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Sample records for clerodendrum speciosum

  1. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  2. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

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    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  3. Adventitious bud formation from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartrijk, van J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the interactive effects are described of tissue, medium, and other environmental factors on the process of adventitious bud formation in vitro from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. Besides, results are presented of experiments

  4. Anticancer Activity Of Plant Genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae: A Review

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    Donald Emilio Kalonio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of this genus are used both empirically and scientifically as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiviral, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antitumor. Results of the molecular docking simulation of chemical content of these plants could potentially provide an anticancer effect. This paper aims to review the anticancer activity of plant genus Clerodendrum based on scientific data. The method used in this study is the literature study. Searches were conducted online (in the database PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar and on various books (Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and PROSEA. A total 12 plants of the genus Clerodendrum have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, thus potentially to be developed as a source of new active compounds with anticancer activity.

  5. Micropropagation of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.F.

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    Kher Mafatlal M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. is an important medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, particularly its roots, which are used for various therapeutic purposes in a pulverized form. The objective of this study was to develop a standard protocol for axillary shoot proliferation and rooting of C. phlomidis for its propagation and conservation. Nodal explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that was supplemented with one of six cytokinins: 6-benzyladenine, kinetin, thidiazuron, N6-(2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP, trans-zeatin (Zea and meta-topolin. Callus induction, which was prolific at all concentrations, formed at the base of nodal explants and hindered shoot multiplication and elongation. To avoid or reduce callus formation with the objective of increasing shoot formation, the same six cytokinins were combined with 4 μM 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA alone or in combination with 270 μM adenine sulphate (AdS. Nodal explants that were cultured on the medium supplemented with 9.12 μM Zea, 4 μM TIBA and 270 μM AdS produced significantly more and longer shoots than on medium without TIBA and AdS. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.05 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid was the best medium for root formation. Most (75% in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized under natural conditions.

  6. Clerodendrum splendens: a potential source of antimicrobials

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    Ajaib, M.; Boota, F.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial status of the bark and leaves of Clerodendrum splendens was evaluated.The inquisition had provided that the leaf and bark of the plant had exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential. The antibacterial activity was significant against S. aureus with the maximum effectiveness of 71 ± 0.6 mm displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of bark. Moreover, all the petroleum ether extracts exhibited maximum inhibitory effects against all the bacterial strains. The Gram negative strains, i.e. K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli had provided good to satisfactory results within the range of 20 ± 0.8 mm to 69 ± 0.9 mm. Excellent activities were exhibited by leaf and bark extracts against the fungal pathogens with the maximum potential displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of leaf i.e. 57 ± 0.5 mm against A. oryzae. The MIC assays were carried out to further authenticate the results obtained by zones of inhibitions. The MIC potential exhibited by Gram negative bacteria for K. pneumoniae was evaluated to be > 0.032 mg/mL while for the S. aureus was roughly evaluated to be > 0.088. Moreover, the MIC activity displayed against other Gram negative bacterial strains was reported > 0.112 ± 0.7 mg/mL for E. coli and > 0.059 ± 1.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC effectiveness for the fungal strain of A. niger and A. oryzae was evaluated to be 0.118 ± 0.7 mg/mL. (author)

  7. Ex Situ Conservation Method for Clerodendrum inerme : A medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clerodendrum inerme L. (Verbenaceae), commonly known as vanajai or garden quinine is a perennial shrub. Leaves and roots of the plant are used in rheumatism and skin diseases. In Indian classical literature the plant is also reported as a substitute of quinine. Since root of the plant is used as drug, whole plant has to be ...

  8. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes.

  9. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Root

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root show exfoliating cork, having10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells. Cortex consists of round to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboid shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3- 4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single pericyclic layer. Phloem consists of isodiametric, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells whereas xylem contains lignified pitted vessels. Medullary rays consisting of biseriate layer of lignified and radially elongated parenchymatous cells is narrower in the xylem region during wider in the phloem region. The physicochemical analysis of the root, i.e., total ash, water-soluble ash, sulphated ash are 7.8, 0.9 and 10.3 (% w/w respectively. Further successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 2.2, 2.4, 12.4 and 9.6 (% w/wextracts respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colours to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps inbotanical identification and standardization of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. root part in crude form and provide the authentic data for the researchers and scientists involved in carrying out further research on this plant part.

  10. In vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Various Solvent Fractions from Clerodendrum viscosum Leaves.

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    Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Basu, Tapasree; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2017-07-01

    Free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated in the body, play an important role in the fulfillment of various physiological functions but their imbalance in the body lead to cellular injury and various clinical disorders such as cancer, neurodegenaration, and inflammation. The objective of this study is to fight this problem, natural antioxidant from plants can be considered as possible protective agents against various diseases such as cancer which might also modify the redox microenvironment to reduce the genetic instability. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of Clerodendrum viscosum fractions against various carcinomas. In this present study, 70% methanolic extract of C. viscosum leaves have been fractionated to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions, which were tested for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. It was observed that chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed good free radical scavenging properties as well as inhibited the proliferation of human lung cancer (A459), breast (MCF-7), and brain (U87) cells. Moreover, they arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase of breast and brain cancer. These inhibitory effects were further confirmed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake imaging. Phytochemical investigations further indicate the presence of tannic acid, quercetin, ellagic caid, gallic acid, reserpine, and methyl gallate which might be the reason for these fractions' antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Clerodendrum viscosum leaf chloroform and Clerodendrum viscosum leaf ethyl acetate fractions from C. viscosum showed good reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging potential. Both the fractions arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase in MCF-7 and U87 cells which lead to induce apoptosis. Crude extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves was fractionated using different solventsAmong them, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions

  11. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants-Enhydra fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

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    M. Ruhul Amin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii. Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE, Clerodendrum viscosum (MLC and Andrographis peniculata (MLA, and acetone extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (ALE, Clerodendrum viscosum (ALC and Andrographis peniculata (ALA. The disc diffusion method and the method described by Meyer were used to determine the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of each plant extract. Results: Among the test samples, MLE and ALE showed comparatively better antimicrobial activity against a number of bacteria and fungi with inhibition zones in the range of 06-15 mm and according to the intensity of activity, the efficacy against microorganisms were found in the order of Enhydra fluctuans> Andrographi speniculata> Clerodendrum viscosum. In cytotoxicity assay, all samples were found to be active against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina and ALA produced lowest LC50 value (7.03 μg/ml. Conclusion: Enhydra fluctuans and Andrographi speniculata possesses significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  12. Structure elucidation of a flavonoid glycoside from the roots of Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae

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    S. S. Bhujbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin-7-glucoside, C21H20O10 (7-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, was first time isolated from the roots of Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae. Structure elucidation of the compound was carried out by ¹H NMR and FAB-MS studies.Apigenin-7-glucosídeo, C21H20O10 (7-(β-D-glucopiranosiloxi-5-hidroxi-2-(4-hidroxifenil-4H-1-benzopiran-4-ona, foi isolado pela primeira vez das raízes de Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae. A elucidação estrutural da susbtância foi feita através de estudos de ¹H NMR e FAB-MS.

