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Sample records for clic main linac

  1. A Newly Designed and Optimized CLIC Main Linac Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Grudiev, A

    2004-01-01

    A new CLIC main-linac accelerating-structure design, HDS (Hybrid Damped Structure), with improved high-gradient performance, efficiency and simplicity of fabrication is presented. The gains are achieved in part through a new cell design which includes fully-profiled rf surfaces optimized to minimize surface fields and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication in quadrants with no rf currents across joints. Further gains are achieved through a new structure optimization procedure, which simultaneously balances surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, rf-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The optimization of a 30 GHz structure with a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m results in a bunch spacing of seven rf cycles and 32 % rf-to-beam efficiency.

  2. Optimum frequency and gradient for the CLIC main linac accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Grudiev, A; Wuensch, Walter

    2006-01-01

    A novel procedure for the optimization of CLIC main linac parameters including operating frequency and the accelerating gradient is presented. The optimization procedure takes into account both beam dynamics and high power rf constraints. Beam dynamics constraints are given by emittance growth due to short- and long-range transverse wakefields. RF constraints are given by rf breakdown and pulsed surface heating limitations of the accelerating structure. Interpolation of beam and structure parameters in a wide range allows hundreds of millions of accelerating structures to be analyzed to find the structure with the highest ratio of luminosity to main linac input power, which is used as the figure of merit. The frequency and gradient have been varied in the ranges 12-30 GHz and 90-150 MV/m respectively. It is shown that the optimum frequency lies in the range from 16 to 20 GHz depending on the accelerating gradient and that the optimum gradient is below 100 MV/m. Based on our current understanding of the constr...

  3. A Trajectory Correction based on Multi-Step Lining-up for the CLIC Main Linac

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    In the CLIC main linac it is very important to minimise the trajectory excursion and consequently the emittance dilution in order to obtain the required luminosity. Several algorithms have been proposed and lately the ballistic method has proved to be very effective. The trajectory method described in this Note retains the main advantages of the latter while adding some interesting features. It is based on the separation of the unknown variables like the quadrupole misalignments, the offset and slope of the injection straight line and the misalignments of the beam position monitors (BPM). This is achieved by referring the trajectory relatively to the injection line and not to the average pre-alignment line and by using two trajectories each corresponding to slightly different quadrupole strengths. A reference straight line is then derived onto which the beam is bent by a kick obtained by moving the first quadrupole. The other quadrupoles are then aligned on that line. The quality of the correction depends mai...

  4. CLIC Main Linac Beam-Loading Compensation by Drive Beam Phase Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R; Syratchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The CLIC final focus momentum acceptance of ± 0.5 % limits the bunch-to-bunch energy variation in the main beam to less than ± 0.1 %, since the estimated single-bunch contribution is ± 0.4 %. On the other hand, a relatively high beam-loading of the main accelerating structures (about 16 %) is unavoidable in order to optimize the RF-to-beam efficiency. Therefore, a compensation method is needed to reduce the resulting bunch-to-bunch energy spread of the main beam. Up to now, it has been planned to obtain the RF pulse shape needed for compensation by means of a charge ramp in the drive beam pulse. On the other hand, the use of constant-current drive beam pulses would make the design and operation of the drive beam injector considerably simpler. In this paper we present a possible solution adapted to the CLIC two-beam scheme with constant-current pulses, based on phase modulation of the drive beam bunches.

  5. A high phase advance damped and detuned structure for the main linacs of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Vasim; Jones, Roger M; Wuensch, Walter; Grudiev, A

    2010-01-01

    The main accelerating structures for the CLIC are designed to operate at an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The accelerating frequency has been optimised to 11.994 GHz with a phase advance of 2π/3 [1] of the main accelerating mode. The moderately damped and detuned structure (DDS) design [2-3] is being studied as an alternative to the strongly damped WDS design [1]. Both these designs are based on the nominal accelerating phase advance. Here we explore high phase advance (HPA) structures in which the group velocity of the rf fields is reduced compared to that of standard (2π/3) structures. The electrical breakdown strongly depends on the fundamental mode group velocity. Hence it is expected that electrical breakdown is less likely to occur in the HPA structures. We report on a study of both the fundamental and dipole modes in a CLIC_DDS_ HPA structure, designed to operate at 5π/6 phase advance per cell. Higher order dipole modes in both the standard and HPA structures are also studied.

  6. Failure Tolerant Operation and Trimming Principle in the CLIC Main Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Siemaszko, D

    2012-01-01

    A powering strategy for a high number of magnets disposed in a radiated and confined area is presented for a particle accelerator application. One power converter supplies the main current in series connected magnets. Then, for adjusting each current individually, small active trimmers are implemented together which each magnet. The trimmers are only dissipative, implemented as MOSFETs operated in their linear region and controlled by analog PI controllers. The reliability of the whole powering system is ensured with failure tolerance that complies with beam physics. The steady state operation and dynamic response in case of failures are experimentally studied in a reduced scale prototype.

  7. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of the CLIC Post-Linac Energy Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Resta-Lopez, J; Latina, A

    2012-01-01

    The post-linac energy collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) has been designed for passive protection of the Beam Delivery System (BDS) against miss-steered beams due to failure modes in the main linac. In this paper, a thermo-mechanical analysis of the CLIC energy collimators is presented. This study is based on simulations using the codes FLUKA and ANSYS when an entire bunch train hits the collimators. Different failure mode scenarios in the main linac are considered. The aim is to improve the collimator in order to make a reliable and robust design so that survives without damage the impact of a full bunch train in case of likely events generating energy errors.

  8. Design and optimization of Compact Linear Collider main linac accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hao; Grudiev, Alexej

    2016-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac uses waveguide damped structure as its baseline design. The current baseline structure design written in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report is named "CLIC-G." Recent activities on the CLIC-G design including high power tests on structure prototypes and the study of machining cost assessment had raised the need of reoptimizing the structure design to minimize the machining cost and the pulse surface temperature rise. This work presents optimization of the structure geometry, high-order-mode (HOM) damping loads and the design of a HOM-free power splitter for the input coupler. Compared to the current baseline design CLIC-G, the new structure design reduced the pulse surface temperature rise, input power and manufacturing cost and achieves better suppression to the long range transverse wakefield. Cell disks and damping loads for the new structure design are also more compact than those of the CLIC-G design.

  9. Impact of Dynamic Magnetic fields on the CLIC Main Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, J; Jach, C; Jeanneret, JB; Schulte, D; Stulle, F

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong precision requirements on the position of the beam. The beam position will be sensitive to external dynamic magnetic fields (stray fields) in the nanotesla regime. The impact of these fields on the CLIC main beam has been studied by performing simulations on the lattices and tolerances have been determined. Several mitigation techniques will be discussed.

  10. Stabilization of the Beam Intensity in the Linac at the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A; Bathe, BN; Srivastava, S

    2013-01-01

    A new electron beam stabilization system has been introduced in CTF3 in order to open new possibilities for CLIC beam studies in ultra-stable conditions and to provide a sustainable tool to keep the beam intensity and energy at its reference values for long term operations. The stabilization system is based on a pulse-to-pulse feedback control of the electron gun to compensate intensity deviations measured at the end of the injector and at the beginning of the linac. Thereby it introduces negligible beam distortions at the end of the linac and it significantly reduces energy deviations. A self-calibration mechanism has been developed to automatically configure the feedback controller for the optimum performance. The residual intensity jitter of 0.045% of the stabilized beam was measured whereas the CLIC requirement is 0.075%.

  11. A prototype cavity beam position monitor for the CLIC Main Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Cullinany , F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Bastard, D; Calvo, E; Chritin, N; Guillot-Vignot, F; Lefevre, T; Søby, L; Wendt, M; Lunin, A; Yakovlev, V P; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) places unprecedented demands on its diagnostics systems. A large number of cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) throughout the main linac and beam delivery system (BDS) must routinely perform with 50 nm spatial resolution. Multiple position measurements within a single 156 ns bunch train are also required. A prototype low-Q cavity beam position monitor has been designed and built to be tested on the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) probe beam. This paper presents the latest measurements of the prototype cavity BPM and the design and simulation of the radio frequency (RF) signal processing electronics with regards to the final performance. Installation of the BPM in the CTF3 probe beamline is also discussed.

  12. Transient beam-loading model and compensation in Compact Linear Collider main linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kononenko, O

    2011-01-01

    A new model to compensate for the transient beam loading in the CLIC main linac is developed. It takes into account the CLIC specific power generation scheme and the exact 3D geometry of the accelerating structure including couplers. A new method of calculating unloaded and loaded voltages during the transient is proposed and a dedicated optimization scheme of the rf pulse to compensate the transient beam-loading effect is presented. It is demonstrated that the 0.03% limit on the rms relative bunch-to-bunch energy spread in the main beam after acceleration can be reached. The optimization technique has been used to increase the rf to beam efficiency while preserving the CLIC requirements and to compensate for the energy spread caused by the Balakin-Novokhatski-Smirnov damping and transient process in the subharmonic buncher. Effects of charge jitters in the drive and main beams are studied. It is shown that within the 0.1% CLIC specification limit on the rms spread in beams charge the energy spread is not sig...

  13. Proposal to negotiate extensions to four collaboration agreements for the design of key components of the beam-delivery and linac systems for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) for a duration of two years

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate extensions to four collaboration agreements for the design of key components of the beam-delivery and linac systems for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) for a duration of two years

  14. Failure Studies at the Compact Linear Collider: Main Linac and Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Maidana, C O; Jonker, M

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is based on a two-beam acceleration scheme. The energy of two high-intensity, low-energy drive beams is extracted and transferred to two low-intensity, high-energy main beams. The CERN Technology Department - Machine protection and electrical integrity group has the mission to develop and maintain the systems to protect machine components from damage caused by ill controlled conditions. Various failure scenarios were studied and the potential damage these failures could cause to the machine structures was estimated. In this paper, first results of the beam response to kick induced failures in the main LINAC and in the beam delivery system (BDS) sections are presented together with possible collimator damage scenarios.

  15. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  16. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  17. Stabilization and Fine Positioning to the Nanometre Level of the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Lackner, F; Leuxe, R; Slaathaug, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC main beam quadrupoles need to be stabilized to 1.5 nm integrated R.M.S. displacement at 1 Hz. The choice was made to apply active stabilization with piezoelectric actuators in a rigid support with flexural guides. The advantages of this choice are the robustness against external forces and the possibility to make fast incremental nanometre positioning of the magnet with the same actuators. The study and feasibility demonstration is made in several steps from a single degree of freedom system (s.d.o.f.) with a small mass, a s.d.o.f. with a large mass, leading to the demonstration including the smallest (type 1) and largest (type 4) CLIC main beam quadrupoles. The paper discusses the choices of the position and orientation of the actuators and the tailored rigidities of the flexural hinges in the multi degree of freedom system, and the corresponding MIMO control system. The compatibility with the magnet support and micrometre alignment system is essential. The status of the study and performed tests wi...

  18. CLIC main beam quadrupole active pre-alignment based on cam movers

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Mainaud Durand, H; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a study for a future 48 km long linear electron-positron collider in the multi TeV range. Its target luminosity can only be reached if the main beam quadrupoles (MB quads) are actively pre-aligned within 17 µm in sliding windows of 200 m with respect to a straight reference line. In addition to the positioning requirement, the pre-alignment system has to provide a rigid support for the nano-stabilization system to ensure that the first eigenfrequency is above 100 Hz. Re-adjustment based on cam movers was chosen for detailed studies to meet the stringent pre-alignment requirements. There are four different types of MB quads in CLIC. Their lengths and masses vary so that at least two types of cam movers have to be developed. The validation of the cams with less stringent space restrictions has proceeded to a test setup in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF). Prototypes of the more demanding, smaller cams have been manufactured and they are under tests in 1 DOF. This paper describes the...

  19. Estimation of potential radiation damage to electronics units in the CLIC tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Patapenka, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    An electronic unit is required for each CLIC “Two Beam Module”. This study aims to estimate the potential damage due to the prompt radiation to the electronics units installed inside the CLIC Main Linac tunnel. Sets of Monte-Carlo simulations have been done to estimate damage to electronics installed at various locations inside the tunnel. Continuous and point beam losses have been considered for CLIC Main and Drive beams. Lead and iron in combination with a polyethylene layer were investigated as a possible shielding. The upper limits of the estimated quantities are presented for stand alone and shielded electronics.

  20. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  1. Design of main linac emittance tuning bumps for the Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Peder

    2008-01-01

    The installation of elements in the main linac of future linear colliders can only be done with a limited precision. The inevitable misalignments lead to unacceptable emittance growth. Beam-based alignment, e.g., one-to-one correction, dispersion free steering, or ballistic alignment, is necessary to reduce the emittance growth. In some cases, this is, however, not sufficient. For further reduction of the emittance growth, so-called emittance tuning bumps have to be used. A general strategy for the design of emittance tuning bumps has been developed and tested. Simulations suggest that the method can be conveniently used to understand the weaknesses of existing emittance tuning bumps and to significantly improve their performance in terms of, e.g., emittance reduction capability and convergence speed. An example of an application is the design of ten orthogonal knobs that, according to simulations, can reduce the normalized emittance growth in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac from 23.8 to 0.34 nm...

  2. Submicron multi-bunch BPM for CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    A common-mode free cavity BPM is currently under development at Fermilab within the ILC-CLIC collaboration. This monitor will be operated in a CLIC Main Linac multi-bunch regime, and needs to provide both, high spatial and time resolution. We present the design concept, numerical analysis, investigation on tolerances and error effects, as well as simulations on the signal response applying a multi-bunch stimulus. The proposed CERN linear collider (CLIC) requires a very precise measurement of beam trajectory to preserve the low emittance when transporting the beam through the Main Linac. An energy chirp within the bunch train will be applied to measure and minimize the dispersion effects, which require high resolution (in both, time and space) beam position monitors (BPM) along the beam-line. We propose a low-Q waveguide loaded TM{sub 110} dipole mode cavity as BPM, which is complemented by a TM{sub 010} monopole mode resonator of same resonant frequency for reference signal purposes. The design is based on a well known TM{sub 110} selective mode coupling idea.

  3. Studies on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC two-beam module

    CERN Document Server

    Nousiainen, R; Österberg, K

    2010-01-01

    To fulfil the mechanical requirements set by the luminosity goals of the CLIC collider, currently under study, the 2-m two-beam modules, the shortest repetitive elements in the main linac, have to be controlled at micrometer level. At the same time these modules are exposed to variable high power dissipation while the accelerator is ramped up to nominal power as well as when the mode of CLIC operation is varied. This will result into inevitable temperature excursions driving mechanical distortions in and between different module components. A FEM model is essential to estimate and simulate the fundamental thermo-mechanical behaviour of the CLIC two-beam module to facilitate its design and development. In this paper, the fundamental thermal environments for the RF-components of the module are described. Also the thermal and structural results for the studied module configuration are presented showing the fundamental thermo-mechanical behaviour under the main CLIC collider operation conditions.

  4. Status of Ground Motion Mitigation Techniques for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, J; Collette, C; Duarte Ramos, F; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Janssens, S; Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D; Balik, G; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Burrows, P; Caron, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong stability requirements on the position of the beam. In particular, the beam position will be sensitive to ground motion. A number of mitigation techniques are proposed - quadrupole stabilisation and positioning, final doublet stabilisation as well as beam based orbit and interaction point (IP) feedback. Integrated studies of the impact of the ground motion on the CLIC Main Linac (ML) and Beam Delivery System (BDS) have been performed, which model the hardware and beam performance in detail. Based on the results future improvements of the mitigation techniques are suggested and simulated. It is shown that with the current design the tight luminosity budget for ground motion effects is fulfilled and accordingly, an essential feasibility issue of CLIC has been addressed.

  5. Beam dynamics design of the main accelerating section with KONUS in the CSR-LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Hu, Zhang; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xue-Jun, Yin; Heng, Du

    2013-01-01

    The CSR-LINAC injector has been proposed in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The linac mainly consists of two parts, the RFQ and the IH-DTL. The KONUS (Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur) concept has been introduced into the DTL section. In this paper, the re-matching of the main accelerating section will be finished in the 3.7 MeV/u scheme and the new beam dynamics design up to 7 MeV/u will be also shown. Through the beam re-matching, the relative emittance growth has been suppressed greatly along the linac.

  6. Positron source investigation by using CLIC drive beam for Linac-LHC based e{sup +}p collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikan, Ertan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey); Aksakal, Huesnue, E-mail: aksakal@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey)

    2012-08-11

    Three different methods which are alternately conventional, Compton backscattering and Undulator based methods employed for the production of positrons. The positrons to be used for e{sup +}p collisions in a Linac-LHC (Large Hadron Collider) based collider have been studied. The number of produced positrons as a function of drive beam energy and optimum target thickness has been determined. Three different targets have been used as a source investigation which are W{sub 75}-Ir{sub 25}, W{sub 75}-Ta{sub 25}, and W{sub 75}-Re{sub 25} for three methods. Estimated number of the positrons has been performed with FLUKA simulation code. Then, these produced positrons are used for following Adiabatic matching device (AMD) and capture efficiency is determined. Then e{sup +}p collider luminosity corresponding to the methods mentioned above have been calculated by CAIN code.

  7. First Considerations Concerning an Optimized Cavity Design for the Main Linac of BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Riemann, T. Weis, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, H.-W. Glock, C. Potratz, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    The Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) is designed to develop and demonstrate CW linac technology and expertise required to drive next-generation Energy Recovery Linacs. Strongly HOM-damped multicell 1.3 GHz cavities are required for the main linac. The optimization of the cavities presented here is primarily based on the CEBAF 1.5 GHz 5-cell high-current cavity design, including HOM waveguide couplers. The cavity was scaled to 1.3 GHz and extended to 7 cells. Modifications to the end group design have also been studied. An effort was also made to reduce the ratio Epk/Eacc while still permitting HOMs to propagate.

  8. Development of an Eccentric CAM Based Active Pre-Alignment System for the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Collette, C; Mainaud Durand, H; Hauviller, C; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R

    2010-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities of today's particle accelerators. The demanding transverse and vertical beam sizes and emittance specifications are resulting in stringent alignment and a nanometre stability requirement. In the current feasibility study, the main beam quadrupole magnets have to be actively pre-aligned with a precision of 1 µm in 5 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) before being mechanically stabilized to the nm scale above 1 Hz. This contribution describes the approach of performing this active pre-alignment based on an eccentric cam system. In order to limit the amplification of the vibration sources at resonant frequencies a sufficiently high Eigenfrequency is required. Therefore the contact region between cam and support was optimized for adequate stiffness based on the Hertzian theory. Furthermore, practical tests performed on a single degree of freedom mock-up wil...

  9. CLIC OVERVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas, R

    2009-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electronpositron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV in order to make the multi-TeV range accessible for lepton physics. The current goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology by the year 2010. Recently, important progress has been made concerning the high-gradient accelerating structure tests and the experiments with beam in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. On the organizational side, the CLIC international collaborations have significantly gained momentum considerably boosting the CLIC study.

  10. CLIC Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electronpositron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV in order to make the multi-TeV range accessible for lepton physics. The current goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology by the year 2010. Recently, important progress has been made concerning the high-gradient accelerating structure tests and the experiments with beam in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. On the organizational side, the CLIC international collaborations have significantly gained momentum considerably boosting the CLIC study.

  11. Single-bunch emittance dilution in the perfect ILC main linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逗; 高杰

    2011-01-01

    In the ILC (International Linear Collider) main linac, low emittance preservation is the most important issue for beam dynamics study. As the main sources of emittance dilution, the dispersive and wakefield effects were studied in this paper. The theoreti

  12. Single-bunch emittance dilution in the perfect ILC main linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dou; GAO Jie

    2011-01-01

    In the ILC(International Linear Collider)main linac, low emittance preservation is the most important issue for beam dynamics study. As the main sources of emittance dilution, the dispersive and wakefield effects were studied in this paper. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations of these two effects on single-bunch emittance dilution, without any misalignment errors, are presented in detail.

  13. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  14. Progress on modelling of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC two-beam module

    CERN Document Server

    Raatikainen, R; Niinikoski, T; Riddone, G

    2011-01-01

    under study, imposes micrometer mechanical stability of the 2-m long two-beam modules, the shortest repetitive elements of the main linacs. These modules will be exposed to variable high power dissipation during operation resulting in mechanical distortions in and between module components. The stability of the CLIC module will be tested in laboratory conditions at CERN in a full-scale prototype module. In this paper, the FEA model developed for CLIC prototype module is described. The thermal and structural results for the new module configuration are presented considering the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC collider in its primary operation modes. These results will be compared to the laboratory measurements to be done during 2011 and 2012 with the full-scale prototype module. The experimental results will allow for better understanding of the module behaviour and they will be propagated back to the present thermo-mechanical model.

  15. ISSUES AND FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF CLIC SUPPORTING SYSTEM CHAIN ACTIVE PRE-ALIGNMENT USING A MULTI-MODULE TEST SETUP (MOCK-UP)

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The implementation study of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is under way at CERN with a focus on the challenging issues. The pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirements are part of these technical challenges: the permissible transverse position errors of the linac components are typically 14 micrometers over sliding windows of 200m. To validate the proposed methods and strategies, the Large Scale Metrology section at CERN has performed campaigns of measurements on the CLIC Two Beam Test Modules, focusing inter alia on the alignment performance of the CLIC “snake”- girders configuration and the Main Beam Quadrupoles supporting structures. This paper describes the activities and results of tests which were performed on the test mock-up for the qualification of the CLIC supporting system chain for active pre-alignment. The lessons learnt (“know how”), the issues encountered in the girder position determination as well as the behaviour of the mechanical components are presented.

  16. CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Multimedia

    Kossyvakis, I; Faus-golfe, A

    2007-01-01

    The design of CLIC is based on a two-beam scheme, where short pulses of high power 30 GHz RF are extracted from a drive beam running parallel to the main beam. The 3rd generation CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) will demonstrate the generation of the drive beam with the appropriate time structure, the extraction of 30 GHz RF power from this beam, as well as acceleration of a probe beam with 30 GHz RF cavities. The project makes maximum use of existing equipment and infrastructure of the LPI complex, which became available after the closure of LEP.

  17. Thermo-mechanical modelling and experimental validation of CLIC prototype module type 0

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, Lauri; Koivurova, Hannu; Riddone, Germana; Österberg, Kenneth

    Micron level stability of the two-meter repetitive modules constituting the two main linacs is one of the most important requirements to achieve the luminosity goal for the Compact Linear Collider. Structural deformations due to thermal loads and related to the RF power dissipated inside the modules affect the alignment of the linacs and therefore the resulting luminosity performance. A CLIC prototype module has been assembled in a dedicated laboratory and a thermal test program has been started in order to study its thermo-mechanical behaviour. This thesis focuses on the finite elements modelling of the first CLIC prototype module 0. The aim of the modelling is to examine the temperature distributions and the resulting deformations of the module in different operating conditions defined in the thermal test program. The theoretical results have been compared to the experimental ones; the comparison shows that the results are in good agreement both for the thermal behaviour of the module and for the resulting ...

  18. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  19. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  20. Cherenkov Fibers for Beam Loss Monitoring at the CLIC Two Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Holzer, E B

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is a feasibility study aiming at a nominal center of mass energy of 3TeV and is based on normal conducting travelling-wave accelerating structures, operating at very high field gradients of 100 MV/m. Such high fields require high peak power and hence a novel power source, the CLIC two beam system, has been developed, in which a high intensity, low energy drive beam (DB) supplies energy to a high energy, low intensity main beam (MB). At the Two Beam Modules (TBM), which compose the 2x21km long CLIC main linac, a protection against beam losses resulting from badly controlled beams is necessary and particularly challenging, since the beam power of both main beam (14 MW) and drive beam (70 MW) is impressive. To avoid operational downtimes and severe damages to machine components, a general Machine Protection System (MPS) scheme has been developed. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a key element of the CLIC machine protection system. Its main role will be to detect p...

  1. Physics and Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CLIC represents an attractive option for the future particle physics programme at the energy frontier. CLIC is a proposed electron-positron linear collider, based on a novel two beam accelerating structure, with the capability of operating at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. The Physics and Detector volume of the CLIC conceptual design report was recently published as a CERN yellow report. In this seminar, I will review the conclusions of this report, focussing on four main areas. Firstly, I will give an overview of the physics potential at CLIC, and will place this in the context of a possible scenario for the staged construction of the machine. Secondly, I will discuss the challenges for a detector operating in the CLIC machine environment. I will then present detailed studies of possible detector concepts, based on high granularity particle flow calorimetry, which demonstrate that the required detector performance goals at CLIC can be met. Finally, I will highlight the main issues for the future R&a...

  2. CLIC CDR - physics and detectors: CLIC conceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Demarteau, M.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Weerts, H. (High Energy Physics); (Many)

    2012-02-10

    This report forms part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC accelerator complex is described in a separate CDR volume. A third document, to appear later, will assess strategic scenarios for building and operating CLIC in successive center-of-mass energy stages. It is anticipated that CLIC will commence with operation at a few hundred GeV, giving access to precision standard-model physics like Higgs and top-quark physics. Then, depending on the physics landscape, CLIC operation would be staged in a few steps ultimately reaching the maximum 3 TeV center-of-mass energy. Such a scenario would maximize the physics potential of CLIC providing new physics discovery potential over a wide range of energies and the ability to make precision measurements of possible new states previously discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main purpose of this document is to address the physics potential of a future multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider based on CLIC technology and to describe the essential features of a detector that are required to deliver the full physics potential of this machine. The experimental conditions at CLIC are significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders due to the much higher levels of beam-induced backgrounds and the 0.5 ns bunch-spacing. Consequently, a large part of this report is devoted to understanding the impact of the machine environment on the detector with the aim of demonstrating, with the example of realistic detector concepts, that high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC. Since the impact of background increases with energy, this document concentrates on the detector requirements and physics measurements at the highest CLIC center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. One essential output of this report is the clear demonstration that a wide range of high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC with detectors which are challenging, but

  3. The 30 GHz transfer structure for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, G; Thorndahl, L

    1998-01-01

    In the so-called "Two-Beam Acceleration Scheme" the energy of a drive beam is converted to rf power by means of a "Transfer Structure", which plays the role of power source. In the Transfer Structure the bunched drive beam is decelerated by the electromagnetic field which it induces and builds up by the coherent interaction of successive bunches with the chosen longitudinal mode. The CLIC Transfer Structure is original in that it operates at 30 GHz and uses teeth-like corrugations to slow down the hybrid TM mode to make it synchronous with the drive beam. The beam energy is transformed into rf power, which travels along the structure and is collected by the output couplers. The 30 GHz rf power is then transported by means of two waveguides to two main linac disk-loaded accelerating structures. This report describes the CLIC Transfer Structure design, 3-D computer simulations, model construction and measure-ments as well as the prototype construction and testing with the low energy beam in the CLIC Test Facili...

  4. Klystron Modulators for the 3 TeV CLIC Scheme An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, P

    2001-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) design is based on the Two-Beam technology being developed at CERN. The Drive Beam accelerator will have about 200 multi-beam klystron-modulator (MBK-M) RF power sources for each drive beam linac. These multi-beam klystrons (MBKs) should provide up to 50 MW peak power at 937 MHz, with a 100 ms pulse width and operating at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The CLIC drive beam injector will also use a number of these same MBK-Ms operating at slightly lower power levels. A 0.5 MW peak power, 468 MHz klystron with a bandwidth of around 150 MHz will be required for the sub-harmonic buncher in each drive beam injector chain as well. The Main Beams injector complex is required to deliver e+ and e- beams at 9 GeV via the transfer lines to the CLIC Main Beam accelerator. The present injector complex design uses a series of linacs to accelerate the electron and positron beams coming from RF guns working at 1.5 GHz up to an energy of 1.98 GeV before they are put into damping rings. Each of ...

  5. CLIC TWO-BEAM MODULE FOR THE CLIC CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND RELATED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM*

    CERN Document Server

    Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Riddone, G

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) study is a site independent study exploring technological developments to extend linear colliders into the Multi-TeV colliding beam energy range. The two-beam linear accelerator being studied at CERN involves the design and integration of many different technical systems, tightly bound and influencing each other. For the construction of two linacs it has been decided to proceed with a modular design, and repetitive two-beam modules of a few types were defined. The modules consist of micron-level precision components operating under ultra-high vacuum as required by the beam physics. For the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, the development and system integration is mainly focused on the most complex module type containing the highest number of components and technical systems. For proving the proper functioning of the needed technical systems and confirming their feasibility it has been decided to build four prototype modules and test them without beam. In addition, three module...

  6. CLIC Two-Beam Module for the CLIC Conceptual Design and related experimental program

    CERN Document Server

    Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Riddone, G

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) study is a site independent study exploring technological developments to extend linear colliders into the Multi-TeV colliding beam energy range. The two-beam linear accelerator being studied at CERN involves the design and integration of many different technical systems, tightly bound and influencing each other. For the construction of two linacs it has been decided to proceed with a modular design, and repetitive two-beam modules of a few types were defined. The modules consist of micron-level precision components operating under ultra-high vacuum as required by the beam physics. For the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, the development and system integration is mainly focused on the most complex module type containing the highest number of components and technical systems. For proving the proper functioning of the needed technical systems and confirming their feasibility it has been decided to build four prototype modules and test them without beam. In addition, three module...

  7. CLIC Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086185

    2015-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson and with upgrades to higher energy and luminosity, the LHC is mapping the route of particle physics into the future. The next step in this journey of discovery could be a linear electron-positron collider, which would complement the LHC and allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark and electroweak processes in addition to possible new physics beyond the Standard Model. The Compact Linear Collider is under development by two worldwide collaborations, pushing the limits of particle acceleration and detection. Technological R&D, physics simulations and engineering studies must all come together to make CLIC a reality.

  8. BSM physics at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simoniello, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an option for a future electron-positron collider operating at centre-of-mass energies from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model through direct observation of new particles and precision measurements is one of the main motivations for the high-energy stages of CLIC. An overview of physics benchmark studies assuming different new physics scenarios is given in this contribution. These studies are based on full detector simulations. New particles can be discovered in most of the considered scenarios almost up to the kinematic limit ($\\sqrt{s}$/2 for pair production). The low background conditions at CLIC provide extended discovery potential compared to hadron colliders, for example in the case of non-coloured TeV-scale SUSY particles. In addition to direct particle searches, BSM models can be probed up to scales of tens of TeV through precision measurements. Examples, including recent results on the reaction $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma\\gam...

  9. Thermo-Mechanical tests for the CLIC two-beam module study

    CERN Document Server

    Xydou, A; Riddone, G; Daskalaki, E

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity goal of CLIC requires micron level precision with respect to the alignment of the components on its two-meter long modules, composing the two main linacs. The power dissipated inside the module components introduces mechanical deformations affecting their alignment and therefore the resulting machine performance. Several two-beam prototype modules must be assembled to extensively measure their thermo-mechanical behavior under different operation modes. In parallel, the real environmental conditions present in the CLIC tunnel should be studied. The air conditioning and ventilation system providing specified air temperature and flow has been installed in the dedicated laboratory. The power dissipation occurring in the modules is being reproduced by the electrical heaters inserted inside the RF structure mock-ups and the quadrupoles. The efficiency of the cooling systems is being verified and the alignment of module components is monitored. The measurement results will be compared to finite elemen...

  10. Study of the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of the CLIC Two-Beam Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, F; Riddone, G; Österberg, K; Kossyvakis, I; Gudkov, D; Samochkine, A

    2013-01-01

    The final luminosity target of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) imposes a micron-level stability requirement on the two-meter repetitive two-beam modules constituting the main linacs. Two-beam prototype modules are being assembled to extensively study their thermo-mechanical behaviour under different operation modes. The power dissipation occurring in the modules will be reproduced and the efficiency of the corresponding cooling systems validated. At the same time, the real environmental conditions present in the CLIC tunnel will be studied. Air conditioning and ventilation systems have been installed in the dedicated laboratory. The air temperature will be changed from 20 to 40°C, while the air flow rate will be varied up to 0.8 m/s. During all experimental tests, the alignment of the RF structures will be monitored to investigate the influence of power dissipation and air temperature on the overall thermo-mechanical behaviour. \

  11. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (<Linac Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  12. CLIC Physics Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pandurovic, Mila

    2017-01-01

    The CLICdp is an international collaboration that investigates the physics potential of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and performs research and development of the CLIC detector. CLIC is a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, designed to cover a physics program of the Standard model physics, with the emphasis on Higgs and top as well as to address the wide range of open questions of the phenomena beyond the Standard model with high precision. The CLIC is designed to be build and operated at three discrete energy stages, sort(s) = 380 GeV, 1.5 and 3.0 TeV, which are optimized for the foreseen physics program. In this talk the CLIC accelerator, detector and experimental environment of CLIC will be presented, as well as, the number of the full-simulation measurements in the Higgs, top and beyond Standard model sector, presenting the capabilities of CLIC for high precision measurements.

  13. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  14. CLIC: Status and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a high energy electron–positron col- lider with a maximal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. In order to achieve high luminosity small bunches with high intensity are necessary. These lead to strong beam-beam forces, which create a challenging background environment. The accelerator concept and the detectors designed for CLIC are presented. Results from detector benchmark studies presented in the CLIC conceptual design report are summarised.

  15. LHC and CLIC LLRF final reports

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, A; Woolley, B; Ambattu, P; Tahir, I; Syratchev, Igor; Wuensch, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Crab cavities rotate bunches from opposing beams to achieve effective head-on collision in CLIC or collisions at an adjustable angle in LHC. Without crab cavities 90% of achievable luminosity at CLIC would be lost. In the LHC, the crab cavities allow the same or larger integrated luminosity while reducing significantly the requested dynamic range of physics detectors. The focus for CLIC is accurate phase synchronisation of the cavities, adequate damping of wakefields and modest amplitude stability. For the LHC, the main LLRF issues are related to imperfections: beam offsets in cavities, RF noise, measurement noise in feedback loops, failure modes and mitigations. This report develops issues associated with synchronising the CLIC cavities. It defines an RF system and experiments to validate the approach. It reports on the development of hardware for measuring the phase performance of the RF distributions system and cavities. For the LHC, the hardware being very close to the existing LLRF, the report focuses on...

