri; Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mi...

  3. Violence against older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse experience a number of health-related concerns and significant mental health issues. Research suggests that the needs of older women experiencing domestic abuse are not being met by existing services. This article examines the issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships and the barriers to seeking help. Research suggests that a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial. PMID:27384810

  4. Women's Right To Unlearn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Sara Hlupekile

    2001-01-01

    Critiques the panel topic, policy advocacy for the right to learn of all women and men, from the standpoint that women and men have different political and social positions and advocacy may be aimed at institutions with a vested interest in continuing oppression. Argues that women must unlearn their indoctrination into a subordinate place and…

  5. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  6. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...

  7. Acne in hirsute women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349

  8. Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiant, Sharon

    This resource booklet about working women presents role models of interesting women, past and present, many of whom have been successful in non-traditional work roles. Included are brief biographical sketches of working women in early America, during the industrial revolution, the early twentieth century, the Depression, World War II, and modern…

  9. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  10. On Campus with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Current trends, events, and resources concerning issues of interest to women in higher education are reported. They include notes on educational and employment trends, legislation, court litigation and dispute resolutions, sexual harrassment, campus violence, women's studies, women's athletics, and relevant resources. (MSE)

  11. WOMEN STATUS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Prema

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to explain the development of women movement in India and the status of women during the Vedic period and British period. It also tries to explain the position of women on the basis of socioeconomic – political empowerment.

  12. Language and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdemir, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The course of life of women and men has been continuing differently in almost all societies and all fields for ages. The different functions, positions and perspectives of women and men have developed in the societies in which life style bases on male domination, and this situation paves the way for negative results for women. Considering the fact…

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National ... YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get Other FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information ...

  14. Painting Tableau Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  15. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  16. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  17. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  18. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and politic...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces.......The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...

  19. Women and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?

  20. Endometriosis: frequency and correlation between symptomatology and disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of endometriosis in general gynecological and infertile women presenting to hospital and to correlate symptomatology and stage of disease. Fifty patients with diagnosis of endometriosis on laparoscopy were included in the study. The degree of pain symptoms was graded according to 1-4 point verbal rating scale designed by Biberoglu and Behrman. Endometriosis was staged according to Revised American Fertility Society (R-AFS) scoring on laparoscopy. Correlation coefficient-Spearman rank order correlation test was applied to analyze data. The frequency of endometriosis in infertile women was 24% (33) and in women with general gynecological complaints, it was 23% (17). There was a significant positive correlation between chronic pelvic pain and R-AFS scoring. Increasing severity of pelvic pain was also positively correlated with presence of endometrioma and complete obliteration of pouch of Douglas. No correlation between dysmenorrhoea and R-AFS scoring could be detected. Dysmenorrhoea was strongly and positively correlated with the presence of superficial implants. Dyspareunia was found to have positive correlation with R-AFS score and also with complete obliteration of pouch of Douglas. The frequency of endometriosis in infertile women was 24% (33) and in women with general gynecological complaints, it was 23% (17). Chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia had strong positive correlation with R-AFS score while dysmenorrhoea had no such correlation. (author)

  1. Endometrial carcinoma in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K; Nekhlyudov, L; Deligdisch, L

    1995-08-01

    Endometrial carcinoma remains the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy. Increased longevity is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC) in elderly women. While recent studies have looked at aging and its relation to ovarian, breast, and cervical cancer, few have focused on EC in the growing elderly population. This study analyzed 35 histologic specimens of EC in women 75-92 years of age. Findings revealed that only 23% of the tumors were Stage I, G1. The majority (77%) were deeply invasive or of advanced stage (IC-IV). These were G2, G3, or "virulent" types of nonendometrioid EC (undifferentiated, clear cell, uterine serous papillary, and squamous cell carcinoma). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were endometrioid, of which 9% were mixed, including a rare case of nongestational choriocarcinoma. The nonendometrioid tumors, compared to the endometrioid types, were more often high-stage tumors with vascular invasion. They were also more often associated with atrophic (vs hyperplastic) uninvolved endometrium. Clinical risk factors (nulliparity, obesity, estrogen replacement therapy) were assessed and correlated with the histologic findings. It was shown that tumors in the elderly were less likely to be estrogen-related. It was concluded that EC in this age group is more aggressive, histologically less differentiated, and often nonendometrioid compared with EC in the general population. The increased virulence of EC in the elderly may be related to the tumor's independence from hormonal factors, to the poorly understood but well-known diminished immunologic defense against cancer in general in elderly patients, and/or to the belated diagnosis of the disease in this population. PMID:7622105

  2. Pelvic organ prolapse symptoms in relation to POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers, K.B.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Shek, C.; Dietz, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate staging of pelvic organ prolapse is important in clinical practice and research. The ability of the POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between women with and without prolapse symptoms. The leading edge of the predominant

  3. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  4. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  5. Examples of geoscientists women in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognard-Campbel, N.; Cazenave, A.

    2004-12-01

    Although the presence of women in sciences has been increasing in the past few decades in Europe, it remains incredibly low at the top levels. Recent statistics from the European Commission indicate that now women represent 50 percent of first degree students in many countries. However, the proportion of women at each stage of the scientific career decreases almost linearly, reaching less than 10 percent at the highest level jobs. From my own experience, I don't think that this results from sexism nor discrimination. Rather, I think that this is a result of complex cultural factors making women subconsciously persuaded that top level jobs are destined to male scientists only. Many women scientists drop the idea of playing a role at high-level research, considering it as a way of exerting power (a matter reserved to men). Others give up the possibility of combining childcare and high level commitments in research. And too many (married women) still find only natural to sacrifice their own scientific ambitions to the benefit of their spouse's career. Examples of personal experiences in the French research system are presented. We discuss some choices of prioritizing scientific productivity and expertise against hierarchical responsibilities and of keeping a satisfactory balance between family demand and research involvement. This is somewhat facilitated by the French system, which provides substantial support to women's work (nurseries, recreation centers during school holidays, etc.). As a conclusion, we think that the most promising way of increasing the number of women at top levels in research is through education and mentality evolution.