  13. Evolution in Australia's mesic biome under past and future climates: Insights from a phylogenetic study of the Australian Rock Orchids (Dendrobium speciosum complex, Orchidaceae).

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    Simpson, Lalita; Clements, Mark A; Crayn, Darren M; Nargar, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    The Australian mesic biome spans c. 33° of latitude along Australia's east coast and ranges and is dissected by historical and contemporary biogeographical barriers. To investigate the impact of these barriers on evolutionary diversification and to predict the impact of future climate change on the distribution of species and genetic diversity within this biome, we inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Dendrobium speciosum complex (Orchidaceae) across its distribution and undertook environmental niche modelling (ENM) under past, contemporary and projected future climates. Neighbor Joining tree inference, NeighborNet and Structure analyses of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profiles for D. speciosum sampled from across its distribution showed that the complex consists of two highly supported main groups that are geographically separated by the St. Lawrence gap, an area of dry sclerophyll forest and woodland. The presence of several highly admixed individuals identified by the Structure analysis provided evidence of genetic exchange between the two groups across this gap. Whereas previous treatments have recognised between one to eleven species, the molecular results support the taxonomic treatment of the complex as a single species with two subspecies. The ENM analysis supported the hypothesis that lineage divergence within the complex was driven by past climatic changes. The St. Lawrence gap represented a stronger biogeographic barrier for the D. speciosum complex during the cool and dry glacial climatic conditions of the Pleistocene than under today's interglacial conditions. Shallow genetic divergence was found within the two lineages, which mainly corresponded to three other biogeographic barriers: the Black Mountain Corridor, Glass House Mountains and the Hunter Valley. Our ENM analyses provide further support for the hypothesis that biogeographic barriers along Australia's east coast were somewhat permeable to genetic exchange due to

  14. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

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    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here.

  15. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

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    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  16. Extraction and isolation of new compounds from traditional herbal medicine; Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.

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    Mohammad Jameel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis L., (Lamiaceae, is a shrub, generally found in south-east Asia. This genus has great ethno-medicinal importance in various indigenous systems of medicine like Indian, Chinese, Thai, Korean, Siddha, Unani and Japanese for the treatment of numerous diseases like syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice, hypertension, constipation, gonorrhea, piles, urinary diseases, nervous disorders, inflammation and measles. Isolation of three new compounds from methanolic extracts of roots of plant namely 3′-stigmast-5-enyl-4′-octadecanyl protocatechuic acid (2, n-tetratriacont-24-enoic acid (3, n-tetradecanyl- glucopyranosyl–(2′→1″ glucopyranoside (5 along with known β-sitosteryl n-octadec-9′,12′-dienoate (1, n-octadec-9-enoyl- β-D-arabinopyranoside (4 and α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→1′-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6′→1″-α-D-glucopyranoside (6 have been done on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical means.

  17. Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system.  They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate.  The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans.  The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours.  The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies.  The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination.  In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs.  The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma.  The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style.  In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also.  These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy.  The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets.  Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants. 

  18. Clerodendrum inerme Leaf Extract Alleviates Animal Behaviors, Hyperlocomotion, and Prepulse Inhibition Disruptions, Mimicking Tourette Syndrome and Schizophrenia

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    Hon-Lie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette syndrome (TS, responsive to the ground leaf juice of Clerodendrum inerme (CI. Here, we examined the effect of the ethanol extract of CI leaves (CI extract on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion, and sensorimotor gating deficit. The latter is also observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (PPI in animal models induced by methamphetamine and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine or MK-801, based on hyperdopaminergic and hypoglutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. CI extract (10–300 mg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p. and PPI disruptions induced by methamphetamine, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p., and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. but did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance, and grip force. These results suggest that CI extract can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating deficit, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI for TS and schizophrenia.

  19. Phenolic Extracts from Clerodendrum volubile Leaves Inhibit Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Some Neurodegenerative Diseases.

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    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2017-05-04

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of phenolic-rich extracts from Clerodendrum volubile leaves on cholinergic [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and monoaminergic [monoamine oxidase (MAO)] enzymes' activities and pro-oxidants [Fe 2+ and quinolinic acid-(QA)] induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in vitro. Free phenolic extracts (FPE) and bound phenolic extracts (BPE) were obtained via solvent extraction, and the total phenol and flavonoid contents were evaluated. The phenolic constituents of the extracts were also determined using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Our findings revealed that FPE had higher AChE (2.06 μg/mL), BChE (2.79 μg/mL), and MAO (2.81 μg/mL) inhibitory effects than BPE [AChE, 2.80 μg/mL; BChE, 3.40 μg/mL; MAO, 3.39 μg/mL]. Furthermore, FPE also had significantly (P rich extracts from C. volubile could be part of the mechanism of actions behind its use for memory/cognitive function as obtained in folklore. However, FPE exhibited significantly higher enzymes, inhibitory and antioxidant potentials than BPE.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Isolated Xanthomonas sp. From Rice Rhizosphere Soil and their Inhibition using Clerodendrum viscosum Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, R.; Ahmed, J.; Al-Reza, S. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Nyme, Z.; Lisa, L. A.; Yousaf, M.; Alam, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized some Xanthomonas sp. from rice rhizosphere soil by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the potentiality tested of oil and extracts of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. leaves against those isolated bacteria. The essential oil compositions were evaluated by GC-MS analysis and identified twenty four compounds as 94.37% of the total essential oil, where cyclohepta-1,3,5,-triene (16.07%), 2H-1,4-pyridoxazin-3(4H)-one (12.27%), L-carvenol (8.04%), p-cymene (9.15%), alpha-terpineol (7.98%), beta-sitosterol (6.76%), tyranton (6.42%), mesityl oxide (6.34%), gamma-terpinene (5.42%) and beta-linalool (3.74%) were the major constituents. According to the 16S rDNA sequences analysis, Hb28 and Xb43 isolates have shown the 100% similarity for Xanthomonas retroflexus and Xanthomonas theicola. In addition, isolates Ha18, Xb33 and Jb30 also have shown the maximum similarity of 98% for Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that the oil have the inhibitory effect on Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, X. campestris, X. retroflexus, Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38, and X. theicola, where the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 18.8 to 25.9 mm and 62.5 to 125 meu g ml/sup -1/, respectively. However, organic extracts showed the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 13.4 to 22.9 and 62.5 to 500 meu g ml-1, respectively. Our findings suggested that the essential oil and extracts of C. viscosum Vent. leaves might be the effective source to control Xanthomonas sp. biologically. (author)

