WorldWideScience

Sample records for clerodendrum speciosum

  1. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  2. A New Phenylpropanoid Glycoside: Serratumoside A from Clerodendrum serratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, serratumoside A, was isolated from the aerial parts of Clerodendrum serratum var. amplexifolium Moldenke. Its structure was determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  3. Effect of Basal Media and Sugar Types on in Vitro Regeneration of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Montakarn PIMSEN; Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-01-01

    Protocorms of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. were initiated from immature seeds on solid MS medium containing 15% (v/v) coconut water (CW) and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Protocorms, 2-4 mm in length were used as explants and subcultured to MS and VW (Vacin and Went, 1949) media containing 15% (v/v) CW and 2 or 3% (w/v) sucrose. Protocorms gave the highest formation of PLBs (protocorm-like bodies) at 3.1 PLBs/explant on MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. For the test with different car...

  4. Antioxidant and pharmaceutical potential of Clerodendrum L.: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum , with about 580 species, belongs to the family Verbenaceae and is widely distributed in the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The leaves of some species of Clerodendrum form an important source of diet in North eastern part of India. Various plant parts such as leaf and root extracts of C. indicum, C. phlomidis, C. serratum, C. trichotomum, C. chinense and C. petasites have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, asthma, inflammatory diseases, coughs, skin diseases, vermifuge, febrifuge, malaria etc. Isolation and identification of different chemical compounds and biological activities of the genus Clerodendrum have been studied by few researchers. The major chemical components reported from the genus are phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, terpenes, volatile oils, etc., This paper presents a comprehensive review on the various aspects of Clerodendrum species with respect to their traditional usage or use as alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

  5. Two New C29 Sterols from Clerodendrum colebrookianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., two new C29 sterols, colebrin A and colebrin B, were isolated, along with a known compound, clerosterol .The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence.

  6. Micropropagation of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kher Mafatlal M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. is an important medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, particularly its roots, which are used for various therapeutic purposes in a pulverized form. The objective of this study was to develop a standard protocol for axillary shoot proliferation and rooting of C. phlomidis for its propagation and conservation. Nodal explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that was supplemented with one of six cytokinins: 6-benzyladenine, kinetin, thidiazuron, N6-(2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP, trans-zeatin (Zea and meta-topolin. Callus induction, which was prolific at all concentrations, formed at the base of nodal explants and hindered shoot multiplication and elongation. To avoid or reduce callus formation with the objective of increasing shoot formation, the same six cytokinins were combined with 4 μM 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA alone or in combination with 270 μM adenine sulphate (AdS. Nodal explants that were cultured on the medium supplemented with 9.12 μM Zea, 4 μM TIBA and 270 μM AdS produced significantly more and longer shoots than on medium without TIBA and AdS. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.05 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid was the best medium for root formation. Most (75% in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized under natural conditions.

  7. Effect of Basal Media and Sugar Types on in Vitro Regeneration of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montakarn PIMSEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Protocorms of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. were initiated from immature seeds on solid MS medium containing 15% (v/v coconut water (CW and 3% (w/v sucrose. Protocorms, 2-4 mm in length were used as explants and subcultured to MS and VW (Vacin and Went, 1949 media containing 15% (v/v CW and 2 or 3% (w/v sucrose. Protocorms gave the highest formation of PLBs (protocorm-like bodies at 3.1 PLBs/explant on MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. For the test with different carbon sources, protocorms were cultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4 kinds of sugar, namely sucrose, glucose, sorbitol and mannitol at 2, 4, 6 or 8% (w/v and cultured for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks. They were then transferred to MS solid medium containing 15% CW and 2% sucrose. Results revealed that after 4 weeks in MS liquid medium, sucrose and glucose had an inhibitory effect and 8% glucose gave a high percentage of protocorm browning. In contrast, sorbitol and mannitol were effective for protocorm regeneration and both sugar alcohols had a positive effect on the formation of PLBs and the development of PLBs into plantlets.