  6. Initial Staging of Hodgkin’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Danieli, Roberta; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Travascio, Laura; Cantonetti, Maria; Gallamini, Andrea; Guazzaroni, Manlio; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography/low-dose computed tomography (PET/ldCT) versus the same technique implemented by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) in staging Hodgkin’s disease (HD). Forty patients (18 men and 22 women, mean age 30 ± 9.6) with biopsy-proven HD underwent a PET/ldCT study for initial staging including an unenhanced low-dose computed tomography for attenuation correction with positron emission tomography acquisition and a ceCT, performed at the end of the PET/ldCT scan, in the same exam session. A detailed datasheet was generated for illness locations for separate imaging modality comparison and then merged in order to compare the separate imaging method results (PET/ldCT and ceCT) versus merged results positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (PET/ceCT). The nodal and extranodal lesions detected by each technique were then compared with follow-up data that served as the reference standard. No significant differences were found at staging between PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT in our series. One hundred and eighty four stations of nodal involvement have been found with no differences in both modalities. Extranodal involvement was identified in 26 sites by PET/ldCT and in 28 by PET/ceCT. We did not find significant differences concerning the stage (Ann Arbor). Our study shows a good concordance and conjunction between PET/ldCT and ceCT in both nodal and extranodal sites in the initial staging of HD, suggesting that PET/ldCT could suffice in most of these patients. PMID:25121354

  7. [Changes in the status of women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barbieri, T

    1997-01-01

    Fundamental changes have occurred during the 20th century in the status of women in Latin America, as elsewhere. The first stage entailed the struggle for basic citizens' rights (voting and holding office), concluded between 1929 (in Ecuador) and 1962 (in Paraguay). The second stage began around 1945 with broadening of property, employment, and other civil rights of women. This phase has not yet ended in several Latin American countries where husbands still have authority over their wives in different spheres of life. The third stage, still underway, began in the 1970s with the appearance of feminism and of women's organizations in different sectors of society. The changes did not appear simultaneously or coherently in all countries. They were stimulated in some cases by outside forces, including, at different times, the Inter-American Commission of Women, various UN organizations, the World Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank. Since midcentury, there has been an increase in the average life expectancy of Latin American women from 53.5 to 71.4 years, increases in female rates of school enrollment to near parity at all levels to those of males, a decline in the total fertility rate from 5.9 to 3.1, and significant increases in female economic activity. Beginning in the 1970s, other limitations on the freedom and equality of women became part of the public debate in various countries. Questions such as the failure of husbands to perform an equitable share of domestic work, gender wage differentials, sexual harassment, and domestic violence began to prompt changes in laws and norms, creation of service agencies and government offices for women, design of specific public policies, and other measures. It must be noted that Latin American societies are structured on three great sources of social inequality: gender, class, and ethnicity. Laws and norms are applied to very different realities and produce different effects. Middle- and upper-class women have

  8. From the Women's Health Initiative to the combination of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators to avoid progestin addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marie-Cécile; Gourdy, Pierre; Trémollières, Florence; Arnal, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The female life expectancy rose from an average of 48 years to over 80 years in a century. The decline in the endogenous production of estrogen (especially the main circulating physiological hormone, 17β-estradiol, E2) at menopause (51 years on average) often leads to functional disorders affecting the quality of life. Estrogen deficiency impacts different tissues and results in an increase of various diseases, such as osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases. Hormone therapy (HT) for menopause is a rather new challenge which experienced vagaries following the women's health initiative (WHI) study conducted in largely post-menopausal women. In the first part of this review, we will try to summarize the main conclusions of the WHI trials, in particular the timing effect as well as the deleterious impact of the associated progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Hormone therapy, particularly the conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) combined with the MPA favor the occurrence of breast cancer, whereas conversely selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as tamoxifen or raloxifene) that block the activity of estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) prevent the risk of recurrence of ERa-positive breast cancers. A new strategy of ERa modulation called tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), combines (1) CEE to maintain the benefits of estrogen (climacteric symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis) and (2) bazedoxifene, which is not only a SERM, but which also induces a rapid degradation of ERa in the uterus and in the breast, thereby prevents the stimulatory effects of estrogens on epithelial proliferation of these two sex targets. In the second part of this review, we will summarize the recognized benefits of the TSEC approach, and our current knowledge of its potential benefits and risks. PMID:26261036

  9. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  10. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...... is investigated up to the 18. century. Particilarly three fields of reference are exposed - the Christian, the Antique, and the Norse - in a context of European notions and manifestations of royal and state power. Three approaches are especially significant: Divine Monarchy, Divine Monarch, The long Baroque....

  11. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory......-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Forty-four of the included women were diagnosed with cervical cancer (median age 45 years). Of these, 22 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (50%) and 23 received radiation therapy (52.3%). The remaining 52 women (median age 66.5 years) were diagnosed...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p cervical and p = 0.002 endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...

  12. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  14. Good long-term outcome of synovectomy in advanced stages of the rheumatoid elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Katsushi; Inaba, Yutaka; Mochida, Yuichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Synovectomy is an effective procedure for management of the rheumatoid elbow at radiographically early stages (Larsen grades 1 and 2). However, its efficacy for advanced stages (Larsen grades 3–5) is controversial. We investigated the outcome of synovectomy for advanced stages of the rheumatoid elbow. Methods Between May 1985 and September 1994, synovectomy was performed for 67 rheumatoid elbows in 59 patients (mean age 52 (26–72) years, 54 women). 3 elbows (3 patients)...

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF MARITAL QUALITY AND STABILITY AMONG WIVES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Šakotić-Kurbalija

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the research presented in this paper was to determine whether or not there are significant differences in marital quality and stability among women in various stages of marriage, and to determine the structure of these differences, if they exist. We have also examined the differences in the characteristics of marriage between the wives in the first stage of marriage, i.e. the marriage period without children, and the wives in the next stage, after the childbirth. Those d...

  16. Os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa The meanings attributed to the voice by menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Miranda de Paula Machado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados de 148 mulheres nos prontuários médicos, entre fevereiro de 2000 e outubro de 2001, no Programa da Saúde da Mulher no Climatério, do ambulatório de ginecologia de um hospital na cidade de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. Dentre a população total foram selecionadas intencionalmente 30 mulheres entre 48 e 59 anos, que não se consideravam profissionais da voz, no mínimo há 12 meses em amenorréia, e que foram entrevistadas com um roteiro temático, constituído de questões semi-estruturadas. Cada entrevista foi gravada e transcrita. A descrição, análise e interpretação foram fundamentadas pelas representações sociais, por meio do discurso do sujeito coletivo, com aproximações à hermenêutica-dialética. RESULTADOS: Os 27 discursos coletivos estruturados denotaram o relacionamento da voz às características biológicas, psicológicas e aspectos sociais do cotidiano, com a identificação de mudanças vocais no decorrer da vida. CONCLUSÕES: Foi possível observar representações sociais de natureza comunicacional e funcional, que salientaram a voz como elemento de constituição da identidade pessoal, concebida na pertinência social. A pesquisa sugere novas investigações fundamentadas nas ciências sociais, simultâneas aos estudos epidemiológicos, e a necessidade de se refletir sobre o processo de terapêutica vocal aplicado sobre uma laringe mais vulnerável, além de priorizar uma proposta de assistência integral à mulher no climatério, com enfoque sobre a saúde da voz.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed to the voice by menopausal women. METHODS: Data were collected from 148 medical records of women seen in the Climacteric Women Health Program of the Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia Gynecology Outpatient Clinic in Curitiba, Brazil, between February 2000 and October 2001. Of them, 30 women aged

  17. A preliminary investigation of the influence of subjective norms and relationship commitment on stages of change in female intimate partner violence victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Tirone, Vanessa; Nathanson, Alison M; Handsel, Vanessa A; Rhatigan, Deborah L