  1. Suppressive Effects of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv. [Labiatae] Methanolic Extract and Its Fractions on Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications

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    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most prominent of all diabetes types, contributing to global morbidity and mortality. Availability and cost of treatment with little or no side effect especially in developing countries, remains a huge burden. This has led to the search of affordable alternative therapies especially from medicinal plants. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract, dichloromethane (DCM, butanol (BuOH and aqueous fractions of Clerodendrum volubile leaves were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats for their effect on glucose homeostasis, serum insulin level and hepatic biomarkers, lipid profile, pancreatic redox balance and Ca2+ levels, and β-cell distribution and function. The DCM was further fractionated to isolate the active compounds, biochanin and 5,7,4′-trimethoxykaempferol. They were investigated for their toxicity and ADMET properties, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in silico. There were significant (p < 0.05 decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglyceride, AST and ALT levels in all treated groups, with DCM fraction showing the best activity. All treated rats showed significantly (p < 0.05 improved anti-oxidative activities. Treatment with the DCM fraction led to significant (p < 0.05 increased serum insulin and pancreatic Ca2+ levels, as well as improved β-cell distribution and function. DCM fraction also showed improved glucose tolerance. DCM fraction dose-dependently inhibited ACE activity. The toxicity class of the isolated compounds was predicted to be 5. They were also predicted to be potent inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4. They docked well with α-glucosidase and ACE. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the plant against type 2 diabetes, with the DCM fraction being the most potent which may be attributed to the isolated flavones. It further suggests antihypertensive potentials of the DCM fraction

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF LOZENGES FORMULA OF SENGGUGU ROOT BARK (Clerodendrum serratum L. Moon EXTRACTS FOR MUCUS DILUENT (MUCOLITIC IN COMBINATION WITH MANNITOL-LACTOSE-SUCROSE FILLERS

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    T.N. Saifullah Sulaiman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Senggugu root bark (Clerodendrum serratum L. Moon is known as a mucolitics. Senggugu root bark is made in the dosage form of lozenges in combination with sucrose, mannitol and lactose in order to obtain good flavor and comfortable when consumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of fillers on the physical properties of granules and tablets as well as the composition of the combination of excipients to produce lozenges of extract of senggugu root bark with optimum physical properties. Seven formulas were made with a combination of mannitol, lactose and sucrose as follows: FI (100%: 0%: 0%, FII (0%: 100%: 0%, FIII (0%: 0%: 100%, FIV (50 %: 50%: 0%, FV (50%: 0%: 50%, FVI (0%: 50%: 50%, and FVII (33.3%: 33.3%: 33.3% . The results showed that the combination of mannitol, lactose and sucrose affected the physical properties of the granules and lozenges of extract of senggugu root bark i.e. flow rate, hardness, dissolved time, compactibility and perceptive sense. The dominant amount of sucrose and lactose can improve the physical properties of granules and tablets. The optimal composition of the combination of mannitol, lactose and sucrose obtained from Design Expert 7.1.5. program was 5.491%: 37.387%: 57.122%, respectively.

  3. In Silico Investigations of Chemical Constituents of Clerodendrum colebrookianum in the Anti-Hypertensive Drug Targets: ROCK, ACE, and PDE5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Hemant; Syed, Safiulla Basha; Singh, Sorokhaibam Sureshkumar; Ampasala, Dinakar R; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2017-06-16

    Understanding the molecular mode of action of natural product is a key step for developing drugs from them. In this regard, this study is aimed to understand the molecular-level interactions of chemical constituents of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., with anti-hypertensive drug targets using computational approaches. The plant has ethno-medicinal importance for the treatment of hypertension and reported to show activity against anti-hypertensive drug targets-Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK), angiotensin-converting enzyme, and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Docking studies showed that three chemical constituents (acteoside, martinoside, and osmanthuside β6) out of 21 reported from the plant to interact with the anti-hypertensive drug targets with good glide score. In addition, they formed H-bond interactions with the key residues Met156/Met157 of ROCK I/ROCK II and Gln817 of PDE5. Further, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of protein-ligand complexes suggest that H-bond interactions between acteoside/osmanthuside β6 and Met156/Met157 (ROCK I/ROCK II), acteoside and Gln817 (PDE5) were stable. The present investigation suggests that the anti-hypertensive activity of the plant is due to the interaction of acteoside and osmanthuside β6 with ROCK and PDE5 drug targets. The identified molecular mode of binding of the plant constituents could help to design new drugs to treat hypertension.

  4. The total flavonoids of Clerodendrum bungei suppress A549 cells proliferation, migration, and invasion by impacting Wnt/β-Catenin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the total flavonoids of Clerodendrum bungei (TFCB on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of A549 lung cancer cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. Materials and Methods: A549 cells were transfected with a β-catenin overexpression plasmid and the empty vector pcDNA3.1. The A549 cells were divided into six groups: normal A549 cell group, normal A549 cells with TFCB group, vector control group, vector with TFCB group, β-catenin overexpression group, and β-catenin with TFCB group. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to detect cell proliferation, a scratch test was used to observe cell migration, and a transwell experiment was employed to evaluate cell invasion. Proteins related to the Wnt pathway were detected with Western blot analysis, including β-catenin, GSK-3 β, P-GSK-3 β, c-Myc, and CyclinD1. Results: The proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of A549 cells were significantly enhanced after being transfected with the β-catenin overexpression plasmid (P < 0.05 or 0.01, accompanied by increased expression of β-catenin, C-Myc, CyclinD1 and reduced expression of Gsk-3 β and P-GSK-3 β. Treatment of cells with TFCB resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; downregulated expression of β-catenin, C-Myc, and CyclinD1; and upregulated expression of GSK-3 β and P-GSK-3 β, especially in the β-catenin overexpression group. Conclusion: TFCB has the potential to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by prohibiting the overexpression of β-catenin and regulating its downstream factors.

  5. Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...

  6. The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In Ethiopia, the long history of using medicinal plants for .... administrations of the extracts or distilled water were carried out using intragastric catheter. All .... These changes include: inflammations around central vein in the 100mg/kg body.

  7. The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 400mg/kg bw/day and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity (abnormally diminished activity), grooming, prostration (submissively prone position), piloroerection (elevation of hairs) and irritation, while 100mg/kg bw/day treated mice showed no behavioral changes. The dose of 100mg/kg bw/day produced significant ...