  8. Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Takassugui Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Roots of Clerodendrum serratum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Bhujbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. In the present study we examined the antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum (CSR at various concentrations in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and the Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The results of the present study revealed that the plant extract has significant antioxidant activity and are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.

  10. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  11. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants-Enhydra fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruhul Amin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii. Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE, Clerodendrum viscosum (MLC and Andrographis peniculata (MLA, and acetone extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (ALE, Clerodendrum viscosum (ALC and Andrographis peniculata (ALA. The disc diffusion method and the method described by Meyer were used to determine the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of each plant extract. Results: Among the test samples, MLE and ALE showed comparatively better antimicrobial activity against a number of bacteria and fungi with inhibition zones in the range of 06-15 mm and according to the intensity of activity, the efficacy against microorganisms were found in the order of Enhydra fluctuans> Andrographi speniculata> Clerodendrum viscosum. In cytotoxicity assay, all samples were found to be active against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina and ALA produced lowest LC50 value (7.03 μg/ml. Conclusion: Enhydra fluctuans and Andrographi speniculata possesses significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  12. Exploiting anti-obesity mechanism of Clerodendrum phlomidis against two different models of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Chidrawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis are used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state India as a dietary supplement for treating weight issues and are also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. We examined the anti-obesity effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis (family Verbenaceae L. roots against cafeteria diet (CD and progesterone-induced obesity. In CD-induced model obesity was induced by feeding CD for 48-days and increase in body weight and fat storage was suppressed co-administration with methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP at 400 mg/kg. Blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by MECP administration and there is subsequent rise in HDL-cholesterol level. From this experiment, we demonstrated that MECP is effective in ameliorating the CD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulimenia, dyslepidemia, increase in wet weight of white adipose tissue, and hypertrophy of fat cells. In drug induced obesity model hyperphagia was induced by progesterone (10 mg/kg s.c. for 28 days and was suppressed by co-administration with MECP in dose dependent manner. It is tempting to speculate that these protective effects shown by Clerodendrum phlomidis is by multiple mechanisms. MECP contains β-sitosterol in the abundant quantity because of the structural similarity it do the physical competition with natural sterols while absorption of food stuffs from GIT and moreover the crude saponin and flavonoid has been reported for it′s the appιtit suppressant property and hence reduces hyperphagia produced by progesterone. This is the first report demonstrating that Clerodendrum phlomidis is effective in ameliorating insulin resistance and visceral obesity induced by CD and Progesterone.

  13. Structure elucidation of a flavonoid glycoside from the roots of Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bhujbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin-7-glucoside, C21H20O10 (7-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, was first time isolated from the roots of Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae. Structure elucidation of the compound was carried out by ¹H NMR and FAB-MS studies.Apigenin-7-glucosídeo, C21H20O10 (7-(β-D-glucopiranosiloxi-5-hidroxi-2-(4-hidroxifenil-4H-1-benzopiran-4-ona, foi isolado pela primeira vez das raízes de Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon, Lamiaceae. A elucidação estrutural da susbtância foi feita através de estudos de ¹H NMR e FAB-MS.

  14. ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN FROM THE ALCOHOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Leena.P.N; Dr.N.A.Aleykutty

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials are used throughout developed and developing countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. It is therefore essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Some of quality control parameters of the root Clerodendrum species belonging to Verbenceae family were analyzed. It includes root powder characters, moist...

  15. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants Enhydra Fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhul Amin, M.; Ripon Mondol; M. Rowshanul Habib; M. Tofazzal Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall) of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii). Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE), Cleroden...

  16. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Reena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days for the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity study. General behavior, mortality, animal body weight, food and water consumption were observed throughout the study period. Hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis were done at the end of study period. No mortality and abnormal behavior was observed in rats exposed to all the three dose levels. Highest dose produced significant decrease in the red blood cell, hemoglobin and increase in white blood cell count. Biochemical parameters like triglycerides, bilirubin, creatinine and total proteins were significantly altered at high dose. Histopathological findings revealed architectural changes in the liver and kidneys with high dose.