  16. CLIC brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The world's biggest and most powerful accelerator, the LHC, is mapping the route of particle physics for the future. The next step, to complement the LHC in exploring this new region, is most likely to be a linear electron-positron collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a novel approach to such a collider. It is currently under development by the CLIC collaboration, which is hosted at CERN.

  17. Progress on the CLIC Linear Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    The CLIC study aims at a multi-TeV, high luminosity e+e- linear collider design. Beam acceleration uses high frequency (30 GHz), normal conducting structures operating at high accelerating gradients, in order to reduce the length and, in consequence, the cost of the linac. The cost-effective RF power production scheme, based on the so-called Two-beam Acceleration method, enables electrons and positrons to be collided at energies ranging from ~ 0.1 TeV up to a maximum of 5 TeV, in stages. A road map has been drawn up to indicate the research and development necessary to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a 3 TeV centre-of-mass collider with a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1. Considerable progress has been made in meeting the challenges associated with the CLIC technology and the present paper briefly reviews some of them. In particular, the status is given of the studies on the CLIC high-gradient structures, the dynamic time-dependent effects, the stabilisation of the vibration and the beam delivery system. T...

  18. Physics at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a high-energy e+e- collider under development. The CLIC conceptual design report, published in 2012, concentrated on 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy. At that time operation at lower energies was not yet studied at the same level. Following the discovery of the Higgs boson, the CLIC potential for precision Higgs measurements was addressed for several centre-of-mass energies. In parallel, the scope for precision top quark physics was further explored. As a result an optimised CLIC staging scenario was defined in collaboration between accelerator and detector experts. The staging scenario aims at a maximum physics output and maximum luminosity yield with a collider built and operated in three energy steps: 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV, 3 TeV. The seminar will comprise a short status report on the CLIC accelerator and detector. Emphasis will be on the CLIC physics potential for Higgs, top quark and BSM physics in the new staging scenario.

  19. Laser wire emittance measurement line AT CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Blair, G A; Aumeyr, T; Schulte, D; Stulle, F

    2011-01-01

    A precise measurement of the transverse beam size and beam emittances upstream of the final focus is essential for ensuring the full luminosity at future linear colliders. A scheme for the emittance measurements at the RTML line of the CLIC using laser-wire beam profile monitors is described. A lattice of the measurement line is discussed and results of simulations of statistical errors and of their impact on the accuracy of the emittance reconstruction are given. Laser wire systems suitable for CLIC and their main characteristics are discussed.

  20. Mustafa environment description and users' guide with applications to CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    In the main linacs of future linear colliders, the control of the emittances and the stability of a train of bunches are critical. It was therefore important for the Compact Linear Collider study (CLIC) to have a tool allowing numerical investigations of these questions. An interactive environment called MUSTAFA (MUltibunch Simulation and Tracking Algorithm for Future Accelerators) has been created and different tools have been developed over the time according to the needs. Progressively, these code and interactive facilities evolved into two main features, their portability on PCs independent from the main frame computers and their analysis capability using animated graphics. All the codes have been written under the MS-DOS operating system. The main application MBTR has been written in FORTRAN, the animated graphics facility MOVIE and the so-called MBUNCH utility program in QUICKBASIC (MS V4.5). The MBUNCH code was created in order to manage in a user friendly set-up the other two mentioned as well as the ...

  1. Multi-step lining-up correction of the CLIC trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    In the CLIC main linac it is very important to minimise the trajectory excursion and consequently the emittance dilution in order to obtain the required luminosity. Several algorithms have been proposed and lately the ballistic method has proved to be very effective. The trajectory correction method described hereafter retains the main advantages of the latter while adding some interesting features. It is based on the separation of the unknown variables like the quadrupole misalignments, the offset and slope of the injection straight line and the misalignments of the beam position monitors (BPM). This is achieved by referring the trajectory relatively to the injection line and not to the average pre-alignment line and by using two trajectories each corresponding to slightly different quadrupole strengths. A reference straight line is then derived onto which the beam is bent by a kick obtained by moving the first quadrupole. The other quadrupoles are then aligned on that line. The quality of the correction dep...

  2. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  3. CLIC Muon Sweeper Design

    CERN Document Server

    Aloev, A; Gatignon, L; Modena, M; Pilicer, B; Tapan, I

    2016-01-01

    There are several background sources which may affect the analysis of data and detector performans at the CLIC project. One of the important background source is halo muons, which are generated along the beam delivery system (BDS), for the detector performance. In order to reduce muon background, magnetized muon sweepers have been used as a shielding material that is already described in a previous study for CLIC [1]. The realistic muon sweeper has been designed with OPERA. The design parameters of muon sweeper have also been used to estimate muon background reduction with BDSIM Monte Carlo simulation code [2, 3].

  4. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D

    2015-01-01

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

  5. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  6. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  7. Higgs physics at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukić, Strahinja

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is an option for a future multi-TeV electron-positron collider, offering the potential for a rich precision physics programme, combined with sensitivity to a wide range of new phenomena. The CLIC physics potential for measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson has been studied using full detector simulations for several centre-of-mass energies. The presented results provide crucial input to the energy staging strategy for the CLIC accelerator. The complete physics program for measurements of accessible Higgs boson couplings is presented in this contribution. The ultimate measurement precision is reached when all measurements available at a given centre-of-mass energy are included in combined fits. Operation at a few hundred GeV allows the couplings and width of the Higgs boson to be determined in a model-independent manner through the study of the Higgsstrahlung and WW-fusion processes. At a lepton collider, the measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section using the recoil mas...

  8. Higgs physics at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)613844

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is an option for a future multi-TeV electron-positron collider, offering the potential for a rich precision physics programme, combined with sensitivity to a wide range of new phenomena. The CLIC physics potential for measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson has been studied using full detector simulations for several centre-of-mass energies. The presented results provide crucial input to the energy staging strategy for the CLIC accelerator. The complete physics program for measurements of accessible Higgs boson couplings is presented in this talk. All measurements available at a given centre-of-mass energy were included in combined fits. Operation at a few hundred GeV allows the couplings and width of the Higgs boson to be determined in a model-independent manner through the study of the Higgsstrahlung and WW-fusion processes. At a lepton collider, the measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section using the recoil mass technique sets the absolute scale for all Higgs coupling...

  9. CLIC Post-Collision Line Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L; Geschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC post collision line is designed to transport the un-collided beams and the products of the collided beams with a total power of 14MW to the main beam dump. Full Monte Carlo simulation has been done for the description of the CLIC luminosity monitoring in the post collision line. One method of the luminosity diagnostic is based on the detection of high energy muons produced by beamstrahlung photons in the main beam dump. The disrupted beam and the beamstrahlung photons produce at the order of 106 muons per bunch crossing per cm2, with energies higher than 10 GeV. Threshold Cherenkov counters are considered after the beam dump for the detection of these high energy muons. Another method for luminosity monitoring is presented using the direct detection of the beamstrahlung photons.

  10. X-Band Crab Cavities for the CLIC Beam Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Abram, T.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Dolgashev, V.; Tantawi, S.; /SLAC; Jones, R.M.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.

    2011-11-22

    The CLIC machine incorporates a 20 mrad crossing angle at the IP to aid the extraction of spent beams. In order to recover the luminosity lost through the crossing angle a crab cavity is proposed to rotate the bunches prior to collision. The crab cavity is chosen to have the same frequency as the main linac (11.9942 GHz) as a compromise between size, phase stability requirements and beam loading. It is proposed to use a HE11 mode travelling wave structure as the CLIC crab cavity in order to minimise beam loading and mode separation. The position of the crab cavity close to the final focus enhances the effect of transverse wake-fields so effective wake-field damping is required. A damped detuned structure is proposed to suppress and de-cohere the wake-field hence reducing their effect. Design considerations for the CLIC crab cavity will be discussed as well as the proposed high power testing of these structures at SLAC. Design of a crab cavity for CLIC is underway at the Cockcroft Institute in collaboration with SLAC. This effort draws on a large degree of synergy with the ILC crab cavity developed at the Cockcroft Institute and other deflecting structure development at SLAC. A study of phase and amplitude variations in the cavity suggests that the tolerances are very tight and require a 'beyond state of the art' LLRF control system. A study of cavity geometry and its effect on the cavity fields has been performed using Microwave studio. This study has suggested that for our cavity an iris radius between 4-5 mm is optimum with an iris thickness of 2-3 mm based on group velocity and peak fields. A study of the cavity wakefields show that the single bunch wakes are unlikely to be a problem but the short bunch spacing may cause the multi-bunch wakefields to be an issue. This will require some of the modes to be damped strongly so that the wake is damped significantly before any following bunch arrives. Various methods of damping have been investigated and

  11. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavric, Uros; Vidmar, Matjaz; Chase, Brian; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs, uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high performance, low cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96 channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In the paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  12. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavric, Uros [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States)], E-mail: mavric@fnal.gov; Chase, Brian [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States); Vidmar, Matjaz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-08-21

    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high-performance, low-cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96-channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In this paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  13. Design and characterization of a prototype stripline beam position monitor for the Clic Drive Beam*

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, A; Wendt, M; Nappa, J M; Tassan-Viol, J; Vilalte, S; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) with its associated readout electronics is under development at CERN, in collaboration with SLAC, LAPP and IFIC. The anticipated position resolution and accuracy are expected to be below 2μm and 20μm respectively for operation of the BPM in the CLIC drive beam (DB) linac. This paper describes the particular CLIC DB conditions with respect to the beam position monitoring, presents the measurement concept, and summarizes electromagnetic simulations and RF measurements performed on the prototype.

  14. The CLIC feasibility demonstration in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Skowroński, P K; Bettoni, S; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Divall Csatari, M; Dabrowski, A E; Doebert, S; Dubrovskiy, A; Kononenko, O; Olvegaard, M; Persson, T; Rabiller, A; Tecker, F; Farabolini, W; Lillestol, R L; Adli, E; Palaia, A; Ruber, R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 is to demonstrate the feasibility issues of the CLIC two-beam technology: the efficient generation of a very high current drive beam, used as the power source to accelerate the main beam to multi-TeV energies with gradients of over 100 MeV/m, and stable drive beam deceleration. Results of successful beam acceleration with over 100 MeV/m energy gain are shown. Measurements of drive beam deceleration over a chain of Power Extraction Structures (PETS) are presented. The achieved RF power levels, the stability of the power production and of the deceleration are discussed. Finally, we give an overview of the remaining issues to be addressed by the end of 2011.

  15. The CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E; Elsener, K; Sailer, A; Uythoven, J; Appleby, R B; Salt, M; Ferrari, A; Ziemann, V

    2010-01-01

    The 1.5 TeV CLIC beams, with a total power of 14 MW per beam, are disrupted at the interaction point due to the very strong beam-beam effect. As a result, some 3.5 MW reach the main dump in form of beamstrahlung photons. About 0.5 MW of e+e- pairs with a very broad energy spectrum need to be disposed of along the post-collision line. The conceptual design of this beam line will be presented. Emphasis will be on the optimization studies of the CLIC post-collision line design with respect to the energy deposition in windows, dumps and absorbers, on the design of the luminosity monitoring for a fast feedback to the beam steering and on the background conditions for the luminosity monitoring equipment.

  16. Academic Training - Technological challenges of CLIC

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Technological challenges of CLIC R. Corsini, S. Doebert, S. Redaelli, T.Lefevre, CERN-AB and G. Arnau Izquierdo, H. Mainaud, CERN-TS Future e+e- Linear Colliders offer the potential to explore new physics at the TeV scale and beyond to very high precision. While the International Linear Collider (ILC) scheme of a collider in the 0.5 - 1 TeV range enters the engineering design phase, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study explores the technical feasibility of a collider capable of reaching into the multi-TeV energy domain. Key ingredients of the CLIC scheme are acceleration at high-frequency (30 GHz) and high-gradient (150 MV/m) in normal conducting structures and the use of the so-called Two Beam Acceleration concept, where a high-charge electron beam (drive beam) running parallel to the main beam is decelerated to provide the RF power to accelerate the main beam itself. A vigorous R&...

  17. LINAC 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 13 March, a beam of negative hydrogen ions was injected into the first accelerator module of Linac 4, the linear accelerator which will replace Linac 2. The beam was created in the new source built for Linac 4 and accelerated from 45 kEV to 3 MeV by a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module, the first link in the Linac 4 accelerator chain. This crucial phase went off without a hitch. The video above shows the new Linac 4 ion source, the low-energy transfer line and the RFQ, with running commentary by Giulia Bellodi and Carlo Rossi from the Beams Department.

  18. Design and Manufacturing Description of the Prototype Striplines for the Extraction Kicker of the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Belver-Aguilar, C; Faus-Golfe, A; Gómez, J; Gutiérrez, D; Toral, F

    2013-01-01

    The Pre-Damping Rings (PDRs) and Damping Rings (DRs) of CLIC are needed to reduce the beam emittances to the small values required for the main linacs. The injection and extraction, from the PDRs and DRs, are carried out by kicker systems. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. The design of the stripline kicker was previously carried out by modelling the striplines with simulation codes such as HFSS, Quickfield and CST Particle Studio. In order to have a complete analysis of the striplines, the effect of electrode supports and coaxial feedthroughs have been studied in detail. In this paper, electromagnetic analyses of the complete striplines, including fabrication tolerances, are reported. Furthermore, a new idea for impedance matching is presented.

  19. CLIC Detector and Physics Status

    CERN Document Server

    Van Der Kolk, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to LCWS2016 presents recent developments within the CLICdp collaboration. An updated scenario for the staged operation of CLIC has been published; the accelerator will operate at 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. The lowest energy stage is optimised for precision Higgs and top physics, while the higher energy stages offer extended Higgs and BSM physics sensitivity. The detector models CLIC_SiD and CLIC_ILD have been replaced by a single optimised detector; CLICdet. Performance studies and R&D in technologies to meet the requirements for this detector design are ongoing.

  20. CLIC accelerator modules under construction at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is dedicated to the design of an electron-positron (e- e+) linear accelerator, colliding particle beams at the energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC required luminosity can be reached with powerful particle beams (14 MW each) colliding with extremely small dimensions and high beam stability at the interaction point. The accelerated particle beams must have dimensions of 45 nm in the horizontal plane and 1 nm in the vertical plane. CLIC relies upon a novel two-beam acceleration concept in which the Radio Frequency (RF) power is extracted from a low energy but high-intensity particle beam, called Drive Beam (DB), and transferred to a parallel high energy accelerating particle beam, called Main Beam (MB). The extraction and transfer of the RF power is achieved by the Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) and the particle beam acceleration is achieved with high precision RF-Accelerating Structures (AS), operating at 11.9942 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, whi...

  1. Development of Stripline Kickers for Low Emittance Rings: Application to the Beam Extraction Kicker for CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)728476; Toral Fernandez, Fernando

    In the framework of the design study of Future Linear Colliders, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims for electron-positron collisions with high luminosity at a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the luminosity requirements, Pre-Damping Rings (PDRs) and Damping Rings (DRs) are required: they reduce the beam emittance before the beam is accelerated in the main linac. Several injection and extraction systems are needed to inject and extract the beam from the PDRs and DRs. The work of this Thesis consists of the design, fabrication and laboratory tests of the first stripline kicker prototype for beam extraction from the CLIC DRs, although the methodology proposed can be extended to stripline kickers for any low emittance ring. The excellent field homogeneity required, as well as a good transmission of the high voltage pulse through the electrodes, has been achieved by choosing a novel electrode shape. With this new geometry, it has been possible to benefit from all the advantages that the most...

  2. The Physics Prospects for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    ELLIS, J.

    2008-01-01

    Following a brief outline of the CLIC project, this talk summarizes some of the principal motivations for an e+e− collider with ECM = 3 TeV. It is shown by several examples that CLIC would represent a significant step beyond the LHC and ILC in its capabilities for precision measurements at high energies. It would make possible a complete study of a light Higgs boson, including rare decay modes, and would provide a unique tool to study a heavy Higgs boson. CLIC could also complete the studies of supersymmetric spectra, if sparticles are relatively light, and discover any heavier sparticles. It would also enable deeper probes of extra dimensions, new gauge bosons and excited quarks or leptons. CLIC has unique value to add to experimental particle physics, whatever the LHC discovers.

  3. First phase of CLIC R&D complete

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Let’s turn back the clocks to 2002: the LHC is still under construction, the wrap-up of the LEP physics programme is still in recent memory and the future of electron-positron accelerators at CERN is ambiguous. It was then that CLIC set out to prove the feasibility of their novel accelerator design in the CTF3 test facility. Though once a tall order for the collaboration, the recently released CLIC Conceptual Design Report has proven many of the major design elements… bringing to an end the first phase of CLIC R&D and pointing toward detailed performance optimisation studies in the next phase.   Streak camera images of the final beam, illustrating the combination of beams in the Combiner Ring. Over a decade ago, the CTF3 team set up shop in the vacated LIL injector site, once home to the weathered machine that delivered electrons and positrons to LEP. Rebuilding and upgrading the machine piece by piece, the CTF3 team converted this mA linac into a high-current drive b...

  4. The CLIC Physics Potential

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)554857

    2016-01-01

    The physics and detector studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced. A staged programme of $e^{+}e^{−}$ collisions covering $\\sqrt{s}$ = 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV, and 3 TeV would allow precise measurements of Higgs boson couplings, in many cases to the percent level. This corresponds to precision higher than that expected for the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Such precise Higgs coupling measurements would allow sensitivity to a variety of new physics models and the ability to distinguish between them. In addition, new particles directly produced in pairs could be measured with great precision, and measurements in the top-quark sector would provide sensitivity to new physics effects at the scales of tens of TeV.

  5. Theoretical temperature model with experimental validation for CLIC Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Aasly, Sara Hegdahl; Vamvakas, Alex; Alme, Johan; Haustveit, Svein

    Micron level stability of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) components is one of the main requirements to meet the luminosity goal for the future $48 \\,km$ long underground linear accelerator. The radio frequency (RF) power used for beam acceleration causes heat generation within the aligned structures, resulting in mechanical movements and structural deformations. A dedicated control of the air- and water- cooling system in the tunnel is therefore crucial to improve alignment accuracy. This thesis investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC Accelerating Structure (AS). In CLIC, the AS must be aligned to a precision of $10\\,\\mu m$. The thesis shows that a relatively simple theoretical model can be used within reasonable accuracy to predict the temperature response of an AS as a function of the applied RF power. During failure scenarios or maintenance interventions, the RF power is turned off resulting in no heat dissipation and decrease in the overall temperature of the components. The theoretica...

  6. Development of a Cavity Beam Position Monitor for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Cullinan, F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Calvo, E; Chritin, N; Guillot-Vignot, F; Lefevre, T; Søby, L; Lunin, A; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V P; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) project presents many challenges to its subsystems and the beam diagnostics in particular must perform beyond current limitations. The requirements for the CLIC main beam position monitors foresee a spacial resolution of 50 nm while delivering a 50 ns temporal resolution within the bunch train. We discuss the design of the microwave cavity pick-up and associated electronics, bench top tests with the first prototype cavity, as well as some of the machine-specific integration and operational issues.

  7. Beam Position Monitoring at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Prochnow, J

    2003-01-01

    At the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva, Switzerland the design of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) for high energy physics is studied. To achieve the envisaged high luminosity the quadrupole magnets and radio-frequency accelerating structures have to be actively aligned with micron precision and submicron resolution. This will be done using beam-based algorithms which rely on beam position information inside of quadrupoles and accelerating structures. After a general introduction to the CLIC study and the alignment algorithms, the concept of the interaction between beams and radio-frequency structures is given. In the next chapter beam measurements and simulations are described which were done to study the performance of cavity beam position monitors (BPM). A BPM design is presented which is compatible with the multi-bunch operation at CLIC and could be used to align the quadrupoles. The beam position inside the accelerating structures will be measured by using the structures thems...

  8. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  9. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  10. ATF2 tests and CLIC IR study

    CERN Document Server

    Angal-Kalinin, D; Jones, J; Scarfe, A; Tygier, S

    2013-01-01

    This task covered three separate subtasks dealing with ILC and CLIC beam delivery system and Interaction region studies as well as testing the tuning procedures at ATF2 final focus test facility. The proposed local chromaticity correction final focus system for both ILC as well as CLIC is being tested experimentally for the first time at ATF2, various tuning procedures have been applied to study the applicability of various procedures to the ILC and CLIC to optimize the interaction region. The CLIC IR region was studied in detail, and the impact and mitigation of CLIC detector solenoid effects on the beam orbit, coupling and extraction have been considered. The work programme of this task concentrated on central region integration of the ILC following the design changes proposed during the technical design phase of the ILC, participation in ATF2 beam tuning studies and CLIC interaction region studies.

  11. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  12. CLIC vertex detector R&D

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627

    2015-01-01

    A vertex-detector concept is under development for the proposed multi-TeV linear e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). To perform precision physics measurements in a chal- lenging environment, the CLIC vertex detector pushes the technological requirements to the limits. This paper reviews the requirements for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an over- view of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensor, readout, powering and cooling.

  13. CLIC vertex detector R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar

    2016-07-01

    A vertex detector concept is under development for the proposed multi-TeV linear e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). To perform precision physics measurements in a challenging environment, the CLIC vertex detector pushes the technological requirements to the limits. This paper reviews the requirements for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensor, readout, powering and cooling.

  14. Review of the Drive Beam Stabilization in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Tecker, F; Persson, T

    2013-01-01

    CTF3 is a Test Facility focusing on beam-based studies of the key concepts of the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. Over the past several years many aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme were studied in CTF3, including the crucial issue of drive beam stability. The main sources of drifts and instabilities have been identified and mitigated, helping to improve the machine performance and showing significant progress towards the experimental demonstration of the very stringent requirements on current, energy and phase stability needed in CLIC. In this paper, the more effective techniques and feed-backs are summarized. The latest measurements on beam stability are reported and their relevance to CLIC is discussed.

  15. Construction Status of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; MacCaferri, R; Maury, S; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The civil engineering works of the Linac4 linear accelerator at CERN started in October 2008 and regular machine operation is foreseen for 2013. Linac4 will accelerate H−ions to an energy of 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster (PSB). It will thus replace the ageing Linac2, which presently injects at 50 MeV into the PSB, and it will also represents the first step in the injector upgrade for the LHC aiming at increasing its luminosity. This paper reports on the status of the design and construction of the main machine elements, which will be installed in the linac tunnel from the beginning of 2012 onwards, on the progress of the civil engineering and on the ongoing activities at the Linac4 test stand.

  16. Validation of the CLIC alignment strategy on short range

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Rude, V; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    The pre-alignment of CLIC consists of aligning the components of linacs and beam delivery systems (BDS) in the most accurate possible way, so that a first pilot beam can circulate and allow the implementation of the beam based alignment. Taking into account the precision and accuracy needed: 10 µm rms over sliding windows of 200m, this pre-alignment must be active and it can be divided into two parts: the determination of a straight reference over 20 km, thanks to a metrological network and the determination of the component positions with respect to this reference, and their adjustment. The second part is the object of the paper, describing the steps of the proposed strategy: firstly the fiducialisation of the different components of CLIC; secondly, the alignment of these components on common supports and thirdly the active alignment of these supports using sensors and actuators. These steps have been validated on a test setup over a length of 4m, and the obtained results are analysed.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the damage potential of electron beam and tests of beam loss detector based on quartz Cherenkov radiator read out by a silicon photomultiplier on CLIC Test Facility 3(CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Styliani; Gazis, E

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is a feasibility study aiming at the development of an electron/positron linear collider with a centre of mass energy in the multi-TeV energy range. Each Linac will have a length of 21 km, which means that very high accelerating gradients (>100 MV/m) are required. To achieve the high accelerating gradients, a novel two-beam acceleration scheme, in which RF power is transferred from a high-current, low-energy drive beam to the low-current, high energy main accelerating beam is designed. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system will be designed for CLIC to meet the requirements of the accelerator complex. Its main role as part of the machine protection scheme will be to detect potentially dangerous beam instabilities and prevent subsequent injection into the main beam or drive beam decelerators. The first part of this work describes the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations performed to estimate the damage potential of high energy electron beams impacting a copper target. The second...

  18. Tissue and subcellular distribution of CLIC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards John C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CLIC1 is a chloride channel whose cellular role remains uncertain. The distribution of CLIC1 in normal tissues is largely unknown and conflicting data have been reported regarding the cellular membrane fraction in which CLIC1 resides. Results New antisera to CLIC1 were generated and were found to be sensitive and specific for detecting this protein. These antisera were used to investigate the distribution of CLIC1 in mouse tissue sections and three cultured cell lines. We find CLIC1 is expressed in the apical domains of several simple columnar epithelia including glandular stomach, small intestine, colon, bile ducts, pancreatic ducts, airway, and the tail of the epididymis, in addition to the previously reported renal proximal tubule. CLIC1 is expressed in a non-polarized distribution in the basal epithelial cell layer of the stratified squamous epithelium of the upper gastrointesitinal tract and the basal cells of the epididymis, and is present diffusely in skeletal muscle. Distribution of CLIC1 was examined in Panc1 cells, a relatively undifferentiated, non-polarized human cell line derived from pancreatic cancer, and T84 cells, a human colon cancer cell line which can form a polarized epithelium that is capable of regulated chloride transport. Digitonin extraction was used to distinguish membrane-inserted CLIC1 from the soluble cytoplasmic form of the protein. We find that digitonin-resistant CLIC1 is primarily present in the plasma membrane of Panc1 cells. In T84 cells, we find digitonin-resistant CLIC1 is present in an intracellular compartment which is concentrated immediately below the apical plasma membrane and the extent of apical polarization is enhanced with forskolin, which activates transepithelial chloride transport and apical membrane traffic in these cells. The sub-apical CLIC1 compartment was further characterized in a well-differentiated mouse renal proximal tubule cell line. The distribution of CLIC1 was

  19. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  20. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  1. BDS tuning and luminosity monitoring in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, Barbara; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Pfingstner, Jurgen; Schulte, Daniel; Snuverink, Jochem; Tomas, Rogelio; Zamudio, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The emittance preservation in the Beam Delivery System (BDS) is one of the major challenges in CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-­line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. Different tuning techniques have been applied to the CLIC BDS and in particular to the Final Focus System (FFS) in order to mitigate static and dynamic imperfections. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibility to use beam-­beam backgrounds processes at CLIC 3 TeV CM energy as fast luminosity signal. In particular the hadrons multiplicity in the detector region is investigated.

  2. Precision Higgs boson measurement at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718111

    2016-01-01

    The design of the next generation collider in high energy physics will primarily focus on the possibility to achieve high precision of the measurements of interest. The necessary precision limits are set, in the first place, by the measurement of the Higgs boson but also by measurements that are sensitive to signs of New Physics. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an attractive option for a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, with the potential to cover a rich physics program with high precision. In this lecture the CLIC accelerator, detector and backgrounds will be presented with emphesis on the capabilities of CLIC for precision Higgs physics.

  3. CLIC's three-step plan

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In early October, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) collaboration published its final Conceptual Design Report. Accompanying it was a strategic summary document that describes a whole new approach to the project: developing the linear e+e− collider in three energy stages. Though CLIC’s future still depends on signs from the LHC, its new staged approach to high-energy electron-positron physics for the post-LHC era is nothing short of convincing.   Instead of asking for a 48-kilometre-long commitment right off the bat, the CLIC collaboration is now presenting an accelerator that can be constructed in stages. For example, it could begin as an 11-kilometre 500 GeV accelerator that could later be extended to a 27-kilometre 1.5 TeV machine. Finally, after a decade or so of data taking, it could be taken up to the full 48-kilometre 3 TeV facility (see image 2). “Not only is the approach technically and financially practical, it also offers a very convincing physics prog...

  4. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  5. Solenoid and Synchrotron radiation effects in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Tomás, R; Angal-Kalinin, D

    2010-01-01

    The emission of Synchrotron Radiation in the CLIC BDS is one of the major limitations of the machine performance. An extensive revision of this phenomenon is presented with special emphasis on the Interaction point (IP) solenoid.

  6. Successful start for new CLIC test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A new test facility is being built to study key feasibility issues for a possible future linear collider called CLIC. Commissioning of the first part of the facility began in June 2003 and nominal beam parameters have been achieved already.

  7. CLIC CTF3 for open days

    CERN Multimedia

    CLIC

    2013-01-01

    CLIC – the Compact Linear Collider – is a study for a future accelerator that reaches unprecedented energies for electrons and their antimatter twins, positrons. It uses a novel two-beam acceleration scheme in which the electrons and positrons are propelled to high energy by an additional high current electron beam, the so-called Drive Beam. In order to generate this high current Drive Beam, a long train of electron bunches is accelerated, parts of the train delayed in a Delay Loop and Combiner Rings, and interleaved by transversely deflecting radio-frequency cavities. The CLIC Test Facility CTF3, which is shown in the movie, examines the new technologies envisioned by the CLIC design, in particular the Drive Beam generation and the two-beam acceleration. It is a scaled-down version of the CLIC facility, and it has demonstrated the feasibility of the novel scheme.

  8. CLIC CTF3 for open days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    (subt french) CLIC – the Compact Linear Collider – is a study for a future accelerator that reaches unprecedented energies for electrons and their antimatter twins, positrons. It uses a novel two-beam acceleration scheme in which the electrons and positrons are propelled to high energy by an additional high current electron beam, the so-called Drive Beam. In order to generate this high current Drive Beam, a long train of electron bunches is accelerated, parts of the train delayed in a Delay Loop and Combiner Rings, and interleaved by transversely deflecting radio-frequency cavities. The CLIC Test Facility CTF3, which is shown in the movie, examines the new technologies envisioned by the CLIC design, in particular the Drive Beam generation and the two-beam acceleration. It is a scaled-down version of the CLIC facility, and it has demonstrated the feasibility of the novel scheme.

  9. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector (2nd report)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the second report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This second report includes the study of HOM effects, retuning the cells, study of dimensional tolerances and the heat dissipation on the surface.

  10. A Luminosity Calorimeter for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Sadeh, I

    2009-01-01

    For the relative precision of the luminosity measurement at CLIC, a preliminary target value of 1% is being assumed. This may be accomplished by constructing a finely granulated calorimeter, which will measure Bhabha scattering at small angles. In order to achieve the design goal, the geometrical parameters of the calorimeter need to be defined. Several factors influence the design of the calorimeter; chief among these is the need to minimize the error on the luminosity measurement while avoiding the intense beam background at small angles. In this study the geometrical parameters are optimized for the best performance of the calorimeter. In addition, the suppression of physics background to Bhabha scattering is investigated and a set of selection cuts is introduced.

  11. Mechanical integration studies for the CLIC vertex and inner tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo Bermudez, M.A.; Gerwig, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, work has proceeded in order to establish a preliminary mechanical design for the innermost CLIC detector region. This note proposes a design for the main Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) structural elements of the inner detectors, for the beam pipe and their supports. It also describes an assembly sequence for the integration of the sensors and the mechanical components. Mechanical simulations of different structural elements and a material budget estimation are appended. Details of a proposed cabling layout for all the subdetectors are included.

  12. CLIC-ACM: Acquisition and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Bielawski, B; Magnoni, S

    2014-01-01

    CLIC [1] (Compact Linear Collider) is a world-wide collaboration to study the next terascale lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beamacceleration. In this scheme, the power is transported to the main accelerating structures by a primary electron beam. The Two Beam Module (TBM) is a compact integration with a high filling factor of all components: RF, Magnets, Instrumentation, Vacuum, Alignment and Stabilization. This paper describes the very challenging aspects of designing the compact system to serve as a dedicated Acquisition & Control Module (ACM) for all signals of the TBM. Very delicate conditions must be considered, in particular radiation doses that could reach several kGy in the tunnel. In such severe conditions shielding and hardened electronics will have to be taken into consideration. In addition, with more than 300 ADC&DAC channels per ACM and about 21000 ACMs in total, it appears clearly that power consumption will be an important issue. It is also obvious that...

  13. A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC for the CLIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio, P; Arfaoui, S; Ballabriga, R; Benoit, M; Bonacini, S; Campbell, M; Dannheim, D; De Gaspari, M; Felici, D; Kulis, S; Llopart, X; Nascetti, A; Poikela, T; Wong, W S

    2014-01-01

    A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC specifically designed to the requirements of the vertex detector for CLIC is described and first electrical measurements are presented. The chip has been designed using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology and comprises a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The main features include simultaneous 4-bit measure- ment of Time-over-Threshold (ToT) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) with 10 ns accuracy, on-chip data compression and power pulsing capability.

  14. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  15. Overview of the CLIC detector and its physics potential

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Lars Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The CLIC detector and physics study (CLICdp) is an international collaboration that investigates the physics potential of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). CLIC is a high-energy electron-positron collider under development, aiming for centre-of-mass energies from a few hundred GeV to 3 TeV. In addition to physics studies based on full Monte Carlo simulations of signal and background processes, CLICdp performs cutting-edge hardware R&D. In this contribution CLICdp will present recent results from physics prospect studies, emphasising Higgs studies. Additionally the new CLIC detector model and the recently updated CLIC baseline staging scenario will be presented.

  16. CLICdp Overview. Overview of physics potential at CLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Aharon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CLICdp, the CLIC detector and physics study, is an international collaboration presently composed of 23 institutions. The collaboration is addressing detector and physics issues for the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC, a high-energy electron-positron accelerator which is one of the options for the next collider to be built at CERN. Precision physics under challenging beam and background conditions is the key theme for the CLIC detector studies. This leads to a number of cutting-edge R&D activities within CLICdp. The talk includes a brief introduction to CLIC, accelerator and detectors, hardware R&D as well as physics studies at CLIC.