  8. FORMULA OPTIMATION OF SENGGUGU ROOT BARK EXTRACT LOZENGES (Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon. AS MUCOLYTIC AGENT WITH LACTOSE – SORBITOL FILLER COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyono Wahyono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Senggugu root bark has mucolytic activity and has been used empirically, so it needs to be formulated as lozengeswhich can be used practically and comfortable for the patients. Senggugu root bark powder was extracted by maceration using aethanol 70%. Lozenges was optimized using lactose-sorbitol filler mix through three formulas, formula A ( 100% lactose, formula B (100% sorbitol, formula C (50% lactose-50% sorbitol. Lozenges was made by wet granulation method. The optimum formula was obtained from theresults of physical granul test and lozenges using SLD, and analyzed by its granul flow, hardness, dissolution time, and taste responsiveness, and also qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results show that lactose-sorbitol filler mix can increase hardness and taste responsiveness, decrease granul flow and dissolution time. The oprimum formula from this research is 100% sorbitol:0% lactose.

  9. Antioxidant and inhibitory properties of Clerodendrum volubile leaf extracts on key enzymes relevant to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Adefegha

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The inhibitory properties of phenolic rich extracts on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, ACE, and Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in the pancreas could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of the extracts and their phenolic composition. The stronger action of the bound phenolic extract on α-glucosidase may provide the possible bioactivity at the brush border end of the intestinal wall. This study may thus suggest that leaves represent a functional food and nutraceutical in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  10. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vardanyan, L.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    .85 Co 16.7 20.6 12.8 23 Table: 2I: Heavy metal concentrations in Nelymbium speciosum Heavy metal (? g/g dry wt.) Nelymbium speciosum Root (0.0505) Stem (0.0504) Leaf (0.0503) Flower.... The metals are thereby made available to grazing moluscs and, thus, reintroduced into the food web via fish to birds and humans. In addition, macrophytes in shallow coastal zones function as living filters for nutrients and metals that become bound...

  11. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties....

  12. 薄层色谱法检测海州常山桐树叶中肾上腺素的含量%Identification and quantification of adrenaline from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis using thin-layer chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthu Kumaradoss Mohan Maruga Raja; Ruchi Sureshbhai Patel; Shri Hari Mishra

    2011-01-01

    @@ In the Ayurvedic, Siddha and other medical systems of India, products derived from herbs,used either as active ingredients or as adjuvants,hold paramount importance as alternative medi-cines.However, their standardization poses a great challenge.Correct identification of these drugs is often problematic in both their complete form as well as in powder form, since these medicinal plants are known by a variety of vernacular names and frequently many medicinal plants share the same name.Comparative thin-layer chromatography (co-TLC) with chemical or biological marker compounds can be used to standardize raw materials.Moreover, due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost effectiveness and rapidity, TLC is often used as an alternative to other chromatographic tech-niques for quantifying plant products.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, ..... inflammations around bile duct and portal vein (I) and vacuolar .... is the reaction of blood vessels, leading to the ... longepedunculata on heart, liver, kidney and lungs.

  14. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly preferred species were Capparis sepiaria, Phyllanthus verrucosus and Scolopia zeyheri, while Rhoicissus tridentata, Calpurnia aurea, Acacia ataxacantha, Euclea natalensis, Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Hippobromus paucifolia were strongly avoided. Goats fed between ground level and 1m, ...

  15. Akinpelu et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    This study investigated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum volubile on lipid ... elevation of lipids in the blood are the risk factors ... The extraction process ..... of arteries feeding the heart and brain. .... of deep vein thrombosis.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared ... The antimicrobial activities of the nanoparticles against different bacterial strains were determined using agar diffusion ...... Importance of Clerodendrum Genus: A Current Review.

  17. Inventory and mapping of red-listed vascular flora in Hernani municipality (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANZ-AZKUE, I., DÍEZ-LÓPEZ, J., OLARIAGA-IBARGUREN, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 new chorological reports are given for 7 red-listed species, namely, Dryopteris aemula, Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, Prunus lusitanica, Soldanella villosa, Stegnogramma pozoi, Vandenboschia speciosa, and Veratrum album. Comments on their ecology and local distribution maps are provided. The number of subpopulations of S. villosa (52 and T. speciosum (38 found is remarkable. In several streams, the gametophyte phase of T. speciosum, rarely reported in the Iberian Peninsula, exceeds the sporophyte generation in number of individuals, which probably has important conservation and genetic diversity implications. It is proposed that the Urumea Site of Communitary Interest be extended to cover the streams that discharge into it, or alternatively, threatened plant microreserves be established at the Apaizeta, Azketa and Kartola streams.

  18. Nutrient Intake of the Repatriated United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps Prisoners-of-War of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    species Banana flowers Hoa hien Cucurbita papo Linn. Pumpkin Cu toi Allium sativum Linn. Garlic Cu don do Daucus carota Linn. Carrot Cu he Allium ...hau Citrullus vulRaris Schrad ’.atermolon Thom (dua) Ananassa staiva Lindl. Pineapple Hanh Allium cap& Linn. Onion He Allium angulosum Linn. Mouse...Ait. Sago Dua Bloa lan Pisum sativum Linn. Green peas Lentilles Lens esculenta Moench Lentils Hot sen Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Lotus Ngo sen Nelumbium

  19. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faleyimu, OI. Vol 10, No 1 (2012) - Articles Institutional Arrangement to Forestry Development in the South-Western Nigeria Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2014) - Articles Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-0906. AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 900 ... Vol 10, No 10 (2010), Antioxidant nutrient properties and antioxidant activities of Obenetete (Clerodendrum volubile), a nonconventional leafy vegetable consumed in Nigeria, Abstract PDF. L.O Erukainure, O.V Oke, F.O Owolabi, S.O Adenekan. Vol 13, No 1 (2013), Antioxidative and radical scavenging ...

  2. 1640-IJBCS-Article-Konan Fernique+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Short Communication http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Fernique KONAN KOUADIO 1*, Nathalie K. GUESSENND 2, Ouattara KARAMOKO ...

  3. Anticestodal Efficacy of Folklore Medicinal Plants of Naga Tribes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...

  4. Prostaglandin E 2 (PgE 2 ) Inhibition By Crude Extracts Of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to assess anti-inflammatory activity of crude extracts of Cassine transvaalensis Burtt-Davy, Clerodendrum uncinatum Schinz and Commiphora glandulosa Schinz using COX inhibition assay. Water extract of C. transvaalensis root bark (125mg/ml) exhibited a (90%) PGE2 inhibition in ...

  5. Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic potential of ethanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum volubile on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. The extract was screened and quantified for phytoconstituents according to standard methods. Also, acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract were carried out on Wistar rats using standard ...