  17. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  18. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kale; Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important and widely used medicinal plant. Though variously used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Homeopathy system of medicine in the case of ailments such as diarrhoea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as anti-helminthic, and external applications on tumors, the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. This study evaluates both the central and peripheral...

  19. Comparative estimation of β-sitosterol in roots, leaves and flowers of Clerodendrum infortunatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum infortunatum L. (family Verbenaceae commonly known as Bhant, plays a significant role in Indian System of Medicine, i.e., Ayurveda, due to its medicinal properties. The plant is used in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, diseases of the blood, inflammation, burning sensation and epilepsy. Aim: High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC is an important tool used qualitatively as well as quantitatively for the purity and identity determinations of crude drugs and one of the major recent advances in the area of standardization, and also to keep a check on adulteration. In the present study, HPTLC has been developed for detection and quantification of β-sitosterol in various parts of C. infortunatum L. Materials and Methods: Increasing serial dilutions of reference standard β-sitosterol (200-1000 μg/ml were scanned at 273 nm to detect and quantify the concentrations of β-sitosterol in test samples. Results and Discussion: The estimated amount of β-sitosterol on per gram basis of crude powder was found to be 7.96 mg/g, 4.23 mg/g and1.92 mg/g in roots, leaves and flowers, respectively. Conclusion: The method provided a rapid and easy approach for detection and the quantitation of the bio-marker β-sitosterol. In the present study, we established the HPTLC profile for the vegetative and reproductive parts of C.infortunatum L. to detect and quantify the β-sitosterol.

  20. Contribution of pollinators to seed production as revealed by differential pollinator exclusion in Clerodendrum trichotomum (Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota L Sakamoto

    Full Text Available A diverse assemblage of pollinators, such as bees, beetles, flies, and butterflies, will often visit a single plant species. However, evaluating the effect of several insects on fruit and seed production is difficult in plants visited by a variety of insects. Here, we analyzed the effect of three types of pollinators, Papilio spp., Macroglossum pyrrhosticta, and Xylocopa appendiculata on fruit and seed production in Clerodendrum trichotomum by using a flower visitor barrier experiment with nets of specific mesh sizes. As a result, fruit/flower and seed/ovule ratios were significantly lower under Papilio exclusion than under natural conditions. On the other hand, ratios were not significantly different between Papilio excluded and both Papilio and M. pyrrhosticta excluded treatments. Therefore, Papilio and X. appendiculata are effective pollinators, whereas M. pyrrhosticta, which was the most frequent visitor, of C. trichotomum, is not. From our observations of visiting behaviors, we believe that because M. pyrrhosticta probably promotes self- pollination, this species is a non-effective pollinator. This is the first study to separate and compare the contribution of various visitors to the reproductive success of a plant.

  1. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; Akter MstYeasmin; Ashraful MdAlam; Wahedul Md Islam; Parvez Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae) due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  2. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  3. ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN FROM THE ALCOHOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena.P.N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials are used throughout developed and developing countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. It is therefore essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Some of quality control parameters of the root Clerodendrum species belonging to Verbenceae family were analyzed. It includes root powder characters, moisture content determination by LOD method, FOM determination, Rf value detection by TLC, using different solvents, Ash values, extractive values, bitterness value, Haemolytic activity, detection of tannins, Foaming Index, Detection of Arsenic and heavy metals, determination of micro organism .The isolation of the compound from the extract by column chromatography by using different solvents ,purified ,analysed by various spectral studies . The study ensures that the quality control parameters do help in the proper standard of the crude drugs in drug development process for global acceptances. The current study may be useful to progress further investigation on the isolation of other flavonoids and their biological potential for the treatment of human ailments.