    2013-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a prevalent and serious problem throughout the world, causing devastating mental and physical health problems for victims. Recent research has begun to focus on factors that may influence women's decisions to stay or leave their abusive partners, as interventions for batterers has only resulted in minimal success in reducing IPV. Therefore, this study preliminarily examined the influence of women's perceptions of their social network members' subjective norms and their relationship commitment on stages of change to end an abusive relationship among a community sample of female IPV victims (N = 84). Results showed that subjective norms and women's relationship commitment were associated with women's stages of change. Relationship commitment did not mediate the relation between subjective norms and stages of change. These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to women's stay/leave decision-making process, and close social network members could be included in interventions designed to keep women safe. PMID:22929339

  18. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  19. Depressão e ansiedade em mulheres climatéricas: fatores associados Depression and anxiety in menopausal women: associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernando Polisseni

    2009-01-01

    ção significativa entre a presença de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade moderada e o aparecimento dessas alterações do humor (pPURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in climacteric women and the probable factors responsible for its occurrence. METHODS: a transversal study that has selected 93 women attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic, from May 2006 to August 2007. Inclusion criteria were: women from 40 to 65 years old who agreed with participating in the project. Exclusion criteria: patients in hormonal therapy, hormone-therapy by implant, DIUs and depo injections in the preceding six months, endocrinopathies leading to menstrual irregularities, hepatopathies, thrombopathies, use of drugs which interfere in the menstrual cycle, anxiolytics and antidepressants (as their use indicates previous diagnosis of mood disorders, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer or psychiatric disease, and patients who had been submitted to radio or chemotherapy. During the interview, four questionnaires were applied: Anamnesis, containing socio-demographic, clinical and living habits data; Blatt-Kupperman's Menopausal Index for climacteric syndrome diagnosis; Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS-A for anxiety diagnosis; and Beck's Depression Inventory for the diagnosis of depression. Descriptive and correlation analysis among the variables, χ2 and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were performed using the Statistica Software program, version 6. RESULTS: the average depression prevalence among the patients was 36.8%, while that of anxiety was 53.7%. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the three phases of climacterium. There was a significant relationship between the presence of moderate climacteric symptoms and the presence of mood alterations (p<0.001. Depression was more frequent in women with anxiety (OR=4.2 and insomnia (OR=4.9, having a job being a protection factor (OR=0.2. Risk factors

  20. Women in the military

    OpenAIRE

    Garb, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) include a significant proportion of women (at least according to other NATO members and make up approximately 15 % of the total structure. Lately, the percentage is diminishing due to stricter standards. At the beginning, women could enter the SAF without any prior military knowledge. Today common training and education is provided for all- men and women. Gender issues are regulated by laws, but the legal regulation appeared rather late. In addition, many aspe...

  1. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...

  2. Stress and women

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, A. S.; V V Mishra; H L Trivedi

    2000-01-01

    Stress-tension-pain occur more often in health disorders of women than anywhere in the entire spectrum of human illness. No where is the effect of rapid change more apparent than in the changing role of today's women who are subjected to pressures from all sides. Now a days women virtually take part occupy positions, in day to day activities similar to their male counterparts. An outline of conceptual consideration, biochemical overview of stress and intricacies of coping mechanisms are delin...

  3. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  4. Prescribing exercise for women

    OpenAIRE

    Senter, Carlin; Appelle, Nicole; Behera, Sarina K.

    2013-01-01

    One- half of women in the United States do not meet the weekly dose of physical activity recommended by the Centers for Disease Control. Many women could benefit tremendously if they were to adopt a more active lifestyle. Health benefits from exercise include lowering the risk for cardiovascular disease, slowing the rate of bone loss in osteoporosis, and improving mood during pregnancy. In this article, we review the health benefits that women may gain from physical activity and the recommend...

  5. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  6. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  7. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  8. Women phase of narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Ceren

    2004-01-01

    Women's sexuality, still a taboo subject in Turkey, is often associated with immorality, shame and embarrassment. Such taboo manifests itself in every aspect of social life from advertising and soccer culture to honor killings and virginity tests. Everyday language remains phallogocentric defining sexuality as an act of violence and domination where women are represented as the passive victims. Such predominant representations, including the "virgin" versus "whore" dichotomy, alienates women ...

  9. Older Women's Development: A Comparison of Women in Their 60s and 80s on a Measure of Erikson's Developmental Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Suzanne M.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen; Ashcraft, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Compares women from two ages groups in order to understand their development across the life span. Measures of Psychosocial Development, which assesses Erikson's developmental stages, were administered to 41 women in 2 cohorts (ages 60-70, ages 80-90). Age group differences in the resolution of Erikson's identity and trust developmental tasks were…

  10. Health of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health. PMID:12293894

  11. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  12. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  13. Women and lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Itri, L

    1987-01-01

    Lung cancer has now surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in American women. In 1986, 49,000 women were diagnosed as having lung cancer; only 16 percent of them will survive 5 years or more. Cigarette smoking is unquestionably the leading contributing factor. Large numbers of women took up cigarette smoking during and after World War II. The grim aftermath has taken 20 years to surface--between 1950 and 1985, lung cancer deaths in women increased 500 percent. Even wors...

  14. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  15. Mobility of Hellenistic women

    OpenAIRE

    Loman, Pasi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current thesis is to study various aspects of women’s mobility in the so-called Hellenistic period. It will attempt to provide answers to the questions ‘why did women travel,’ ‘how common was it for women to travel,’ and most importantly, ‘did women take part in the Hellenistic colonisation processes.’ The importance of women’s mobility for the Greek societies as a whole will also be evaluated. To study the mobility of Hellenistic women we shall use a wide variety of li...

  16. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  17. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder. Other types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , social phobia , and post-traumatic stress disorders . Panic disorder affects women twice as often ...

  18. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  19. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  1. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  2. Analysis of Career Burnout of Middle-aged Career Women%中年职业女性的职业倦怠之分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2012-01-01

    中年职业女性工作压力大、烦恼多,她们在这段时期面临家庭的压力,如子女升学就业、父母的赡养照料;要面临工作的压力,如知识的更新、评职晋级、人际关系冲突;还要面临生理的变化,如更年期综合症的冲击等。这些方面造成她们更早地进入职业倦怠期。文章着重分析了中年职业女性职业倦怠的生理和心理特征,探寻通过社会、组织、家庭和自身等途径,帮助中年职业女性干预职业倦怠,促进中年女性的职业心理健康。%Middle-aged career women are confronted with pressures and vexation during their work life. They face all kinds of pressures in this period, household pressure such as their children's education and job-hunting, supporting and taking care of their parents; pressure from their own work such as the updating of knowledge, promotion in their position and interpersonal relationship problems; physiological and mental pressure such as climacteric syndrome. All these factors force them to enter into career burnout early. This paper focuses on the analysis of the physiological and psychological features of middle-aged career women with career burnout and seeks ways to help middle-aged career women to solve the problem of career burnout and promote the health in their professional psychology through social, organizational, family and personal means.