  17. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)548062; Weuste, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light- flavored right-handed squark at a 3 TeV e+e collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two- photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant kt algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for e+e- collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  18. Physics highlights at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukić, Strahinja

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, the physics potential for the e+e- linear collider experiments ILC and CLIC is reviewed. The experimental conditions are compared to those at hadron colliders and their intrinsic value for precision experiments, complementary to the hadron colliders, is discussed. The detector concepts for ILC and CLIC are outlined in their most important aspects related to the precision physics. Highlights from the physics program and from the benchmark studies are given. It is shown that linear colliders are a promising tool, complementing the LHC in essential ways to test the Standard Model and to search for new physics.

  19. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  20. Preliminary physics design of China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System main linac%中国加速器驱动次临界系统主加速器初步物理设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫芳; 李智慧; 唐靖宇

    2013-01-01

    The China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System,C-ADS,will use a linear accelerator delivering continuous-wave protons with an average current of 10 mA and a beam power of 15 MW to the sub-critical reactor.The main linac is an important part of the driver linac which is required to accelerate the beam from 10 MeV to 1.5 GeV.All the cavities in this part are superconducting structures.To avoid the frequently repeated beam interruptions causing damage to the reactor,the driver linac is requested to have a very limited number of beam interruptions during operation,thus fault tolerance strategy is implemented to the maximum possible extent and every possible solution is tried to ensure the highly required reliability and stability.In this paper,the baseline design of the main linac is introduced.The total length of the main linac is 306.4 m.The normalized root-mean-square emittance growth is controlled below 5 %.The details of the design strategy together with the multiparticle simulation results are presented.%中国加速器驱动次临界系统(C-ADS)计划采用一个平均流强为10 mA的连续波质子加速器作为次临界堆的驱动器,驱动加速器的束流功率为15 MW,最终能量1.5 GeV,其中主加速器是驱动加速器的一个重要部分,完成束流能量从10MeV到1.5 GeV的加速,所有加速腔均采用超导结构.为了避免频繁束流中断对反应堆的损坏,设计要求驱动加速器在运行过程中束流可以中断的次数非常有限,因此加速器在设计过程植入了容错机制,尝试了各种可能的方法以最大程度地满足C-ADS加速器的高可靠性和稳定性的要求.介绍了C-ADS主加速器的基本设计:总长度306.4 m,束流的归-化RMS发射度增长控制在5%以内.总结了各个重要参数选择过程中的考虑以及整个加速段多粒子跟踪模拟的束流动力学结果.

  1. Status of the CLIC Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Resta López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Schuler, P; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Brunetti, L; Geffroy, N; Jeremie, A; Seryi, A; Angal-Kalinin, D; Jackson, F

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) is experiencing the careful revision from a large number of world wide experts. This was particularly enhanced by the successful CLIC’08 workshop held at CERN. Numerous new ideas, improvements and critical points are arising, establishing the path towards the Conceptual Design Report by 2010.

  2. CLIC preparations go up a notch

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider gears up for post-LHC physics with an international workshop. A schematic diagram of CLIC.In June CERN gained a new building: number 2010. And as chance would have it, this is more than just a number to its new residents. By the year 2010, teams working at the new CLIC Experimental Area, along with the already established CLIC Test Facility Three (CTF3), hope to have demonstrated the feasibility of the Compact Linear Collider and, depending on results from the LHC, embark on its final design and proposal. A workshop on 16t-18 October brought people from all around the world to CERN to exchange ideas and hear how the ambitious project is progressing. CLIC is a project that aims to extend lepton collider technology to multi-TeV energy physics, colliding leptons with a centre-of-mass-energy up to 3TeV, more than ten times the energy of the LEP. This is only possible in a linear collider, where no energy is lo...

  3. Development and testing of a double length pets for the CLIC experimental area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, L., E-mail: laura.sanchez@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrillo, D.; Gavela, D.; Lara, A.; Rodríguez, E.; Gutiérrez, J.L; Calero, J.; Toral, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samoshkin, A.; Gudkov, D.; Riddone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-05-11

    CLIC (compact linear collider) is a future e+e{sup −} collider based on normal-conducting technology, currently under study at CERN. Its design is based on a novel two-beam acceleration scheme. The main beam gets RF power extracted from a drive beam through power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The technical feasibility of CLIC is currently being proved by its Third Test Facility (CTF3) which includes the CLIC experimental area (CLEX). Two Double Length CLIC PETS will be installed in CLEX to validate their performance with beam. This paper is focused on the engineering design, fabrication and validation of this PETS first prototype. The design consists of eight identical bars, separated by radial slots in which damping material is located to absorb transverse wakefields, and two compact couplers placed at both ends of the bars to extract the generated power. The PETS bars are housed inside a vacuum tank designed to make the PETS as compact as possible. Several joint techniques such as vacuum brazing, electron beam and arc welding were used to complete the assembly. Finally, several tests such as dimensional control and leak testing were carried out to validate design and fabrication methods. In addition, RF measurements at low power were made to study frequency tuning.

  4. Development and testing of a double length pets for the CLIC experimental area

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L; Gavela, D; Lara, A; Rodríguez, E; Gutiérrez, J L; Calero, J; Toral, F; Samoshkin, A; Gudkov, D; Riddone, G

    2014-01-01

    CLIC (compact linear collider) is a future e þ e collider based on normal-conducting technology, currently under study at CERN. Its design is based on a novel two-beam acceleration scheme. The main beam gets RF power extracted from a drive beam through power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The technical feasibility of CLIC is currently being proved by its Third Test Facility (CTF3) which includes the CLIC experimental area (CLEX). Two Double Length CLIC PETS will be installed in CLEX to validate their performance with beam. This paper is focused on the engineering design, fabrication and validation of this PETS fi rst prototype. The design consists of eight identical bars, separated by radial slots in which damping material is located to absorb transverse wake fi elds, and two compact couplers placed at both ends of the bars to extract the generated power. The PETS bars are housed inside a vacuum tank designed to make the PETS as compact as possible. Several joint techniques such as vacuum brazing...

  5. Collective effects and experimental verification of the CLIC drive beam and decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00418229; Stapnes, Steinar; Adli, Erik

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a potential next-generation particle collider, in which electrons and positrons collide at a center-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. In order to reach a high accelerating gradient and reduce the length of the machine, CLIC uses a novel two-beam scheme. Here, the acceleration energy for the main beam is provided by energy extraction from a secondary electron drive beam, by the use of Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS). This Ph.D. thesis describes deceleration measurements from the CLIC Test Facility 3 at CERN, from a beam that had up to 37 % of its kinetic energy converted into 12 GHz rf power. The results are part of the feasibility demonstration of the CLIC scheme. The measured difference in beam energy of the decelerated beam is correlated with particle tracking simulations and with predictions based on analytical formulae, and a very good agreement is demonstrated. The evolution of the transverse emittance was also studied, since it is critical to contain th...

  6. Feasibility study of multipoint based laser alignment system for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Mainaud-Durand, H; Piedigrossi, D; Geiger, A

    2012-01-01

    CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities oftoday’s particle accelerators. Alignment is one of the major challenges within the CLIC study in order to achieve the high requirement of a multi-TeV center of mass colliding beam energy range (nominal 3 TeV). To reach this energy in a realistic and cost efficient scenario all accelerator components have to be aligned with an accuracy of 10 μm over a sliding window of 200 m. The demand for a straight line reference is so far based on stretched wires coupled with Wire Positioning Sensors (WPS). These solutions are currently further developed inorder to reduce the drawbacks which are mainly given by their costs and difficult implementation. However, it should be validated through inter-comparison with a solution ideally based on a different physical principle. Therefore, a new metrological approach is proposed using a laser beam as straight lin...

  7. Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...

  8. INR proton Linac operation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, Leonid V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary Pr., Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kravchuk@inr.ru

    2006-06-23

    The INR Proton Linear Accelerator is presently under operation for about 2400 h per year with energy about 250 MeV and average current up to 150 {mu}A. The Linac applications are mainly as follows: neutron and condensed matter research at spallation neutron source and neutron spectrometers, isotope production for medicine and industry, beam therapy. The experimental area description and the Linac operational experience are given in the paper.

  9. R&D Challenges of a CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kraaij, E

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for an electron-positron collider with a center- of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. Given the unprecedented experimental conditions at CLIC none of the technologies available today can fulfill all requirements set for the vertex detector. At the conference these conditions and the challenges they pose for the R&D of a CLIC vertex detector were presented.

  10. The CLIC BDS Towards the Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Zamudio, Guillermo; /CERN; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Jackson, Frank; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR) must be ready by 2010. This paper aims at addressing all the critical points of the CLIC Beam Delivery Systems (BDS) to be later implemented in the CDR. This includes risk evaluation and possible solutions to a number of selected points. The smooth and practical transition between the 500 GeV CLIC and the design energy of 3 TeV is also studied.

  11. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  12. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  13. CLIC Telescope optimization with ALLPIX simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Wu

    2015-01-01

    A simulation study of CLIC-EUDET telescope resolution with MIMOSA 26 as reference sensors under DESY (5.6 GeV electron beam) and CERN-SPS (120-180 GeV pion^{-} beam) conditions. During the study, a virtual DUT sensor with cylindrical sensing area was defined and used with ALLPIX software. By changing the configuration of telescope, some results for DESY's setup were found agreeing with the theoretical calculation.

  14. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303

    2016-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3μm for the vertex detector and 7μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2 % X0 per layer in the ver- tex detector and 1-2%X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25x25μm2 and 55x55μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50μm-500μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  15. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+ e‑ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2% X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1–2% X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25×25 μm2 and 55×55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm–500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  16. CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, Louis

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

  17. Issues and Feasibility Demonstration of Positioning Closed Loop Control for the CLIC Supporting System Using a Test Mock-up with Five Degrees of Freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, M; Chritin, N; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Mainaud Durand, H; Rude, V; Sterbini, G

    2012-01-01

    Since several years, CERN is studying the feasibility of building a high energy e+ e- linear collider: the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider). One of the challenges of such a collider is the pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirement on the transverse positions of the linac components, which is typically 14 μm over a window of 200 m. To ensure the possibility of positioning within such tight constraints, CERN Beams Department’s Survey team has worked intensively at developing the methods and technology needed to achieve that objective. This paper describes activities which were performed on a test bench (mock-up) with five degrees of freedom (DOF) for the qualification of control algorithms for the CLIC supporting system active-pre-alignment. Present understanding, lessons learned (“know how”), issues of sensors noise and mechanical components nonlinearities are presented.

  18. CLIC two-beam module design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G; Gudkov, D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) is based on twobeam acceleration concept currently developed at CERN. The RF power is generated by a high-current electronbeam, called Drive Beam, (DB) running parallel to the Main Beam (MB). The DB is decelerated in dedicated power extraction structures (PETS) and the generated RF power is transferred via waveguides to the accelerating structures (AS). To facilitate the matching of the beams, components are assembled in 2-m long modules of few different types. Special modules are needed in damping regions or to contain dedicated instrumentation and vacuum equipment. The module design and integration has to cope with challenging requirements from the different technical systems. This paper reports the status of the engineering design and related technical issues.

  19. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  20. The LINAC4 Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Caspers, F; Corso, JP; Coupard, J; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, N; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hammouti, L; Hanke, K; Jones, M; Kozsar, I; Lettry, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Maglioni, C; Mathot, S; Maury, S; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Noels, C; Paoluzzi, M; Puccio, B; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schwerg, N; Scrivens, R; Vandoni, G; Weisz, S; Vollaire, J; Vretenar, M; Zickler, T

    2011-01-01

    As the first step of a long-term programme aiming at an increase in the LHC luminosity, CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normal-conducting linac made of an H¯ source, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a chopping line and a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift-Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS). The civil engineering has been recently completed, and construction of the main accelerator components has started with the support of a network of international collaborations. The low-energy section up to 3 MeV including a 3-m long 352 MHz RFQ entirely built at CERN is in the final construction phase and is being installed on a dedicated test stand. The present schedule foresees beam commissioning of the accelerator in the new tunnel in 2013/14; the moment of connection of the new linac to the CERN accelerator chain will depend on the L...

  1. From glutathione transferase to pore in a CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Cromer, B A; Morton, C J; Parker, M W; 10.1007/s00249-002-0219-1

    2002-01-01

    Many plasma membrane chloride channels have been cloned and characterized in great detail. In contrast, very little is known about intracellular chloride channels. Members of a novel class of such channels, called the CLICs (chloride intracellular channels), have been identified over the last few years. A striking feature of the CLIC family of ion channels is that they can exist in a water- soluble state as well as a membrane-bound state. A major step forward in understanding the functioning of these channels has been the recent crystal structure determination of one family member, CLIC1. The structure confirms that CLICs are members of the glutathione S- transferase superfamily and provides clues as to how CLICs can insert into membranes to form chloride channels. (69 refs).

  2. The physics benchmark processes for the detector performance studies used in CLIC CDR Volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B.J.; Desch, K.; Ellis, J.; Giudice, G.; Grefe, C.; Kraml, S.; Lastovicka, T.; Linssen, L.; Marschall, J.; Martin, S.P.; Muennich, A.; Poss, S.; Roloff, P.; Simon, F.; Strube, J.; Thomson, M.; Wells, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    This note describes the detector benchmark processes used in volume 3 of the CLIC conceptual design report (CDR), which explores a staged construction and operation of the CLIC accelerator. The goal of the detector benchmark studies is to assess the performance of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts for different physics processes and at a few CLIC centre-of-mass energies.

  3. Background and Energy Deposition Studies for the CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L C; Gschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    After the interaction point, the 1.5 TeV, 14MW CLIC electron/positron beams must be transported safely to the main beam dump. In designing the CLIC post-collision line detailed simulations must be carried out in order to ensure that losses are kept within reasonable limits. Results for back-scattered photon flux arriving at the detector are recalculated after updates and enhancements to the geometry description used in the study presented in [1]. Initial results of neutron fluxes are presented. Additionally, energy deposition calculations are carried out, showing that, when the full electromagnetic showers are included, in the current design the standard magnet coils would have a short lifetime due to radiation damage to conventional insulation material. Changing the magnet mask material from graphite to iron and lengthening the intermediate dump by 2m of iron are shown to substantially lessen the energy deposition in the magnet coils and thereby extend magnet lifetimes.

  4. Design of a 3 GHz Accelerator Structure for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF 3) Drive Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, G; Luong, M; Millich, Antonio; Rugo, E; Syratchev, I V; Thorndahl, L

    2000-01-01

    For the CLIC two-beam scheme, a high-current, long-pulse drive beam is required for RF power generation. Taking advantage of the 3 GHz klystrons available at the LEP injector once LEP stops, a 180 MeV electron accelerator is being constructed for a nominal beam current of 3.5 A and 1.5 ms pulse length. The high current requires highly effective suppression of dipolar wakes. Two concepts are investigated for the accelerating structure design: the "Tapered Damped Structure" developed for the CLIC main beam, and the "Slotted Iris - Constant Aperture" structure. Both use 4 SiC loads per cell for effective higher-order mode damping. A full-size prototype of the TDS structure has been built and tested successfully at full power. A first prototype of the SICA structure is being built

  5. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  6. Power pulsing scheme for analog and digital electronics of the vertex detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The precision requirements of the vertex detector at CLIC impose strong limitations on the mass of such a detector (< 0.2% of a radiation length, Xo, per layer). To achieve such a low material budget, ultra-thin hybrid pixel detectors are foreseen, while the mass for cooling and services will be reduced by implementing a power pulsing scheme that takes advantage of the low duty cycle of the accelerator. The principal aim is to achieve significant power reduction without compromising the power integrity supplied to the front-end electronics. This report summarises the study of a power pulsing scheme to power the vertex barrel electronics of the future CLIC experiment. Its main goal is to describe in more detail what has been already presented in TWEPP conferences and other presentations. The report can therefore serve as an operator manual for future use and development of the system

  7. Status of a study of stabilization and fine positioning of CLIC quadrupoles to the nanometre level

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Esposito, M; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Leuxe, R; Moron Ballester, R

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stability to the nanometre and below is required for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles to frequencies as low as 1 Hz. An active stabilization and positioning system based on very stiff piezo electric actuators and inertial reference masses is under study for the Main Beam Quadrupoles (MBQ). The stiff support was selected for robustness against direct forces and for the option of incrementally repositioning the magnet with nanometre resolution. The technical feasibility was demonstrated by a representative test mass being stabilized and repositioned to the required level in the vertical and lateral direction. Technical issues were identified and the development programme of the support, sensors, and controller was continued to increase the performance, integrate the system in the overall controller, adapt to the accelerator environment, and reduce costs. The improvements are implemented in models, test benches, and design of the first stabilized prototype CLIC magnet. The characterizati...

  8. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  9. Spectrometers for RF breakdown studies for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, M.; Ziemann, V.; Ekelöf, T.; Dubrovskiy, A.; Ruber, R.

    2016-08-01

    An e+e- collider of several TeV energy will be needed for the precision studies of any new physics discovered at the LHC collider at CERN. One promising candidate is CLIC, a linear collider which is based on a two-beam acceleration scheme that efficiently solves the problem of power distribution to the acceleration structures. The phenomenon that currently prevents achieving high accelerating gradients in high energy accelerators such as the CLIC is the electrical breakdown at very high electrical field. The ongoing experimental work within the CLIC collaboration is trying to benchmark the theoretical models focusing on the physics of vacuum breakdown which is responsible for the discharges. In order to validate the feasibility of accelerating structures and observe the characteristics of the vacuum discharges and their eroding effects on the structure two dedicated spectrometers are now commissioned at the high-power test-stands at CERN. First, the so called Flashbox has opened up a possibility for non-invasive studies of the emitted breakdown currents during two-beam acceleration experiments. It gives a unique possibility to measure the energy of electrons and ions in combination with the arrival time spectra and to put that in context with accelerated beam, which is not possible at any of the other existing test-stands. The second instrument, a spectrometer for detection of the dark and breakdown currents, is operated at one of the 12 GHz stand-alone test-stands at CERN. Built for high repetition rate operation it can measure the spatial and energy distributions of the electrons emitted from the acceleration structure during a single RF pulse. Two new analysis tools: discharge impedance tracking and tomographic image reconstruction, applied to the data from the spectrometer make possible for the first time to obtain the location of the breakdown inside the structure both in the transversal and longitudinal direction thus giving a more complete picture of the

  10. Electro-Weak Fits at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    De Curtis, S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the future linear colliders is to extend the sensitivity to new physics beyond the reach of the LHC. Several models predict the existence of new vector resonances in the multi-TeV region. We review the existing limits on the masses of these new resonances from LEP/SLC and TEVATRON data and from the atomic parity violation measurements, in some specific models. We study the potential of a multi-TeV e+e- collider, such as CLIC, for the determination of their properties and nature.

  11. Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Tao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed future electron-positron collider, designed to perform collisions at energies from 0.5 to 5 TeV, with a nominal design optimized for 3 TeV (Dannheim, 2012). The Drive Beam Accelerator consists of a thermionic DC gun, bunching section and an accelerating section. The thermionic gun needs deliver a long (~143us) pulse of current into the buncher. A pulser is needed to drive grid of the gun to generate a stable current output. This report explores the requirements of the gun pulser and potential solutions to regulate grid current.

  12. Combined Fits of CLIC Higgs Results for the Snowmass Process

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, F; Roloff, P

    2013-01-01

    This note presents three combined fits of CLIC Higgs physics results, a model- independent fit based on minimal assumptions and two model-dependent fits assuming that the total width is described by the sum of nine (seven) different visible final states with coupling parameters given by the deviation of the re- spective partial widths from their SM values. The input values are a snapshot of the CLIC Higgs analyses as of September 2013. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the full three-stage CLIC physics program for a precise ex- ploration of the Higgs sector.

  13. Power production experiments at the Test Beam Line in the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar Lunde; Adli, Erik; Lundheim, Lars Magne

    2010-01-01

    CLIC is an international study of a future multi-TeV electron-positron linear collider, where the energy of a high-intensity drive beam is extracted and transferred to the main beam via Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) in the form of rf power. The study of power production is therefore essential for the feasibility of CLIC. Power production in PETS has been studied, and ex- periments have been performed in the decelerator Test Beam Line in the CLIC Test Facility 3. In particular, the correlation of the power production and the beam position inside the structure has been studied. It is shown that the total produced power is constant when the beam has a position offset through the PETS. In addition, the difference between the measured phases from each side is independent of the beam position, which allows for efficient combination of the fields. However, the ratio of the power on each side of the PETS unexpectedly shows a linear dependence on the horizontal offset, with a correlation value of 0.8...

  14. Beam dynamic simulations of the CLIC crab cavity and implications on the BDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinton, I.R.R., E-mail: ian.shinton@stfc.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Glasman, C.J.; Jones, R.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Wolski, A. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-21

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed electron positron linear collider design aiming to achieve a centre of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The main accelerating structures in CLIC operate at an X-band frequency of 11.994 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The present design requires the beams to collide at a small crossing angle of 10 mrad per line giving a resultant overall crossing angle of 20 mrad. Transverse deflecting cavities, referred to as 'Crab cavities', are installed in the beam delivery system (BDS) of linear collider designs in order to ensure the final luminosity at the interaction point (IP) is comparable to that in a head on collision. We utilise the beam tracking code PLACET combined with the beam-beam code GUINEA-PIG to calculate the resulting luminosity at the IP. We follow a similar tuning procedure to that used for the design of the ILC crab cavities and anitcrab cavities. However an unexpected loss in luminosity of 10% was observed for the 20 mrad design was observed. It was discovered that the action of the crab cavities can affect the geometric aberrations resulting from the sextupoles used to correct chromatic effects in the beam delivery system. This has direct consequences regarding the design of the present CLIC BDS.

  15. Online optimisation of the CLIC Drive Beam bunch train recombination at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082483; Tecker, Frank

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design is the leading alternative for a future multi-TeV "e^+e^−" linear collider. One of the key aspects of the design is the use of a Drive Beam as power source for the acceleration of the colliding beams. This work is focused on the optimisation of the set-up and the operations of the CLIC Drive Beam recombination at the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The main effects that may affect the beam quality during the recombination are studied, with emphasis on orbit, transverse dynamics and beam energy effects. A custom methodology is used to analyse the problem, both from a theoretical and a numerical point of view. The aim is to provide first-order orbit and transverse optics constraints, which can be used as guidelines during the set-up of the beam recombination process. The developed techniques are applied at the CTF3, and the results are reported. The non-linear beam energy effects have been investigated by means of MAD-X simulations. The results show that these effe...

  16. CLIC vertex detector R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Redford, S

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve its primary objectives of heavy-flavour tagging and tau lepton identification, the CLIC vertex detector must precisely reconstruct displaced vertices. This re- quires accurate determination of the impact parameter and charge of tracks originating from the secondary vertex. Excellent spatial resolution must therefore be provided down to low polar angles, whilst maintaining low occupancy, low mass and low power dissipation. These requirements chal- lenge current technological limits, and demand a broad programme of R&D. A detector concept is currently under development, comprising a hybrid pixel detector of small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) combined with ultra-thin sensors. The read- out chips are low-power, and power-pulsing is used to reduce further their power dissipation. This enables a forced gas cooling system in the vertex detector region. In this paper, the CLIC vertex detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on se...

  17. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  18. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Perez L, L. H., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Instituto Zacatecano del Tumor, A. C., Lago de la Encantada No. 294, Fracc. Lomas del Lago, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A {yields} (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  19. Summary of the BDS and MDI CLIC08 Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Ahmed, I; Ambatu, PK; Angal-Kalinin, D; Barlow, R; Baud, J P; Bolzon, B; Braun, H; Burkhardt, H; Burt, GC; Corsini, R; Dalena, B; Dexter, AC; Dolgashev, V; Elsener, K; Fernandez Hernando, JL; Gaillard, G; Geffroy, N; Jackson, F; Jeremie, A; Jones, RM; McIntosh, P; Moffeit, K; Peltier, F; Resta-López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Toader, A; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the presentations held within the Beam Delivery System and Machine Detector Interface working group of the CLIC08 workshop. The written contributions have been provided by the presenters on a voluntary basis.

  20. CLIC BDS Tuning, Alignment and Feedbacks Integrated Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Schulte, D; Snuverink, J; Tomas, R; Jones, J; Latina, A; Resta, J

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC BDS tuning, alignment and feedbacks studies have been typically performed independently and only over particular sections of the BDS. An effort is being put to integrate all these procedures to realistically evaluate the luminosity performance.

  1. CLICdet: The post-CDR CLIC detector model

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Cure, Benoit; Dannheim, Dominik; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elsener, Konrad; Gaddi, Andrea; Gerwig, Hubert; Green, Steven; Grefe, Christian; Hynds, Daniel; Klempt, Wolfgang; Linssen, Lucie; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias; Marshall, John Stuart; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Roloff, Philipp Gerhard; Sailer, Andre; Sefkow, Felix; Sicking, Eva; Siegrist, Nicolas; Simon, Frank Richard; Simoniello, Rosa; Spannagel, Simon; Sroka, Szymon Krzysztof; Strom, Lars Rickard; Weber, Matthias Artur

    2017-01-01

    A new model for the CLIC detector has been defined based on lessons learnt while working with the CDR detector models and after a series of simulation studies. The new model, dubbed "CLICdet", also incorporates the experience from various R&D activities linked to a future experiment at CLIC. This note describes the studies and thoughts leading to the new detector model, and gives details on all of its sub-detector systems.

  2. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  3. High intensity profile monitor for time resolved spectrometry at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvegård, M.; Adli, E.; Braun, H. H.; Bravin, E.; Chritin, N.; Corsini, R.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Döbert, S.; Dutriat, C.; Egger, D.; Lefèvre, T.; Mete, O.; Skowronski, P. K.; Tecker, F.

    2012-08-01

    The power source of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) relies on the generation and deceleration of a high-intensity electron drive beam. In order to provide the best radio-frequency (RF) to beam-energy transfer efficiency, the electron beam is accelerated using fully loaded RF cavities, which leads to strong beam loading effects resulting in a high-energy transient. The stability of the RF power produced by the drive beam depends on the stability of the drive beam energy and energy spread along the pulse. The control and the monitoring of the time evolution of the beam energy distribution are therefore crucial for the accelerator performance. For this purpose segmented beam dumps, which are simple and robust devices, have been designed and installed at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). These devices are located at the end of spectrometer lines and provide horizontal beam profiles with a time resolution better than 10 ns. The segmented dumps are composed of parallel, vertical, metallic plates, and are based on the same principle as a Faraday cup: the impinging beam current is read by a fast acquisition channel. Both FLUKA and Geant4 simulations were performed to define the optimum detector geometry for beam energies ranging from 5 MeV to 150 MeV. This paper presents a detailed description of the different steps of the design: the optimization of the detector spatial resolution, the minimization of the thermal load and the long-term damage resulting from high radiation doses. Four segmented dumps are currently used in the CTF3 complex. Their measured performance and limitations are presented in this paper. Typical beam spectra as measured in the CTF3 linac are also presented along with a description of the RF manipulations needed for tuning the beam energy spectrum.

  4. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanin Salao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1 participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs, the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/− and wild-type (CLIC1+/+ mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases.

  5. Theoretical and practical feasibility demonstration of a micrometric remotely controlled pre-alignment system for the CLIC linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Chritin, N; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Sosin, M; Touze, T

    2011-01-01

    The active pre-alignment of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is one of the key points of the project: the components must be pre-aligned w.r.t. a straight line within a few microns over a sliding window of 200 m, along the two linacs of 20 km each. The proposed solution consists of stretched wires of more than 200 m, overlapping over half of their length, which will be the reference of alignment. Wire Positioning Sensors (WPS), coupled to the supports to be pre-aligned, will perform precise and accurate measurements within a few microns w.r.t. these wires. A micrometric fiducialisation of the components and a micrometric alignment of the components on common supports will make the strategy of pre-alignment complete. In this paper, the global strategy of active pre-alignment is detailed and illustrated by the latest results demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  6. The ISS protontherapy LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-02-01

    The TERA foundation stimulated in the past years a comparative study of compact proton accelerators for therapy and at the end of 1995 the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS) decided for the construction of a proton linac for its TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni) project. The TOP-LINAC will be composed of a 7 MeV RFQ+DTL injector followed by a 7-65 MeV section of the innovative 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65-200 MeV variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. A 5-cavity model of the SCDTL has been built and measured on a RF test bench while a 11-cavities prototype (accelerating until 12.5 MeV) is under construction and will be assembled within few months. The TOP LINAC whose construction will start at the end of 1996, will be the first linear accelerator dedicated to proton therapy, and the first 3 GHz proton linac. In this paper the accelerator design and the construction schedule will be presented, and the SCDTL structure RF measurements will be discussed.

  7. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  8. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  9. Study of readout architectures for triggerless high event rate detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kulis, S

    2011-01-01

    In this work possible readout architectures for future detectors at CLIC are discussed. These detectors will need a triggerless readout electronics with amplitude and time reconstruction and they may operate with very high event rates (≥ 1 hits / channel / bunch train of 156 ns). The main subject of this study, both theoretical and experimental, is a readout based on the deconvolution principle. The basic principle, the performance, the advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed. In the case of extremely high event rates (> 4 hits / channel / bunch train) a readout based on a gated integrator and correlated double sampling is proposed.

  10. Background at the Interaction Point from the CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Salt, M D; Apyan, A; Elsener, K; Gschwendtner, E; Ferrari, A

    2010-01-01

    The 1.5 TeV electron/positron CLIC beams, with a total power of 14 MW per beam, are disrupted at the interaction point (IP) due to the very strong beam-beam effect. The resulting spent beam products are transported to suitable dumps by the post-collision beam line, which generates beam losses and causes the production of secondary cascades towards the interaction region. In this paper the electromagnetic backgrounds at the IP are presented, which were calculated using biasing Monte Carlo techniques. Also, a first estimate is made of neutron backshine from the main beam dump.

  11. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  12. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  13. Linacs for Medical Isotope Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV and high power (10-20 kW electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19F(γ,n18F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11C, 13N, and 15O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99mTc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons

  14. Update of the Linac4-PSB Transfer Line

    CERN Document Server

    HEIN, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The installation of Linac4 represents the first step of the upgrade plans of the CERN accelerator complex for the future in order to raise the available proton flux to attain amongst others the LHC ultimate luminosity. This linac is capable to accelerate H--ions from 45keV to 160MeV, which will be injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The increase of energy from 50MeV (Linac2) to 160MeV (Linac4) allows to overcome the space charge limitations at the PSB injection, which is the main bottleneck towards higher beam brightness in the downstream accelerator chain. In order to preserve beam quality from the outlet of Linac4 to PSB injection the design of the transfer line becomes crucial. As the location of Linac4 was chosen in view of upgrade scenarios, the construction of a new transfer line is foreseen, see ref.[1] and ref.[2]. Here part of the Linac2-PSB transfer line will be re-used. In the new part of the transfer line the beam is horizontally and vertically adjusted towards the bending magnet B...

  15. Status of Wakefield Monitor Experiments at the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Aftab, Namra; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Grudiev, Alexej; Javeed, Sumera; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    For the very low emittance beams in CLIC, it is vital to mitigate emittance growth which leads to reduced luminosity in the detectors. One factor that leads to emittance growth is transverse wakefields in the accelerating structures. In order to combat this the structures must be aligned with a precision of a few um. For achieving this tolerance, accelerating structures are equipped with wakefield monitors that measure higher-order dipole modes excited by the beam when offset from the structure axis. We report on such measurements, performed using prototype CLIC accelerating structures which are part of the module installed in the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. Measurements with and without the drive beam that feeds rf power to the structures are compared. Improvements to the experimental setup are discussed, and finally remaining measurements that should be performed before the completion of the program are summarized.

  16. CLIC/ILC Researchers Explore New Avenues for Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from CLIC and ILC met for their first common International Workshop on Linear Colliders, which was held in Geneva from 18 to 22 October. Although the talks were mostly scientific and technical, the political message behind them was a breakthrough, as the workshop showed the progress made in unifying the two communities.   The International Workshop on Linear Colliders (IWLC), which was organised by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, hosted by CERN, and held at CERN and the International Conference Centre in Geneva, attracted a large audience of about 500 experts. Although there have been other joint conferences between the CLIC and ILC communities before, they have all been focused on specific technical and/or managerial issues. The IWLC was part of an ongoing effort by CLIC and ILC to provide an environment in which researchers can exchange ideas, inform their peers about their most recent achievements and work together on common issues. Given the possible technical ov...

  17. CLIC quadrupole stabilization and nano-positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    In the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) currently under study, electrons and positrons will be accelerated in two linear accelerators to collide at the interaction point with an energy of 0.5- 3 TeV. This machine is constituted of a succession of accelerating structures, used to accelerate the beams of particles, and electromagnets (quadrupoles) used to focus the beams. In order to ensure good performances, the quadrupoles have to be extremely stable. Additionally, they should also have the capability to move by steps of some tens of nanometers every 20 ms with a precision of +/- 1nm. This paper proposes a holistic approach to fulfill alternatively both requirements using the same device. The concept is based on piezoelectric hard mounts to isolate the quadrupoles from the ground vibrations in the sensitive range between 1 and 20 Hz, and to provide nano-positioning capabilities. It is also shown that this strategy ensures robustness to external forces (acoustic noise, water flow for the cooling, air flow for th...