  4. A cultured endophyte community is associated with the plant Clerodendrum inerme and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, B; Yao, X H; Zhang, Y Q; Fang, H Y; Pang, T C; Dong, Q L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes live in the inner tissues of Clerodendrum inerme and may be significant resources for new chemicals in drug discovery. A total of 242 endophytic fungi were recovered from 602 sample segments of C. inerme; 66 were purified. The 66 fungi belonging to 16 taxa and 11 genera (Alternaria, Nigrospora, Bartalinia, Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Mycoleptodiscus, Trichoderma, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Lasiodiplodia, and Curvularia) were identified by morphological characteristics and fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences. The most abundant genera were Alternaria and Lasiodiplodia. Some of the endophytes exhibited tissue specificity. The colonization frequencies of endophytes in the stems were evidently higher than those in the roots and leaves. The crude ethyl acetate extracts were tested against 6 endophytes isolated from C. inerme. Three of 10 (33.3%) endophytes, which were identified as Phomopsis sp, Curvularia sp, and Mycoleptodiscus sp, displayed distinct antifungal activity against ≥3 tested fungi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endophytic community associated with C. inerme in China and its antifungal activity in vitro. PMID:26125809

  5. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Sripriya N; Bhagya R; Radhika B; Prameela L; Udayaprakash NK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Results of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica andMimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Conclusions: This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.

  6. First ayurvedic approach towards green drugs: anti cervical cancer-cell properties of Clerodendrum viscosum root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Nirmalananda, Swami; Jenkins, Charles E; Debnath, Shawon; Balambika, Rema; Fata, Jimmie E; Raja, Krishnaswami S

    2013-12-01

    The concept of Ayurvedic expert guided drug discovery and development is defined and put to test systematically for the first time in literature. Western Science has explored only ~5% of the approximately 25,000 species of higher plants for drug leads. The ancient medical science of Ayurveda has however employed a much larger spectrum of plants for clinical treatment. Clerodendrum viscosum (CV), a commonly growing weed in the Indian subcontinent has been employed by S. Nirmalananda (Ayurvedic expert) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Here we isolate and characterize a water extract fraction (Cv-AP) from the root of CV and evaluate its anticervical cancer cell bioactivity. Our results indicate that Cv-AP possesses pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migratory activity in a dose-dependent fashion against cervical cancer cell lines. In contrast, primary fibroblasts (control healthy cells), when exposed to similar concentrations of this extract, fail to undergo apoptosis and remain relatively unaffected. These findings suggest that Clerodendrum viscosum (CV) is a readily available source of components with potent anti-cancer activity and selective bioactivity against cervical cancer cells. The major component in CV-AP was identified as a glycoprotein via SDS Page and Concanavalin-A binding studies. This study serves to illustrate that systematic collaboration with Ayurveda is a practical and powerful strategy in drug discovery and development. PMID:23387970

  7. 臭牡丹叶提取液对2种植物病菌的抑制作用研究%Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Clerodendrum Bungei Leaves against Two Species of Phytopathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹礼国; 林娜; 魏琴; 张超; 周黎军

    2008-01-01

    The test was undertaken to reveal the antifungal activity of extracts from Clerodendrum bungei leaves against Pesta/ot/a funereal and Rhizoctonia solani,the results showed that optimal condition for best antifungal activity of extracts against Pestalotia funereal and Rhizoctonia solani are as follows:material-liquid ratio of 1:6,75% ethanol as extracting solvent,reflux at 90℃ for 1.5 h.The substances with good dissolubihty in ethanol and water solution such as organic acid,bioflavonoid and alkaloid are main antifungal bioective substances in Clerodendrum bungei.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Isolated Xanthomonas sp. From Rice Rhizosphere Soil and their Inhibition using Clerodendrum viscosum Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we characterized some Xanthomonas sp. from rice rhizosphere soil by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the potentiality tested of oil and extracts of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. leaves against those isolated bacteria. The essential oil compositions were evaluated by GC-MS analysis and identified twenty four compounds as 94.37% of the total essential oil, where cyclohepta-1,3,5,-triene (16.07%), 2H-1,4-pyridoxazin-3(4H)-one (12.27%), L-carvenol (8.04%), p-cymene (9.15%), alpha-terpineol (7.98%), beta-sitosterol (6.76%), tyranton (6.42%), mesityl oxide (6.34%), gamma-terpinene (5.42%) and beta-linalool (3.74%) were the major constituents. According to the 16S rDNA sequences analysis, Hb28 and Xb43 isolates have shown the 100% similarity for Xanthomonas retroflexus and Xanthomonas theicola. In addition, isolates Ha18, Xb33 and Jb30 also have shown the maximum similarity of 98% for Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that the oil have the inhibitory effect on Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, X. campestris, X. retroflexus, Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38, and X. theicola, where the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 18.8 to 25.9 mm and 62.5 to 125 meu g ml/sup -1/, respectively. However, organic extracts showed the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 13.4 to 22.9 and 62.5 to 500 meu g ml-1, respectively. Our findings suggested that the essential oil and extracts of C. viscosum Vent. leaves might be the effective source to control Xanthomonas sp. biologically. (author)