  3. PREDICTING TURBINE STAGE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to predict turbine stage performance taking into account the effects of complex passage geometries. The method uses a quasi-3D inviscid-flow analysis iteratively coupled to calculated losses so that changes in losses result in changes in the flow distribution. In this manner the effects of both the geometry on the flow distribution and the flow distribution on losses are accounted for. The flow may be subsonic or shock-free transonic. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. This program has been applied to axial and radial turbines, and is helpful in the analysis of mixed flow machines. This program is a combination of the flow analysis programs MERIDL and TSONIC coupled to the boundary layer program BLAYER. The subsonic flow solution is obtained by a finite difference, stream function analysis. Transonic blade-to-blade solutions are obtained using information from the finite difference, stream function solution with a reduced flow factor. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. Boundary layer analyses are made to determine profile and end-wall friction losses. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses. The total losses are then used to calculate stator, rotor, and stage efficiency. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370/3033 under TSS with a central memory requirement of approximately 4.5 Megs of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1985.

  4. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  5. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  6. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Aline André; Rosa, Adriana R.; Kunz, Maurício; Ascoli, Bruna; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes...

  7. Rural Women's Land Rights and Interests Merit Close Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO WENXIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the present stage in China,land is rural women's most basic means of production and life and most important material guarantee. Land contracting and related rights and interests have a direct bearing on the interests of rural women. Guaranteeing rural women's land contracting right and related economic rights and interests is of immediate significance for safeguarding their rights and interests and mobilizing them in active participation in the construction of a new socialist countryside. It will also have a farreaching significance for promoting social fairness and justice and building a socialist harmonious society.

  8. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  9. Ten-Year Mortality after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Women with Severe Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laurberg, Tinne; Laursen, Thomas Munk;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality rate......% higher for women with SMI and breast cancer (MRR: 4.27, 95% CI: 3.98-4.57). Among women with both disorders, 15% of deaths could be attributed to interaction. In a sub-cohort of women with breast cancer, the ten-year all-cause-mortality was 59% higher after taking tumor stage into account (MRR: 1.59, 95...

  10. Jobs: women's double burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  11. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  12. Webster and women's equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, D; Wilder, M J

    1989-01-01

    The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) and the Women's Legal Defense Fund (WLDF) co-authored an "amicus curiae" brief in "Webster." The brief was written for 77 organizations who believe in equality of women. The brief said that constitutional protection of a woman's right to choose is guaranteed by the right to privacy. The brief said that if abortions were illegal, women would not be able to take place in society equally with men. Liberty would be taken away from women. If the state interferes with abortion, the principle of bodily integrity is violated. In "Winston v. Lee," the Supreme Court found that the state could not compel a criminal to undergo an invasive surgical procedure to retrieve a bullet necessary for the state to prosecute with. 1 in 4 women have a cesarean section, which requires a larger incision in the abdomen, and has many risks. Bearing and raising children often puts a damper on women's employment opportunities. Therefore, if the Supreme Court denied women the right to bear children when and where they wanted, women would not have the right to plan their futures. If the Supreme Court were to agree that "interest in potential life outweighs" a woman's tight to procreate autonomously, states could declare all abortions illegal, investigate them to see if they were induced on purpose, and murder women who induced them. Contraceptive devices could be declared illegal. Laws could be used to force women to submit to cesarean sections and other fetal surgery. Pre-viability abortion restrictions should be rejected because they have old-fashioned notions of women's role in society. They reinforce stereotypes. Missouri's law stresses aiding "potential," rather than actual life. PMID:2603859

  13. Three Stages of Pinoy’s Searching for American Dream in America is in the Heart:in the Perspective of Women%从女性角度析《美国在心中》中菲裔美国人的寻梦三部曲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增红; 张旭东

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on three types of women in America is in the Heart,namely,colonial Filipino women,prostitutes in Fil-ipino community,and idealized white women,this paper attempts to testify women’s metaphorical function as a mirror and lamp. On the one hand,women reflect the hardship and torture that Pinoy suffered in Philippine and America;on the other hand,ide-alized white women,as a lamp,guide Pinoy to pursue their dreams in America.Although women narratives in the work are very few,they are the indispensable way to understand and construct Pinoy’s experience of exile.And in women’s metaphorical space,Pinoy fulfills self-cognition.%菲律宾裔美国作家布洛桑的《美国在心中》是菲裔美国文学的扛鼎之作,作品通过自传体形式叙述了早期菲裔劳工的离散经验。本文聚焦于作品中相对零星、却具有较强隐喻性的女性书写,通过分析殖民地菲律宾女性、菲裔社区的妓女和理想化的白人女性3类女性群体,试图证明女性既像一面镜子一样,浓缩并再现了菲裔劳工从家乡到美国的苦难与辛酸,也像一盏明灯一样,指引着他们在黑暗与孤独中,在重重剥削与压迫中奋力前行追寻梦想。在这部书写菲裔男性的书中,零星的女性叙事不是孤立的存在,而是理解与构建菲裔离散经验特殊性与复杂性不可或缺的重要途径。

  14. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...

  15. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  16. Women Lead the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  17. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    it comes to gender roles and womanhood: almost everywhere Islamic actors are gaining influence at the expense of secular nationalists. When it comes to the question of women's role and position in society, however, Islamic actors tend to emphasize "female domesticity," questioning women's participation...

  18. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need depends on your health and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you ... FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information for Patients ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  19. Women in Athletic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  20. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  1. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources to help you talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ... resources to help you talk to your health care provider about how to manage diabetes ... can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health ...

  2. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  3. Women's Bureau '71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labour, Ottawa (Ontario). Women's Bureau.

    This publication contains four papers presented by the Director of the Women's Bureau (Canada), which cover topics of concern and interest to the Bureau. Papers are: (1) "The Underemployed, Underpaid Third of the Labour Force," which presents statistical data reflecting a picture of working women in Canada, showing the occupational segregation and…

  4. Professional Women and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  5. Women in Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Mary

    1981-01-01

    The Kansas City Women's Jazz Festival was founded to provide exposure and a market for women in jazz. In its four years of operation it has grown in size and stature, stimulated creation of a scholarship fund, and spurred development of other festivals. (MSE)

  6. Women and Drug Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Presents a feminist perspective which offers a social structural framework for examining women's problematic behavior in traditional gender roles. Examines implications for treatment of women with drug dependence problems including developing the helping agent's awareness of the pervasiveness of sexism and its potentially negative effects.…

  7. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  8. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Framework in a Mammography Promotion Campaign African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Evaluation Cancer Survival: The Start of Global ... Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the ... Use Social Media Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Adults Annual ...

  9. Older Women and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the socioeconomic causes of the disproportionate level of poverty found among women aged 65 and over. Reasons why Social Security programs are essential for maintaining minimal standards of living for many older women are presented. Specific proposals for bringing about change are included. (AM)

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for ... races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials webpage to ...