  6. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatsa, H.B. Vol 6, No 3 (2009) - Articles Evaluation of the in vivo activity of different concentrations of Clerodendrum umbellatum poir against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  8. The evaluation of selected ghanaian medicinal plants for cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Adenia lobata root, Clerodendrum capitatum leaves, Garcinia kola stem bark, Plumbago zeylanica leaves and Vernonia conferta root, showed relatively low cytotoxic activities while extracts of Ficus asperifolia leaves, Paullinia pinnata root and Thonningia sanguinea root exhibited moderate activity (IC50 values ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 74 (2014) - Articles Comparison of the performances and validation of three methods for Yersinia spp. detection from ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hayelom, K. Vol 12, No 4 (2012) - Articles Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joseph, L. Vol 11, No 2 (2008) - Articles Hepatoprotective Effect of Clerodendrum inerme Linn. Ethanolic Extract Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1026-552X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Mice Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 1 (2012) - Articles Invivo Antimalarial Activity of Dodonaea Angustifolia Seed Extracts Against Plasmodium Berghei in Mice Model Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 2 (2013) - Articles Toxic effects of aqueous ...

  13. In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specified accurate dosage and clear knowledge of the toxic impacts of their constituent compounds on body organs may be an impediment to the usage of the plants despite the acclaimed efficacy. Ethanolic extracts of. Clerodendrum violaceum leaves considerably reversed the alterations caused by malaria infection in liver ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory effects of Clerodendrum phlomidis in mice and rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owolabi, F.O. Vol 10, No 10 (2010) - Articles Antioxidant nutrient properties and antioxidant activities of Obenetete (Clerodendrum volubile), a nonconventional leafy vegetable consumed in Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 3, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Mice · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Kebede, M Afework, E Makonnen, W Ergete, K Urga. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v3i2.67712 ...

  17. Screening for the P-glycoprotein inhibitory pump activity of plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that out of the 45 plant extracts tested, 3 extracts i.e. Bauhinia thoningii, Clerodendrum myricoides and Rhus natalensis exhibited pronounced activity at the concentration of 100 µg/ml. In comparison to the negative control, B. thoningii, C. myricoides and R. natalensis extracts inhibited the pump by a ...

  18. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - Vol 24, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vivo anti-malarial activities of Clerodendrum myricoides, Dodonea angustifolia and Aloe debrana against Plasmodium berghei · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Deressa, Y Mekonnen, A Animut. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v24i1.62941 ...

  19. Senjobi et al (14)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    The toxic effects of known analgesics in pains and stress management are major health concern globally. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical and analgesic property of commonly used medicinal plant in southwestern Nigeria for pain management. Clerodendrum volubile (CVL) was screened for ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens Planch ex Benth ...

  1. Plantes alimentaires spontanées de la région du Fromager (Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    J. 62 Solanum torvum. 2 0 0. 1,85. Fruits. J. 63 Sphenocentrum jollyanum. 0 0 2. 1,85. Fruits. F. 64 Bidens pilosa. 0 1 0. 0,93. Feuilles. J. 65 Cleome ciliata. 0 0 1. 0,93. Feuilles. J. 66 Clerodendrum splendens. 0 0 1. 0,93. Feuilles. J, P. 67 Cucumeropsis mannii. 0 0 1. 0,93. Fruits, jeunes feuilles. J, P. 68 Isolona campanulata.

  2. Findings on the phytoextraction and phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element.

  3. Development and characterization of 27 microsatellite markers for the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum (Pteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Mori, Gustavo Maruyama; Cruz, Mariana Vargas; Shinmura, Yoshimi; Wee, Alison K S; Takayama, Koji; Asakawa, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Takeru; Suleiman, Monica; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Webb, Edward L; Watano, Yasuyuki; Kajita, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-seven nuclear microsatellite markers were developed for the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum (Pteridaceae), to investigate the genetic structure and demographic history of the only pantropical mangrove plant. Fifty-six A. aureum individuals from three populations were sampled and genotyped to characterize the 27 loci. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from one to 15 and 0.000 to 0.893, respectively. Across the 26 polymorphic loci, the Malaysian population showed much higher levels of polymorphism compared to the other two populations in Guam and Brazil. Cross-amplification tests in the other two species from the genus determined that seven and six loci were amplifiable in A. danaeifolium and A. speciosum, respectively. The 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful for future studies investigating the genetic structure and demographic history of of A. aureum, which has the widest distributional range of all mangrove plants.

  4. Describing terminologies and discussing records: More discoveries of facultative vivipary in the genus Hedychium J.Koenig (Zingiberaceae) from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Ajith; Gowda, Vinita

    2018-01-01

    The authors introduce the term facultative vivipary for the first time in gingers and elaborate on this reproductive strategy. Four new observations of facultative vivipary are reported in the genus Hedychium which were discovered during botanical explorations by the authors in Northeast India (NE India) over the past three years. The viviparous taxa are H. marginatum C.B.Clarke, H. speciosum var. gardnerianum (Ker Gawl.) Sanoj & M.Sabu (previously, H. gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl.), H. thyrsiforme Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. and H. urophyllum G.Lodd. The authors also attempt to summarise the occurrence of vivipary in the family Zingiberaceae from published reports and to clarify a taxonomic misidentification in a previously known report of vivipary in Hedychium elatum .

  5. Describing terminologies and discussing records: More discoveries of facultative vivipary in the genus Hedychium J.Koenig (Zingiberaceae from Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Ashokan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce the term facultative vivipary for the first time in gingers and elaborate on this reproductive strategy. Four new observations of facultative vivipary are reported in the genus Hedychium which were discovered during botanical explorations by the authors in Northeast India (NE India over the past three years. The viviparous taxa are H. marginatum C.B.Clarke, H. speciosum var. gardnerianum (Ker Gawl. Sanoj & M.Sabu (previously, H. gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl., H. thyrsiforme Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. and H. urophyllum G.Lodd. The authors also attempt to summarise the occurrence of vivipary in the family Zingiberaceae from published reports and to clarify a taxonomic misidentification in a previously known report of vivipary in Hedychium elatum.