  18. An Active Pre-Alignment System and Metrology Network for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, F; Pittin, R; Wilson, Ian H

    2003-01-01

    The pre-alignment tolerance on the transverse positions of the components of the CLIC linacs is typically ten microns over distances of 200 m. Such tight tolerances cannot be obtained by a static one-time alignment because normal seismic ground movement and cultural noise associated with human and industrial activity quickly creates significant errors. It is therefore foreseen to maintain the components in place using an active-alignment system which will be linked to a permanent metrology and geodetic network. This report describes the overall philosophy and implementation of such a system and proposes one possible solution for active-alignment which uses stepping-motors to move components and stretched-wires as reference lines. Special sensors have been developed to measure the position of the components with respect to the reference lines, and to measure local tilt and relative vertical position. An in-depth analysis has been made of the repercussions on the alignment system of perturbing effects due to th...

  19. Design of the 15 GHz BPM test bench for the CLIC test facility to perform precise stretchedwire RF measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Silvia Zorzetti, Silvia; Galindo Muño, Natalia; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a low emittance beam transport and preservation, thus a precise control of the beam orbit along up to 50 km of the accelerator components in the sub-m regime is required. Within the PACMAN3 (Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometer Scale) PhD training action a study with the objective of pre-aligning the electrical centre of a 15 GHz cavity beam position monitor (BPM) to the magnetic centre of the main beam quadrupole is initiated. Of particular importance is the design of a specific test bench to study the stretched-wire setup for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) BPM, focusing on the aspects of microwave signal excitation, transmission and impedance-matching, as well as the mechanical setup and reproducibility of the measurement method.

  20. Higgs Physics at the CLIC Electron-Positron Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Philipp Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an option for a future $e^+e^-$ collider operating at centre-of-mass energies up to 3 TeV, providing sensitivity to a wide range of new physics phenomena and precision physics measurements at the energy frontier. This paper presents the Higgs physics reach of CLIC operating in three energy stages, $\\sqrt{s} =$ 350 GeV, 1.4 TeV and 3 TeV. The initial stage of operation allows the study of Higgs boson production in Higgsstrahlung ($e^+e^-\\to ZH$) and $WW$-fusion ($e^+e^-\\to H\

  1. Vertex-Detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D

    2014-01-01

    A detector concept based on hybrid planar pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. In this paper the CLIC vertex-detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on sensors, readout and detector integration is presented.

  2. Vertex-Detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D

    2014-01-01

    A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin sensors (planar or active HV-CMOS) via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced air flow. In this contribution the CLIC vertex-detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on readout and sensors is presented.

  3. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  4. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, J F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  5. Fermilab drift tube Linac revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milorad Popovic

    2004-05-12

    Using the PARMILA code running under PC-WINDOWS, the present performance of the Fermilab Drift Tube Linac has been analyzed in the light of new demands on the Linac/Booster complex (the Proton Source). The Fermilab Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed in the sixties as a proton linac with a final energy of 200 MeV and a peak current of 100mA. In the seventies, in order to enable multi-turn charge exchange injection into the Booster, the ion source was replaced by an H- source with a peak beam current of 25mA. Since then the peak beam current was steadily increased up to 55mA. In the early nineties, part of the drift tube structure was replaced with a side-coupled cavity structure in order to increase the final energy to 400 MeV. The original and still primary purpose of the linac is to serve as the injector for the Booster. As an added benefit, the Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) was built in the middle seventies. It uses 66MeV protons from the Linac to produce neutrons for medical purposes. The Linac/Booster complex was designed to run at a fundamental cycling rate of 15Hz, but beam is accelerated on every cycle only when NTF is running. Until recently the demand from the High Energy Physics program resulted in an average linac beam repetition rate of order 1 Hz. With the MiniBoone experiment and the NuMI program, the demands on the Proton Source have changed, with emphasis on higher beam repetition rates up to 7.5Hz. Historically the beam losses in the linac were small, localized at one spot, so activation was not an important issue. With higher beam rate, this has the potential to become the dominant issue. Until today all tuning in the linac and Proton Source was governed by two goals: to maximize the peak beam current out of the linac and to minimize the beam losses in the linac. If maximal peak current from the linac is no longer a primary goal, then the linac quadrupoles can be adjusted differently to achieve different goals.

  6. Optimization of SRF Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Tom [JLAB

    2013-09-01

    This work describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project.[1] The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs. The work was first published in an ICFA Beam Dynamics News Letter.[2] More recent additions to the software include the ability to save and restore input parameters as well as to adjust the Qo versus E parameters in order to explore the potential costs savings associated with doing so. Additionally, program changes now allow one to model the costs associated with a linac that makes use of energy recovery mode of operation.

  7. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  8. Pulse Power Modulator development for the CLIC Damping Ring Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity (10-34 – 10-35 cm-2s-1) and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV: CLIC would complement LHC physics in the multi-TeV range. The CLIC design relies on Pre-Damping Rings (PDR) and Damping Rings (DR) to achieve the very low emittance, through synchrotron radiation, needed for the luminosity requirements of CLIC. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the DR kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: the 2 GHz specification called for a 160 ns duration flat-top of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. In order to meet these demanding specifications, a combination of broadband impedance matching, optimized electrical circuit layout and advanced control techniques is required. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is the most promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications...

  9. Occupancy in the CLIC_ILD Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    KILLENBERG, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gg !hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons. In addition the particle composition of the backgrounds and the origin of back-scattering particles have been studied.

  10. Grid Interface Design for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

    CERN Document Server

    Jankovic, Maria; Clare, Jon; Wheeler, Pat; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the grid interface challenges for CERN’s proposed Compact Linear Colliders’ (CLIC) klystron modulators, including a 280 MW power system optimisation. The modular multilevel converter is evaluated as a candidate topology for a Medium Voltage grid interface along with a control method for reducing the impact of klystron modulators on the electrical network.

  11. Update on beam loss monitoring at CTF3 for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, L J; Effinger, E; Holzer, E B; del Busto, E N; Mallows, S; Branger, E

    2013-01-01

    The primary role of the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system for the compact linear collider (CLIC) study is to work within the machine protection system. Due to the size of the CLIC facility, a BLM that covers large distances along the beam line is highly desirable, in particular for the CLIC drive beam decelerators, which would alternatively require some ~40,000 localised monitors. Therefore, an optical fibre BLM system is currently under investigation which can cover large sections of beam line at a time. A multimode fibre has been installed along the Test Beam Line at the CLIC test facility (CTF3) where the detection principle is based on the production of Cherenkov photons within the fibre resulting from beam loss and their subsequent transport along the fibre where they are then detected at the fibre ends using silicon photomultipliers. Several additional monitors including ACEMs, PEP-II and diamond detectors have also been installed. In this contribution the first results from the BLMs are presented, comp...

  12. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  13. Stabilisation and precision pointing quadrupole magnets in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

    CERN Document Server

    Janssens, Stef; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro; Artoos, Kurt

    This thesis describes the research done to provide stabilisation and precision positioning for the main beam quadrupole magnets of the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. The introduction describes why new particle accelerators are needed to further the knowledge of our universe and why they are linear. A proposed future accelerator is the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) which consists of a novel two beam accelerator concept. Due to its linearity and subsequent single pass at the interaction point, this new accelerator requires a very small beam size at the interaction point, in order to increase collision effectiveness. One of the technological challenges, to obtain these small beam sizes at the interaction point, is to keep the quadrupole magnets aligned and stable to 1.5 nm integrated r.m.s. in vertical and 5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) in lateral direction. Additionally there is a proposal to create an intentional offset (max. 50 nm every 20 ms with a precision of +/- 1 nm), for several quadrupole ma...

  14. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  15. Linac Envelope Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, Rick

    2015-01-01

    I develop the formalism that allows calculation of beam envelopes through a linear accelerator given its on-axis electric field. Space charge can naturally be added using Sacherer formalism. A complicating feature is that the reference particle's energy-time coordinates are not known a priori. Since first order matrix formalism applies to deviations from the reference particle, this means the reference particle's time and energy must be calculated simultaneously with the beam envelope and transfer matrix. The code TRANSOPTR is used to track envelopes for general elements whose infinitesimal transfer matrices are known, and in the presence of space charge. Incorporation of the linac algorithm into TRANSOPTR is described, and some examples given.

  16. Status of Linac4 construction at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting H¯ linear accelerator which is being built at CERN in the frame of a program for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. The project started in 2008 and delivery of beam to the CERN accelerator chain is foreseen from early 2015. The new linac will be housed in an underground tunnel close to the present Linac2; a surface building will house RF and other infrastructure. The civil engineering work started in October 2008 will be soon completed. Installation of the infrastructure will take place in 2011, and from 2012 will be installed the main machine elements. The ion source is presently operational on a test stand, where it will be followed in 2011 by a 3 MeV RFQ under construction in the CERN workshops. Prototypes of the three different types of accelerating structures have been tested; construction of the 22 accelerating cavities has started, supported by a network of agreements with external laboratories and institutions. Commissioning will take place in stages, starting...

  17. Wake field effect analysis in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (< 1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the authors study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  18. Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    1998-01-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, we study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Our main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  19. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  20. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  1. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  2. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  3. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  4. Induction Linac Pulsers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, Andris

    2011-01-07

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at {approx}100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 {mu}s at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is

  5. Common ground in ILC and CLIC detector concepts

    CERN Multimedia

    Daisy Yuhas

    2013-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider and the International Linear Collider will accelerate particles and create collisions in different ways. Nonetheless, the detector concepts under development share many commonalities.   Timepix chips under scrutiny in the DESY test beam with the help of the beam telescope. CERN physicist Dominik Dannheim explains that the CLIC detector plans are adaptations of the ILC detector designs with a few select modifications. “When we started several years ago, we did not want to reinvent the wheel,” says Dannheim. “The approved ILC detector concepts served as an excellent starting point for our designs.” Essential differences Both CLIC and ILC scientists foresee general-purpose detectors that make measurements with exquisite precision. These colliders, however, have very different operating parameters, which will have important consequences for the various detector components. The ILC’s collision energy is set at 500 GeV ...

  6. Magnetic Field Requirements for a Detector at the Linear Collider Using a TPC as Main Tracking Device

    CERN Document Server

    Klempt, W

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the requirements to the magnetic field which occur in an ILD like detector at ILC or CLIC. In particular we describe requirements introduced by choosing a TPC as main tracking detector.

  7. Measurement of stau_1 pair production at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Muennich, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study performed for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report Volume 3 on the measurement of stau_1 pair production at sqrt(s) = 1.4 TeV. Only the hadronic decay of taus are considered. Results obtained using full detector simulation and including beam-induced backgrounds for the mass and for the production cross section of the stau_1 are discussed.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis for the CLIC Damping Ring Inductive Adder

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. PSpice has been utilised to carry out a sensitivity analysis of the predicted output pulse to the value of both individual and groups of circuit compon...

  9. Golden Jubilee Photos: A CLIC for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ Prototype copper accelerating structures for CLIC. New accelerator projects take many years to make and mature. When the LHC project was still only a twinkle in CERN's eye, research was already starting on a new machine. A small team at CERN was setting about the task of studying a high-energy, compact, lepton linear collider, known as CLIC. This is possibly set to become the collider of the future. A machine of this kind has all the advantages of a collider (the total collision energy is equal to the sum of the energies of the two colliding beams) without the drawback of synchrotron radiation, which is produced when particles are accelerated around a ring and thus puts a limit on the energy of such colliders. But in a project as technically challenging as CLIC, considerable technological hurdles must be overcome. To limit the linear collider's length to some tens of kilometres, the beams must acquire a considerable quantity of energy per metre travelled. The collision rate (lumi...

  10. Power Coupler Simulations for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Ramberger, S

    2011-01-01

    The power coupler is a crucial element in the design of an RF cavity. Power from an RF source is transported towards the cavity by a waveguide and transferred into the cavity by means of a power coupler that is adapted to both the transport mode in the waveguide and the principal resonant mode in the cavity. In the case of Linac4, a rectangular half-height waveguide (WG) WR2300 is used and the connection from this WG to the cavity is achieved by iris coupling through an interconnecting waveguide (IWG) in the tank wall. In this note simulations and measurements on a prototype and studies on Tank1 of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) are discussed in order to define the dimensions of this IWG such that it optimises the power transfer into the cavity.

  11. High power operation with beam of a CLIC pets equipped with on/off mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Ruber, R

    2012-01-01

    One of the feasibility issues of the CLIC two-beam scheme, is the possibility of rapidly switching off the rf power production in an individual Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) in case of breakdowns, either in the PETS or one of the main beam accelerating structures. The proposed solution is to use a variable external reflector connected to the PETS. When activated, this scheme allows us to gradually manipulate the rf power transfer to the accelerating structure and to reduce the rf power production in the PETS itself by a factor of 4. Recently the first operation of the Two Beam Test Stand (TBTS) PETS equipped with an ON/OFF mechanism was performed in CTF3. In this paper we will present the results of the PETS operation when powered by the drive beam up to high peak power levels (>100 MW) and compare them to expectations.

  12. Simulation of the pressure recovery time in a CLIC standard module

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum pressure inside the CLIC accelerating structures (AS) is crucial for both beam and RF stability. Gas molecules released during RF breakdown must be evacuated from the cells of the AS before the arrival of the next train of particles. Due to its complex geometry, accurate analytical calculations are not viable. In this paper we introduce a calculation method based on the combination of analytical vacuum equations with Monte Carlo test particle simulations, implemented in a PSpice environment via the vacuum-electrical network analogy. Pressure recovery times are calculated for the main gas species released during a breakdown. The number and type of molecules used for the calculation is the result of measurements performed in the DC spark test system.

  13. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  14. CLIC Detector Concepts as described in the CDR: Differences between the GEANT4 and Engineering Models

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Schlatter, D; Siegrist, N

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC_ILD and CLIC_SiD detector concepts as used for the CDR Vol. 2 in 2011 exist both in GEANT4 simulation models and in engineering layout drawings. At this early stage of a conceptual design, there are inevitably differences between these models, which are described in this note.

  15. Occupancy in the CLIC ILD Time Projection Chamber using Pixelised Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gamma gamma -> hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons is very high for conventional pad readout. We show that the occupancy for a pixelised TPC readout is moderate and might be a viable solution to operate a TPC at CLIC.

  16. Study of the hybrid controller electronics for the nano-stabilization of mechanical vibrations of CLIC quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Carmona, P; Collette, C; Esposito, M; Guinchard, M; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Moron Ballester, R

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the required levels of luminosity in the CLIC linear collider, mechanical stabilization of quadrupoles to the nanometre level is required. The paper describes a design of hybrid electronics combining an analogue controller and digital communication with the main machine controller. The choice of local analogue control ensures the required low latency while still keeping sufficiently low noise level. Furthermore, it reduces the power consumption, rack space and cost. Sensitivity to radiation single events upsets is reduced compared to a digital controller. The digital part is required for fine tuning and real time monitoring via digitization of critical parameters.

  17. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  18. Progress in the Development of the TOP Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L

    2004-01-01

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 msec, 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7–65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65–200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The first SCDTL module is composed by 11 DTL tanks coupled by 10 side cavities. The tanks has modified to overcome vacuum leakage that occurred during brazing, and now the module has been completed, and is ready to be tested with protons. The 7 MeV injector has been recently installed in the ENEA Frascati laboratories for preliminary test, before being transferred to the main Oncologycal Hospital in Rome, Istituto Regina Elena.

  19. Linac3 - 1992-1994

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; A Van der Shueren; Jean-Claude Vialis

    1995-01-01

    This film reports the differents steps of the construction in differents places (Italy, Germany, France) from 29 October 1992 to 29 April 1994. This linac, commissioned in summer 1994, presently provides beams of 208Pb53+. A 14 GHz ECR ion source operating in the "afterglow" mode produces Pb 27+ ions at 2.5 keV/u. This beam is accelerated in an RFQ and a three tank IH linac to 4.2 MeV/u where stripping in a 1 um carbon foil to a charge state distribution centered around Pb53+ takes place. 53+ ions are selected from this mixture in a magnetic filter before being transported to the PS Booster and other circular machines. Linac3, the more common name for this machine, was built by a truly international collaboration involving France, Italy, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, India, the Czech Republic and CERN.

  20. Thermal joining studies of CLIC accelerating structures and Establishment of a test bench and studies of thermomechanical behaviour of a CLIC two beam module

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The assembly procedure of the CLIC accelerating structures is constituted of several steps, involving ultra-precision machining, heating cycles at very high temperatures and many quality controls necessary to fulfil the very tight technical requirements. Diverse issues are related to the diffusion bonding process of CLIC accelerating structures; due to diffusion creep mechanisms occurring at high temperature and low stress, residual deformations might be present at the end of the joining process. A theoretical and experimental approach is presented here in order to understand this issue further and feedback on the design process. As a second issue tackled here, the final alignment of CLIC is also affected by the power dissipation occurring in the module during the normal operation modes and resulting in time-varying non-uniform thermal fields. The thermo-mechanical models of CLIC two-beam modules developed in the past are then useful to predict the structural deformations affecting the final alignment of the ...

  1. CTF3 Probe Beam LINAC Commissioning and Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Farabolini, W; Curtoni, A; Girardot, P; Peauger, F; Simon, C S; Chevallay, E; Divall Csatari, M; Lebas, N; Petrarca, M; Palaia, A; Ruber, R J M Y; Ziemann, V G

    2010-01-01

    The probe beam LINAC, CAL­IFES, of the CLIC Test Fa­cil­i­ty (CTF3) has been de­vel­oped by CEA Saclay, LAL Orsay and CERN to de­liv­er trains of short bunch­es (0.75 ps) spaced by 0.666 ps at an en­er­gy around 170 MeV with a charge of 0.6 nC to the TBTS (Two-beam Test Stand) in­tend­ed to test the high gra­di­ent CLIC ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures. Based on 3 for­mer LIL ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures and on a newly de­vel­oped RF pho­to-in­jec­tor, the whole ac­cel­er­a­tor is pow­ered with a sin­gle 3 GHz klystron de­liv­er­ing puls­es of 45 MW through a RF pulse com­pres­sion cav­i­ty and a net­work of waveg­uides, split­ters, phase-shifters and an at­ten­u­a­tor. We re­late here re­sults col­lect­ed dur­ing the var­i­ous com­mis­sion­ing and op­er­a­tion pe­ri­ods which led to nom­i­nal per­for­mances and sta­ble beam char­ac­ter­is­tics de­liv­ered to the TBTS. Progress has been made in the laser sys­tem for beam charge and sta...

  2. Online Resources for High School Teachers--A CLIC Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-04-01

    "I'm a high school teacher. I don't have time to sift through all of JCE to find what I need. I don't have enough time as it is!" If you need to find things in a hurry, go to JCE HS CLIC, the JCE High School Chemed Learning Information Center, http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/HS/. You will find good solid, reliable information, and you will find it fast. CLIC is open 24 hours every day, all over the world. What You Will Find at JCE CLIC We know teachers are pressed for time. During the few minutes between classes or at the end of the day, information needs to be found very quickly. Perhaps you are looking for a demo that illustrates electrochemistry using Cu, Mg, orange juice, and a clock; or a student activity on chromatography that is ready to copy and hand out; or a video to illustrate the action of aqua regia on gold, because you can't use aqua regia and can't afford gold. You can find each of these quickly at CLIC. The Journal has always provided lots of articles designed with high school teachers in mind. What the new JCE HS CLIC does is collect the recent materials at one address on JCE Online, making it quicker and easier for you to find them. Information has been gathered from both print and online versions of the Journal, from JCE Software, and from JCE Internet. It is organized as shown at the bottom of the page. Getting Access to Information You have located something that interests you, perhaps a list of tested demonstrations that pertain to consumer chemistry. Now it is time to get it. JCE subscribers (individuals and libraries) can read, download, and print the full versions of the articles as well as all supplemental materials, including student handouts and instructor's notes. You will need the username and password that are on the mailing label that comes with your Journaleach month. JCE HS CLIC home page: http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/HS/ Your Suggestions, Please Our plans for JCE HS CLIC do not end with what you find now. Other resources and features

  3. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  4. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  5. Design of a highly segmented Endcap at a CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gerwig, H; Siegrist, N

    2010-01-01

    This technical note describes a possible design for a highly segmented end-cap at a CLIC detector with a strong magnetic field up to 5 Tesla. Reinforcement is horizontal in order to allow an insertion of the muon chambers from the side. Construction issues, assembly questions as well as muon chamber access and support questions have been studied. A FEA analysis to optimize dead space for physics and checking the weakening effect of alignment channels through the end-cap have been performed.

  6. Beam Loss Studies for Rare Isotope Driver Linacs Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T P; Kurennoy, S S; Billen, J H; Crandall, K R; Qiang, J; Ryne, R D; Mustapha, B; Ostroumov, P; Zhao, Q; York, and R. C.

    2008-03-26

    The Fortran 90 RIAPMTQ/IMPACT code package is a pair of linked beam-dynamics simulation codes that have been developed for end-to-end computer simulations of multiple-charge-state heavy-ion linacs for future exotic-beam facilities. These codes have multiple charge-state capability, and include space-charge forces. The simulations can extend from the low-energy beam-transport line after an ECR ion source to the end of the linac. The work has been performed by a collaboration including LANL, LBNL, ANL, and MSU. The code RIAPMTQ simulates the linac front-end beam dynamics including the LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT. The code IMPACT simulates the beam dynamics of the main superconducting linac. The codes have been benchmarked for rms beam properties against previously existing codes at ANL and MSU. The codes allow high-statistics runs on parallel supercomputing platforms, particularly at NERSC at LBNL, for studies of beam losses. The codes also run on desktop PC computers for low-statistics work. The code package is described in more detail in a recent publication [1] in the Proceedings of PAC07 (2007 US Particle Accelerator Conference). In this report we describe the main activities for the FY07 beam-loss studies project using this code package.

  7. Beam commissioning for a superconducting proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; He, Yuan; Jia, Huan; Dou, Wei-ping; Chen, Wei-long; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, Shu-hui; Feng, Chi; Tao, Yue; Wang, Wang-sheng; Wu, Jian-qiang; Zhang, Sheng-hu; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To develop the next generation of safe and cleaner nuclear energy, the accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system emerges as one of the most attractive technologies. It will be able to transmute the long-lived transuranic radionuclides produced in the reactors of today's nuclear power plants into shorter-lived ones, and also it will provide positive energy output at the same time. The prototype of the Chinese ADS (C-ADS) proton accelerator comprises two injectors and a 1.5 GeV, 10 mA continuous wave (CW) superconducting main linac. The injector scheme II at the C-ADS demo facility inside the Institute of Modern Physics is a 10 MeV CW superconducting linac with a designed beam current of 10 mA, which includes an ECR ion source, a low-energy beam transport line, a 162.5 MHz radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport line, and a superconducting half wave resonator accelerator section. This demo facility has been successfully operating with an 11 mA, 2.7 MeV CW beam and a 3.9 mA, 4.3 MeV CW beam at different times and conditions since June 2014. The beam power has reached 28 kW, which is the highest record for the same type of linear accelerators. In this paper, the parameters of the test injector II and the progress of the beam commissioning are reported.

  8. Basis for low beam loss in the high-current APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Kurennoy, S.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Ryne, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crandall, K.R. [TECHSOURCE, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The present evidence that the APT proton linac design will meet its goal of low beam loss operation. The conclusion has three main bases: (1) extrapolation from the understanding of the performance of the 800-MeV LANSCE proton linac at Los Alamos, (2) the theoretical understanding of the dominant halo-forming mechanism in the APT accelerator from physics models and multiparticle simulations, and (3) the conservative approach and key principles underlying the design of the APT linac, which are aimed at minimizing beam halo and providing large apertures to reduce beam loss to a very low value.

  9. Higgs Physics at the CLIC Electron-Positron Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Afanaciev, K; Tehrani, N Alipour; Balázs, C; Benhammou, Y; Benoit, M; Bilki, B; Blaising, J -J; Boland, M J; Boronat, M; Borysov, O; Božović-Jelisavčić, I; Buckland, M; Bugiel, S; Burrows, P N; Charles, T K; Daniluk, W; Dannheim, D; Dasgupta, R; Demarteau, M; Gutierrez, M A Díaz; Eigen, G; Elsener, K; Felzmann, U; Firlej, M; Firu, E; Fiutowski, T; Fuster, J; Gabriel, M; Gaede, F; García, I; Ghenescu, V; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Grefe, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Kačarević, G; Kalinowski, J; Kananov, S; Klempt, W; Kopec, M; Krawczyk, M; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Kulis, S; Laštovička, T; Lesiak, T; Levy, A; Levy, I; Linssen, L; Lukić, S; Maier, A A; Makarenko, V; Marshall, J S; Mei, K; Milutinović-Dumbelović, G; Moroń, J; Moszczyński, A; Moya, D; Münker, R M; Münnich, A; Neagu, A T; Nikiforou, N; Nikolopoulos, K; Nürnberg, A; Pandurović, M; Pawlik, B; Codina, E Perez; Peric, I; Petric, M; Pitters, F; Poss, S G; Preda, T; Protopopescu, D; Rassool, R; Redford, S; Repond, J; Robson, A; Roloff, P; Ros, E; Rosenblat, O; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Sailer, A; Schlatter, D; Schulte, D; Shumeiko, N; Sicking, E; Simon, F; Simoniello, R; Sopicki, P; Stapnes, S; Ström, R; Strube, J; Świentek, K P; Szalay, M; Tesař, M; Thomson, M A; Trenado, J; Uggerhøj, U I; van der Kolk, N; van der Kraaij, E; Pinto, M Vicente Barreto; Vila, I; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Vos, M; Vossebeld, J; Watson, M; Watson, N; Weber, M A; Weerts, H; Wells, J D; Weuste, L; Winter, A; Wojtoń, T; Xia, L; Xu, B; Żarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zgura, I -S

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an option for a future e+e- collider operating at centre-of-mass energies up to 3 TeV, providing sensitivity to a wide range of new physics phenomena and precision physics measurements at the energy frontier. This paper presents the Higgs physics reach of CLIC operating in three energy stages, sqrt(s) = 350 GeV, 1.4 TeV and 3 TeV. The initial stage of operation allows the study of Higgs boson production in Higgsstrahlung (e+e- -> ZH) and WW-fusion (e+e- -> Hnunu), resulting in precise measurements of the production cross sections, the Higgs total decay width Gamma_H, and model-independent determinations of the Higgs couplings. Operation at sqrt(s) > 1 TeV provides high-statistics samples of Higgs bosons produced through WW-fusion, enabling tight constraints on the Higgs boson couplings. Studies of the rarer processes e+e- -> ttH and e+e- -> HHnunu would allow measurements of the top Yukawa coupling and the Higgs boson self-coupling. This paper presents detailed studies of...

  10. Preliminary Design of an Inductive Adder for CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping rings kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications; this topology allows the use of both digital and analogue modulation. To effectively use modulation techniques to achieve such low ripple and droop requires an in-depth knowledge of the behaviour of the solid-state switching components and their gate drivers, as well as a good understanding of the overa...

  11. R&D for the Vertexing at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Redford, S

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider is a candidate to be the next high-energy particle physics collider. Using a novel acceleration technique, electrons and positrons would be brought into collision with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. Despite challenging levels of beam-induced background, this would provide a relatively clean environment in which to perform precision physics measurements. The vertex detector would be crucial in achieving this, and would need to provide accurate particle tracking information to facilitate secondary vertex reconstruction and jet flavour-tagging. With this goal in mind, current technological limits are being stretched to design a low occupancy, low mass and low-power dissipation vertex detector for CLIC. A concept comprising thin hybrid pixel detectors coupled to high- performance readout ASICs, power-pulsing and air-flow cooling is under development. In this paper, the CLIC vertex detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on sensors, readout, powerin...

  12. Brilliant positron sources for CLIC and other collider projects

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, Louis; Dadoun, Olivier; Kamitani, Takuya; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider), as future linear collider, requires an intense positron source. A brief history is given up to the present baseline configuration which assumes unpolarized beams. A conventional scheme, with a single tungsten target as source of e-e+ pairs, has been studied several years ago. But, in order to reduce the beam energy deposition on the e+ target converter, a double-target system has been studied and proposed as baseline for CLIC. With this ‘‘hybrid target’’, the positron production scheme is based on the channeling process. A 5 GeV electron beam impinges on a thin crystal tungsten target aligned along its axis, enhancing the photon production by channeling radiation. A large number of photons are sent to a thick amorphous tungsten target, generating large number of e-e+ pairs, while the charged particles are bent away, reducing the deposited energy and the PEDD (Peak Energy Deposition Density). The targets parameters are optimized for the positron production. Polarize...

  13. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  14. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will be described, including: proton linac injectors for proton synchrotrons, compact proton linacs for PET isotope production, epithermal neutron sources for the BNCT application, energy boosters for proton therapy, compact portable neutron sources for thermal neutron radiography, and pulsed cold neutron sources for cold neutron physics and related applications.

  15. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rees, Daniel Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scheinker, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  16. The LINAC4 Power Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Montesinos, E; Riffaud, B; Ugena Tirado, P; Wegner, R

    2011-01-01

    Linac4 is employing three types of accelerating structures after the RFQ: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell- Coupled DTL (CCDTL), and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS) to accelerate the beam up to 160 MeV at 352.2MHz. The structures are designed for a peak power of approximately 1 MW per power coupler, which is transported via rectangular waveguides from the klystron gallery to the RF cavities. The coupler itself consists of two parts: a ceramic window, which separates the cavity vacuum from the air in the waveguides, and a Tuner-adjustablewaveguide Coupler (TaCo), which couples the RF power through an iris to the cavity. In the frame of the Linac4 R&D both devices have been significantly improvedwith respect to their commonly used design. On the coupler side, the waveguide short circuit with its matched length has been replaced by a fixedlength /4 short circuit. The RF matching is done by a simple piston tuner, which allows a quick matching to different cavity quality factors. In the window part, which usually c...

  17. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  18. Frequency scanning interferometry for CLIC component fiducialisation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamugasa, Solomon William; Mainaud Durand, Helene; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    We present a strategy for the fiducialisation of CLIC’s Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) magnets using Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI). We have developed complementary device for a commercial FSI system to enable coordinate determination via multilateration. Using spherical high index glass retroreflectors with a wide acceptance angle, we optimise the geometry of measurement stations with respect to fiducials -- thus improving the precision of coordinates. We demonstrate through simulations that the 10 μm uncertainty required in the vertical and lateral axes for the fiducialisation of the MBQ can be attained using FSI multilateration.

  19. Status of the RFI Linac Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of the Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure is currently under construction at Linac Systems. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideröe) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The 200 MHz RFI prototype, consisting of a short RFQ linac followed by a short RFI linac, will accelerate a 20 mA beam of protons from an injection energy of 25 keV to an output energy of 2.50 MeV in a total linac structure length of 1.44 meters. The linac structures are designed for continuous (cw) operation, and will be tested initially at a 33% duty factor. The peak structure power of 66 kW and peak beam power of 50 kW will be supplied by a 144 kW, 33% duty rf power system. A microwave ion source will supply the proton beam and an articulated Einzel lens will steer and focus the beam into the RFQ aperture. The mechanical design of the linac structures will be presented, the calculated performance will be described, the status of the components will b...

  20. Status of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a free electron laser facility in construction at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is designed to operate in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nanometers. At the time of this conference, civil construction of new tunnels and buildings is complete, the necessary modifications to the SLAC linac are complete, and the undulator system and x-ray optics/diagnostics are being installed. The electron gun, 135 MeV injector linac and 250 MeV bunch compressor were commissioned in 2007. Accelerator commissioning activities are presently devoted to the achievement of performance goals for the completed 14 GeV linac.

  1. Designs for a LINAC-Ring LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Calaga, R; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electronproton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a pulsed linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with two cw linacs and energyrecovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac with 140-GeV final energy [“p-140”]. We discuss parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and performance for the three scenarios.

  2. Frequency choice of eRHIC SRF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-05

    eRHIC is a FFAG lattice based multipass ERL [1]. The eRHIC SRF linac has been decided to change from 422 MHz 5-cell cavity to 647 MHz 5-cell cavity. There are several considerations affecting the frequency choice for a high current multipass-ERL: the beam structure, bunch length, energy spread, beam-break-up (BBU) threshold, SRF loss considerations. Beyond the physics considerations, cost and complexity or risk is an important consideration for the frequency choice, especially when we are designing a machine to be built in a few years. Although there are some benefits of using a 422 MHz cavity for eRHIC ERL, however, there are some very critical drawbacks, including lack of facilities to fabricate a 422 MHz 5-cell cavity, very few facilities to process such a cavity and no existing facility to test the cavity anywhere. As the cavity size is big and its weight is large, it is difficult to handle it during fabrication, processing and testing and no one has experience in this area. As the cavity size is large, the cryomodule becomes big as well. All of these considerations drive the risk of building eRHIC ERL with 422 MHz cavities to a very high level. Therefore, a decision was made to change the frequency of main linac to be 647 MHz 5-cell cavities. This note will compare these two linacs: 422MHz 5-cell cavity linac and 647Mz 5-cell cavity SRF linac, from both practical point of view and physics point of view.

  3. Development of RF System Model for CERN Linac2 Tanks

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, G; Vretenar, M; Kumar, G; Agarwal, V

    2010-01-01

    An RF system model has been created for the CERN Linac2 Tanks. RF systems in this linac have both single and double feed architectures. The main elements of these systems are: RF power amplifier, main resonator, feed-line and the amplitude and phase feedback loops. The model of the composite system is derived by suitably concatenating the models of these individual sub-systems. For computational efficiency the modeling has been carried out in the base band. The signals are expressed in in-phase - quadrature domain, where the response of the resonator is expressed using two linear differential equations, making it valid for large signal conditions. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for creating the model. The model has been found useful in predicting the system behaviour, especially during the transients. In the paper we present the details of the model, highlighting the methodology, which could be easily extended to multiple feed RF systems.