  11. Cervical cancer in Indigenous women: The case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Franco, Oscar H; Powles, John; Leng, Yue; Pashayan, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Globally, health inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations exist. The disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is exemplified by cervical cancer. Current evidence suggests that Indigenous women have higher age standardised incidence and mortality than non-Indigenous women when adjusted for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidities; however, there is little information pertaining to national estimates of cervical cancer in Indigenous women. In this paper we review available evidence on the difference in occurrence and case fatality of cervical cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and State- or Territory-based Cancer Registries were utilised to collect surveillance data. To corroborate existing data, further available journal literature was identified through Medline and Embase. All papers selected for review were cross-referenced to identify further relevant studies. The most recent national estimate of age-standardised cervical cancer incidence rate was 16.9 and 7.1 per 100,000 women-years in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women respectively (incidence ratio 2.4). The Indigenous age-standardised mortality rate was 9.9 per 100,000 women years (95% CI 7.1-13.3), over 5 times the non-Indigenous rate. Cervical cancer incidence, in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, has decreased since 1991. Despite the decline, age-standardised incidence among Indigenous women is still higher than non-Indigenous women. The pattern of cervical cancer incidence and survival corroborates the health inequities that exist in Australia. Indigenous women are more likely than non-Indigenous women to develop cervical cancer and are less likely to survive it. Similar patterns exist in Indigenous populations worldwide, such as New Zealander Maoris and Canadian Aboriginals, suggesting that high rates of cervical cancer incidence and

  12. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  13. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  14. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  15. Migration and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  16. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  17. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  18. International Women's Day speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  19. Ways women lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosener, J B

    1990-01-01

    Women managers are succeeding not by adopting the traditional command-and-control leadership style but by drawing on what is unique to their experience as women. According to a study the author conducted for the International Women's Forum, men and women in similar managerial jobs make the same amount of money and experience roughly the same degree of work-family conflict. But when they describe their leadership styles, vast differences arise. Men are much more likely than women to view leadership as a series of transactions with subordinates, and to use their position and control of resources to motivate their followers. Women, on the other hand, are far more likely than men to describe themselves as transforming subordinates' self-interest into concern for the whole organization and as using personal traits like charisma, work record, and interpersonal skills to motivate others. Women leaders practice what the author calls "interactive leadership"--trying to make every interaction with coworkers positive for all involved by encouraging participation, sharing power and information, making people feel important, and energizing them. In general, women have been expected to be supportive and cooperative, and they have not held long series of positions with formal authority. This may explain why women leaders today tend to be more interactive than men. But interactive leadership should not be linked directly to being female, since some men use that style and some women prefer the command-and-control style. Organizations that are open to leadership styles that play to individuals' strengths will increase their chances of surviving in a fast-changing environment. PMID:10107957

  20. Disability Issues are Women's Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Mijoo Kim from Women with Disabilities Arts and Culture Network, Korea, speaks on behalf of women with disabilities when she underlines that disability issues are women's issues. She asks why women with disabilities have been invisible in the women's movement, based on her work over the past 15 years in the movement of women with disabilities in Korea and internationally. Development (2009) 52, 230–232. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.10

  1. Quality of life in perimenopausal women working in the health and educational system Calidad de vida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en el sistema sanitario y educativo Qualidade de vida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham no sistema sanitário e educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Márquez Membrive

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the association between the professional activity and the perceived quality of life in climacteric women who work in Health and Education. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed in a sample of 203 climacteric women, together with a correlation analysis of labor factors’ influence on health-related quality of life. Significant differences were found between working women’s quality of life and some labor conditions. The perceived quality of life in perimenopausal women who work in Education is higher than that of those working in Health (p=0.004. Nursing professionals can develop health programs that deal with the work conditions that negatively influence the perceived quality of life in climacteric women.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la actividad profesional y la calidad de vida percibida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en las áreas sanitaria y educativa. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, en una muestra de 203 mujeres climatéricas, junto al análisis correlacional de la influencia de los factores laborales en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la calidad de vida de las trabajadoras y algunas condiciones laborales. La calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres perimenopáusicas que trabajan en educación es superior a la de las que trabajan en salud (p=0,004. Los profesionales de Enfermería pueden elaborar programas de salud, que aborden las condiciones de trabajo que influyen negativamente en la calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres climatéricas.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a associação entre a atividade profissional e a qualidade de vida percebida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham nas áreas da saúde e educação. Realizou-se estudo descritivo e transversal, numa amostra de 203 mulheres climatéricas, juntamente com análise correlacional da

  2. Facing possible illness detected through screening: Experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... treatment, anxiety flared up with recurrent check-ups. The bio-medical differentiation between pre-stage and actual cancer provided no comfort to the participants, who continued to see themselves as having early stage cancer....

  3. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Alecia; Hutchesson, Melinda; Patterson, Amanda; Chalmers, Kerry; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study ...

  4. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akm Mainuddin; Housne Ara Begum; Rawal, Lal B; Anwar Islam; S M Shariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview...

  5. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

  6. SEXUAL ASSAULT ON WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Durga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our India is a vast nation with rich cultural heritage and social diversity. We have been respecting women in the highest form as Goddesses since ages. There have been several laws to protect women from many centuries in this ancient country. Yet our country is still facing difficulties in achieving women safety. And the situation is no different in the rest of the world. The prevailing situation, laws and suggestions to prevent atrocities were discussed. AIM: The current situations of women hardships around the world were mentioned. The current legal situation and recent legal changes were described. The mammoth task ahead of us to achieve the desired social objective of women safety and respect were discussed. MATERIAL & METHODS: various news articles, police journals, legal textbooks and forensic medicine text books. CONCLUSION: Many things were done to prevent sexual assaults on women, yet the true goal is still a mirage. It’s time to look into the issue from its true grass root levels, i.e., from the psycho-social view apart from legal measures, to achieve the much desired objective of prevention of sexual assaults on women.

  7. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Anshu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed. This paper is based on a research intended to provide acomparative analysis of the status of women entrepreneurs and men entrepreneurs in Family Business in India. It first draws demographic & psychographic profiles of women and men entrepreneurs in family business, identifies & addresses operational problems faced by women and men entrepreneurs in family business, draws theirinclination for future plans for growth and expansion and also for the furtherance of research on women entrepreneurs in India.

  8. Information-Processing Correlates of Reported Sexual Abuse in Eating-Disordered and Comparison Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Ruddock, Angela

    1995-01-01

    An adaptation of the Stroop Test (using colored words related to sexual abuse) impaired color-naming in eating-disordered women (n=50) and in comparison women reporting sexual abuse. The interference effect was related to abuse characteristics, degree of bulimic psychopathology, and frequency of binging. A two-stage model of cognitive reaction to…

  9. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  10. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  11. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  12. Women holding hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J

    1995-01-01

    It is estimated that 80% of the people involved in grassroots environmental protection advocacy in the US are women. One such self-described "average" woman became an activist upon learning that her drinking water was contaminated with uranium leaking from a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility. When DOE officials tried to brush off her concerns and those of her neighbors at a hearing, she presented them with a jar of water from her kitchen tap and challenged them to drink it. They refused. Thus began a long, but ultimately successful, struggle to shut down the offending facility. The efforts of these US women are mirrored all over the world as women have embraced environmental justice as one of their causes. At recent UN conferences, activists have challenged conventional strategies of economic development as being incompatible with equity and environmental sustainability. They have also established that "women's rights are human rights" and added domestic violence and rape to the human rights agenda. The recent International Conference on Population and Development revolved around women's health and rights issues. Throughout the world, women activists have challenged and changed the social dynamics of families, households, communities, and societies in general. One reason for the increased success of women's groups is that they have adopted the tactics of mass communication, including the use of computers, radio, and film. Although the various efforts are arising from diverse circumstances, they have some things in common such as finding personal experience to be a major impetus for action, realizing the self-reinforcing empowering nature of advocacy work, breaking the silence surrounding culturally taboo topics, and challenging the status quo. Such challenges often lead to political backlash or to counter measures taken by fundamentalist religious groups who link improvements in women's status with societal ills. Despite these challenges, the global women

  13. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  14. Women in Business

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Castillo-Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Women account for 66% of the global workforce and earn 10% of the income. They produce 50% of the food globally and own 1% of the property. Besides, women represent the majority of the global poor, 70%, and it has been proven that ownership is one of the most effective means of improving their economic well-being. Therefore, promoting women economic opportunities and equal participation in the labor market is the right thing to do. But it is also good business. This reference note discusses t...