  6. Trichome density and its UV-B protective potential are affected by shading and leaf position on the canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liakoura, V.; Stefanou, M.; Manetas, Y.; Cholevas, C.; Karabourniotis, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Olea europaea trichome density and UV-B absorbing compounds of leaf hairs and the lamina proper of leaves located in south-facing, north-facing and the internal of the canopy were positively correlated to the UV-B midday instant irradiance measured in September at these three different positions of the canopy. The correlation between these three parameters and the receiving photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), however, was weaker. In Quercus ilex, trichome density and its UV-B absorbing capacity were considerably higher in the exposed, south-facing leaves, compared to the deeply shaded ones; the UV-B absorbing capacity of the de-haired lamina, however, was the same. In the broad-leaved, alpine rosette of Verbascum speciosum, one could distinguish two areas on the leaves, one exposed and one shaded by the superimposed lamina. Although trichome density and the UV-B absorbing compounds of the de-haired leaf were the same in the two areas, the UV-B absorbing capacity of hairs was considerably increased in the exposed region. In V. speciosum, exposure induced also qualitative changes in the UV-B absorbance profile, apparently due to the formation of new flavonoid compounds absorbing maximally at 345–350 nm. In all other cases, the differences were mainly quantitative. The results support the postulate of a function of leaf hairs as a UV-B radiation screen and suggest that trichome density and/or its UV-B absorbing capacity may depend on irradiance during leaf development

  7. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  8. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from several NTFP Plants

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    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, rapid, simple approach was applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using , Clerodendrum infortunatum, Mucuna interrupta, Phlogancanthus thyrsiflorus and Sansevieria trifasciata aqueous leaf extract. The plant extract acts both as reducing agent as well as capping agent. To identify the compounds responsible for reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by FTIR. Various techniques used to characterize synthesized nanoparticles are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Results confirmed that this protocol was simple, rapid, one step, eco-friendly, non-toxic and might be an alternative conventional physical/chemical methods. Conversion of silver nanoparticles takes place at room temperature without the involvement of any hazardous chemicals.

  9. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

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    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  10. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, S; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-07-01

    Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes prescribed.

  11. Comparative ecotoxicity of imidacloprid and dinotefuran to aquatic insects in rice mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Koji; Harada, Takaaki; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Mori, Miho; Ihara, Makoto; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    There are growing concerns about the impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides on ecosystems worldwide, and yet ecotoxicity of many of these chemicals at community or ecosystem levels have not been evaluated under realistic conditions. In this study, effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, on aquatic insect assemblages were evaluated in experimental rice mesocosms. During the 5-month period of the rice-growing season, residual concentrations of imidacloprid were 5-10 times higher than those of dinotefuran in both soil and water. Imidacloprid treatment (10kg/ha) reduced significantly the populations of, Crocothemis servilia mariannae and Lyriothemis pachygastra nymphs, whereas those of Orthetrum albistylum speciosum increased slightly throughout the experimental period. However, Notonecta triguttata, which numbers were high from the start, later declined, indicating possible delayed chronic toxicity, while Guignotus japonicus disappeared. In contrast, dinotefuran (10kg/ha) did not decrease the populations of any species, but rather increased the abundance of some insects, particularly Chironominae spp. larvae and C. servilia mariannae nymphs, with the latter being 1.7x higher than those of controls. This was an indirect effect resulting from increased prey (e.g., chironomid larvae) and lack of competition with other dragonfly species. The susceptibilities of dragonfly nymphs to neonicotinoids, particularly imidacloprid, were consistent with those reported elsewhere. In general, imidacloprid had higher impacts on aquatic insects compared to dinotefuran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  13. Cytogenetical investigations on fertilization, embriogenesis and fruit formation by irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryanovska, O.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of fertilization pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen (1-500 kR) in plants of various double fertilization: Crepis (Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicum esculentum, Solanum melongena, Ornithogalum gramminifolium, Melandrium rubrum) type, Lilium (Lilium speciosum) type, and Trandescantia (Tradescantia paludosa) type was studied, along with the opportunity of its modification, embryogenesis and fruit and seed formation. In the Crepis type, depending on the disturbances of male chromatin, fertilization manifested itself as: 1) normal karyogamy with decondensation of male chromatin and the formation of supplementary nucleoli and further development of embryo and endosperm (1-500 kR); 2) karyogamy without decondensation and functioning of the male chromatin (1-500 kR); 3) karyogamy or sticking the male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells, stimulating the development of the ovule, embryo, and endosperm (50-500 kR); 4) sticking the highly pycnotized male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells without evidence of zygote and endosperm function and further development (50-500 kR). In the Lilium type modification of fertilization was manifested by: 1) normal karyogamy with developing diploid embryos and pentaploid endosperm with aberrations (1-20 kK); 2) sticking the male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells and stimulation of their development (50-500 kR). In the Trandescantia type the irradiated male chromatin modified fertilization as: 1) karyogamy with spermia having fragments, two spermia connected by a bridge or with a generative nucleus with aberrations (1-50 kR); 2) karyogamy without developing the female sex nuclei (10-500kR); 3) karyogamy or sticking the male chromatin to the female sex cell nuclei and stimulation of their development (10-500 kR); 4) sticking the male chromatin with no stimulating effect (10-500 kR). (author)

  14. Cytogenetical investigations on fertilization, embriogenesis and fruit formation by irradiated pollen. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryanovska, O.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of fertilization pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen (1-500 kR) in plants of various double fertilization: Crepis (Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicum esculentum, Solanum melongena, Ornithogalum gramminifolium, Melandrium rubrum) type, Lilium (Lilium speciosum) type, and Trandescantia (Tradescantia paludosa) type was studied, along with the opportunity of its modification, embryogenesis and fruit and seed formation. In the Crepis type, depending on the disturbances of male chromatin, fertilization manifested itself as: 1) normal karyogamy with decondensation of male chromatin and the formation of supplementary nucleoli and further development of embryo and endosperm (1-500 kR); 2) karyogamy without decondensation and functioning of the male chromatin (1-500 kR); 3) karyogamy or sticking the male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells, stimulating the development of the ovule, embryo, and endosperm (50-500 kR); 4) sticking the highly pycnotized male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells without evidence of zygote and endosperm function and further development (50-500 kR). In the Lilium type modification of fertilization was manifested by: 1) normal karyogamy with developing diploid embryos and pentaploid endosperm with aberrations (1-20 kK); 2) sticking the male chromatin to the nuclei of the female sex cells and stimulation of their development (50-500 kR). In the Trandescantia type the irradiated male chromatin modified fertilization as: 1) karyogamy with spermia having fragments, two spermia connected by a bridge or with a generative nucleus with aberrations (1-50 kR); 2) karyogamy without developing the female sex nuclei (10-500kR); 3) karyogamy or sticking the male chromatin to the female sex cell nuclei and stimulation of their development (10-500 kR); 4) sticking the male chromatin with no stimulating effect (10-500 kR).