  4. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kufer, M. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pfeffer, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wolff, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  5. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, T A; Kufer, M R; Pfeffer, H; Wolff, D

    2015-01-01

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  6. Cholesterol Promotes Interaction of the Protein CLIC1 with Phospholipid Monolayers at the Air–Water Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khondker R. Hossain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CLIC1 is a Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel protein that exists either in a soluble state in the cytoplasm or as a membrane bound protein. Members of the CLIC family are largely soluble proteins that possess the intriguing property of spontaneous insertion into phospholipid bilayers to form integral membrane ion channels. The regulatory role of cholesterol in the ion-channel activity of CLIC1 in tethered lipid bilayers was previously assessed using impedance spectroscopy. Here we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of cholesterol on the spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 into Langmuir film monolayers prepared using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine alone or in combination with cholesterol. The spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 was shown to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol in the membrane. Furthermore, pre-incubation of CLIC1 with cholesterol prior to its addition to the Langmuir film, showed no membrane insertion even in monolayers containing cholesterol, suggesting the formation of a CLIC1-cholesterol pre-complex. Our results therefore suggest that CLIC1 membrane interaction involves CLIC1 binding to cholesterol located in the membrane for its initial docking followed by insertion. Subsequent structural rearrangements of the protein would likely also be required along with oligomerisation to form functional ion channels.

  7. Cholesterol Promotes Interaction of the Protein CLIC1 with Phospholipid Monolayers at the Air–Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Khondker R.; Al Khamici, Heba; Holt, Stephen A.; Valenzuela, Stella M.

    2016-01-01

    CLIC1 is a Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel protein that exists either in a soluble state in the cytoplasm or as a membrane bound protein. Members of the CLIC family are largely soluble proteins that possess the intriguing property of spontaneous insertion into phospholipid bilayers to form integral membrane ion channels. The regulatory role of cholesterol in the ion-channel activity of CLIC1 in tethered lipid bilayers was previously assessed using impedance spectroscopy. Here we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of cholesterol on the spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 into Langmuir film monolayers prepared using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine alone or in combination with cholesterol. The spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 was shown to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol in the membrane. Furthermore, pre-incubation of CLIC1 with cholesterol prior to its addition to the Langmuir film, showed no membrane insertion even in monolayers containing cholesterol, suggesting the formation of a CLIC1-cholesterol pre-complex. Our results therefore suggest that CLIC1 membrane interaction involves CLIC1 binding to cholesterol located in the membrane for its initial docking followed by insertion. Subsequent structural rearrangements of the protein would likely also be required along with oligomerisation to form functional ion channels. PMID:26875987

  8. Vacuum arc localization in CLIC prototype radio frequency accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091976; Koivunen, Visa

    2016-04-04

    A future linear collider capable of reaching TeV collision energies should support accelerating gradients beyond 100 MV/m. At such high fields, the occurrence of vacuum arcs have to be mitigated through conditioning, during which an accelerating structure’s resilience against breakdowns is slowly increased through repeated radio frequency pulsing. Conditioning is very time and resource consuming, which is why developing more efficient procedures is desirable. At CERN, conditioning related research is conducted at the CLIC high-power X-band test stands. Breakdown localization is an important diagnostic tool of accelerating structure tests. Abnormal position distributions highlight issues in structure design, manufacturing or operation and may consequently help improve these processes. Additionally, positioning can provide insight into the physics of vacuum arcs. In this work, two established positioning methods based on the time-difference-ofarrival of radio frequency waves are extended. The first method i...

  9. PACMAN – an Innovative Doctoral Programme for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The final network project funded under the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Marie Curie Actions, held its kick-off meeting at CERN on 20 November 2013.   PACMAN – a study on Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometre scale – is in the final stage of recruiting 10 PhD students to do research on beam instrumentation, metrology, micrometric alignment, magnetic measurements, nano-positioning and high-precision engineering. The students will acquire multi-disciplinary expertise in advanced engineering combined with a broad span of transferable skills. “PACMAN gives us the opportunity to attract students to CERN at a key moment in the CLIC study,” said Frédérick Bordry, Head of CERN’s Technology Department. “This is also an ideal opportunity to further develop CERN’s networks with industry and universities.” “The project is...

  10. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  11. Physics requirements for Scalar Muons searches at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of smuon and neutralino masses in smuon pair production is an important part of the program of spectroscopic studies of Supersymmetry at a high energy linear collider. In this note we report the first results of a study of e+e− → μ ̃R+μ ̃R− in a high-mass, cosmology-motivated Supersymmetric scenario at 3 TeV at CLIC. This process is a good example to study requirements on the beam energy spectrum and polarisation and the track momentum resolution in a simple final state. We discuss the expected accuracy on the mass measurements as a function of the momentum resolution, luminosity spectrum, beam polarisation and time stamping capability. Results obtained at generator level are validated by comparison to full simulation and reconstruction. Preliminary requirements for the detector performances and beam polarisation are presented.

  12. Analysis of SUSY Heavy Higgs events at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Quevillon, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the supersymmetric neutral heavy Higgs boson production channel e+e− → H◦A◦ → bb ̄bb ̄ at √s = 3 TeV. Reconstruction of data simulated at generator level shows a significant degradation of SUSY Heavy Higgs signal caused by γγ to hadrons background at s = 3 TeV. The importance of analysis procedures such as event cuts and transversal momentum cuts during jet-clustering to reduce the impact of the hadron background is underlined. Reconstruction at both the generator level and at the level of a full detector simulation forces us to introduce cuts to improve the quality of the results. This note describes a preliminary study of SUSY Heavy Higgs at CLIC - a more detailed paper on an extended study is in preparation.

  13. Fiducialisation and initial alignment of CLIC component with micrometric accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, Helene; Buzio, Marco; Caiazza, Domenico; Catalan Lasheras, Nuria; Cherif, Ahmed; Doytchinov, Iordan Petrov; Fuchs, Jean-Frederic; Gaddi, Andrea; Galindo Munoz, Natalia; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Kamugasa, Solomon William; Modena, Michele; Novotny, Peter; Sanz, Claude; Severino, Giordana; Russenschuck, Stephan; Tshilumba, David; Vlachakis, Vasileios; Wendt, Manfred; Zorzetti, Silvia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new solution to fiducialise the three major components of the CLIC collider: quadrupoles, beam-position monitors (BPM), and accelerating structures (AS). This solution is based on the use of a copper-beryllium (CuBe) wire to locate the reference position, i.e. the symmetry axes of the components (their magnetic, respectively electromagnetic centre axis), and to determine their position in the common support assembly defining a local coordinate system, with respect to the fiducials. These alignment targets will be used later to align the support assembly in the tunnel. With such a method, several accelerator components of different types, supported by a dedicated adjustment system, can be simultaneously fiducialised and pre-aligned using the same wire, enabling a micrometric accuracy with help of a 3D coordinate measurement machine (CMM). Alternative solutions based on frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and micro-triangulation are also under development, to perform such fiducialisation and in...

  14. Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

    The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

  15. Superconducting resonator used as a phase and energy detector for linac setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2016-07-01

    Booster linacs for tandem accelerators and positive ion superconducting injectors have matured into standard features of many accelerator laboratories. Both types of linac are formed as an array of independently-phased resonators operating at room temperature or in a superconducting state. Each accelerating resonator needs to be individually set in phase and amplitude for optimum acceleration efficiency. The modularity of the linac allows the velocity profile along the structure to be tailored to accommodate a wide range charge to mass ratio. The linac setup procedure, described in this paper, utilizes a superconducting resonator operating in a beam bunch phase detection mode. The main objective was to derive the full set of phase distributions for quick and efficient tuning of the entire accelerator. The phase detector was operated in overcoupling mode in order to minimize de-tuning effects of microphonic background. A mathematical expression was derived to set a limit on resonator maximum accelerating field during the crossover search to enable extracting unambiguous beam phase data. A set of equations was obtained to calculate the values of beam phase advance and energy gain produced by accelerating resonators. An extensive range of linac setting up configurations was conducted to validate experimental procedures and analytical models. The main application of a superconducting phase detector is for fast tuning for beams of ultralow intensities, in particular in the straight section of linac facilities.

  16. Phase control system for SSRF linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chongxian; YU Luyang; LIU Dekang

    2008-01-01

    The design of phase control system in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) linac is presented in this paper. And digital phase detecting algorithm, the key for phase control system, is fully described. The testing results for phase control system in 100MeV linac are discussed in detail.

  17. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-to-Ring Positron Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Riemann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with positron polarization of 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented.

  18. Status of the Linac based positron source at Saclay

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, J -M; Debu, P; Dzitko, H; Hardy, P; Liszkay, L; Lotrus, P; Muranaka, T; Noel, C; Perez, P; Pierret, O; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Low energy positron beams are of major interest for fundamental science and materials science. IRFU has developed and built a slow positron source based on a compact, low energy (4.3 MeV) electron linac. The linac-based source will provide positrons for a magnetic storage trap and represents the first step of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter in Rest) recently approved by CERN for an installation in the Antiproton Decelerator hall. The installation built in Saclay will be described with its main characteristics. The ultimate target of the GBAR experiment will be briefly presented as well as the foreseen development of an industrial positron source dedicated for materials science laboratories.

  19. Waveguide-coupled cavities for energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Nguyen, D. C.; Young, L. M.

    2004-08-01

    A novel scheme for energy recovery linacs used as FEL drivers is proposed. It consists of two parallel beam lines, one for electron beam acceleration and the other for the used beam that is bent after passing through a wiggler. The used beam is decelerated by the structure and feeds the cavity fields. The main feature of the scheme is that RF cavities are coupled with waveguides between these two linacs. The waveguide cut through the two beam pipes provides an efficient mechanism for energy transfer. The superconducting RF cavities in the two accelerators can be shaped differently, with an operating mode at the same frequency. This provides HOM detuning and therefore reduces the beam break-up effects. Another advantage of the proposed two-beam scheme is easy tuning of the cavity coupling by changing the waveguide length.

  20. Instrumentation for Longitudinal Beam Gymnastics in FEL's and at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, T; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Soby, L; Tecker, F A; Urschutz, P; Welsch, C P; Alesini, D; Biscari, C; Buonomo, B; Coiro, O; Ghigo, A; Marcellini, F; Preger, B; Dabrowski, A; Velasco, M; Craievich, P; Ferianis, M; Veronese, M; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Built at CERN by an international collaboration, the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a high luminosity 3 TeV e+-e- collider by the year 2010. One of the main issues to be demonstrated is the generation of a high average current (30 A) high frequency (12 GHz) bunched beam by means of RF manipulation. At the same time, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are developed in several places all over the world with the aim of providing high brilliance photon sources. These machines rely on the production of high peak current electron bunches. The required performances put high demands on the diagnostic equipment and innovative longitudinal monitors have been developed during the past years. This paper gives an overview of the longitudinal instrumentation developed at ELETTRA and CTF3, where a special effort was made in order to implement at the same time non-intercepting devices for online monitoring, and destructive diagnostics which have the advantage of providing more detailed informati...

  1. Study of the electronics architecture for the mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupoles of the CLIC linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Slaathaug, A

    2010-01-01

    To reach a sufficient luminosity, the transverse beam sizes and emittances in future linear particle accelerators should be reduced to the nanometer level. Mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupole magnets is of the utmost importance for this. The piezo actuators used for this purpose can also be used to make fast incremental orientation adjustments with a nanometer resolution. The main requirements for the CLIC stabilisation electronics is a robust, low noise, low delay, high accuracy and resolution, low band and radiation resistant feedback control loop. Due to the high number of controllers (about 4000) a cost optimization should also be made. Different architectures are evaluated for a magnet stabilisation prototype, including the sensors type and configuration, partition between software and hardware for control algorithms, and optimization of the ADC/DAC converters. The controllers will be distributed along the 50 km long accelerator and a communication bus should allow external control. Furthermore, o...

  2. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  3. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  4. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  5. Induced radioactivity analysis for the NSRL Linac in China using Monte Carlo simulations and gamma-spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    He, Lijuan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Yukai; Ren, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The 200-MeV electron linac of the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located in Hefei is one of the earliest high-energy electron linear accelerators in China. The electrons are accelerated to 200 MeV by five acceleration tubes and are collimated by scrapers. The scraper aperture is smaller than the acceleration tube one, so some electrons hit the materials when passing through them. These lost electrons cause induced radioactivity mainly due to bremsstrahlung and photonuclear reaction. This paper describes a study of induced radioactivity for the NSRL Linac using FLUKA simulations and gamma-spectroscopy. The measurements showed that electrons were lost mainly at the scraper. So the induced radioactivity of the NSRL Linac is mainly produced here. The radionuclide types were simulated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and the results were compared against measurements made with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. The NSRL linac had been retired because of upgrading last year. The re...

  6. Induced radioisotopes inside the treatment hall with a Linac for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, 20255 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rivera P, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    When Linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the Linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect; this last are mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation mainly in the concrete walls and the Linac components. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. (Author)

  7. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Spataro, B.

    1999-04-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements made on a prototype have shown good agreement. Two possible supporting stem configurations (single stem and two stems 180° apart for each drift tube) were examined and a comparison of the results in both cases are discussed.

  8. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L; Spataro, B

    1999-01-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements m...

  9. 3D FEA Computation of the CLIC Machine Detector Interface Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalesi, A

    2012-01-01

    A critical aspect of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design is represented by the Accelerator/Experiment interface (called Machine Detector Interface or MDI). In the 3 TeV CLIC layout, the final focus QD0 quadrupole will be located inside the end-cap of the detector itself. This complex MDI scenario required to be simulated with a full 3D-FE analysis. This study was critical to check and control the magnetic cross-talk between the detector solenoid and the final focus magnet and therefore to optimize the design of an “antisolenoids” system needed to shield the QD0 and the e-/e+ beams from the detector magnetic field. In this paper the development and evolution of the computational FE model is presented together with the results obtained and their implication on the CLIC MDI design.

  10. Experimental study of DC vacuum breakdown and application to high-gradient accelerating structures for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shipman, Nicholas; Jones, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a leading candidate for the next generation high energy linear collider. As any breakdown would result in a partial or full loss of luminosity for the pulse in which it occurs, obtaining a low breakdown rate in CLIC accelerating structures is a critical requirement for the successful operation of the proposed collider. This thesis presents investigations into the breakdown phenomenon primarily in the low breakdown rate regime of interest to CLIC, performed using the CERN DC spark systems between 2011 and 2014. The design, construction and commissioning of several new pieces of hardware, as well as the development of improved techniques to measuring the inter-electrode gap distance are detailed. These hardware improvements were fundamental in enabling the exciting new experiments mentioned below, which in turn have provided significant additional insight into the phenomenon of breakdown. Experiments were performed to measure fundamental parameters of individual breakdowns...

  11. Mass and Cross Section Measurement of light-flavored Squarks at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the prospects for the measurement of TeV-scale light-flavored right-squark masses and the corresponding production cross section at a 3 TeV e+e- collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis, performed in the framework of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, is based on full Geant4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including standard model physics background and machine related hadronic background from two-photon processes. The events are reconstructed using particle flow event reconstruction, and the mass is obtained from a template fit built from generator-level simulations with smearing to parametrize the detector response. For an integrated luminosity of 2/ab, a statistical precision of 5.9 GeV, corresponding to 0.52%, is obtained for unseparated first and second generation right squarks. For the combined cross section, a precision of 0.07 fb, corresponding to 5%, is obtained.

  12. Les mesures de métrologie pour le CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, A

    2008-01-01

    Le projet CLIC est en tout point un défi technique majeur ; c?est le cas également pour la mesure dimensionnelle. Quels sont les équipements et les méthodes qui permettent de caractériser les pièces avec une incertitude de mesure aussi réduite que possible, vu les tolérances micrométriques imposées ? Afin de répondre à cette question, une veille technologique a été maintenue sur une longue période. Les acteurs relevants ont été contactés pour bénéficier d?une ouverture sur les dernières avancées dans le domaine. Différentes techniques ont été étudiées et comparées telles que la digitalisation, la tomographie X, la mesure tridimensionnelle. L'assemblage de haute précision des composants est aussi primordial. Sa mise en ?uvre sous un microscope optique ou à l'aide d'une machine tridimensionnelle est en cours d?étude. L'exposé traitera aussi de la mesure de rugosité, un domaine où nous disposons de moyens adaptés aux exigences spécifiques du projet.

  13. A New Technique For Information Processing of CLIC Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Tzermpinos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The scientific work presented in this paper could be described as a novel, systemic approach to the process of organization of CLIC documentation. The latter refers to the processing of various sets of archived data found on various CERN archiving services in a more friendly and organized way. From physics aspect, this is equal to having an initial system characterized by high entropy, which after some transformation of energy and matter will produce a final system of reduced entropy. However, this reduction in entropy can be considered valid for open systems only, which are sub-systems of grander isolated systems, to which the total entropy will always increase. Thus, using as basis elements from information theory, systems theory and thermodynamics, the unorganized form of data pending to be organized to a higher form, is modeled as an initial open sub-system with increased entropy, which, after the processing of information, will produce a final system with decreased entropy. This systemic approach to the ...

  14. Top quark mass measurements at and above threshold at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Katja; Tesar, Michal; Poss, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the expected precision of the top quark mass determination, measured at a linear $e^+e^-$ collider based on CLIC technology. GEANT4-based detector simulation and full event reconstruction including realistic physics and beam-induced background levels are used. Two different techniques to measure the top mass are studied: The direct reconstruction of the invariant mass of the top quark decay products and the measurement of the mass together with the strong coupling constant in a threshold scan, in both cases including first studies of expected systematic uncertainties. For the direct reconstruction, experimental uncertainties around 100 MeV are achieved, which are at present not matched by a theoretical understanding on a similar level. With a threshold scan, total uncertainties of around 100 MeV are achieved, including theoretical uncertainties in a well-defined top mass scheme. For the threshold scan, the precision at ILC is also studied to provide a comparison of the two linear collide...

  15. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hynds, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hy- brid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tracking region,...

  16. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  17. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  18. Beam diagnostic suite for the SNS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardekopf, R. A.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Power, J. F.; Shafer, R. E.; Stovall, J. E.

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the next-generation pulsed neutron source to be built in the United States. The accelerator chosen to produce the 2 MW beam power on the neutron-producing target is an H- linear accelerator (linac) to 1 GeV, followed by a proton accumulator ring. The ring compresses the 1 ms long beam bunches from the linac to less than 1 μs. The linac is pulsed at 60 Hz with a 6% duty factor. Stringent control of the pulse structure and stability of the high-intensity H- beam is needed to minimize beam loss in the linac and to optimize injection into the accumulator ring. This requires a set of beam diagnostics that can operate at high peak currents (˜52 mA) with high sensitivity and minimum beam interception.

  19. Detector optimization studies and light Higgs decay into muons at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2013-09-15

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The design of a CLIC experiment is driven by the requirements related to the physics goals, as well as by the experimental conditions. For example, the short time between two bunch crossings of 0.5 ns and the backgrounds due to beamstrahlung have direct impact on the design of a CLIC experiment. The Silicon Detector (SiD) is one of the concepts currently being discussed as a possible detector for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In this thesis we develop a modified version of the SiD simulation model for CLIC, taking into account the specific experimental conditions. In addition, we developed a software tool to investigate the impact of beam-related backgrounds on the detector by overlaying events from different simulated event samples. Moreover, we present full simulation studies, determining the performance of the calorimeter and tracking systems. We show that the track reconstruction in the all-silicon tracker of SiD is robust in the presence of the backgrounds at CLIC. Furthermore, we investigate tungsten as a dense absorber material for the hadronic calorimeter, which allows for the construction of a compact hadronic calorimeter that fulfills the requirements on the energy resolution and shower containment without a significant increase of the coil radius. Finally, the measurement of the decays of light Higgs bosons into two muons is studied in full simulation. We find that with an integrated luminosity of 2 ab{sup -1}, corresponding to 4 years of data taking at CLIC, the respective Higgs branching ratio can be determined with a statistical uncertainty of approximately 15%.

  20. A sensitiviy analysis for the stabilization of the CLIC main beam quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Janssens, S; Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    In particle colliders (like the LHC), particles are highly accelerated in a circular beam pipe before the collision. However, due to the curved trajectory of the particles, they are also loosing energy because of the so-called Bremsstrahlung. In order to bypass this fundamental limitation imposed by circular beams, the next generation of particle colliders will accelerate two straight beams of particles before the collision. One of them, the Compact Linear Collider, is currently under study at CERN. The machine is constituted of a huge number of accelerating structures (used to accelerate the particles) and quadrupoles (electromagnets used to focus the particles). The latter ones are required to be stable at the nanometer level. This extreme stability has to be guaranteed by active vibration isolation from all types of disturbances like ground vibrations, ventilation, cooling system, or acoustic noise. Because of the huge number of quadrupoles (about 4000), it is critical that the strategy adopted for the act...

  1. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  2. Physics at the CLIC $e^{+}e^{-}$ Linear Collider - Input to the Snowmass process 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, K.; Alexander, G.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Alonso, O.; Andersen, K.K.; Arfaoui, S.; Balazs, C.; Barklow, T.; Battaglia, M.; Benoit, M.; Bilki, B.; Blaising, J.J.; Boland, M.; Boronat, M.; Bozovic Jelisavcic, I.; Burrows, P.; Chefdeville, M.; Contino, R.; Dannheim, D.; Demarteau, M.; Diaz Gutierrez, M.A.; Dieguez, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Eigen, G.; Elsener, K.; Feldman, D.; Felzmann, U.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Francis, K.; Gaede, F.; Garcia Garcia, I.; Ghenescu, V.; Giudice, G.; Graf, N.; Grefe, C.; Grojean, C.; Gupta, R.S.; Hauschild, M.; Holmestad, H.; Idzik, M.; Joram, C.; Kananov, S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; Kraml, S.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, S.; Lastovicka, T.; LeBlanc, G.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci Timoce, A.; Lukic, S.; Makarenko, V.; Marshall, J.; Martin, V.; Mikkelsen, R.E.; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G.; Miyamoto, A.; Monig, K.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Moron, J.; Munnich, A.; Neagu, A.; Pandurovic, M.; Pappadopulo, D.; Pawlik, B.; Porod, W.; Poss, S.; Preda, T.; Rassool, R.; Rattazzi, R.; Redford, S.; Reichold, A.; Repond, J.; Riemann, S.; Robson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ros, E.; Rosten, J.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Rzehak, H.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Schulte, D.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, K.; Shumeiko, N.; Sicking, E.; Simon, F.; Smith, J.; Soldner, C.; Stapnes, S.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Swientek, K.; Szalay, M.; Tanabe, T.; Tesar, M.; Thamm, A.; Thomson, M.; Trenado Garcia, J.; Uggerhoj, U.I.; van der Kraaij, E.; Vila, I.; Vilella, E.; Villarejo, M.A.; Vogel Gonzalez, M.A.; Vos, M.; Watson, N.; Weerts, H.; Wells, J.D.; Weuste, L.; Wistisen, T.N.; Wootton, K.; Xia, L.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the physics potential of the CLIC high-energy e+e- linear collider. It provides input to the Snowmass 2013 process for the energy-frontier working groups on The Higgs Boson (HE1), Precision Study of Electroweak Interactions (HE2), Fully Understanding the Top Quark (HE3), as well as The Path Beyond the Standard Model -- New Particles, Forces, and Dimensions (HE4). It is accompanied by a paper describing the CLIC accelerator study, submitted to the Frontier Capabilities group of the Snowmass process

  3. High frequency electromagnetic characterization of NEG properties for the CLIC damping rings

    CERN Document Server

    Koukovini-Platia, E; Zannini, C

    2014-01-01

    Coating materials will be used in the CLIC damping rings (DR) to suppress two-stream effects. In particular, NEG coating is necessary to suppress fast beam ion instabilities in the electron damping ring (EDR). The electromagnetic (EM) characterization of the material properties up to high frequencies is required for the impedance modeling of the CLIC DR components. The EM properties for frequencies of few GHz are determined with the waveguide method, based on a combination of experimental measurements of the complex transmission coefficient S21 and CST 3D EM simulations. The results obtained from a NEG-coated copper (Cu) waveguide are presented in this paper.

  4. Beam Dynamics for the Preliminary Phase of the New CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Royer, P; Tecker, F A

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) RF power source studies, the scheme of electron pulse compression and bunch frequency mulitiplication, using injection by RF deflectors into an isochronous ring, will be tested, at low charge, during the preliminary phase of the new CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. In this paper, we describe the beam dynamics studies made in order to assess the feasibility of the bunch combination experiment, as well as the related beam measurements performed on the LEP Pre-Injector complex (LPI) before its transformation into CTF3

  5. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyadera, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurennoy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  6. Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

    2014-10-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

  7. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  8. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, A.

    2016-11-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (~ 0.2%X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~ 1%X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer tracking region, both hybrid concepts and fully integrated CMOS sensors are under consideration. The feasibility of ultra-thin sensor layers is validated with Timepix3 readout ASICs bump bonded to active edge planar sensors with 50 μm to 150 μm thickness. Prototypes of CLICpix readout ASICs implemented in 6525 nm CMOS technology with 25 μm pixel pitch have been produced. Hybridisation concepts have been developed for interconnecting these chips either through capacitive coupling to active HV-CMOS sensors or through bump-bonding to planar sensors. Recent R&D achievements include results from beam tests with all types of hybrid assemblies. Simulations based on Geant4 and TCAD are used to validate the experimental results and to assess and optimise the performance of various detector designs.

  9. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  10. HIGGS PHYSICS WITH A GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDER BASED ON CLIC 1*.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASNER,D.; BURKHARDT,H.; DE ROECK,A.; ELLIS,J.; GRONBERG,J.; HEINEMEYER,S.; SCHMITT,M.; SCHULTE,D.; VELASCO,M.; ZIMMERMAN,F.

    2001-11-01

    We present the machine parameters and physics capabilities of the CLIC Higgs Experiment (CLICHE), a low-energy {gamma}{gamma} collider based on CLIC 1, the demonstration project for the higher-energy two-beam accelerator CLIC. CLICHE is conceived as a factory capable of producing around 20,000 light Higgs bosons per year. We discuss the requirements for the CLIC 1 beams and a laser backscattering system capable of producing a {gamma}{gamma} total (peak) luminosity of 2.0 (0.36) x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with E{sub CM}({gamma}{gamma}) 115 GeV. We show how CLICHE could be used to measure accurately the mass, {bar b}b, WW and {gamma}{gamma} decays of a light Higgs boson. We illustrate how these measurements may distinguish between the Standard Model Higgs boson and those in supersymmetric and more general two-Higgs-doublet models, complementing the measurements to be made with other accelerators. We also comment on other prospects in {gamma}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma} physics with CLICHE.

  11. Finite Element Model for Thermal-Structural analysis of CLIC Lab Module type 0#2

    CERN Document Server

    Moilanen, Antti; Vamvakas, Alex; Vainola, Jukka Ilmari; Doebert, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes lead to unwanted thermo-mechanical deformations in the components of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) module. There are several sources and sinks of heat around the CLIC two-beam module. Heat is generated in the components that produce, transfer, and extract radio frequency (RF) power. Excess heat is removed from the components by cooling water as well as dissipated to air by convection from the outer surfaces of the components. The ambient temperature might also vary along the tunnel during the operation of CLIC. Due to tight assembling and alignment tolerances, it is necessary to minimize the thermo-mechanical deformations in the components. In this paper, the steps of thermal-structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of CLIC lab module type 0#2 are described from geometry model simplification to setting up the simulation. The description is accompanied by useful hints for CATIA and ANSYS users performing similar modelling tasks. A reliable computer simulation is important for studying ...

  12. Secreted CLIC3 drives cancer progression through its glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R.; Ruengeler, Elena; Casazza, Andrea; Neilson, Lisa J.; Pulleine, Ellie; Santi, Alice; Ismail, Shehab; Lilla, Sergio; Dhayade, Sandeep; MacPherson, Iain R.; McNeish, Iain; Ennis, Darren; Ali, Hala; Kugeratski, Fernanda G.; Al Khamici, Heba; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van den Berghe, Peter V.E.; Cloix, Catherine; McDonald, Laura; Millan, David; Hoyle, Aoisha; Kuchnio, Anna; Carmeliet, Peter; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Blyth, Karen; Yin, Huabing; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Norman, Jim C.; Zanivan, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The secretome of cancer and stromal cells generates a microenvironment that contributes to tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis. Here we compare the secretome of human mammary normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We discover that the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3) is an abundant component of the CAF secretome. Secreted CLIC3 promotes invasive behaviour of endothelial cells to drive angiogenesis and increases invasiveness of cancer cells both in vivo and in 3D cell culture models, and this requires active transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). CLIC3 acts as a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that reduces TGM2 and regulates TGM2 binding to its cofactors. Finally, CLIC3 is also secreted by cancer cells, is abundant in the stromal and tumour compartments of aggressive ovarian cancers and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcome. This work reveals a previously undescribed invasive mechanism whereby the secretion of a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase drives angiogenesis and cancer progression by promoting TGM2-dependent invasion. PMID:28198360

  13. Benchmarking of the Placet and Dimad tracking codes using the CLIC Post-Collision line

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, I; Ferrari, A; Latina, A

    2009-01-01

    In this benchmarking study, two contemporary codes, DIMAD and PLACET, are compared. We consider the 20 mrad post-collision line of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and perform tracking studies of heavily disrupted post-collision electron beams. We successfully find that the two codes provide an equivalent description of the beam transport from the interaction point to the final dump.

  14. Halo and tail simulations with applications to the CLIC drive beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Adli, E; Burkhardt, H; Dalena, B; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Latina, A; Ahmed, I

    2010-01-01

    We report about generic halo and tail simulations and estimates. Previous studies weremainly focused on very high energies as relevant for the beam delivery systems of linear colliders. We have now studied, applied and extended these simulations to lower energies as relevant for the CLIC drive beam.

  15. Software and Parameters for Detailed TPC Studies in the CLIC CDR

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    For the TPC occupancy and time stamping studies in the CLIC CDR the MarlinTPC software package has been used in combination with Mokka for the full detector simulation. This document describes the working principle of the Marlin processors used for digitisation and reconstruction, and lists the parameters for reference.

  16. Development of an X-Band Dielectric-Based Wakefield Power Extractor for Potential CLIC Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, C -J; Kanareykin, A; Schoessow, P; Conde, M E; Gai, W; Power, J G; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put into the development of the CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), and significant progress has been made. However, one concern remains the manufacturing cost of the PETS, particularly considering the quantities needed for a TeV machine. A dielectric-based wakefield power extractor in principle is much cheaper to build. A low surface electric field to gradient ratio is another big advantage of the dielectric-loaded accelerating/decelerating structure. We are currently investigating the possibility of using a cost-effective dielectric-based wakefield power extractor as an alternative to the CLIC PETS. We designed a 12 GHz dielectric-based power extractor which has a similar performance to CLIC PETS with parameters 23 mm beam channel, 240 ns pulse duration, 135 MW output per structure using the CLIC drive beam. In order to study potential rf breakdown issues, as a first step we are building a 11.424 GHz dielectric-based power extractor scaled fr...

  17. CLUSTER: A high-frequency H-mode coupled cavity linac for low and medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, Ugo [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 Novara (Italy); University of Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: Ugo.Amaldi@cern.ch; Citterio, Alessandro; Crescenti, Massimo; Giuliacci, Arianna; Tronci, Cesare; Zennaro, Riccardo [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2007-09-11

    An innovative linear accelerating structure is proposed which is particularly suited for low-current hadrontherapy applications but can also conveniently substitute the conventional proton linacs at present considered for Accelerator Driven Systems and neutrino and muon factories. Its two main features are compactness and good power efficiency at low-medium beam velocities (0.05{<=}{beta}{<=}0.5). The first is achieved through a high working frequency and a consequent high accelerating gradient, the second is obtained by coupling several H-mode cavities together. The structure was dubbed CLUSTER for 'Coupled-cavity Linac USing Transverse Electric Radial field'. To compare the performance of this structure with other hadrontherapy linac designs involving high frequencies, a conceptual study has been performed for an operating frequency of 3 GHz. Moreover, a proof of principle has been obtained through RF measurements on a prototype operating at 1 GHz. An accelerator complex using a CLUSTER linac is also considered for protontherapy purposes. This total accelerator complex, called 'cyclinac', uses a commercial cyclotron as an injector to a high-frequency and high-gradient linac.

  18. Physics design of a CW high-power proton Linac for accelerator-driven system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajni Pande; Shweta Roy; S V L S Rao; P Singh; S Kailas

    2012-02-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) have evoked lot of interest the world over because of their capability to incinerate the MA (minor actinides) and LLFP (long-lived fission products) radiotoxic waste and their ability to utilize thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. One of the main subsystems of ADS is a high energy (∼1 GeV) and high current (∼30 mA) CW proton Linac. The accelerator for ADS should have high efficiency and reliability and very low beam losses to allow hands-on maintenance. With these criteria, the beam dynamics simulations for a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton Linac has been done. The Linac consists of normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), drift tube linac (DTL) and coupled cavity drift tube Linac (CCDTL) structures that accelerate the beam to about 100 MeV followed by superconducting (SC) elliptical cavities, which accelerate the beam from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. The details of the design are presented in this paper.

  19. 1974 view into the cage of the 520 keV electrostatic preaccelerator of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The condenser of the high voltage circuit (column in the foreground) is being serviced by Jean Luc Vallet. Standing on the electronics platform (the big, open metallic structure on insulating pillars, for details see 7403120) is Bob Nettelton. The column at the right edge of the photo is part of the bouncer (see also 7403066X) which compensated the voltage drop during acceleration of a proton pulse. In the background is the source (open pill box structure) attached to the accelerating column, barely visible) behind. The "old" 50 MeV Linac 1, the original PS injector built in the 1950s, was (since 1976) replaced by a new 50 MeV linac (Linac 2) with a 750 keV "Cockcroft-Walton" pre-injector(see 7602012X), later replaced by a 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) preaccelerator. Linac 1 co-existed until mid 1992 (from 1982 onwards it was mainly used to inject "test-particles" into the Low Energy Antiproton ring LEAR). In 1984 the electrostatic preaccelerator of linac 1 was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ ( 8303511X...