  15. Women and Indian Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vina Mazumdar; Leela Kasturi

    2010-01-01

    The political role of women as a subject for research is of recent origin in India. It is significant that there are so few studies of women's role in the nationalist movement or of the implications-social or political-of their momentous entry into the public sphere. Important works on the national movement mostly fail to examine the significance of women's participation in the struggles. Analysis in this area so far has received insufficient attention in histories of India both before and af...

  16. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  17. Women on the margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In some parts of the world, females are the victims of violence before birth as they are selectively aborted in societies which favor sons. If infant girls survive, they are subject to the same domestic violence which affects their mothers and leaves women more at risk of death by a male partner than from any other kind of assault. This issue was brought to the world's attention by the 1985 Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies and is placed second on the 1995 Beijing women's conference list of "critical concerns." Women are also particularly at risk as they grow older, leave their jobs, and require expensive health care. One way to reintegrate older, retired women into society may be by employing them in child care facilities. Women migrants are also at risk of legal discrimination and physical and mental abuse, yet their plight has gone largely unnoticed as the world community focuses on male migrants. Women labor migrants are in a particularly vulnerable position and may be exploited or forced into prostitution when their legal status expires. The rights of women migrants must be clarified, and women must be informed of these rights. The plight of refugee women is better known, but, although refugee programs are becoming more gender sensitive, it is difficult to overcome old ways of behaving during emergency situations. Women also comprise an increasing number of the victims of AIDS, yet women in many societies are unable to deny having sexual intercourse with their husbands or to insist that their husbands use a condom. These same husbands are free to become infected by prostitutes and to pass this infection on to their wives. The prostitutes are often just as helpless as the wives and usually have been forced into the sex trade by abject poverty. The spread of AIDS, poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration all arise from the relegation of women to secondary status. The upcoming UN conferences will measure their success by how well they incorporate a

  18. Women's Rights in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitez, Lalah; Raza, Nudrat; Payal, Pallavi; Sitez, Punah

    2012-01-01

    Power is the factor that structures the society based on domination. Thus this project is about power relations in terms of gender in the Afghan society that has led to violation of women’s rights and has influenced their mentality. This project emphasizes the situation of women in Afghanistan and their rights. The society of Afghanistan has quite a biased perception towards men and women; women are secondary to men in every aspect and due to this they have been suffering from all kinds of me...

  19. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  20. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  1. The Right for Women--After Professions for women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文莉

    2000-01-01

    Woolfwas a flag of right fighter for women. Women fight for their rights genaration after genaration and devote themselves in different professions like men. It was proved that women can do every thing as they are willing ,women can creat many outstanding achievements in their professional life.

  2. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. PMID:26766112

  3. Relationship between serum trace elements and antioxidant capacity indexes in women of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Mei Xu; Ying Jiang; Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between serum trace elements, antioxidant capacity index and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP). Methods: Forty cases of normal healthy pregnant women, twenty-one pregnant women with high blood pressure, twenty-eight pregnant women with early stage of mild preeclampsia and twenty-two pregnant women with early stage of severe preeclampsia were selected respectively. Then, the differences of blood routine examination and blood coagulation function of the four groups were compared. At the same time, the levels of the serum trace elements and oxidative stress related indexes in the placental villi tissue were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:The white blood cells and hematocrit of HDCP pregnant women were significantly higher than those of normal healthy pregnant women;platelet and fibrinogen levels were obviously lower than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while thrombin time was shorter than that of normal healthy pregnant women;levels of serum copper, zinc and manganese were also significantly lower than whose of normal healthy pregnant women, while iron level was distinctly higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. The activities of SOD and GSH-PX in the placental villi tissue of HDCP pregnant women were significantly smaller than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while the Hcy level was higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. Conclusions:Pregnant women with HDCP has both imbalance of trace elements and redox system equilibrium, so we should strengthen the determination of the trace elements and redox related indexes of HDCP pregnant women to ensure health of maternal and child.

  4. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  5. Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Namazi, Masoumeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Seddigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefe; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Jannesari, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is the most common psychological response of women to labor. Aromatherapy, i.e. the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system, can create a state of calmness and help to alleviate anxiety. Objectives: The present study tried to determine the efficacy of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil in reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on two groups of pregnant women, referred...

  6. 不同生理阶段更年期综合征证候规律及治疗的临床研究%Clinical study on distribution rule of TCM syndromes and treatment of climacteric syndrome among patients in different menopausal status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳岭; 王兴娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨不同生理阶段女性更年期综合征(CS)患者中医证型分布规律及CS与性激素、糖脂代谢之间的关系,为本病的临床治疗提供依据.方法:随机选择绝经前期、围绝经期、绝经后期更年期综合征患者各50例,辨证后给予相应中药服用6周,治疗前后分别进行问卷调查及血清检测.结果:不同生理阶段女性CS患者中医证型的构成比存在差异;中药治疗后患者的更年期症状均明显改善,Kupperman评分降低(P<0.01),雌二醇(E2)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、睾酮(T)水平无明显变化;脾虚组患者的空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、瘦素(leptin)较治疗前均降低;肝虚组患者的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)较前升高;肾虚组患者的FBG、总胆固醇(TC)较前降低(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:不同生理阶段的女性CS患者中医证型分布存在一定规律;本病的发病可能与心血管疾病风险因素有关,其治疗应该重视糖脂代谢功能的调节.%Objective: To explore the distribution rule of TCM (TCM) syndromes of patients with climacteric syndrome (CS) in different menopausal status and the association between CS and sex hormone as well as glucolipid metabolism, and to supply credible evidence for the clinical therapy of CS.Methods: Randomly selected patients with CS 50 cases in premenopausal,perimenopausal, postmenopansal status separately.After differentiation, the patients were treated with the appropriate Chinese medicine for 6 weeks.Questionnaire survey and serum testing were conducted before and after treatment.Results: The constituent ratio of TCM syndromes was different among CS patients in different menopausal status.The climacteric syndrome was significantly improved in patients of all 3 groups after treatment, kupperman score was markedly reduced(P<0.01), but the level of endocrine hormone (F2, FSH, LH, T) didn't show any change.In the spleen deficiency