  15. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

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    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50 of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65 against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results

  16. Dynamics of Understory Shrub Biomass in Six Young Plantations of Southern Subtropical China

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    Yuanqi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understory shrubs are an important component of forest ecosystems and drive ecosystem processes, such as ecosystem carbon cycling. However, shrub biomass carbon stocks have rarely been reported, which limits our understanding of ecosystem C stock and cycling. In this study, we evaluated carbon accumulation of shrub species using allometric equations based on height and basal diameter in six subtropical plantations at the age of 1, 3, 4 and 6 years. The results showed that plantation type did not significantly affect the total biomass of shrubs, but it significantly affected the biomass of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Ilex asprella, Clerodendrum fortunatum and Baeckea frutescens. The biomass of dominant shrub species R. tomentosa, I. asprella, Gardenia jasminoides and Melastoma candidum increased with stand age, while the biomass of C. fortunatum and B. frutescens decreased. The inconsistent biomass-time patterns of different shrub species may be the primary reason for the altered total shrub biomass in each plantation. Consequently, we proposed that R. tomentosa, I. asprella, G. jasminoides and M. candidum could be preferable for understory carbon accumulation and should be maintained or planted because of their important functions in carbon accumulation and high economic values in the young plantations of southern subtropical China.

  17. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh.

  18. Diet of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis (De Blainville, 1816 in the Churia Hills of Nepal

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    Amar Kunwar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The food composition of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis was studied in the Churia Hills of Nepal during summer, monsoon and the winter seasons of 2012–2013.  Microhistological technique was used to determine the diet.  The Four-horned Antelope was found to be a mixed feeder feeding on trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses and climbers.  Trees and shrubs contribute the major percentage of diet in all the three seasons.  The Gramineae family is consumed in highest proportion.  Mitragyna parvifolia, Bridelia retusa, Bambusa vulgaris, Hymenodictyon sp. and Ziziphus mauritiana are major tree species while Barleria cristata, Pogostemon benghalensis, Achyranthes sp., Clerodendrum viscosum are among shrubs.  Ageratum conyzoides and Blumea virens are the main forbs Eulaliopsis binata and Imperata cylindrica are the principal grass species.  Climber Trachelospermum lucidum is consumed in a small proportion.  Grasses in monsoon were consumed distinctly at a higher percentage than during the other two seasons.  The Four-horned Antelopes are concentrated feeders and browsers with a generalized feeding strategy. Similar studies need to be conducted in other landscapes and with sympatric and potential competitor species to understand its niche overlaps and degree of competition. 

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

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    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  20. Floristic Inventory of The Proposed Site for Tarsier Tourism Center in Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol, Philippines

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    Tomas D Reyes Jr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the present vegetation composition of the Proposed Site for the Tarsier Tourism Center (PTTC at Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol and performed a comparative analysis with the existing Tarsier Sanctuary (TS at Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol. The basis for comparison was the computed importance values, species richness, species dominance, and percent distribution of plants according to self-defined DBH classes. Results showed that both sites had very high species richness and evenness values. Common overstorey and understorey plant species found in both areas were katagpo (Psychotria sp., sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C. B. Rob]Merr. and bagauak (Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.. Apart from sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C.B.Rob.] Merr., selaginella (Selaginella cuppresina Lin., and lunas (Lunasia amara Blanco were also common in the ground vegetation of both areas. Percent distribution of trees according to self-defined DBH classes revealed that PTTC had 87.55% of the total recorded plants with DBH measurements of 20 cm. Percent distribution of trees on these DBH ranges (especially on DBH class >20 cm indicated the presence of medium and large trees. The largest DBH measured in the PTTC was 70 cm while in TS was only 22 cm. The proposed 10-ha site in Villa Aurora, Bilar, is suited to be utilized as Tarsier Tourism Center. In case the proposed project is to be pursued, enclosure similar to what has been constructed in Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol, Philippines should also be established to prevent stray animals from predating the captive tarsiers.

  1. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  2. Can the Responses of Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance to Water and Nitrogen Stress Combinations Be Modeled Using a Single Set of Parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyi; Li, Gang; Yu, Shanxiang; An, Dongsheng; Sun, Qian; Luo, Weihong; Yin, Xinyou

    2017-01-01

    Accurately predicting photosynthesis in response to water and nitrogen stress is the first step toward predicting crop growth, yield and many quality traits under fluctuating environmental conditions. While mechanistic models are capable of predicting photosynthesis under fluctuating environmental conditions, simplifying the parameterization procedure is important toward a wide range of model applications. In this study, the biochemical photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (the FvCB model) and the stomatal conductance model of Ball, Woodrow and Berry which was revised by Leuning and Yin (the BWB-Leuning-Yin model) were parameterized for Lilium (L. auratum × speciosum “Sorbonne”) grown under different water and nitrogen conditions. Linear relationships were found between biochemical parameters of the FvCB model and leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Na), and between mesophyll conductance and Na under different water and nitrogen conditions. By incorporating these Na-dependent linear relationships, the FvCB model was able to predict the net photosynthetic rate (An) in response to all water and nitrogen conditions. In contrast, stomatal conductance (gs) can be accurately predicted if parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model were adjusted specifically to water conditions; otherwise gs was underestimated by 9% under well-watered conditions and was overestimated by 13% under water-deficit conditions. However, the 13% overestimation of gs under water-deficit conditions led to only 9% overestimation of An by the coupled FvCB and BWB-Leuning-Yin model whereas the 9% underestimation of gs under well-watered conditions affected little the prediction of An. Our results indicate that to accurately predict An and gs under different water and nitrogen conditions, only a few parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model need to be adjusted according to water conditions whereas all other parameters are either conservative or can be adjusted according to

  3. Sequential Extraction as Novel Approach to Compare 12 Medicinal Plants From Kenya Regarding Their Potential to Release Chromium, Manganese, Copper, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogwasi, R; Zor, S; Kariuki, D K; Getenga, M Z; Nischwitz, V

    2018-04-01

    This study is focusing on a novel approach to screen a large number of medicinal plants from Kenya regarding their contents and availability of selected metals potentially relevant for treatment of diabetes patients. For this purpose, total levels of zinc, chromium, manganese, and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as well as BCR sequential extraction to fractionate the elemental species in anti-diabetic medicinal plants collected from five natural locations in two sub counties in Nyamira County, Kenya. Solanum mauense had the highest zinc level of 123.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg while Warburgia ugandensis had the lowest level of 13.9 ± 0.4 mg/kg. The highest level of copper was in Bidens pilosa (29.0 ± 0.6 mg/kg) while the lowest was in Aloe vera (3.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg). Croton macrostachyus had the highest manganese level of 1630 ± 40 mg/kg while Clerodendrum myricoides had the lowest (80.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg). The highest level of chromium was in Solanum mauense (3.20 ± 0.06 mg/kg) while the lowest (0.04 ± 0.01 mg/kg) were in Clerodendrum myricoides and Warburgia ugandesis among the medicinal plants from Nyamira and Borabu, respectively. The levels of the elements were statistically different from that of other elements while the level of a given element was not statistically different in the medicinal plants from the different sub counties. Sequential extraction was performed to determine the solubility and thus estimate the bioavailability of the four investigated essential and potentially therapeutically relevant metals. The results showed that the easily bioavailable fraction (EBF) of chromium, manganese, zinc, and copper ranged from 6.7 to 13.8%, 4.1 to 10%, 2.4 to 10.2%, and 3.2 to 12.0% while the potentially bioavailable fraction (PBF) ranged from 50.1 to 67.6%, 32.2 to 48.7%, 23.0 to 41.1%, and 34.6 to 53.1%, respectively. Bidens pilosa, Croton macrostachyus, Ultrica dioica