  20. RFI-Based Ion Linac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.

    A new company, Ion Linac Systems, Inc., has been formed to promote the development, manufacture, and marketing of intense, RFI-based, Ion Linac Systems. The Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure was invented by the author while at Linac Systems, LLC. The first step, for the new company, will be to correct a flaw in an existing RFI-based linac system and to demonstrate "good transmission" through the system. The existing system, aimed at the BNCT medical application, is designed to produce a beam of 2.5 MeV protons with an average beam current of 20 mA. In conjunction with a lithium target, it will produce an intense beam of epithermal neutrons. This system is very efficient, requiring only 180 kW of rf power to produce a 50 kW proton beam. In addition to the BNCT medical application, the RFI-based systems should represent a powerful neutron generator for homeland security, defence applications, cargo container inspection, and contraband detection. The timescale to the demonstration of "good transmission" is early fall of this year. Our website is www.ionlinacs.com.

  1. The Eindhoven linac-racetrack microtron combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuws, W.H.C.; Botman, J.I.M.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; Timmermans, C.J. [Tech. Univ., Eindhoven (Netherlands). Cyclotron Lab.

    1998-04-01

    The Eindhoven linac-race track microtron (RTM) combination has been designed to serve as injector for an electron storage ring. The linac is a 10 MeV travelling-wave linac (type M.E.L. SL75/10). In the RTM a 5 MeV standing-wave cavity, which is synchronized with the linac, accelerates the electron beam 13 times, such that the extraction energy is 75 MeV. The RTM end magnets are two-sector magnets tilted in their median planes, to provide strong focusing forces for optimal electron-optical properties. Closed-orbit conditions are fulfilled with the help of small correction dipoles located in the RTM drift space; the magnetic-field strengths of these correction dipoles are adjusted on the basis of beam-position measurements. Isochronous acceleration is accomplished by position- and phase-measurements. A low-cost elaborate diagnostic system will be used for efficient commissioning of the combination of the 10 MeV linac and the 10-75 MeV RTM. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. The Eindhoven linac-racetrack microtron combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuws, W. H. C.; Botman, J. I. M.; Hagedoorn, H. L.; Timmermans, C. J.

    1998-04-01

    The Eindhoven linac-race track microtron (RTM) combination has been designed to serve as injector for an electron storage ring. The linac is a 10 MeV travelling-wave linac (type M.E.L. SL75/10). In the RTM a 5 MeV standing-wave cavity, which is synchronized with the linac, accelerates the electron beam 13 times, such that the extraction energy is 75 MeV. The RTM end magnets are two-sector magnets tilted in their median planes, to provide strong focusing forces for optimal electron-optical properties. Closed-orbit conditions are fulfilled with the help of small correction dipoles located in the RTM drift space; the magnetic-field strengths of these correction dipoles are adjusted on the basis of beam-position measurements. Isochronous acceleration is accomplished by position- and phase-measurements. A low-cost elaborate diagnostic system will be used for efficient commissioning of the combination of the 10 MeV linac and the 10-75 MeV RTM.

  3. RF control at transient beamloading for high-duty-factor linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernogubovsky, M.A.; Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    An effective RF control with the transient beamloading is the major issue in the operation of the high-duty-factor linacs to suppress the undesirable beam loss. The RF control method is considered to obtain the control principle and the state equation, under the analysis of electrodynamical properties of the excitation in the resonator of the linac due to the transient beamloading. The concept of the directional selective coupling is applied for the RF system to define the main characteristics and to optimize the RF control parameters. (author)

  4. The KAERI 10 MeV Electron Linac - Description and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Seong Hee; Jung, Young Uk; Han, Young Hwan; Kang, Hee Young

    2005-06-15

    The objective of this technical report is to guide the right operation and maintenance of the KAERI electron linac system. The KAERI electron linac system consists of 2 MeV injector based on 176 MHz Normal conducting RF (Radio Frequency)cavity and 10 MeV main accelerator based on 352 MHz Superconducting RF cavity, electron beamlines (injection and extraction). Since a electron accelerator generates hazard radiation, this system is located at the shielded room in basement and we can operate the system using the remote control system. It includes the description and the operational manual as well as the detailed technical direction for trouble shooting.

  5. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  6. UHV Vacuum System R&D of Multi-energy Electron LINAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The multi-energy electron LINAC was an experimental device developed for irradiation metrology, the vacuum system is a main part of the device to maintain a low pressure. The accelerator tube is made of copper and the vacuum chamber is almost entirely made of stainless steel.

  7. 10MeV/20kW Electron Linac for Irradiation Microwave System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qing-feng; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Xiu-long; LIU; Bao-jie; HU; Tao

    2015-01-01

    Microwave system is one of main subsystems of 10 MeV/20kW electron irradiating linac.It provides accelerating tube with microwave power,and accelerates electron beam to design energy,high-energy electron beam is ultimately used for irradiation processing.In order to meet the requirements of the

  8. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Martínez-Ovalle, S A; Lallena, A M; Mercado, G A; Benites-Rengifo, J L

    2012-12-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10(-6) and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage.

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  10. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  11. Stabilization Strategies for Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085420; Lamehi Rashti, Mohammad

    The average axial electric fields in drift tube linac cavities are known to be sensitive with respect to the perturbation errors. Postcoupler is a powerful stabilizer devices that is used to reduce this sensitivity of average axial field. Postcouplers are the cylindrical rod which is extended from cavity wall toward the drift tube without touching the drift tube surface. Postcouplers need to be adjusted to the right length to stabilize the average axial field. Although postcouplers are used successfully in many projects, there is no straightforward procedure for postcouplers adjustment and it has been done almost based on trial and errors. In this thesis, the physics and characteristics of postcouplers has been studied by using an equivalent circuit model and 3D finite element method calculations. Finally, a straightforward and accurate method to adjust postcouplers has been concluded. The method has been verified by using experimental measurements on CERN Linac4 drift tube linac cavities.

  12. Wake field effects in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the author studies these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Here he concentrates on two features specific to the APT linac: loss factors for the design {beta} < 1 and CW beam structure.

  13. Status of the TOP Linac project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascatim(Rome) (Italy)]. E-mail: picardi@frascati.enea.it; Concetta Ronsivalle [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 {mu}s 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7-65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65-200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The status of the project will be presented. The 7 MeV injector is installed at ENEA-Frascati laboratories. The first SCDTL module structure, composed by nine DTL tanks coupled by eight side cavities, has been built and tested on RF bench, so that it is ready for proton acceleration. The results of the measurements done will be also shown.

  14. Engineering study, development and prototype fabrication of the supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068725; Karyotakis, Yannis; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Alexopoulos, Theo; MEIS, Costantin; De Conto, Jean Marie; Jeremie, Andrea; Puzot, Patrique

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is based on the international collaboration in the field of high-energy particle physics research. The experiments carried out in its facilities are achieved through the existing particle accelerators. In addition, advanced accelerator research and development is one of the goals of CERN. For this reason, CLIC (the Compact LInear Collider) a new electron-positron linear accelerator is being studied at CERN. CLIC is built by the assembly of the Two-Beam Modules and takes advantage of an innovative acceleration principle, the Two-Beam acceleration. Each Module contains several technical systems that contribute to its successful operation. This thesis presents the development of the prototype supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module. At first, the physics requirements are translated into technical specifications and the fundamental parts of the supporting system are defined. The CLIC operational conditions are identified and the corresponding boundaries...

  15. Material studies in the frame of CLIC Accelerating structures production conducted within the Mechanics program together with Metso Oy

    CERN Document Server

    Nurminen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    MeChanICs (Marie Curie Linking Industry to CERN) is an Industry to Academia Partnership and Pathways (IAPP) platform for precision manufacturing knowledge exchange bringing together five Finnish manufacturing companies with Helsinki Insitute of Physics (HIP) and CERN. The scientific objective of MeChanICs project is to contribute to the manufacturing RTD of CLIC enabling technologies. The focus is on the design, materials, machining, brazing and assembly of A CLIC accelerating structure. This study deals with the materials work package of the program and wants to explore the following items: 1) producing copper accelerating structures for CLIC from raw copper powder by near net shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2) The feasibility to use HIP diffusion bonding of the accelerator structures as a function of surface quality and applied temperature and pressure. 3) Brazing for CLIC AS auxiliary systems, like water cooling or damping manifolds, to the disc stack by coating one of the brazing partners with an enab...

  16. Regulation of the membrane insertion and conductance activity of the metamorphic chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 by cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M Valenzuela

    Full Text Available The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer.

  17. Regulation of the membrane insertion and conductance activity of the metamorphic chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 by cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Stella M; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Almond, Oscar C; Goodchild, Sophia C; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M G; Holt, Stephen A; Cornell, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer.

  18. On the Feasibility of Accelerating Deuterons in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Garcia Tudela, M; Ramberger, S; Crandall, K

    2011-01-01

    The Linac4 normal-conducting linac is comprised of three sections, DTL, CCDTL and PIMS. It is designed to accelerate H-minus ions to a final energy of 160 MeV. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of accelerating deuterons in this linac for injection into the PS Booster.

  19. Intracellular ion channel CLIC1: involvement in microglia-mediated β-amyloid peptide(1-42) neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Giusti, Pietro

    2013-09-01

    Microglia can exacerbate central nervous system disorders, including stroke and chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Mounting evidence points to ion channels expressed by microglia as contributing to these neuropathologies. The Chloride Intracellular Channel (CLIC) family represents a class of chloride intracellular channel proteins, most of which are localized to intracellular membranes. CLICs are unusual in that they possess both soluble and integral membrane forms. Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) accumulation in plaques is a hallmark of familial Alzheimer disease. The truncated Aβ25-35 species was shown previously to increase the expression of CLIC1 chloride conductance in cortical microglia and to provoke microglial neurotoxicity. However, the highly pathogenic and fibrillogenic full-length Aβ1-42 species was not examined, nor was the potential role of CLIC1 in mediating microglial activation and neurotoxicity by other stimuli (e.g. ligands for the Toll-like receptors). In the present study, we utilized a two chamber Transwell™ cell culture system to allow separate treatment of microglia and neurons while examining the effect of pharmacological blockade of CLIC1 in protecting cortical neurons from toxicity caused by Aβ1-42- and lipopolysaccaride-stimulated microglia. Presentation of Aβ1-42 to the upper, microglia-containing chamber resulted in a progressive loss of neurons over 3 days. Neuronal cell injury was prevented by the CLIC1 ion channel blockers IAA-94 [(R(+)-[(6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1-oxo-1H-inden-5yl)-oxy] acetic acid)] and niflumic acid (2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}nicotinic acid) when presented to the upper chamber only. Incubation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ led to neuronal cell injury which, however, was insensitive to inhibition by the CLIC1 channel blockers, suggesting a degree of selectivity in agents leading to CLIC1 activation.

  20. Deuterons Acceleration in I-100 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Antipov, Yu M; Batarin, V A; Gorin, Yu P; Davydov, V V; Maltsev, A P; Nizhegorodtsev, V V; Pilipenko, C I; Starodubrovsky, E K; Surenskii, A V; Taplyakov, V A; Troyanov, E F; Tyurin, N E

    2003-01-01

    High energy deuteron beams are of great interest for fundamental and applied researches. Creation of such beams on IHEP accelerator complex in energy range 0,1(plus-minus)35 GeV/u significantly widens the research possibili-ties with relativistic deuterons in our country. Accelerated deuterons are also à precondition for other light nuclei acceleration in IHEP. IHEP Alvarez type proton I-100 linac can be used as light ions injector. In this work the results of deuterons acceleration studies in I-100 linac are presented.

  1. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  2. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  3. Photon backgrounds at the CLIC interaction point due to losses in the post-collision extraction line

    CERN Document Server

    Salt, M D; Elsener, K; Ferrari, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC beam delivery system focuses 1.5~TeV electron and positron beams to a nanometre-sized cross section when colliding them at the interaction point (IP). The intense focusing leads to large beam-beam effects, causing the production of beamstrahlung photons, coherent and incoherent $e^+e^-$ pairs, as well as a significant disruption of the main beam. The transport of the post-collision beams requires a minimal loss extraction line, with high acceptance for energy deviation and divergence. The current design includes vertical bends close to the IP in order to separate the charged particles with a sign opposite to the main beam into a diagnostic-equipped intermediate dump, whilst transporting the photons and the main beam to the final dump. Photon and charged particle losses on magnet masks and dumps result in a complex radiation field and IP background particle fluxes. In this paper, the electromagnetic backgrounds at the IP arising from the losses occurring closest to the collision point are calculated.

  4. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  5. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  6. First beam in Linac4 DTL

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Following the installation of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) earlier this summer (see here), the first DTL tank saw beams at 12 MeV on 5 August.   Transverse emittance measured at 12 MeV after the DTL tank1 using a temporary slit-and-grid emittance device. You never forget your first beam. That was especially true for the Linac4 DTL team, as it followed years of design, construction and vigorous testing. "We performed countless measurements of the geometry, vacuum and magnet polarisation of the DTL tanks while we were in the workshop," says Suitbert Ramberger, project engineer for the Linac4 DTL. "Add that preparation to the excellent RF conditioning that we carried out in the weeks before the beam tests and I was confident that the acceleration with beam would fully meet expectations!" Indeed it did. Beam commissioning tests ran until 21 August and found the DTL operating with nominal transmission. This successful run has confirmed the innovative design ...

  7. Preinjector for Linac 1, SAMES generator

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070x. When the original 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator broke down in 1973, it was replaced by this much smaller 520 kV SAMES generator, seen here sitting on the floor of the Faraday cage.

  8. Statistical simulations of machine errors for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M; Froidefond, E; Sargsyan, E

    2006-01-01

    LINAC 4 is a normal conducting H- linac proposed at CERN to provide a higher proton flux to the CERN accelerator chain. It should replace the existing LINAC 2 as injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster and can also operate in the future as the front end of the SPL, a 3.5 GeV Superconductingg Proton Linac. LINAC 4 consists of a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, a chopper line, a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Cell Coupled DTL all operating at 352 MHz and finally a Side Coupled Linac at 704 MHz. Beam dynamics was studied and optimized performing end-to-end simulations. This paper presents statistical simulations of machine errors which were performed in order to validate the proposed design.

  9. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  10. LIGHT SOURCE: Physical design of a 10 MeV LINAC for polymer radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guang-Yao; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Jin, Kai; Li, Wei-Min

    2009-06-01

    In China, polymer radiation processing has become one of the most important processing industries. The radiation processing source may be an electron beam accelerator or a radioactive source. Physical design of an electron beam facility applied for radiation crosslinking is introduced in this paper because of it's much higher dose rate and efficiency. Main part of this facility is a 10 MeV travelling wave electron linac with constant impedance accelerating structure. A start to end simulation concerning the linac is reported in this paper. The codes Opera-3d, Poisson-superfish and Parmela are used to describe electromagnetic elements of the accelerator and track particle distribution from the cathode to the end of the linac. After beam dynamic optimization, wave phase velocities in the structure have been chosen to be 0.56, 0.9 and 0.999 respectively. Physical parameters about the main elements such as DC electron gun, iris-loaded periodic structure, solenoids, etc, are presented. Simulation results proves that it can satisfy the industrial requirement. The linac is under construction. Some components have been finished. Measurements proved that they are in a good agreement with the design values.

  11. Optimal Power System and Grid Interface Design Considerations for the CLICs Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Marija, Jankovic; Jon, Clare; Pat, Wheeler; Davide, Aguglia

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an electron-positron collider under study at CERN with the aim to explore the next generation of high precision/high energy particles physics. The CLIC’s drive beams will be accelerated by approximately 1300 klystrons, requiring highly efficient and controllable solid state capacitor discharge modulators. Capacitor charger specifications include the requirement to mask the pulsed effect of the load from the utility grid, ensure maximum power quality, control the derived DC voltage precisely (to maximize accuracy for the modulators being implemented), and achieve high efficiency and operability of the overall power system. This paper presents the work carried out on the power system interface for the CLIC facility. In particular it discusses the challenges on the utility interface and analysis of the grid interface converters with regards to required functionality, efficiency, and control methodologies.

  12. Status of vertex and tracking detector R&D at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754272

    2015-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the bunch train structure of the beam and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few micron, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X0 per layer for the inner vertex region), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. An overview of the R&D program for pixel and tracking detectors at CLIC will be presented, including recent results on an innovative hybridisation concept based on capacitive coupling between active sensors (HV-CMOS) and readout ASICs (CLICpix).

  13. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  14. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  15. Clinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS): learning about health information technology (HIT) in its context of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina; Cornford, Tony; Klecun, Ela

    2013-01-01

    Successful health information technology (HIT) implementations need to be informed on the context of use and on users' attitudes. To this end, we developed the CLinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS) instrument. CLICS reflects a socio-technical view of HIT adoption, and is designed to encompass all members of the clinical team. We used the survey in a large English hospital as part of its internal evaluation of the implementation of an electronic patient record system (EPR). The survey revealed extent and type of use of the EPR; how it related to and integrated with other existing systems; and people's views on its use, usability and emergent safety issues. Significantly, participants really appreciated 'being asked'. They also reminded us of the wider range of administrative roles engaged with EPR. This observation reveals pertinent questions as to our understanding of the boundaries between administrative tasks and clinical medicine - what we propose as the field of 'administrative medicine'.

  16. TCAD simulations of High-Voltage-CMOS Pixel structures for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, Matthew Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for precision physics and the experimental conditions at CLIC result in stringent constraints for the vertex detector. Capacitively coupled active pixel sensors with 25 μm pitch implemented in a commercial 180 nm High-Voltage CMOS (HV-CMOS) process are currently under study as a candidate technology for the CLIC vertex detector. Laboratory calibration measurements and beam tests with prototypes are complemented by detailed TCAD and electronic circuit simulations, aiming for a comprehensive understanding of the signal formation in the HV-CMOS sensors and subsequent readout stages. In this note 2D and 3D TCAD simulation results of the prototype sensor, the Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector version three (CCPDv3), will be presented. These include the electric field distribution, leakage current, well capacitance, transient response to minimum ionising particles and charge-collection.

  17. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  18. The Event Display for CLIC: DD4hep Compatibility and Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, Thorben

    2015-01-01

    This document is a short summary of my contributions to the Event Display for the CLICdp Software group in the context of CERN’s Summer Student Programme 2015. After a brief outline of CLIC and the relevant software package, the project is motivated. The individual achievements and their technical realizations are explained rather qualitatively, as details are well documented directly in the source code.

  19. Tracking Performance in High Multiplicity Environment for the CLIC ILD Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the tracking efficiency and the fraction of badly reconstructed tracks in the CLIC ILD detector for high multiplicity events (tt ̄@3 TeV) with and without the presence of γγ →hadrons background. They have been studied for the silicon tracking, the TPC tracking and the so called FullLDC tacking, which combines silicon and TPC measurements.

  20. Nonlinear Optimization of CLIC DRS New Design with Variable Bends and High Field Wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasem, H.; Alabau-Gonzalvo, J.; Papadopoulou, S.; Papaphilippou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The new design of CLIC damping rings is based on longitudinal variable bends and high field superconducting wiggler magnets. It provides an ultra-low horizontal normalised emittance of 412 nm-rad at 2.86 GeV. In this paper, nonlinear beam dynamics of the new design of the damping ring (DR) with trapezium field profile bending magnets have been investigated in detail. Effects of the misalignment errors have been studied in the closed orbit and dynamic aperture.

  1. En route vers la nano stabilisation de CLIC faisceau principale et focalisation finale

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, Claude; Lackner, F; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Pour atteindre la luminosité voulue de CLIC, la taille transversale du faisceau doit être de l?ordre du nanomètre. Ceci nécessite une stabilité vibratoire des quadripôles du faisceau principal de 1 nm et même 0.1 nm pour les doublets de la focalisation finale. La nano technologie et la nano stabilisation sont des activités qui évoluent rapidement dans l?industrie et centres de recherche pour des applications très variées comme l?électronique, l?optique, la chimie voire la médecine. Cette présentation décrit les avancées techniques nécessaires pour atteindre l?objectif de CLIC et les projets et collaborations R&D prévus pour démontrer la faisabilité de la nano stabilisation de CLIC en 2010.

  2. Evaluation of Components for the High Precision Inductive Adder for the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. In addition to semiconductors working in their saturated region, semiconductors working in their linear region are needed for applying analogue modulation techniques. Simulat...

  3. Mass and Cross Section Measurements of light-flavored Squarks at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    WEUSTE, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the prospects for the measurement of TeV-scale light-flavored right-squark masses and and the production cross sections at a 3 TeV e+e- collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis, performed in the framework of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, is based on full Geant4 simulations of the CLIC ILD detector concept, including standard model physics background and machine related hadronic background from two-photon processes. The events were reconstructed using particle flow event reconstruction, and the mass and cross sections were obtained from a template fit built from generator-level simulations with smearing to parametrize the detector response. For an integrated luminosity of 2 ab^-1, a statistical precision of 5.9 GeV, corresponding to 0.52%, was obtained for unseparated first and second generation right squarks. For the combined cross section, a precision of 0.07 fb, corresponding to 5%, was obtained.

  4. Study of the electronics architecture for the mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupoles of the CLIC linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoos, K.; Collette, C.; Fernandez Carmona, P.; Guinchard, M.; Hauviller, C.; Janssens, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Slaathaug, A.

    2010-11-01

    To reach a sufficient luminosity, the transverse beam sizes and emittances in future linear particle accelerators should be reduced to the nanometer level. Mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupole magnets is of the utmost importance for this. The piezo actuators used for this purpose can also be used to make fast incremental orientation adjustments with a nanometer resolution. The main requirements for the CLIC stabilisation electronics is a robust, low noise, low delay, high accuracy and resolution, low band and radiation resistant feedback control loop. Due to the high number of controllers (about 4000) a cost optimization should also be made. Different architectures are evaluated for a magnet stabilisation prototype, including the sensors type and configuration, partition between software and hardware for control algorithms, and optimization of the ADC/DAC converters. The controllers will be distributed along the 50 km long accelerator and a communication bus should allow external control. Furthermore, one might allow for an adaptive method to increase the S/N ratio of vibration measurements by combining seismometer measurements of adjacent magnets. Finally a list of open topics, the current limitations and the plans to overcome them will be presented.

  5. High-voltage pixel detectors in commercial CMOS technologies for ATLAS, CLIC and Mu3e experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Peric, Ivan; Backhaus, Malte; Barbero, Marlon; Benoit, Mathieu; Berger, Niklaus; Bompard, Frederic; Breugnon, Patrick; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Dannheim, Dominik; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feigl, Simon; Fischer, Peter; Fougeron, Denis; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Heim, Timon; Hügging, Fabian; Kiehn, Moritz; Kreidl, Christian; Krüger, Hans; La Rosa, Alessandro; Liu, Jian; Lütticke, Florian; Mariñas, Carlos; Meng, Lingxin; Miucci, Antonio; Münstermann, Daniel; Nguyen, Hong Hanh; Obermann, Theresa; Pangaud, Patrick; Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin; Rozanov, Alexandre; Schöning, André; Schwenker, Benjamin; Wiedner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage particle detectors in commercial CMOS technologies are a detector family that allows implementation of low-cost, thin and radiation-tolerant detectors with a high time resolution. In the R/D phase of the development, a radiation tolerance of 10 15 n eq = cm 2 , nearly 100% detection ef fi ciency and a spatial resolution of about 3 μ m were demonstrated. Since 2011 the HV detectors have fi rst applications: the technology is presently the main option for the pixel detector of the planned Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). Several prototype sensors have been designed in a standard 180 nm HV CMOS process and successfully tested. Thanks to its high radiation tolerance, the HV detectors are also seen at CERN as a promising alternative to the standard options for ATLAS upgrade and CLIC. In order to test the concept, within ATLAS upgrade R/D, we are currently exploring an active pixel detector demonstrator HV2FEI4; also implemented in the 180 nm HV process

  6. Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

  7. High-voltage pixel detectors in commercial CMOS technologies for ATLAS, CLIC and Mu3e experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Peric,I et al.

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage particle detectors in commercial CMOS technologies are a detector family that allows implementation of low-cost, thin and radiation-tolerant detectors with a high time resolution. In the R/D phase of the development, a radiation tolerance of 1015 neq=cm2 , nearly 100% detection efficiency and a spatial resolution of about 3 μm were demonstrated. Since 2011 the HV detectors have first applications: the technology is presently the main option for the pixel detector of the planned Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). Several prototype sensors have been designed in a standard 180 nm HV CMOS process and successfully tested. Thanks to its high radiation tolerance, the HV detectors are also seen at CERN as a promising alternative to the standard options for ATLAS upgrade and CLIC. In order to test the concept, within ATLAS upgrade R/D, we are currently exploring an active pixel detector demonstrator HV2FEI4; also implemented in the 180 nm HV process.

  8. Validation of a Micrometric remotely controlled pre-alignment system for the CLIC Linear Collider using a test setup (Mock-Up) with 5 degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Sosin, M

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC main beam quadrupoles need to be prealigned within 17 um rms with respect to a straight reference line along a sliding window of 200 m. A readjustment system based on eccentric cam movers, which will provide stiffness to the support assembly, is being studied. The cam movers were qualified on a 1 degree of freedom (DOF) test setup, where a repeatability of adjustment below 1um was measured along their whole range. This paper presents the 5 DOF mock-up, built for the validation of the eccentric cam movers, as well as the first results of tests carried out: resolution of displacement along the whole range, measurements of the support eigenfrequencies.

  9. Measurement of the H$\\rightarrow$WW$^*$ Branching Ratio at 1.4TeV using the semileptonic final state at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)762723; Watson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This note summarises a study to evaluate the potential to measure the H$\\rightarrow$WW$^*$ branching fraction at CLIC, 1.4TeV centre-of-mass energy, with the CLIC_ILD detector, using the WW$\\rightarrow$qql$\

  10. Accelerator Control System at KEKB and Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    KEKB completed all of the technical milestones, and had offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially the CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS at the equipment layer. During the project many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance out of the machine. Especially the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely the channel access everywhere and the dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system a concept of virtual accelerators were realized that enables the single injector linac serve as three separate injectors to KEKB HER, LER and Photon Factory, respectively. Those control technologies are indispensable for the future particle accelerators.

  11. Electronics Platform of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For servicing during shutdowns, a draw-bridge from a door in the Faraday cage led to the "electronics platform" of the linac 1 preinjector (at 520 kV when in operation) and the top of the electronics platform was lifted on hydraulic jacks for easy access. Henry Charmot is busy with a service. The platform contained the electronics for the ion source, controlled from outside the Faraday cage via an infrared optical link. The ion source, also at 520 kV potential, is housed in the drum, visible in the background, on the insulator column, which at its right end is mounted at ground potential. Behind the wall, to the right, is the 50 MeV linac 1. See also 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403124.

  12. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  13. Wake Field Effects in the APT Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    1998-04-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, an analysis for the APT accelerator has been performed to exclude potential problems at such a high current leading to beam losses. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, it has an acceptable level and will be further reduced by HOM couplers.

  14. Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

  15. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

  16. Prototype of linac BLM at NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Yuxiong; Gong, Guanghua; Li, Juexin; Shao, Beibei; Zhao, Zhengguo

    2007-08-01

    A prototype of the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System for the linac and transportation line has been built up in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Different from the storage ring, the radiation field around linac and transportation line have a duty factor of 10 -6 and a dose rate of hundreds Gy/h. The Monte-Carlo calculation gave the dose, flux, energy and direction distributions of the radiation field. According to the simulation result, the proper type of detector was chosen and the installation positions were selected accordingly. The widely used ionization chamber is not suitable to give accurate and real-time information of beam loss due to its large dimension and slow respond speed. Several PIN silicon diode-based detectors were designed and tested, and a charge-balanced integrating amplifier circuit was applied to read out the charge. A distributed data acquisition system based on embedded Ethernet technology was implemented in the prototype, which can offer a web server from the microcontroller. From preliminary tests, this new prototype was proved to be sensitive to the change of the linac status, and is a useful tool for monitoring and adjusting machine parameters. Further analyses are required to achieve a more accurate measurement of the beam loss.

  17. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  18. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  19. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Smith, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  20. S-band linac-based X-ray source with {pi}/2-mode electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Abhay, E-mail: abhay@post.kek.jp [Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Araki, Sakae [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dixit, Tanuja [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Fukuda, Masafumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Krishnan, R; Pethe, Sanjay [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sakaue, Kazuyuki [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the {pi}/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the {pi}/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  1. Emittance coupling driven by space charge in the CSNS linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-Jun; FU Shi-Nian; PENG Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional design of RF linacs, the bunched beams are not in thermal equilibrium. The space charge forces couple the particle motions between the transverse and the longitudinal directions. Fur-thermore it will cause the equipartitioning process which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. In the design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, three cases are investigated using the Hofmann stability charts. In this paper, we present the equipartitioning beam study of the CSNS Alvarez DTL linac.

  2. Linac Coherent Light Source: The first five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostedt, Christoph; Boutet, Sébastien; Fritz, David M.; Huang, Zhirong; Lee, Hae Ja; Lemke, Henrik T.; Robert, Aymeric; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Williams, Garth J.

    2016-01-01

    A new scientific frontier opened in 2009 with the start of operations of the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS provides femtosecond pulses of x rays (270 eV to 11.2 keV) with very high peak brightness to access new domains of ultrafast x-ray science. This article presents the fundamental FEL physics and outlines the LCLS source characteristics along with the experimental challenges, strategies, and instrumentation that accompany this novel type of x-ray source. The main part of the article reviews the scientific achievements since the inception of LCLS in the five primary areas it serves: atomic, molecular, and optical physics; condensed matter physics; matter in extreme conditions; chemistry and soft matter, and biology.

  3. High Power CW Superconducting Linacs for EURISOL and XADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J L

    2004-01-01

    A multi-MW superconducting proton linac is proposed as the baseline solution for the EURISOL and the XADS driver accelerators. In the EURISOL project, which studies the design of the next-generation European ISOL facility, it is used to produce both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from the valley of stability. In the PDS-XADS project, which aims to the demonstration of the feasibility of an ADS system for nuclear waste transmutation, it is used to produce the neutron flux required by the associated sub-critical reactor. In this paper, we report the main results and conclusions reached within these preliminary design studies. A special emphasis is given on the on-going and future R&D to be done to accomplish the demonstration of the full technology.

  4. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  5. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  6. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  7. Evaluation of photoneutron production at high energy LINACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1995-04-24

    This report describes an estimate of neutron production at a 9 MeV LINAC, and the potential for photoactivation of materials present at the LINAC facility. It was found that only isotopes of U, W, Ta, and Pb had daughters whose activities might be measurable. The LINAC was found to be capable of producing in the neighborhood of 10{sup 10} neutrons/second from these heavy metals, and that subsequent neutron activation might be more of a concern. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport and capture in the concrete and steel found in the LINAC vault indicates that {sup 55}Fe may be produced in measurable quantities.

  8. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  9. Parálisis cerebral y sistemas de seguimiento de la mirada: ¿clic por parpadeo o permanencia?

    OpenAIRE

    Clemotte, Alejandro; Velasco, Miguel; Raya, Rafael; Ceres, Ramón; Córdoba Herralde, Ricardo de

    2015-01-01

    Los comandos básicos para el control de ordenadores a través de interfaces gráficas son comandos de alcance a un objeto en pantalla y su selección. El presente documento describe un estudio comparativo a nivel funcional de dos estrategias de selección alternativas, especialmente diseñada para personas con parálisis cerebral: clic por permanencia y clic por parpadeo, mientras que la tarea de alcance se realiza a través de movimientos oculares.

  10. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  11. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  12. A Pencil Beam for the Linac4 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the different accelerating structures and transport lines of Linac4 and to proceed to its commissioning, we need to produce a low current, low emittance beam. This note describes the generation of two pencil beams and their dynamic through the Linac.

  13. Calibration of Super-Kamiokande Using an Electron Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Ichihara, E; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Ishino, H; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kasuga, S; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Koshio, Y; Martens, K; Miura, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Halverson, P G; Hsu, J; Kropp, W R; Price, L R; Reines, F; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Flanagan, J W; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Stenger, V J; Takemori, D; Ishii, T; Kanzaki, J; Kobayashi, T; Mine, S; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Sasaki, O; Echigo, S; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Kim, B K; Sanford, R; Svoboda, R; Chen, M L; Conner, Z; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Doki, W; Miyano, K; Okazawa, H; Saji, C; Takahata, M; Nagashima, Y; Takita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Etoh, M; Fujita, K; Hasegawa, A; Hasegawa, T; Hatakeyama, S; Iwamoto, T; Koga, M; Maruyama, T; Ogawa, H; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Tsushima, F; Koshiba, M; Nemoto, M; Nishijima, K; Futagami, T; Hayato, Y; Kanaya, Y; Kaneyuki, K; Watanabe, Y; Kielczewska, D; Doyle, R A; George, J S; Stachyra, A L; Wai, L L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    In order to calibrate the Super-Kamiokande experiment for solar neutrino measurements, a linear accelerator (LINAC) for electrons was installed at the detector. LINAC data were taken at various positions in the detector volume, tracking the detector response in the variables relevant to solar neutrino analysis. In particular, the absolute energy scale is now known with less than 1 percent uncertainty.