  7. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  8. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  9. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  10. Avaliação da capacidade orgástica em mulheres na pós-menopausa Assessment of orgasmic capacity of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Lenharo Penteado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a capacidade orgástica (durante a relação sexual e/ou a masturbação solitária de mulheres pós-menopausadas, saudáveis e sem tratamento hormonal com fatores climatéricos, psicossociais, comportamentais, hormonais e interpessoais. MÉTODOS: De um total de 999 mulheres avaliadas com idade entre 41 e 60 anos, selecionaram-se 60 mulheres saudáveis, sexualmente ativas, com pelo menos um ano de amenorréia, útero íntegro, relacionamento estável com parceiro capacitado ao coito e não usuárias de terapia hormonal. Elaborou-se um modelo estatístico de regressão logística que avaliou a capacidade de orgasmo (variável dependente em função de 17 variáveis independentes, que representavam fatores psicossociais, comportamentais, interpessoais, climatéricos e hormonais. RESULTADOS: A capacidade orgástica está significativamente correlacionada à prática da masturbação (p=0,000, ao gostar de abraçar e acariciar o corpo do parceiro (p= 0,036 e à presença de secura vaginal (p=0,021. CONCLUSÕES: Nas mulheres pós-menopausadas avaliadas, a capacidade orgástica relacionou-se positivamente com o relacionamento mais afetivo com o companheiro e com a prática da masturbação. Mulheres que apresentam secura vaginal, mas que praticam a masturbação e mantêm relacionamento afetivo com o parceiro, conseguem obter o mesmo número ou um número maior de orgasmos se comparados à freqüência do coito.OBJECTIVE: To correlate the capacity of healthy postmenopausal women to have orgasms (during intercourse or by solitary masturbation with psychosocial, behavioral, climacteric, hormonal and interpersonal factors. METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety-nine women (aged from 41 to 60 years underwent physical and supplementary tests and answered questionnaires regarding sexual behaviour. Sixty healthy women, sexually active, with one or more years of amenorrhea, without hormone therapy and with a partner capable of intercourse

  11. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  12. Center for Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection (TSGLI) Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance (S-DVI) Veterans' Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) Health Resources Agent Orange Post ... for Updates Site Search #WomenVets Tweets CONNECT Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social ...

  13. Women and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an advertisement for Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription," which he developed in the 1880's to relieve women of nervous symptoms caused by disease of the...

  14. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... glucose, especially at night. This can further compromise sleep already interrupted by menopause-associated hot flashes and ...

  15. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  16. Minority Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... migrant issues Access to health care Language barriers Human trafficking Taking care of your health Immunizations and screenings Sharing family health history Health before pregnancy More... Government in action on minority women's health Minority partnerships ...

  17. Bilingual Women in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Pratima

    1991-01-01

    Successful initiatives for minority women depend on creation of an institutional ethos that supports change, adequate staff training, flexibility in scheduling and curricula, and recognition of the value of adult students' experiences. (SK)

  18. Democracy and Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly.However, none of them have a focus on women's health.This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... million people in the United States. Watch and learn helpful tips about managing your diabetes medicines. Veal ... Sign-up for a study to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during ...

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes for the first time when they become pregnant. This is called gestational (jes-Tay-shun-ul) diabetes. Other women have diabetes before they get pregnant. Use these resources to help you talk to ...

  1. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pregnant Women On this Page When should I be ... to give up my cat if I'm pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant? No. You should ...

  2. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... Glossary Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  3. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women Other FDA Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more ...

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  7. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause sexual dysfunction. You may have less sexual desire during pregnancy, right after childbirth or when you are breastfeeding. After menopause many women feel less sexual desire, have vaginal dryness or have pain during sex ...

  8. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign- ...

  9. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Food Safety for People with Diabetes Your Glucose Meter - easy-to-read booklet for women Other ... Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need ...

  10. Depression in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or someone I know is in crisis? Share Depression in Women Download PDF Download ePub Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone sometimes feels sad, but these feelings usually ...

  11. Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so it can hold more urine. Recording daily bathroom habits may be helpful. More information is provided about bladder diaries in the NIDDK health topic, What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women . Pelvic ...

  12. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Vaccines for Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you ...

  13. Minority Women's Health: Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... left navigation Minority Women's Health African-Americans Latinas Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/ ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Latinos may be any race. This ...

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  15. Incorporating Lesbian and Bisexual Women into Women Veterans’ Health Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relative to the general population, lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are overrepresented in the military and are significantly more likely to have a history of military service compared to all adult women. Due to institutional policies and stigma associated with a gay or lesbian identity, very little empirical research has been done on this group of women veterans. Available data suggest that compared to heterosexual women veterans, LB women veterans are likely to experience heightene...

  16. Women in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report cal...

  17. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo. PMID:12291323

  18. WOMEN AND NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    There are many aspects to food and eating behaviour when viewed from a wide psychological and sociolcultural perspective. These include issues of morality, gender, class, self esteem and education. Through all of these aspects women are intimately concerned with food. This paper examines ways in which men and women eat differently and explores some of the issues involved in the broader social and cultural meanings of food and eating. It is argued that any attempt to provide eating guidelines,...

  19. [The God of women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Aguirre, L

    1991-01-01

    The discourse of Christian theologians is by men and for men. The story of Salvation is about men; women have been excluded or colonized in ways carefully delimited by the Patriarchy. But a new struggle for liberation of women is underway worldwide in the dawn of the 21st century. The totality of relations between men and women is in change. The recent conquest of fertility control by women, which transferred ancestral male powers to them, and the decline of the Patriarchy are substantially modifying control of territory previously under male authority. The 2 revolutions are slowly but inexorably changing the social landscape. The feminization of poverty is of interest in this context. Women, 52% of the population, sow over half of food corps, account for 35% of the paid labor force and 60% of the hours worked, but receive only 10% of the income and possess only 1% of the world's property. Changes are occurring in the compulsively masculine culture, as well. A new consciousness and new intuitive knowledge of reality and its multiple cycles of change is emerging in which the individual is more satisfactorily related to the totality of the cosmos. Women in increasing numbers are freeing themselves of the known ways of the past which exalted the rational and mental to a new way which acknowledges the physical. In theology, the gods are beginning to appear as they were: true projections of the societies and structures of their times. Male theologians who reflect on these gods are always patriarchal because the church separates them from the world of women. They have been incapable as yet of comprehending the struggle of women who are opposing the world's oldest colonialism. For the same reasons they have been incapable of recognizing or accepting a fuller reality of existence and the divine. The prophetic female voice is still scarcely audible in an ecclesiastical world that remains enclosed in patriarch. PMID:12317342

  20. Women Empowerment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Purusottam; Mahanta, Bidisha

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of women empowerment in India using various indicators like women’s household decision making power, financial autonomy, freedom of movement, political participation, acceptance of unequal gender role, exposure to media, access to education, experience of domestic violence etc based on data from different sources. The study reveals that women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spit...