  4. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

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    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  5. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swargiary, Ananta; Daimari, Abhijita; Daimari, Manita; Basumatary, Noymi; Narzary, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Clerodendrum viscosum , Eryngium foetidum , Lippia javanica , and Murraya koenigii are one among the common wild edible plants in Northeast India which are also used as antidiabetic, stomach-ache relieving drugs, etc., The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of the plants. The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of plants was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, TBARS, and total antioxidant activity (TAA). Total phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C, carbohydrate, and protein are also estimated following standard protocols. Anthelmintic activity of the extracts has also been studied in vitro against trematode parasites. The result showed that the methanolic extracts of plants possess a substantial quantity of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and Vitamin C. Phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin C contents were found higher in C. viscosum followed by M. koenigii , L. javanica , and E. foetidum . The in vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial free radical scavenging property in all the plants. TAA increased in the order C. viscosum > M. koenigii > L. javanica > E. foetidum . Similarly, C. viscosum displayed a better antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values 29.74 ± 3.63 μg and 148.77 ± 18.38 μg for DPPH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species, respectively. In addition, the plant extracts also showed good anthelmintic activity against Paramphistomum sp. Time taken for paralysis and death were 0:56 ± 0:09 h and 1:35 ± 0:07 h for L. javanica at 50 mg/mL concentration. The study therefore suggests the importance of tested plants as a natural source of free radical scavenger and plausible veterinary uses.

  6. Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh Mickymaray; Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody; Pradipta Kumar Rath; Panneerselvam Annamalai; Thajuddin Nooruddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of five Indian medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica L.(A. indica), Aerva lanata(L.) Juss. ex Schult.(A. lanata), Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn., Pergularia daemia(Forsk.) Chiov. and Solanum surattense Burm. f. against opportunistic bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV infected patients for the potential phytoconstituents in plant extracts.Methods: The opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens from Gramnegative group and Staphylococcus aureus from Gram-positive group were isolated from HIV infected patients. The antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants was carried out by disc diffusion method. The potential phytoconstituents of medicinal plant extracts were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC–MS) analysis.Results: Among the five medicinal plants tested, A. indica and A. lanata showed the significant antibacterial activity. A. indica showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. A. lanata significantly exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 19 phytoconstituents were identified in the ethanolic extract of A. indica and A. lanata by GC–MS analysis respectively.Conclusions: The results of the present investigation revealed that A. indica and A. lanata, possessed significant antibacterial activity when compared with the other plant extracts tested. The presence of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by GC–MS analysis in both A. indica and A. lanata extracts has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and the findings in this study could be the first one to report.

  7. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in wild plants grown at wastelands composed of mine tailings: Insights into potential candidates for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoli; Wu, Yonggui; Zhou, Hongyun; Xu, Xiaohang; Xu, Zhidong; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2018-08-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MMHg) were investigated in 259 wild plants belonging to 49 species in 29 families that grew in heavily Hg-contaminated wastelands composed of cinnabar ore mine tailings (calcines) in the Wanshan region, southwestern China, the world's third largest Hg mining district. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of THg and MMHg from soil to roots ([THg] root /[THg] soil , [MMHg] root /[MMHg] soil ) were evaluated. The results showed that THg and MMHg in both plants and soils varied widely, with ranges of 0.076-140 μg/g THg and 0.19-87 ng/g MMHg in roots, 0.19-106 μg/g THg and 0.06-31 ng/g MMHg in shoots, and 0.74-1440 μg/g THg and 0.41-820 ng/g MMHg in soil. Among all investigated species, Arthraxon hispidus, Eremochloa ciliaris, Clerodendrum bunge, and Ixeris sonchifolia had significantly elevated concentrations of THg in shoots and/or roots that reached 100 μg/g, whereas Chenopodium glaucum, Corydalisedulis maxim, and Rumex acetosa contained low values below 0.5 μg/g. In addition to the high THg concentrations, the fern E. ciliaris also showed high BCF values for both THg and MMHg exceeding 1.0, suggesting its capability to extract Hg from soils. Considering its dominance and the tolerance identified in the present study, E. ciliaris is suggested to be a practical candidate for phytoextraction, whereas A. hispidus is identified as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of Hg mining-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

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    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  9. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. The column separated 9 [th] fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is identified and validated, it may be synthesized and formulated as a product.

  11. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  12. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  13. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g −1 , chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g −1 , lead 0.12–0.23 μg g −1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g −1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  14. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  15. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  16. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukungu, Nillian; Abuga, Kennedy; Okalebo, Faith; Ingwela, Raphael; Mwangi, Julius

    2016-12-24

    azedarach L, Aloe spp, Ajuga integrifolia Buch. Ham, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane and Mabb, Fuerstia africana T.C.E.Fr., Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman and Leucas calostachys Oliv. Rumex steudelii Hochst.ex A. Rich and Phyllanthus sepialis Müll. Arg are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. Although Clerodendrum johnstonii Oliv. (Jeruto et al., 2011) and Physalis peruviana L.(Ramadan et al., 2015) are reported in other studies for management of malaria, no studies have been carried out to demonstrate their antiplasmodial activity. The plant parts mostly used were the leaves (36%) and stem barks (26%). Majority of these plants were prepared as decoctions by boiling and allowed to cool before administration (66%) while infusions accounted for 28% of the preparations. The literature mined supports the use of these plants for the management of malaria since most of them have demonstrated in-vitro and in-vivo antiplasmodial activities. Most of the reported plant species in this study have been investigated for antiplasmodial activity and are in agreement with the ethnomedical use. Two (2) plants are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. There is need for documentation and preservation of the rich ethnomedical knowledge within this community given that most of the practitioners are advanced in age and less educated. There is also the danger of over-exploitation of plant species as most of them are obtained from the wild, mainly Kakamega forest. Therefore, there is need for determining the economically and medicinally important plants in this community and planning for their preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.