  9. Pre-clinical evolutionary study of Clerodendrum phlomidis as an anti-obesity agent against high fat diet induced C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay R Chidrawar; Krishnakant N Patel; Havagiray R Chitme; Shruti S Shiromwar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-obesity activity of alcoholic and methanolic extracts of roots of Clerodendrumphlomidis was evaluated against high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in C57BL/6J female mice. Methods: Obesity was induced by feeding high fat diet for 13 weeks to C57BL/6J female mice and one group was kept on normal chow diet in order to evaluate the effect of Clerodendrumphlomidis on food intake, body weight changes, digestive enzyme activity, lipid metabolism, theromogenesis, adiposities diameter and histology of fat pad. Results: Among these two extracts methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP) have shown strong anti-obesity effect compare to alcoholic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (AECP). LD50 value was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. Conclusions: MECP have shown more promising effects than AECP may be because of its multiple mechanisms. Anti-obesity activity produced by MECP is because of inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity which delays the intestinal absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was confirmed by in-vitro studies. MECP also containsβ-sitosterol in abundant amount which was confirmed by HPTLC analysis. Moreover flavonoid content in the plant has anorexic property. By this study we concluded that MECP is beneficial for the suppression of obesity and associated complications like T2DM.

  10. Extraction Process of Total Flavones in the roots of Clerodendrum chinense%重瓣臭茉莉根总黄酮提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬凡; 房志坚

    2013-01-01

    Using single factor test and orthogonal test, the optimal processes of extracting total flavonoids from Clerodendrum Chinense (Lour) Merr were established by the absorption of total flavonoids. The optimum conditions for extracting the total flavonoids assisted were as follow:extraction temperature 80℃, extraction time 90 min, 80%ethanol and ratio of solid to liquid 1∶25. The mass fraction of total flavonoids extracted was up to 2.68%. It was suggested that the optimum extraction process was simple, stable, efficient and feasible.%以总黄酮的提取率为考察目标,通过单因素及正交试验,对重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的提取工艺进行优化。结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:以25倍量80%乙醇,在80℃下回流提取90 min。重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的平均质量分数为2.68%。此优化工艺简单可行且稳定高效,可作为重瓣臭茉莉根中总黄酮的优选提取工艺。

  11. Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Takassugui Gomes; Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Francisco André Osamu Tanaka; João Paulo Rodrigues Marques; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2010-01-01

    O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus...

  12. Environ: E00610 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00610 Clerodendrum canescens root Crude drug Clerodendrum canescens [TAX:488983] Lamia...ceae (mint family) Clerodendrum canescens root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00610 Clerodendrum canescens root ...

  13. Environ: E00609 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00609 Clerodendrum trichotomum root Crude drug Clerodendrum trichotomum [TAX:54229] Lamia...ceae (mint family) Clerodendrum trichotomum root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00609 Clerodendrum trichotomum root ...

  14. Environ: E00611 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00611 Clerodendrum yunnanense root Crude drug Clerodendrum yunnanense [TAX:201513] Lamia...ceae (mint family) Clerodendrum yunnanense root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00611 Clerodendrum yunnanense root ...