  14. Photonuclear reactions with zinc : A case for clinical linacs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boztosun, I.; Dapo, H.; Karakoc, M.; Ozmen, S. F.; Cecen, Y.; Coban, A.; Caner, T.; Bayram, E.; Saito, T. R.; Akdogan, T.; Bozkurt, V.; Kucuk, Y.; Kaya, D.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. Fo

  15. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  16. The CLIC study of a multi-TeV linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, J P

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews the status of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study towards feasibility demonstration of a novel and challenging technology which has been specially developed to extend Linear Colliders energy reach into the multi-TeV range in order to be complementary to LHC (Large Hadron Collider). A Conceptual Design Report is being published summarizing the performance of a High Energy facility based on such a technology as well as the results of the R&D performed to address its feasibility.

  17. THE ANTI-SOLENOID COMPENSATION OF THE CLIC DETECTOR SOLENOID USING IRSYN

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2011-01-01

    The detector solenoid of CLIC causes a range of aberrations on the beam at the interaction point, particularly due to its overlap with the final focus magnets. These effects are corrected using antisolenoid correction coils on the final quadrupole before the collision point. In this note, we use the interaction region beam dynamics code IRSYN to compute the impact of the SiD solenoid on the beam and benchmark the anti-solenoid correction. We find the correction is achieved, with a small residual amount of beam aberration which is correctable using the beam delivery system. This provides a validation of the correction and a benchmark of IRSYN to existing codes.

  18. Mechanical design of a pre-isolator for the CLIC final focusing magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A; Ramos, F; Siegrist, N

    2012-01-01

    Due to the very small vertical beam sizes, the final focusing elements at the future CLIC linear collider need to be stable against vibrations to below 0.15 nanometres at frequencies above about 4 Hz. One of the key elements in the strategy to achieve such a stable environment is a passive, heavy pre-isolator. In this report, the results from the dynamic finite element analyses of the proposed design for such a passive preisolator are summarized. Furthermore, the results from a low frequency, heavy mass passive vibration isolation test set-up used to validate the calculations are shown.

  19. Grid Interface Challenges and Candidate Solutions for the Compact Linear Collider’s (CLIC) Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Watson, A; Clare, J; Wheeler, P

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a linear electron-positron accelerator under study at CERN, in view of exploring a new leptons collision energy region (0.5TeV to 5TeV). This complex requires ~1600 klystrons fed by highly efficient and controllable power electronics for a convenient power connection to the utility grid. This paper presents the challenges and evaluates several possible structures for the power system. Discussion are provided regarding the candidate topologies according to the converters’ ratings / number and considering reliability, modularity, and redundancy.

  20. Measurement of the Higgs decay to electroweak bosons at low and intermediate CLIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)471575; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, Gordana; Pandurovic, Mila; Lukic, Strahinja

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a simulation of measurements of the Higgs boson decay to electroweak bosons in $e^+e^-$ collisions at CLIC is presented. Higgs boson production and subsequent $H\\rightarrow ZZ^\\ast$ and $H\\rightarrow WW^\\ast$ decay processes were simulated alongside the relevant background processes at 350 GeV and 1.4 TeV center-of-mass energy. Full detector simulation and event reconstruction were used under realistic beam conditions. The achievable statistical precision of the measured product of the Higgs production cross section and the branching ratio for the analysed decays has been determined.

  1. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  2. RF Breakdown in Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Lown, R

    2009-01-01

    The highest RF electric field in drift-tube linacs (DTLs) often occurs on the face of the first drift tube. Typically this drift tube contains a quadrupole focusing magnet whose fringing fields penetrate the face of the drift tube parallel to the RF electric fields in the accelerating gap. It has been shown that the threshold for RF breakdown in RF cavities may be reduced in the presence of a static magnetic field. This note offers a “rule of thumb” for picking the maximum “safe” surface electric field in DTLs based on these measurements.

  3. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  4. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  5. Linac-driven spallation-neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason, A.J.

    1995-05-01

    Strong interest has arisen in accelerator-driven spallation-neutron sources that surpass existing facilities (such as ISIS at Rutherford or LANSCE at Los Alamos) by more than an order of magnitude in beam power delivered to the spallation target. The approach chosen by Los Alamos (as well as the European Spallation Source) provides the full beam energy by acceleration in a linac as opposed to primary acceleration in a synchrotron or other circular device. Two modes of neutron production are visualized for the source. A short-pulse mode produces 1 MW of beam power (at 60 pps) in pulses, of length less than 1 ms, by compression of the linac macropulse through multi-turn injection in an accumulator ring. A long-pulse mode produces a similar beam power with 1-ms-long pulses directly applied to a target. This latter mode rivals the performance of existing reactor facilities to very low neutron energies. Combination with the short-pulse mode addresses virtually all applications.

  6. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller

    2009-05-22

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  7. Error and jitter effect studies on the SLED for BEPCII-linac

    CERN Document Server

    Shi-Lun, Pei; Ou-Zheng, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    RF pulse compressor is a device to convert a long RF pulse to a short one with much higher peak RF magnitude. SLED can be regarded as the earliest RF pulse compressor used in large scale linear accelerators. It is widely studied around the world and applied in the BEPC and BEPCII linac for many years. During the routine operation, the error and jitter effects will deteriorate the SLED performance either on the output electromagnetic wave amplitude or phase. The error effects mainly include the frequency drift induced by cooling water temperature variation and the frequency/Q0/{\\beta} unbalances between the two energy storage cavities caused by mechanical fabrication or microwave tuning. The jitter effects refer to the PSK switching phase and time jitters. In this paper, we re-derived the generalized formulae for the conventional SLED used in the BEPCII linac. At last, the error and jitter effects on the SLED performance are investigated.

  8. Electron Linac design to drive bright Compton back-scattering gamma-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L. [INFN-MI, Milano (Italy); Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boni, R.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Spataro, B.; Vaccarezza, C. [INFN-LNF, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Antici, P.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [University La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-05-21

    The technological development in the field of high brightness linear accelerators and high energy/high quality lasers enables today designing high brilliance Compton-X and Gamma-photon beams suitable for a wide range of applications in the innovative field of nuclear photonics. The challenging requirements of this kind of source comprise: tunable energy (1-20 MeV), very narrow bandwidth (0.3%), and high spectral density (10{sup 4} photons/s/eV). We present here a study focused on the design and the optimization of an electron Linac aimed to meet the source specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics project, currently funded and seeking for an innovative machine design in order to outperform state-of-the-art facilities. We show that the phase space density of the electron beam, at the collision point against the laser pulse, is the main quality factor characterizing the Linac.

  9. Co-Expression of Ezrin-CLIC5-Podocalyxin Is Associated with Migration and Invasiveness in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita N J Flores-Téllez

    Full Text Available Prognostic markers are important for predicting the progression and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Ezrin (EZR and Podocalyxin (PODXL are proteins associated with invasion, migration and poor prognosis in various types of cancer. Recently, it has been observed that chloride intracellular channel 5 (CLIC5 forms a complex with EZR and PODXL and that it is required for podocyte structure and function. In this study, we evaluated the overexpression of EZR, PODXL and CLIC5 in HCC.The modified resistant hepatocyte model (MRHR, human biopsies and HCC cell lines (HepG2, Huh7 and SNU387 were used in this study. Gene and protein expression levels were evaluated in the MRHR by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, and protein expression in the human biopsies was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Protein expression in the HCC cell lines was evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blot, also the migration and invasive abilities of Huh7 cells were evaluated using shRNA-mediated inhibition.Our results indicated that these genes and proteins were overexpressed in HCC. Moreover, when the expression of CLIC5 and PODXL was inhibited in Huh7 cells, we observed decreased migration and invasion.This study suggested that EZR, CLIC5 and PODXL could be biological markers to predict the prognosis of HCC and that these proteins participate in migration and invasion processes.

  10. Measurement of sigma(ee->Hnunu)xBR(H->tautau) at CLIC @ 1.4 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, A.

    2013-01-01

    This detector benchmark study evaluates the statistical precision with which the H -> tautau branching ratio times cross section can be measured at CLIC running at rout(s)= 1.4 TeV. Only the hadronic decays of taus are considered.

  11. The Prototype Inductive Adder With Droop Compensation for the CLIC Kicker Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC predamping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce, through synchrotron radiation, an ultralow emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the DR kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02% (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. Recently, a five-layer prototype has been built at CERN. Passive analog modulation has been applied to compensate the voltage droop, for example of the pulse capacitors. The output waveforms of the prototype inductive adder have been compared with predictions of the voltage droop and pulse shape. Conclusions are drawn concern...

  12. Assembly Test of Elastic Averaging Technique to Improve Mechanical Alignment for Accelerating Structure Assemblies in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Huopana, J

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is being studied at CERN as a potential multi-TeV e+e- collider [1]. The manufacturing and assembly tolerances for the required RF-components are important for the final efficiency and for the operation of CLIC. The proper function of an accelerating structure is very sensitive to errors in shape and location of the accelerating cavity. This causes considerable issues in the field of mechanical design and manufacturing. Currently the design of the accelerating structures is a disk design. Alternatively it is possible to create the accelerating assembly from quadrants, which favour the mass manufacturing. The functional shape inside of the accelerating structure remains the same and a single assembly uses less parts. The alignment of these quadrants has been previously made kinematic by using steel pins or spheres to align the pieces together. This method proved to be a quite tedious and time consuming method of assembly. To limit the number of different error sources, a meth...

  13. Studies on high-precision machining and assembly of CLIC RF structures

    CERN Document Server

    Huopana, J; Riddone, G; Österberg, K

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is currently under development at CERN as a potential multi-TeV e+e– collider. The manufacturing and assembly tolerances for the required RF components are essential for the final efficiency and for the operation of CLIC. The proper function of an accelerating structure is sensitive to mechanical errors in the shape and the alignment of the accelerating cavity. The current tolerances are in the micron range. This raises challenges in the field of mechanical design and demands special manufacturing technologies and processes. Currently the mechanical design of the accelerating structures is based on a disk design. Alternatively, it is possible to create the accelerating assembly from quadrants, which has the potential to be favoured for the mass production due to simplicity and cost. In this case, the functional shape inside of the accelerating structure remains the same and a single assembly uses less parts. This paper focuses on the development work done in design and sim...

  14. A CLIC Damping Wiggler Prototype at ANKA: Commissioning and Preparations for a Beam Dynamics Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, Axel; Casalbuoni, Sara; Ferracin, Paolo; Garcia Fajardo, Laura; Gerstl, Stefan; Gethmann, Julian; Grau, Andreas; Huttel, Erhard; Khrushchev, Sergey; Mezentsev, Nikolai; Müller, Anke-Susanne; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Saez de Jauregui, David; Schmickler, Hermann; Schoerling, Daniel; Shkaruba, Vitaliy; Smale, Nigel; Tsukanov, Valery; Zisopoulos, Panagiotis; Zolotarev, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    In a collaboration between CERN, BINP and KIT a prototype of a superconducting damping wiggler for the CLIC damping rings has been installed at the ANKA synchrotron light source. On the one hand, the foreseen experimental program aims at validating the technical design of the wiggler, particularly the conduction cooling concept applied in its cryostat design, in a long-term study. On the other hand, the wiggler's influence on the beam dynamics particularly in the presence of collective effects is planned to be investigated. ANKA's low-alpha short-bunch operation mode will serve as a model system for these studies on collective effects. To simulate these effects and to make verifiable predictions an accurate model of the ANKA storage ring in low-alpha mode, including the insertion devices is under parallel development. This contribution reports on the first operational experience with the CLIC damping wiggler prototype in the ANKA storage ring and steps towards the planned advanced experimental program with th...

  15. Initial measurements on a prototype inductive adder for the CLIC kicker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. To achieve ultra-flat pulses with a fast rise time the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The parasitic circuit elements of the inductive adder have a significant effect upon the output impedance and these values are very difficult to calculate accurately analytically. To predict these paramet...

  16. Measurements on Prototype Inductive Adders with Ultra-Flat-Top Output Pulses for CLIC DR Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J; Belver-Aguilar, C

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC study is investigating the technical feasibility of an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the DR kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the DR extraction kickers call for a 160 ns duration flat-top pulses of ±12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications because this topology allows the use of both passive and analogue modulation methods to adjust the output waveform. Recently, two five-layer, 3.5 kV, prototype inductive adders have been built at CERN. The first of these has been used to test the passive and active analogue modulation methods to compensate voltage droop and ripple of the output pulses. Pulse waveforms have been reco...

  17. Modelling of Parasitic Inductances of a High Precision Inductive Adder for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J; Ovaska, S J

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flat-top of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. However, the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The primary leakage inductance, which cannot be computed accurately analytically, has a significant effect upon the output impedance of the inductive adder. This paper presents predictions, obtained by modelling the 3D geometry of the adder struc...

  18. PHYSICS RESULTS OF THE NSLS-II LINAC FRONT END TEST STAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller R. P.; Gao, F.; Yang, X.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Piel, C

    2012-05-20

    The Linac Front End Test Stand (LFETS) was installed at the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) in the fall of 2011 in order to test the Linac Front End. The goal of these tests was to test the electron source against the specifications of the linac. In this report, we discuss the results of these measurements and the effect on linac performance.

  19. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2000-07-11

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  20. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  1. First Linac4 DTL & CCDTL cavities installed in tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was successfully transported to its forever home in the Linac4 tunnel. Similarly, the first Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) was installed on 6 June. These moves marked the end of years of design and manufacturing by Linac4 teams.   Although it may seem like a relatively routine transport operation, the DTL's move was a landmark event for the entire Linac4 collaboration. "Along with the first four Cell-Coupled DTL modules, which were installed on the following two working days, these are the first accelerating structures after front-end commissioning to be installed in the tunnel," says Frank Gerigk, who is responsible for all Linac4 accelerating structures. "It is a major milestone, because work on all these structures started well over a decade ago." The transport operation was also quite a victory for the Linac4 DTL team, whose journey to a complete DTL structure has been a bit of a wild ride. &qu...

  2. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  3. R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Drees, K.A.; Ganetis, G.; Gamble, Michael; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jain, A.K.; Kayran, A.; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, R.F.; Lederle, D.L.; Mahler, G.J.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.C.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, Daniel; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Triveni; Reich, J.; Roser, Thomas; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.W.W.; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, A.; Bluem, Hans; Cole, Michael; Favale, Anthony; Holmes, D.; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Delayen, Jean; Funk, L.; Phillips, H.; Preble, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel Zigzag-type merger. We present the performance of the R&D ERL elements and detailed commissioning plan.

  4. Development of RF linac for high-current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Schneider, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    High-current proton linacs are promising sources of neutrons for material processing and research applications. Recently, a linac design that makes use of a combination of normal-conducting (NC) and superconducting (SC) linac technologies has been proposed for the US Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. As a result, a multi-year engineering development and demonstration (ED and D) program is underway. In this paper, the authors will describe the design and merits of the NC/SC hybrid approach. The scope, technology issues, and present status of the ED and D Program, and the participation of industry will also be described.

  5. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  6. Using basic electromagnetism to introduce LINAC4 (CERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Vidal, Xabier; Cid, Ramon; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The LHC is the last element of CERN’s accelerator complex, which is a succession of machines with increasingly higher energies. Everything starts in the 50 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC2), but a new linear accelerator, the 160 MeV LINAC4, will replace LINAC2 in 2018, upgrading LHC injectors to higher intensity and eventually increasing the luminosity of LHC. The aim of this article is briefly introducing this new accelerator, and presenting a simple application of some fundamental laws of magnetism to be taken to the secondary school classrooms.

  7. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users.

  8. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  9. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An induction linac developed for FEL application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mascureau, J.; Anthouard, Ph.; Bardy, J.; Eyharts, Ph.; Eyl, P.; Launspach, J.; Thevenot, M.; Villate, D.

    1992-07-01

    An induction linac is being studied and built at CESTA for FEL application. At first we studied the induction technology and namely the high-voltage (HV) generators and the induction cells. A HV generator designed to feed the cells with calibrated pulses (150 kV, 50 ns, δV/V magnetic switches. This generator is planned for kHz repetition-rate operation. A prototype induction cell has also been built and tested with a cable generator. An electron injector (1.5 MeV, 1.5kA) has been designed and is now under test: it uses ten induction cells and a thermionic dispenser cathode. Numerical codes have been developed and simulations have been compared with experimental results for HV generators, induction cells, and the injector. An induction accelerating module has been studied and we plan to have the accelerator working at 3 MeV in 1992.

  11. Beam Tests of a Prototype Stripline Beam Position Monitoring System for the Drive Beam of the CLIC Two-beam Module at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, Alfonso; Nappa, Jean-Marc; Vilalte, Sebastien; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with LAPP and IFIC, two units of a prototype stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the CLIC Drive Beam (DB), and its associated readout electronics have been successfully installed and tested in the Two-Beam-Module (TBM) at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. This paper gives a short overview of the BPM system and presents the performance measured under different Drive Beam configurations.

  12. Beams dynamics optimisation of LINAC4 structures for increased operational flexibility

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E; Stovall, J

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV, 40 mA pulsed beam current H- accelerator which will be the source of particles for all proton accelerators at CERN. Construction started in October 2008, and beam commissioning of the 3 MeV front-end is scheduled for early next year. A baseline design of the linac beam dynamics was completed 2 years ago and validated by a systematic campaign of transverse and longitudinal error studies to assess tolerance limits and machine activation levels. Recent studies have been mainly focused on optimising this design to achieve both a smoother performance for nominal beam conditions and to gain operational flexibility for non-nominal scenarios. These include a review of the chopper beam dynamics design, a re-definition of the DTL and CCDTL inter-tank regions and a study of operational schemes for reduced beam currents (either permanent or in pulse-to-pulse mode). These studies have been carried out in parallel to first specifications for a beam commissioning strategy of the linac and its low-en...

  13. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  14. Neutron production from flattening filter free high energy medical linac: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, M. A.; Abolaban, F. A.; Podolyák, Z.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    One of the problems arising from using a conventional linac at high energy (>8 MV) is the production of neutrons. One way to reduce neutron production is to remove the flattening filter (FF). The main purpose of this work was to study the effect of FF removal on neutron fluence and neutron dose equivalent inside the treatment room at different photon beam energies. Several simulations based on Monte Carlo techniques were carried out in order to calculate the neutron fluence at different locations in the treatment room from different linac energies with and without a FF. In addition, a step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (SnS IMRT) for prostate cancer was modelled using the 15 MV photon beam with and without a FF on a water phantom to calculate the neutron dose received in a full treatment. The results obtained show a significant drop-off in neutrons fluence and dose equivalent when the FF was removed. For example, the neutron fluence was decreased by 54%, 76% and 75% for 10, 15 and 18 MV, respectively. This can decrease the neutron dose to the patient as well as reduce the shielding cost of the treatment room. The neutron dose equivalent of the SnS IMRT for prostate cancer was reduced significantly by 71.3% when the FF was removed. It can be concluded that the flattening filter removal from the head of the linac could reduce the risk of causing secondary cancers and the shielding cost of radiotherapy treatment rooms.

  15. Development of new S-band SLED for PAL-XFEL Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Park, Yongjung; Heo, Hoon; Heo, Jinyul; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Hoon; Kang, Heung-Sik; Lee, Heung-Soo; Noh, Sungju; Oh, Kyoungmin

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve beam acceleration to the beam energy of 10 GeV at the end of its 716 m-long linear accelerator (Linac), the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is going to operate the Stanford Linear Accelerator Energy Doubler (SLED) at the maximum klystron output peak power of 80 MW, with a pulse length of 4 μs, and at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The original SLED that had been used in Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) can no longer sustain such a high-power operation because excessive radiation caused by RF breakdown has been frequently detected even at the lower klystron peak power during the PLS-II operation. Therefore, a new SLED is designed by modifying both the 3-dB power hybrid and the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the original SLED where the excessive radiation has been mainly detected. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation in the CST Microwave Studio shows that the new SLED has a peak electric field and a surface current lower than those of the original SLED at the same level of the RF input peak power, which would secure stable high-power operation. All of the 42 SLEDs in the PAL-XFEL Linac are newly fabricated and installed. During the RF conditioning of the PAL-XFEL Linac, no significant vacuum and radiation issue was found in the new SLEDs. Finally, the accelerated electron beam energy of 10 GeV obtained at the end of the PAL-XFEL Linac verified that the RF performance of the new SLED is stable.

  16. The invention that shapes Linac4: Tolerance Aligned Cantileaver Mounting (TACM) system to build drift tube linacs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no new to original optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This was indeed the case for the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.Interview with Suitbert Ramberger, Project engineer for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL).

  17. Proposition d'une méthode d'alignement de l'accélérateur linéaire CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Touzé, Thomas; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2011-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is the particles accelerator project proposed by the european organization for nuclear research (CERN) for high energy physics after the large hadron collider (LHC). Because of the nanometric scale of the CLIC leptons beams, the emittance growth budget is very tight. It induces alignment tolerances on the positions of the CLIC components that have never been achieved. The last step of the CLIC alignment will be done according to the beam itself. It falls within the competence of the physicists. However, in order to implement the beam-based feedback, a challenging pre-alignment is required : 10 μm at 3σ along a 200 m sliding window. For such a precision, the proposed solution must be compatible with a feedback between the measurement and repositioning systems. The CLIC pre-alignment will have to be active. This thesis does not demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC active prealignment but shows the way to the last developments that have to be done for that purpose. A metho...

  18. A Radiation shielding study for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    Radiation shielding calculations are performed for the Fermilab Linac enclosure and gallery. The predicted dose rates around the access labyrinth at normal operation and a comparison to measured dose rates are presented. An accident scenario is considered as well.

  19. RLA and ERL Designs for a LINAC-RING LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three different scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electron-proton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a basic version consisting of a pulsed, 1.7 km long linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with a two cw linacs and energy-recovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac of 3.9 km length with final energy of 140 GeV [“p-140”]. We discuss the parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and the performance for the three scenarios.

  20. Vacuum simulation of the LINAC4 H- source

    CERN Document Server

    Chiara Pasquino, CP; Jacques Lettry, JL

    2012-01-01

    The 160 MeV H- Linac4 will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. Linac4 H- source is the new ion source. In order to study its dynamic behaviour from the vacuum point of view, the electrical network – vacuum analogy have been used. This technique allows the evaluation of the hydrogen partial pressure profile as a function of time and position, giving important information about plasma chamber and LEBT pressures. Aiming at benchmarking the following simulations, several experimental calibration campaigns are foreseen in the near future: the H- source of Linac4 requires a pulsed injection of hydrogen to reach the typically 0.1 mbar pressure mandatory for plasma formation. First preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated profiles.

  1. Photonuclear reactions with Zinc: A case for clinical linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I; Karakoç, M; Özmen, S F; Çeçen, Y; Çoban, A; Caner, T; Bayram, E; Saito, T R; Akdoğan, T; Bozkurt, V; Kuçuk, Y; Kaya, D; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. For this purpose, a bremsstrahlung photon beam of 18 MeV endpoint energy produced by the Philips SLI-25 linac has been used. The subsequent decay has been measured with a well-shielded single HPGe detector. The results obtained for transition energies are in good agreement with the literature data and in many cases surpass these in accuracy. For the half-lives, we are in agreement with the literature data, but do not achieve their precision. The obtained accuracy for the transition energies show what is achievable in an experiment such as ours. We demonstrate the usefulness and benefits of employing clinical linacs for nuclear physics experiments.

  2. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Bandyopadhyay

    2002-12-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is presently developing an ISOL post-acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for the post-acceleration. The design aspects of these postaccelerator LINAC modules will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  4. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  5. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  6. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  7. Design and Development of RF Structures for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F; Pasini, M; Wegner, R

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV H− linac proposed at CERN to replace the 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster, with the goal of doubling its brightness and intensity. The present design foresees after RFQ and chopping line a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) from 3 to 40 MeV, a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) to 90 MeV and a Side Coupled Linac (SCL) up to the final energy. The DTL and CCDTL operate at 352 MHz, while in the SCL the frequency is doubled to 704 MHz. Although the injection in the PS Booster requires only a low duty cycle, the accelerating structures are designed to operate at the high duty cycle required by a possible future extension to a high-power linac driver for a neutrino facility. This paper presents the different accelerating structures, underlining the progress in the design of critical resonator elements, like post-couplers in the DTL, coupling slots in the CCDTL and bridge couplers for the SCL. Prototyping progress for the different structures is reported...

  8. Beam lines from Linac 1 to PS and Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The 50 MeV Linac 1 is behind the concrete wall. Its beam emerges from the hole near the centre of the picture. A switching magnet directs the beam either to the PS (to the right in the sense of the beam; original injection line), or lets it go straight on to the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). The huge drum in the line to the Booster is a "debuncher", driven by the 200 MHz RF of the linac. It reduces the beam's momentum spread. This was the last year of Linac 1 as provider of protons to the Booster. Linac 2, nearly completed at the time of this picture, took up trial delivery at the end of 1978, and routine delivery in 1979. The beam line from Linac 2, barely visible here, can be clearly seen on 7802260. Linac 1 had a second life as an ion accelerator.

  9. Status and plans for Linac4 installation and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Comblin, J F; Coupard, J; Dimov, V A; Fuchs, J F; Funken, A; Gerigk, F; Granemann Souza, E; Hanke, K; Hansen, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Kozsar, I; Lallement, J B; Lenardon, F; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Maglioni, C; Midtun, O; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Paoluzzi, M; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, J L; Scrivens, R; Tan, J; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vollaire, J; Wegner, R; Weisz, S; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting 160 MeV Hˉ linear accelerator presently being installed and progressively commissioned at CERN. It will replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the PS Booster (PSB), increasing at the same time its brightness by a factor of two thanks to the higher injection energy. This will be the first step of a program to increase the beam brightness in the LHC injectors for the needs of the High-Luminosity LHC project. After a series of beam measurements on a dedicated test stand the 3 MeV Linac4 front-end, including ion source, RFQ and a beam chopping line, has been recommissioned at its final position in the Linac4 tunnel. Commissioning of the following section, the Drift Tube Linac, is starting. Beam commissioning will take place in steps of increasing energy, to reach the final 160 MeV in 2015. An extended beam measurement phase including testing of stripping equipment for the PSB and a year-long test run to assess and improve Linac4 reliability will take place in 2016, prior to...

  10. Test facility for investigation of heating of 30 GHz accelerating structure imitator for the CLIC project

    CERN Document Server

    Elzhov, A V; Kaminsky, A K; Kuzikov, S V; Perelshtejn, E A; Peskov, N Yu; Petelin, M I; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P; Sergeev, A S; Syratchev, I V; Zaitsev, N I

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001 an experimental test facility for investigation of lifetime of a copper material, with respect to multiple RF pulse actions, was set up on the basis of the JINR (Dubna) FEM oscillator, in collaboration with IAP RAS (Nizhny Novgorod). A high-Q copper cavity, which simulates the parameters of the accelerating structure of the collider CLIC at an operating frequency of 30GHz, is used in the investigation. The experimental setup consists of a wavebeam injector - FEM oscillator (power of similar to 25MW, pulse duration up to 200ns, spectral bandwidth not higher than 0.1%), a quasi-optic two-mirror transmission line, a wave-type converter, and a testing cavity. The frequency and transmission features of the components of the quasi-optic line were analyzed.

  11. Experimental Verifiction of the CLIC two beam Acceleration Technology in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Constance, B; Barranco, J; Corsini, R; Doebert, S; Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Tecker, F; Farabolini, W; Persson, T; Lillestol, R; Ikarios, E; Jacewicz, M; Palaia, A; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider international collaboration is pursuing an extensive R&D program towards a multi- TeV electron-positron collider. In particular, the development of two-beam acceleration technology is the focus of the CLIC test facility CTF3. In this paper we summarise the most recent results obtained at CTF3: the results of the studies on the drive beam generation are presented, the achieved two beam acceleration performance is reported and the measured breakdown rates and related observations are summarised. The stability of deceleration process performed over 12 subsequent modules and the comparison of the obtained results with the theoretical expectations are discussed. We also outline and discuss the future experimental program.

  12. Final cross section design of the stripline kicker for the CLIC damping rings

    CERN Document Server

    Belver-Aguilar, C; Barnes, M J; Toral, F

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC design relies on the presence of Pre-Damping Rings (PDR) and Damping Rings (DR) to achieve, through synchrotron radiation, the very low emittance needed to fulfill the luminosity requirements. Kicker systems are required to inject and extract the beam from the Pre-Damping and Damping Rings. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. In this paper the final design for the DR kicker is presented, including an optimization of the geometric parameters to achieve the requirements for both characteristic impedance and field homogeneity. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of characteristic impedance and field homogeneity to geometric parameters is reported.

  13. Present status of development of damping ring extraction kicker system for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne; Belver-Aguilar, Caroline; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Toral, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration and a flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than \\pm0.02 %. The stripline design is also extremely challenging: the field for the damping ring kicker system must be homogenous to within \\pm0.01 % over a 1 mm radius, and low beam coupling impedance is required. The solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications for the field pulse ripple and droop. This paper describes the initial design of the inductive adder and the striplines of the kicker system.

  14. Present status of development of damping ring extraction kicker system for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Janne; Belver-Aguilar, Caroline; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Toral, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration and a flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. The stripline design is also extremely challenging: the field for the damping ring kicker system must be homogenous to within ±0.01 % over a 1 mm radius, and low beam coupling impedance is required. The solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications for the field pulse ripple and droop. This paper describes the initial design of the inductive adder and the striplines of the kicker system.

  15. EPS-AG Sacherer Prize: Beam Optics Developments for SPS, RHIC, LHC, CLIC and ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas, R

    2011-01-01

    Highlights of linear and nonlinear optics studies are presented from various accelerators. At the LHC, optics correction is of critical importance to guarantee safe beam operation. Preparation for LHC opticsmeasurements and corrections has been a major activity during the last decade. In particular, SPS and RHIC have served as excellent research and development machines to test new techniques and instrumentation, such as the measurement of resonance driving terms with and without AC dipoles. Together with a meticulous field quality specification, a careful installation strategy and an elaborate magnet model, these efforts have paid off in the LHC, where a record low beta-beating for hadron colliders below 10% has been achieved. Looking further into the future, the performance of the Final Focus System (FFS) is of critical importance for a future linear collider like CLIC, since it determines the IP beam spot sizes. The large chromatic aberrations required the development of novel non-linear optimization metho...

  16. A closer look at the beam-beam processes at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The strength of the electromagnetic fields in the bunch collision at a linear collider will have a significant effect, yielding large numbers of beamstrahlung photons and associated coherent pair production. These effects are limited in the proposed ILC beam parameters which limit the strength of the bunch field to $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=0.27$. The CLIC 3 Tev design by comparison has a $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=3.34$ yielding huge number of coherent pairs. In terms of the precision physics programs of these proposed colliders there is an imperative to investigate the effect of the strong bunch fields on higher order processes. From the exact wavefunctions used in the calculation of transition rates within the Furry interaction picture, and using appropriate simplifications, a multiplicative factor to the coupling constants was obtained. This indicates a significant variation to the transition rate near threshold energies. Further studies are in progress to calculate the exact effect on expected observables.

  17. Experience on Fabrication and Assembly of the First CLIC Two-Beam Module Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Gudkov, D; Riddone, G; Rossi, F; Lebet, S

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC two-beam module prototypes are intended to prove the design of all technical systems under the different operation modes. Two validation programs are currently under way and they foresee the construction of four prototype modules for mechanical tests without beam and three prototype modules for tests with RF and beam. The program without beam will show the capability of the technical solutions proposed to fulfil the stringent requirements on radio-frequency, supporting, pre-alignment, stabilization, vacuum and cooling systems. The engineering design was performed with the use of CAD/CAE software. Dedicated mock-ups of RF structures, with all mechanical interfaces and chosen technical solutions, are used for the tests and therefore reliable results are expected. The components were fabricated by applying different technologies and methods for manufacturing and joining. The first full-size prototype module was assembled in 2012. This paper is focused on the production process including the comparison o...

  18. Recent results with HV-CMOS and planar sensors for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims for the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) impose high precision requirements on the vertex detector which has to match the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of 3μm, 10 ns time stamping capabilities, low mass (⇠0.2% X0 per layer), low power dissipation and pulsed power operation. Recent results of test beam measurements and GEANT4 simulations for assemblies with Timepix3 ASICs and thin active-edge sensors are presented. The 65 nm CLICpix readout ASIC with 25μm pitch was bump bonded to planar silicon sensors and also capacitively coupled through a thin layer of glue to active HV-CMOS sensors. Test beam results for these two hybridisation concepts are presented.

  19. High Power RF Induced Thermal Fatigue in the High Gradient CLIC Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Neupert, N; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The need for high accelerating gradients for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) imposes considerable constraints on the materials of the accelerating structures. The surfaces exposed to high pulsed RF (Radio Frequency) currents are subjected to cyclic thermal stresses possibly resulting in surface break up by fatigue. Various high strength alloys from the group of high conductivity copper alloys have been selected and have been tested in different states, with different surface treatments and in different stress ratios. Low to medium cycle fatigue data (up to 108 cycles) of fully compressive surface thermal stresses has been collected by means of a pulsed laser surface heating apparatus. The surface damage has been characterized by SEM observations and roughness measurements. High cycle fatigue data, up to 7x1010 cycles, of varying stress ratio has been collected in high frequency bulk fatigue tests using an ultrasonic apparatus. Up-to-date results from these experiments are presented.

  20. High-Gradient test results from a CLIC prototype accelerating structure : TD26CC

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, A; Farabolini, W; Grudiev, A; Kovermann, J; Montessinos, E; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I; Wegner, R; Wuensch, W; Solodko, A; Woolley, B

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC study has progressively tested prototype accelerating structures which incorporate an ever increasing number of features which are needed for a final version ready to be installed in a linear collider. The most recent high power test made in the CERN X-band test stand, Xbox-1, is of a CERN-built prototype which includes damping features but also compact input and output power couplers, which maximize the overall length to active gradient ratio of the structure. The structure’s high-gradient performance, 105 MV/m at 250 ns pulse length and low breakdown rate, matches previously tested structures validating both CERN fabrication and the compact coupler design.