  1. Women Empowerment in Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Purusottam; Mahanta, Bidisha

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of women and their empowerment in terms of various indicators such as access to education, employment, household decision making power, financial autonomy, freedom of movement, exposure to media, political participation, experience of domestic violence etc in the state of Assam using secondary data obtained from various sources. The study reveals that development process in the state is not gender neutral; women enjoy quite inferior status...

  2. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  3. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  4. Suicide in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, L

    2001-03-01

    This article reviews research into suicide in women during the last 25 years. National rates vary between the extremes of 19/10(5) per year in Sri Lanka and China, which report higher rates in young married women. The reproductive process has some influence. While menstruation, hormonal treatment, pregnancy and the puerperium have no major effect, unwanted pregnancy may still lead to suicide under certain circumstances, and severe labour can occasionally do so. Having children protects, but the relative risk is no more than 2.0 in nulliparous women. Social factors also have a limited effect. There are higher rates of suicide in divorced women, but the evidence on widowhood is equivocal. Prosperity and employment have no effect. Sexual abuse, rape and domestic violence undoubtedly lead to suicide attempts, but the evidence on completed suicide is lacking. There are many unanswered questions, especially why rates of completed suicide for women (with a greater prevalence of overt depression) are lower than for men, and why Chinese and Indian women have higher rates. More research is required, especially from developing nations. PMID:11349759

  5. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  6. TNM staging and classification (familial and nonfamilial of breast cancer in Jordanian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Atoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staging of breast tumor has important implications for treatment and prognosis. This study aims at pinpointing the frequency of each stage among familial and nonfamilial breast cancers. Materials and Methods : Ninety-nine Jordanian females diagnosed with familial and nonfamilial breast cancer between 2000 and 2002 were enrolled in this study All breast cancer cases were staged according to the TNM classification into in situ, early invasive, advanced invasive and metastatic. Results : Forty-three cases were familial breast cancer and 56 were nonfamilial. One female breast cancer was diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS cancer. Fifty cases were diagnosed in early stages of invasive breast cancer, of which 31 cases were familial, 29 cases were classified as advanced invasive, where 21 cases were nonfamilial and 19 cases were metastatic stage of breast cancer, with 16 nonfamilial cases. Stage 2b was the most common stage of early invasive cases and represented 48% of the early stage of breast cancer. On the other hand, among cases diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer, stage 3a was the most common stage and represented 89.6% of the advanced stage. Interestingly, all cases of stage 3a belonged to TNM stages of T2N2M0 and T3N1M0. The tumor size in all cases of Jordanian females diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer exceeded 2 cm in size due to selection bias from symptomatic women in our study. Conclusion : The incidence of nonfamilial breast cancer was slightly higher than that of the familial type amongst studied the Jordanian females studied. The early invasive stage of breast cancer was more common in the familial while the advanced invasive and metastatic breast cancer cases were encountered more often in the nonfamilial type. Our study was based on a small sample and symptomatic women. Therefore, more research with larger population samples is needed to confirm this conclusion.

  7. Breast cancer: a study of the psychosocial issues faced by women undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial issues faced by post lumpectomy women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radical radiation to the affected breast. Twenty-five women in their second to fifth week of treatment were given the survey to determine these issues. Responses were then grouped by age category and results compiled. Regardless of age, a majority of women felt that they and their spouses had become closer since their diagnosis and described their spouses as being supportive. Scheduling appointment times around childcare was important for some women. Almost half of the women experienced a change in employment status as a result of their diagnosis. Appointment times and work schedules were important for some women still working. In all age groups, women experienced fatigue at least sometimes. (author)

  8. Geographic and Demographic Disparities in Late-stage Breast and Colorectal Cancer Diagnoses Across the US

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, Lee R.; Tzy-Mey (May) Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Problem: In 2009, breast cancer was the most common cancer in women, and colorectal cancer was the third most common cancer in both men and women. Currently, the majority of colorectal and almost 1/3 of breast cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage in the US, which results in higher morbidity and mortality than would obtain with earlier detection. The incidence of late-stage cancer diagnoses varies considerably across the US, and few analyses have examined the entire US.Purpose: Using the...

  9. Multi-stage complex contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  10. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  11. Pregnancy in PCOS women and their history of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup-Lund, Mette; Gade, Melina; Lauszus, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the incidence of gestational diabetes in PCOS women treated with metformin before and during early pregnancy and to ascertain their family history of diabetes. Design: Follow-up on all women with PCOS and infertility who received treatment with metformin prior to pregnancy...... (=index pregnancy) during 10 years. Data on diabetes was retrieved by questionnaire and hospital charts. Main outcome measures: Incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy outcome, and fetal size Results: In 18 % of the women GDM was diagnosed at some stage. The clinical and obstetrical outcome of the...... women showed no association with family history of diabetes or GDM. No neonatal anthropometric feature was different with respect to family history of diabetes or GDM and no fetal malformations were found Conclusion: GDM and family history of diabetes seem not to be associated with unfavourable...

  12. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage I Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB: In stage IA , the tumor is low grade (likely to grow ... tumor does not place any vital organs in danger. Hormone therapy Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment ...

  13. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  14. Stage 3 recommendations - the early recognition of breast cancer in Germany. Abridged version forr medical practioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aim of this level 3 good clinical practice guideline is to help physicians, women and patients in decision making about the appropriate health care for early detection of breast cancer. The principle of early detection of breast cancer comprise the detection and diagnosis of premalignant breast tumors (stage 0, Carcinoma in situ), risk reduction of cancer development as well as the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer at an early stage (stage I), with a 90% chance of cure as shown by a large number of clinical trials. To establish a nation wide, comprehensive quality assuring program for the early detection of breast cancer the guideline summarized in the following paper offers the basis for a timely mortality reduction of breast cancer. The cure of early stage disease will be additionally possible by less invasive treatment allowing patients to maintain quality of life. The guideline leads to a major improvement of women's health care. (orig.)

  15. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  16. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  17. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  18. Assessing Readiness to Lose Weight among Obese Women Attending the Nutrition Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghannadiasl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing individual’s readiness to change and targeting the intervention to the level of readiness may improve successful weight loss rates. This study aimed to assess readiness for weight loss in obese women using the trans theoretical model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 volunteer apparently healthy obese women, in Ardabil, Iran. Participants completed the translated and validated University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire in their first visit. Subjects were categorized into one of the stages of change based on the highest of four z-transformed scale scores. The readiness to change score was calculated. Results: More than half of the participants were in early stages of weight loss and 24.5% were in the action stage. The readiness score in the precontemplation stage was significantly lower than the other stages, but no significant difference was observed among the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. The significant correlation was observed between the stages of change and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.33, P<0.05. Conclusion: Obese women attending the nutrition clinic are in different stages to change for weight loss. Understanding person specific stages of change orientates the dietitian to use the most appropriate counseling strategies. Hence the stages and readiness to change should be considered before implementing any intervention in clinical settings for optimal outcomes.

  19. Celebrating women in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities.   On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...

  20. 1986 Index/Directory of Women's Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martha Leslie, Ed.

    This is a directory of women's media, i.e., media primarily owned and operated by and for women. The mission of this annual publication is to aid networking among women, women's organizations, and women's media, both nationally and internationally. The directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and…