  1. Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Final Focus Quadrupole Model for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, Michele; Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid quadrupole magnet design has been proposed for the final focus in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) that is currently under study. The proposed design is a combination of an iron dominated electromagnetic quadrupole with a bore diameter of 8.25 mm with permanent magnet blocks placed between the poles made of soft magnetic CoFe alloy "Permendur". The possibility of using Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B as material for the permanent magnet blocks has been investigated. It is shown that a very high field gradient of 530 T/m (Sm2Co17) and 590 T/m (Nd2Fe14B) can be achieved.

  2. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  3. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Dragoş E., E-mail: dragos.constantin@varian.com; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  4. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  5. Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar: Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Thursday 24 November 2010 Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar at 14:15  -  BE Auditorium, bldg. 6 (Meyrin) – please note unusual place Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution Stef Janssens /EN-MME Abstract: To reach the required luminosity at the CLIC interaction point, about 4000 quadrupoles are needed to obtain a vertical beam size of 1 nm at the interaction point. The mechanical jitter of the quadrupole magnets will result in an emittance growth. An active vibration isolation system is required to reduce vibrations from the ground and from external forces to about 1.5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) vertical displacement at 1 Hz. A short overview of vibration damping and isolation strategies will be presented as well as a comparison of existing systems. The unprecedented resolution requirements and the instruments enabling these measurements will be discussed. The vibration sources from which the magnets need to...

  6. CLIC-ACM: generic modular rad-hard data acquisition system based on CERN GBT versatile link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawski, B.; Locci, F.; Magnoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLIC is a world-wide collaboration to study the next ``terascale'' lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beam-acceleration. This accelerator, currently under study, will be composed of the subsequence of 21000 two-beam-modules. Each module requires more than 300 analogue and digital signals which need to be acquired and controlled in a synchronous way. CLIC-ACM (Acquisition and Control Module) is the 'generic' control and acquisition module developed to accommodate the controls of all these signals for various sub-systems and related specification in term of data bandwidth, triggering and timing synchronization. This paper describes the system architecture with respect to its radiation-tolerance, power consumption and scalability.

  7. Conséquences des perturbations de la gravité sur l'alignement du CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, F

    1999-01-01

    For the CLIC alignment, the accuracy required for the definition of the geometrical references entails the evaluation of the effects of the Earth's gravity field's disturbances. The distortions of the WPS wires, of the water in the hydrostatic levelling network and of the ground resulting from the Moon and the Sun's attractions and from the neighbouring masses are therefore estimated. Solutions are suggested for the distortions important enough to have to be taken into account.

  8. Physics performance for measurements of chargino and neutralino pair production at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    A study of chargino and neutralino pair production at a CLIC collider operating at √s = 1.4 TeV is presented. Fully hadronic final states with four jets and missing transverse energy were considered. The analysis was performed using full detector simulation and including pileup from gg → hadrons interactions. Results for the masses and production cross sections of the chargino and the next-to-lightest neutralino are discussed.

  9. Setup verification in linac-based radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, T; Lachaine, M; Poffenbarger, B; Podgorsak, E B; Fallone, B G

    1999-09-01

    A semi-automatic technique for the direct setup alignment of radiosurgical circular fields from an isocentric linac to treatment room laser cross-hairs is described. Alignment is achieved by acquiring images of the treatment room positioning laser cross-hairs superimposed on the radiosurgical circular field image. An alignment algorithm calculates the center of the radiosurgical field image as well as the intersection of the laser cross-hairs. This determines any alignment deviations and the information is then used to translate the radiosurgical collimator to its correct aligned position. Two detectors, each being sensitive to the lasers and ionizing radiation, were used to acquire the radiation/laser images. The first detector consists of a 0.3-mm-thick layer of photoconducting a-Se deposited on a 1.5-mm-thick copper plate and the second is film. The algorithm and detector system can detect deviations with a precision of approximately 0.04 mm. A device with gyroscopic degrees of freedom was built in order to firmly hold the detector at any orientation perpendicular to the radiosurgical beam axis. This device was used in conjunction with our alignment algorithm to quantify the isocentric sphere relative to the treatment room lasers over all gantry and couch angles used in dynamic stereotactic radiosurgery.

  10. Industrial RF Linac Experiences and Laboratory Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Peiniger, M

    2004-01-01

    Since more than two decades ACCEL Instruments GmbH at Bergisch Gladbach (formerly Siemens/Interatom) is supplying the worldwide accelerator labs with key components like rf cavities and power couplers, s.c. magnets, insertion devices, vacuum chambers and x-ray beamline equipment. Starting with the design and production of turn key SRF accelerating modules in the late 80th, meanwhile ACCEL is engineering, manufacturing, on site commissioning and servicing complete accelerators with guaranteed beam performance. Today, with a staff of more than 100 physicists and engineers and about the same number of manufacturing specialists in our dedicated production facilities, ACCEL's know how and sales volume in this field has accumulated to more than 2000 man years and several hundred Mio €, respectively. Basis of our steady development is a cooperative partnership with the world leading research labs in the respective fields. As an example, for the supply of a turn key 100 MeV injector linac for the Swiss Ligh...

  11. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  12. Frequency Control Loop for Drift Tube Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the preparation of the frequency tracking of the RCCS by connecting the RCCS to low level RF (LLRF) system is described. KOMAC 100-MeV proton accelerator is under operation and supply beam to users. We are developing frequency control function in the LLRF system to control the RCCS in frequency control mode. After the test in the test bench, the system will be applied to the 100-MeV DTL RCCS in order to supply better quality beam to users. A 100-MeV proton accelerator has been developed and the operation and beam service started at Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) in June 2013. The accelerator consists of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The resonance frequency of the DTL tanks are controlled by using the resonance frequency control cooling system (RCCS), which are installed at every each tank. Until now, the RCCS has been operating in constant temperature mode which means that the frequency was measured with respect to the RCCS supply temperature before the RF operation, and then the RCCS operates with that temperature throughout the whole operation. The constant temperature operation is simple but the RF stability is not good because many perturbations such as RCCS supply temperature error can cause a frequency change. To stabilize the system better, it is necessary to operate the RCCS in frequency tracking mode.

  13. Emittance and Phase Space Tomography for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F.G.G.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moore, C.D.; /Fermilab; Newhart, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac delivers a variable intensity, 400-MeV beam to the MuCool Test Area experimental hall via a beam line specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Linac beam emittance and properties. A 10 m, dispersion-free and magnet-free straight utilizes an upstream quadrupole focusing triplet in combination with the necessary in-straight beam diagnostics to fully characterize the transverse beam properties. Since the Linac does not produce a strictly elliptical phase space, tomography must be performed on the profile data to retrieve the actual particle distribution in phase space. This is achieved by rotating the phase space distribution using different waist focusing conditions of the upstream triplet and performing a deconvolution of the profile data. Preliminary measurements using this diagnostic section are reported here. These data represent a first-pass measurement of the Linac emittance based on various techniques. It is clear that the most accurate representation of the emittance is given by the 3-profile approach. Future work will entail minimizing the beam spot size on MW5 to test and possibly improve the accuracy of the 2-profile approach. The 95% emittance is {approx} 18{pi} in the vertical and {approx} 13{pi} in the horizontal, which is especially larger than anticipated - 8-10{pi} was expected. One possible explanation is that the entire Linac pulse is extracted into the MTA beamline and during the first few microseconds, the feed forward and RF regulation are not stable. This may result in a larger net emittance observed versus beam injected into Booster, where the leading part of the Linac beam pulse is chopped. Future studies will clearly entail a measurement of the emittance vs. pulse length. One additional concern is that the Linac phase space is most likely aperture-defined and non-elliptical in nature. A non-elliptical phase-space determination would require a more elaborate analysis and provide another explanation of the

  14. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Xu Tao Guang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  15. Production of slow positron beam with small diameter using electron linac in Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshihide; Sawada, Junichi; Yamada, Masaki; Maekawa, Masaki; Okuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Isoyama, Goro; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    1997-03-01

    A slow positron facility using an electron linac was designed and constructed. The specifications were mainly decided by numerical calculations. The slow positrons are transported along magnetic field line. The cross sectional size of slow positron beam is 1-2cm and the maximum conversion rate from electron to positron is about 1.5 x 10{sup -6}. This value is about 1/4 of ideal case in our system. Extraction of slow positron beam from magnetic field region was made and preliminary brightness enhancement experiment was also performed. (author)

  16. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Schafer, Donald W.; Guillet, Serge; Busse, Armin; Bergan, Robert; Olson, William; Fox, Kay; Stewart, Nathaniel; Curtis, Robin; Miahnahri, Alireza Alan; Boutet, Sébastien, E-mail: sboutet@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Description of the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the femtosecond crystallography, high power density and extreme matter capabilities of the CXI instrument. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 µm focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pump–probe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  17. The Soft X-ray Research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakovski, Georgi L., E-mail: dakovski@slac.stanford.edu; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Krupin, Oleg [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); European XFEL, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Rowen, Michael; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-02

    A description of the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) at the Linac Coherent Light Source is given. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the wide variety of experiments and detectors that can be accommodated at SXR. The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280–2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  18. Production design of the drift tube Linac for the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S; Cuvet, Y; Dallocchio, A; De Michele, G; Gerigk, F; Giguet, J M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN has been made ready for production: H--ion beams of up to 40 mA average pulse current are to be accelerated from 3 to 50 MeV by three RF cavities operating at 352.2MHz and at duty cycles of up to 10%. In order to provide a margin for longitudinal matching from the chopper line, the longitudinal acceptance has been increased. The synchronous phase starts at -35 deg in Tank1 and ramps linearly to -24 deg over the tank while it went from -30 to -20 deg in the previous design. The accelerating gradient has been reduced to 3.1MV/m in Tank1 and increased to 3.3 MV/m in Tank2 and Tank3 for a better distribution of RF power between tanks that is compatible with a mechanical design. To make the transverse acceptance less sensitive to alignment and gradient errors, the focusing scheme is now FFDD over all 3 tanks. Design features that were demonstrated in earlier reports have been improved for series production. Results of high power...

  19. 14-3-3和CLIC4蛋白在U251细胞自噬中的相互作用%The interaction of 14-3-3 and CLIC4 proteins in the autophagy of U251 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兆新; 金笛; 张宏宇

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过饥饿诱导神经胶质瘤U251细胞发生自噬,探讨细胞CLIC4和14-3-3蛋白在饥饿条件下诱导自噬过程中的相互作用.方法 通过Hoechst、14-3-3 epsilon、CLIC4染色于共聚焦显微镜下观察抑制CLIC4表达对于饥饿条件下,14-3-3 epsilon蛋白与CLIC4共定位的影响.通过Western Blot技术检测Beclin 1及14-3-3蛋白表达.免疫共沉淀技术检测14-3-3 epsilon蛋白与CLIC4蛋白的结合水平.结果 共聚焦显微镜观察14-3-3 epsilon和CLIC4荧光染色结果显示,饥饿条件下,14-3-3 epsilon蛋白与CLIC4共定位显著增加,并广泛分布于胞浆及细胞核中.同时Westem Blot结果表明抑制CLIC4表达能够引起14-3-3蛋白以及自噬相关蛋白Beclin1表达增加.饥饿条件下,14-3-3 epsilon蛋白与CLIC4共沉淀增强,而抑制CLIC4表达能够降低两者结合水平.结论 14-3-3epsilon蛋白与CLIC4的相互作用由于RNA干扰而减弱,促进了14-3-3蛋白水平上调,进而增强了14-3-3蛋白对Beclin1信号通路的调节,引起Beclin1表达增加,进一步激活饥饿条件下U251细胞自噬过程.

  20. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver LINAC and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both LINACs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver LINAC is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver LINAC is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver LINAC are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  1. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  2. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performanc...

  3. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performance.

  4. High-Power Proton Linac Technology at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Frank

    The construction of Linac4, a 160 MeV H- linac started in 2008 and is now in the beam commissioning phase. The RFQ and MEBT line have been successfully commissioned; and installation and beam measurements of the 50 MeV DTL have started in 2014. Linac4 was conceived as the normal conducting front-end for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), providing 5 GeV protons for a future neutrino facility at CERN. In the last 2 years the CERN infrastructure for the construction, surface treatment and testing of superconducting cavities has been upgraded to be compatible with the prototyping of a 4-cavity SPL type cryomodule. The 704 MHz 5-cell Niobium cavities, presently being built and tested at CERN are of interest also for other potential future projects at CERN and therefore the SPL R&D effort is well supported over the coming years. This paper reviews the context and status of Linac4 and SPL and highlights some of the technological developments, which have been done at CERN and which are foreseen within the next years.

  5. Mechanical Engineering of the Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, N.K.; Chen, Z.; Collier, M.; Erickson, J.L.; Guthrie, A.; Hunter, W.T.; Ilg, T.; Meyer, R.K.; Snodgrass, N.L.

    1999-03-29

    The linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project will accelerate an average current of 1 mA of H{sup {minus}} ions from 20 MeV to 1GeV for injection into an accumulator ring. The linac will be an intense source of H{sup {minus}} ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals as well as to minimize costs. The DTL, CCDTL and CCL are 466m long and operate at 805 MHz with a maximum H{sup {minus}} input current of 28 mA and 7% rf duty factor. The Drift Tube Linac is a copper-plated steel structure using permanent magnetic quadrupoles. The Coupled-Cavity portions are brazed copper structures and use electromagnetic quads. RF losses in the copper are 80 MW, with total rf power supplied by 52 klystrons. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam power levels with no increase in duty factor. The authors give an overview of the linac mechanical engineering effort and discuss the special challenges and status of the effort.

  6. Thermal evaluation of different DC multi-conductor cable cross-sections and installation patterns for the CLIC drive-beam quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Maglio, D

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to determine the thermal behaviour of different dc multi-conductor cable cross-sections and installations patterns for the CLIC drive beam quadrupoles loaded with increasing values of current intensity. A simplified two dimensional model of the heat transfer problem was prepared with a commercial CFD software, STAR-CD 4.2. The heat flux generated by Joule effect in conductors was estimated taking into account the current value per conductor and the temperature dependence of the copper electrical resistance. In parallel, a geometrical simplification of the problem has been done in order to be able to apply theoretical formulas which have been implemented by Microsoft Excel. Obtained results have been compared with those got by the dedicated software, showing between them a good correspondence for two-conductor cables and confirming, for this case, the rules given in the in the French norm NF C15-100. In case of multiconductor cables, attention is to be paid to the temperature lev...

  7. 400-MeV upgrade for the Fermilab linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.E.; Noble, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    Fermilab plans to upgrade the Tevatron to expand the physics research program in both the fixed target and the collider operating modes. The first phase of this program is to increase the energy of the H{sup -} linac from 200 to 400 MeV in order to reduce the incoherent space change tuneshift at injection into the Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The linac upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 8 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Reliability and Availability Studies in the RIA Linac Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Schnirman-Lessner, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    The RIA facility will include various complex systems and must provide radioactive beams to many users simultaneously. The availability of radioactive beams for most experiments at the fully-commissioned facility should be as high as possible within design cost limitations. To make a realistic estimate of the achievable reliability a detailed analysis is required. The RIA driver linac is a complex machine containing a large number of SC resonators and capable of accelerating multiple-charge-state beams. At the pre-CDR stage of the design it is essential to identify critical facility subsystem failures that can prevent the driver linac from operating. The reliability and availability of the driver linac are studied using expert information and data from operating machines such as ATLAS, APS, JLab, and LANL. Availability studies are performed with a Monte-Carlo simulation code previously applied to availability assessments of the NLC facility [http://www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg/accelops/Full/LCoptsfull] and the ...

  9. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  10. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Hatayama, A; Nishida, K; Shibata, T; Yamamot, T; Otha, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the LEBT, RFQ and chopper of Linac4.

  11. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  12. Finite Element Thermal Study of the Linac4 Plasma Generatora

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D; Kuchler, D; Lettry, L; Scrivens, R; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the RF-powered non-cesiated Linac4 H- ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW RF power, 2 Hz, 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of SPL, an extrapolation of the heat load towards 100 kW RF power, 50 Hz repetition rate and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in HP-SPL.

  13. Particle-In-Cell Simulation of RFQ in SSC - Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao; You-Jin, Yuan; Yong, Liu; Jia-Wen, Xia; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Batygin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    A 52MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (linac) is designed to serve as an initial structure for the SSC-linac system (injector into Separated Sector Cyclotron). The designed injection and output energy are 3.5 keV/u and 143 keV/u, respectively. Beam dynamics study in RFQ was done using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH [1]. Simulation results show that this RFQ structure is characterized by stable value of beam transmission efficiency (at least 95%) for both zero-current mode and for space charge dominated regime. The beam accelerated in RFQ has good quality in both transversal and longitudinal directions, and could be easily accepted by Drift Tube Linac (DTL). Effects of vane errors and of the space charge on beam parameters are studied as well to define the engineering tolerance for RFQ vane machining and alignment.

  14. Beam Commissioning Plan and Result of KOMAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work summarized the present status and near-future plan of the beam commissioning. The development and installation of the 100-MeV proton linac were finished. Beam commissioning is scheduled in May 2013. Hence we hope we can report the initial beam commissioning result in the spring meeting of Korea Nuclear Society. The beam commissioning of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex) 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is in progress. The linac includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole), a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The final goal of the beam commissioning is accelerating 100-MeV proton beams to the beam dump in the accelerator tunnel and into a target room.

  15. TLD determination of neutron dose contribution in medical linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, A.; Rivera, T.; Calderon A, J. A. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Villasenor N, L. F. [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis No. 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.m [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The increased use of Linacs with accelerating voltage higher than 10 MV in clinical radiotherapy is producing and increasing demand of accurate dosimetric measurements of the photon induced neutron contamination of the radiotherapy beams, due that the associated Bremsstrahlung X rays may produce neutrons as a result of subsequent photonuclear reactions with the different materials constituting the accelerator head. Thermal neutron fluences can be measured with TLD-600/TLD-700 pairs arranged in both a bare and a cadmium (Cd) foil covered methacry-late box. Neutron response of Tl dosemeters irradiated with two different neutron sources has been investigated. The shape of the glow curve of these TLDs after irradiation in a medical Linac and in a Pu Be neutron source has been studied to verify the contribution of neutrons to an additional dose to staff, patients and the general public, due to photonuclear reactions generating neutrons from medical Linacs. (Author)

  16. Status and experiece with the alignment of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jean-Frederic

    2016-01-01

    LINAC4 (L4) is an H- linear accelerator that will deliver, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project requirements, a beam of protons at 160 MeV energy to the PS complex and then to the LHC. Its connection to the PS booster will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019-2020 or earlier if any major failure of the LINAC2. The Linac4 project requires the precise alignment with a tolerance of about +/- 0.2 mm in both the horizontal and vertical planes, of elements along approximately 150 m beam line. This paper will give a status, an overview of the challenges of the alignment, the issues solved by the survey section, the techniques and methodology used to realise the survey activities over the last five years.

  17. RF Operation for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The RF systems for the 100MeV linac were constructed. The HPRF system including klystrons, circulators, high power dummy loads, and waveguide components was installed at the klystron gallery, and the LLRF control systems including a commercial FPGA module and a LLRF analog chassis were also installed. The phase stability of the RF reference line was measured with S11 phase under temperature control. The RF systems for 100MeV linac have been operated for a beam commissioning, and the 100MeV proton beam has been supplied to users currently. The RF systems of the 100MeV proton linac for the KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) were installed at the Gyeong-ju site. The 100MeV linac consists of a 3MeV RFQ, a 20MeV DTL with four tanks, two MEBT tanks, and seven 100MeV DTL tanks. For the 100MeV linac, nine sets of LLRF control systems and the HPRF systems including 1MW klystrons, circulators and waveguide components have been installed at the klystron gallery, and four high voltage converter modulators to drive nine klystrons have been installed at the modulator room. A RF reference system distributing 300MHz LO signal to each RF control system has also been installed with a temperature control system at the klystron gallery. The requirement of RF field control is within +/- 1% in RF amplitude and +/- 1 degree in RF phase. The RF systems have been operated for the beam commissioning. The installation and operation of the RF system for the 100MeV proton linac are presented in this paper.

  18. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc-Tien

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and low cost, will open linacs to new applications to come.

  19. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grespan, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Postcouplers (PCs) are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL), using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  20. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  1. 3D Emittances Tailoring Techniques and Optimization with Space Charge for the Future CERN PS Booster Operations with Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Vincenzo; Benedetto, Elena; Bracco, Chiara; Cieslak-Kowalska, Magdalena; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the LIU (LHC Injectors Upgrade) project, the CERN PS Booster is going to be renovated to host a new H⁻ charge-exchange injection from the Linac4. One important feature of the new injection scheme is the possibility to tailor a wide range of 3D emittances for CERN's different users in an intensity span in the order of 5·10⁹ to 1.6·10¹³ protons per PSB ring. This paper gives an overview of 3D multi-turn injection techniques, focusing on the future LHC beams, which aim at reaching high brightness, and on highest intensity beams (ISOLDE), where losses are the main concern. Complete RF capture simulations and transverse injection maps, including space charge effects, are presented and also intended to be used during the commissioning with Linac4.

  2. Design of a new UHV all-metal joint for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lutkiewicz, P; Rathjen, Ch

    2009-01-01

    All-metal joints are widely used in the vacuum systems of particle accelerators. The most common ConFlat® design consists of a flat soft copper gasket captured between two stainless steel flanges with sharp edges (knives). The gasket is plastically deformed and a high contact pressure develops around knives to obtain leak tightness. For large accelerators, a high reliability and a cost-optimized design are required. A smooth internal transition between flanges is needed for the RF waveguides of the compact linear collider (CLIC), with limited deformation of the inner part of the gasket. We present the study of a flange meeting these requirements. First the finite element analysis (FEA) of the Stanford linear accelerator center (SLAC) X-band all-metal joint, which has a similar specification, is shown. Some drawbacks, such as non-homogeneous sealing properties, are highlighted. Then, a new joint design is described. FEA results are presented and are compared with experimental measurements carried out on proto...

  3. High Frequency Effects of Impedances and Coatings in the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Koukovini Platia, Eirini; Rumolo, G

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a 3 TeV eÅe¡ machine, currently under design at CERN, that targets to explore the terascale particle physics regime. The experiment requires a high luminosity of 2£1034 cm2 s¡1, which can be achieved with ultra low emittances delivered from the Damping Rings (DRs) complex. The high bunch brightness of the DRs gives rise to several collective effects that can limit the machine performance. Impedance studies during the design stage of the DR are of great importance to ensure safe operation under nominal parameters. As a first step, the transverse impedance model of the DRis built, accounting for the wholemachine. Beam dynamics simulations are performedwith HEADTAIL to investigate the effect on beam dynamics. For the correct impedancemodeling of the machine elements, knowledge of the material properties is essential up to hundreds of GHz, where the bunch spectrum extends. Specifically, Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) is a commonly used coating for good vacuumbut its properti...

  4. Development and Validation of a Multipoint Based Laser Alignment System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Lackner, F; Mainaud-Durand, H; Piedigrossi, D; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M; Geiger, A; Guillaume, S

    2013-01-01

    Alignment is one of the major challenges within CLIC study, since all accelerator components have to be aligned with accuracy up to 10 μm over sliding windows of 200 m. So far, the straight line reference concept has been based on stretched wires coupled with Wire Positioning Sensors. This concept should be validated through inter-comparison with an alternative solution. This paper proposes an alternative concept where laser beam acts as straight line reference and optical shutters coupled with cameras visualise the beam. The principle was first validated by a series of tests using low-cost components. Yet, in order to further decrease measurement uncertainty in this validation step, a high-precision automatised micrometric table and reference targets have been added to the setup. The paper presents the results obtained with this new equipment, in terms of measurement precision. In addition, the paper gives an overview of first tests done at long distance (up to 53 m), having emphasis on beam divergence

  5. The occupancy in the Hadronic Calorimeter endcap of the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    van Dam, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the optimal physics performance of a detector for a linear electron–positron col- lider it is essential to minimize the effect of the beam-induced background. Incoherent electron–positron pairs shower in the very forward region of the CLIC detector and cause a too high occupancy of approximately 80% in the inner radius of the HCal endcap. The occupancy is studied by performing full detector simulations and reduced by changing the material and thickness of the support tube that serves as shielding. The effect of the tile size in the HCal endcap is also studied. A minimal occupancy of ⇠ 4% in the HCal inner radius can be reached with a thick tungsten support tube. When taking a more realistic engineering point of view into account and including polyethylene, an occupancy of ⇠ 8% is achieved. These results show that it is possible to reduce the occupancy due to incoherent pairs in the HCal endcap to a similar level as that due to gg ! hadrons events.

  6. Studies of Cs3Sb cathodes for the CLIC drive beam photo injector option

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Irene; Doebert, Steffen; Fedosseev, Valentine; Hessler, Christoph; Martyanov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Within the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project, feasibility studies of a photo injector option for the drive beam as an alternative to its baseline design using a thermionic electron gun are on-going. This R&D program covers both the laser and the photocathode side. Whereas the available laser pulse energy in ultra-violet (UV) is currently limited by the optical defects in the 4thharmonics frequency conversion crystal induced by the0.14 ms long pulse trains, recent measurements of Cs3Sbphotocathodes sensitive to green light showed their potential to overcome this limitation. Moreover, using visible laser beams leads to better stability of produced electron bunches and one can take advantages of the availability of higher quality optics. The studied Cs3Sbphotocathodes have been produced in the CERN photo emission laboratory using the co-deposition technique and tested in a DC gun set-up. The analysis of data acquired during the cathode production process will be presented in this paper, as well as the r...

  7. An integrated computer control system for the ANU linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P. M.; Foote, G. S.

    1996-02-01

    One facet of the installation of the superconducting linac at the ANU is the need for computer control of a variety of systems, such as beam transport, resonator RF, cryogenics and others. To accommodate this, a number of control interfaces (for example, analogue signals and RS232 serial lines) must be employed. Ideally, all of the systems should be able to be controlled from a central location, remote from the actual devices. To this end a system based around VAX computers and VME crates has been designed and is currently being developed and implemented. A VAXstation is used to issue control messages and perform high-level functions, while VME crates containing appropriate modules (primarily DACs, ADCs and digital I/O boards) control the devices. The controllers in the VME crates are AEON rtVAX modules running a real-time operating system. Communication with the VAXstation is via DECnet, on a private ethernet to allow communication rates unaffected by unrelated network activity and potentially increasing the security of the system by providing a possible network isolation point. Also on this ethernet are a number of terminal servers to control RS232 devices. A central database contains all device control and monitoring parameters. The main control process running on the VAXstation is responsible for maintaining the current values of the parameters in the database and for dispatching control messages to the appropriate VME crate or RS232 serial line. Separate graphical interface processes allow the operator to interact with the control process, communicating through shared memory. Many graphics processes can be active simultaneously, displaying either on a single or on multiple terminals. Software running on the rtVAX controllers handles the low-level device-specific control by translating messages from the main control process to VME commands which set hardware outputs on VME modules. Similarly, requests for the value of a parameter result in the rtVAX program

  8. Linac4: injecting new life into the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Construction work is nearing completion on the ion source for Linac4, the new linear accelerator that forms part of the LHC injector upgrade programme. Here we find out more about this essential component of the accelerator chain, designed and built at CERN.     The image shows the Linac4 H- source. The red light is the alpha line of the visible hydrogen emission spectrum. The ion source is a key component of Linac4, the linear accelerator that from 2018 will supply H- ions (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) at 160 MeV for injection into the accelerator complex. As the only ion source at CERN, Linac4 must be highly reliable, which requires a full understanding of the production mechanisms, the simulation of physical processes and the validation of those processes through experimentation. “This source is the result of much fruitful collaboration,” says Jacques Lettry of the BE department. “Its design was inspired by the many sources of th...

  9. Test Measurements with the REX-ISOLDE LINAC Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O; Sieber, T; Emhofer, S; Rudolph, K; von Hahn, R; Podlech, H; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Ratzinger, U; Schempp, A

    2000-01-01

    The Radioactive Beam Experiment {REX-ISOLDE} [1,2] is a pilot experiment at ISOLDE (CERN) testing the new concept of post acceleration of radioactive ion beams by using charge breeding of the ions in a high charge state ion source and the efficient acceleration of the highly charged ions in a short LINAC using modern ion accelerator structures. In order to prepare the ions for the experiments singly charged radioactive ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE will be cooled and bunched in a Penning trap, charge bred in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in the LINAC. The LINAC consists of a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, which accelerates the ions up to 0.3 MeV/u, an 20 gap interdigital H-type (IH) structure with a final energy between 1.1 and 1.2 MeV/u and three seven gap resonators, which allow the variation of the final energy between 0.8-2.2 MeV/u. A variety of tests with REXTRAP, REXEBIS and the LINAC structures have been done, in order to study their capabilitie...

  10. Progress on LINAC 4 : Civil engineering (28/07/2009)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    The commissioning of the new Linac4 source – first element of the new acceleration chain for the upgrade of the LHC (sLHC) – has started beginning of July. After years of preparation but after only a few hours of fine-tuning of the numerous parameters involved, the source has delivered its first negative ions.

  11. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kozawa, T.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Miya, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  12. Full power to the first Linac4 module

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Since last week the first of a total of 23 accelerating structures for Linac4 has been undergoing high-power tests. Although still a prototype, this structure is destined to be the first of the 12 PIMS cavities to be installed in the Linac4 tunnel and it has been completely designed, developed and constructed at CERN.   The PIMS prototype. The new Linac4 has 4 different types of accelerating structures. The PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) are the last stage and are designed to accelerate protons up to 160 MeV. “PIMS have never before been used to accelerate protons”, explains Frank Gerigk, the project engineer responsible for the Linac4 accelerating structures. “In LEP, they were used to accelerate electrons, and now we have modified them and improved several design features to make them suitable for protons”. The first prototype was entirely manufactured in the CERN workshop. Due to the size of the pieces it was difficult to achieve and preserve the required to...

  13. Conceptual Design for the New RPI 2020 Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Dolgashev, V.; Jensen, A.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Kemp, M.; Krasnykh, A.; Lewandowski, J.; Li, Z.; Neilson, J.; Pearson, C.; Tantawi, S.; Wang, J.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC; Brand, P.; Danon, Y.; /Rensselaer Polytech. Inst.; Epping, B.; Donovan, T.; Block, R.; Leinweber, G.; /Knolls Atomic Power Lab.

    2014-10-29

    The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) spectrometer is an installation based on an L-band linear accelerator designed and installed many decades ago. While this installation has served many important experiments over the decades, a new more powerful and more flexible linac to serve a wider range of experiments is envisioned as an upgrade to the existing installation by 2020.

  14. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  15. An Energy Recovery Electron Linac On Ring Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; Geoffrey Krafft; Valeri Lebedev; Ilan Ben-Zvi

    2001-09-01

    Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33} (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. Electron beam polarization appears to be crucial for many of the experiments. Two accelerator design scenarios have been examined in detail: colliding rings and recirculating linac-on-ring. Although the linac-on-ring scenario is not as well developed as the ring-ring scenario, comparable luminosities appear feasible. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations; (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors; (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. This technology has been demonstrated at Jefferson Lab's IR FEL with cw current up to 5 mA and beam energy up to 50 MeV. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at higher currents (a few hundred mA) and higher energies (a few GeV) as well. The report begins with a brief overview of Jefferson Lab's experience with energy recovery and summarize its benefits. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented next. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed next and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  16. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  17. Physics performances for Z' searches at 3 TeV and 1.5 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Blaising, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Extra neutral gauge bosons (Z') are predicted in many extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the minimal anomaly-free Z' model (AFZ'), the phenomenology is controlled by only three parameters beyond the SM ones, the Z' mass and two effective coupling constants g'_Y and g'_{BL}. We study the Z' 5-sigma discovery potential in e+e- collisions at 1.4 and 3 TeV CLIC. Assuming LHC discovers a Z' of 5 TeV mass, the expected accuracies on the Z'mu+mu- couplings are presented. We discuss also the requirements on detector performance and beam polarization.

  18. Analysis of the behaviour of the CLIC_SiD iron return yoke during a seismic event

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.

    2012-01-01

    The iron return yoke of the CLIC SiD detector concept is composed of three barrel rings and two endcap discs which, during a seismic event, are subjected to horizontal and vertical accelerations that can result in both a mechanical failure of internal structural elements and high deformations which can lead to unwanted collisions with other internal or external detector elements, as well as the walls of the experimental cavern. This report presents the results from the analysis of the return yoke barrel rings and endcaps under a seismic event load case.

  19. Sensitivity on the Dipole Moments of the τ-Neutrino at e+e- Colliders: ILC and CLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the sensitivity on the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the τ-neutrino at a high-energy and high-luminosity linear electron positron collider, such as the ILC or CLIC, through the reaction e+e-→νν̅γ. We obtain limits on the dipole moments at the future linear colliders energies. For integrated luminosities of 500 fb−1 and center of mass energies between 0.5 and 3 TeV, the future e+e- colliders may improve the existing limits by two or three orders of magnitude.

  20. Study of the Dynamics in a Linac Booster for Proton Therapy in the 30-62 MeV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Vittorio G; De Martinis, Carlo; Giove, Dario; Lanzone, S; Masullo, Maria R; Mauri, Marco; Rainò, Antonio; Variale, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Recent results in accelerator physics have shown the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. These two evidences have suggested the idea to study and design a linac booster able to increase the initial proton energy up to the values required for the treatment of tumors, like the ocular ones. Among the challenges in such a project one of the main ones is related to meet the requirement of having sufficient mean current for therapy from a given injection current coming from the cyclotron. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project in order to optimize the transmittance and to minimize the duty-cycle. In this frame we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3GHz linac with a new approach to the cavities used in a SCL (Side Coupled Linac) structure.