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF CLERODENDRUM INFORTUNATUM GAERTN. (VERBENACEAE, FOUND IN TADOBA NATIONAL PARK, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. RAJURKAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron infortunatum Gaertn (Verbenaceae is an important and widely used medicinal plant, reported to contain active bitter substance like clerodin, has been widely used as tonic and ant-helmintic agent in the countrysides of North India. Though, variously used in Ayurveda, Unani system of medicine and Homeopathy in case of ailments like diarrhea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as vermifuge, laxative and cholagogue, for the removal of ascarids in anus, as external applications on tumours, etc., the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. Leaves and roots are used for external applications on tumours are due to the presence of Clerodolone, Clerodone, Clerodol and a sterol now designated as Clerosterol. Leaves and root extract is useful for the treatment of fresh wound. Percentage of haemoglobin increased due to leaf extract. Pile patient treated with leaf extract gives considerable relief. Sugar percentage reduced in diabetic patient. Slightly warm leaves applied with edible oil on the painful part of human body gives considerable relief within twelve hours. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, glactose, glucose and fructose were also identified from root extract. Pollen viability was assessed on the basis of hanging drop method. Reproductive success was assessed on the basis of fruit and seed set

  16. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves ofClerodendrum volubile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Folashade Oluwayemisi Owolabi; Temiloluwa Adebola Adesioye; Deborah Olabisi Akinyele; Grace Ijeoma Okonrokwo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices ofClerodendrumvolubile (C. volubile) leaves. Methods:Dried leaves ofC. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months), threonine for children (6 months to 3 years), while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions:These results indicated the leaves ofC. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  17. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kale

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The study showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity of EECI which may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. C. infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of analgesic drug should be subjected to further research. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 912-918

  18. Immunostimulative effects of Cyperus rotundus, Alpinia calcarata, Solanum surattense, Clerodendrum infortunatum and Croton laccifer extracts combination on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosupression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera P. S. Chandana

    2015-06-01

    Results: Hematological analyses revealed that total WBC and leukocyte adhesion were not significantly different in control and extract-treated groups. Expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was significantly different in treated and control groups while expression of IL-12 was not significantly different. Cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression of the control group caused moderate to severe skin lesions while the rats in the extract-treated group did not sustain any skin lesions. All the rats in the cyclophosphamide-treated control group died after three months while 83.33% of the cyclophosphamide + plant extract received group survived, indicating the ability of the plant combination to alleviate the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. Conclusions: Treating with ethanolic extract combination of above plant species might exert their immunomodulatory effect via cytokine expression and can attenuate the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(2.000: 110-113

  19. 薄层色谱法检测海州常山桐树叶中肾上腺素的含量%Identification and quantification of adrenaline from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis using thin-layer chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthu Kumaradoss Mohan Maruga Raja; Ruchi Sureshbhai Patel; Shri Hari Mishra

    2011-01-01

    @@ In the Ayurvedic, Siddha and other medical systems of India, products derived from herbs,used either as active ingredients or as adjuvants,hold paramount importance as alternative medi-cines.However, their standardization poses a great challenge.Correct identification of these drugs is often problematic in both their complete form as well as in powder form, since these medicinal plants are known by a variety of vernacular names and frequently many medicinal plants share the same name.Comparative thin-layer chromatography (co-TLC) with chemical or biological marker compounds can be used to standardize raw materials.Moreover, due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost effectiveness and rapidity, TLC is often used as an alternative to other chromatographic tech-niques for quantifying plant products.

  20. Inventory and mapping of red-listed vascular flora in Hernani municipality (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANZ-AZKUE, I., DÍEZ-LÓPEZ, J., OLARIAGA-IBARGUREN, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 new chorological reports are given for 7 red-listed species, namely, Dryopteris aemula, Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, Prunus lusitanica, Soldanella villosa, Stegnogramma pozoi, Vandenboschia speciosa, and Veratrum album. Comments on their ecology and local distribution maps are provided. The number of subpopulations of S. villosa (52 and T. speciosum (38 found is remarkable. In several streams, the gametophyte phase of T. speciosum, rarely reported in the Iberian Peninsula, exceeds the sporophyte generation in number of individuals, which probably has important conservation and genetic diversity implications. It is proposed that the Urumea Site of Communitary Interest be extended to cover the streams that discharge into it, or alternatively, threatened plant microreserves be established at the Apaizeta, Azketa and Kartola streams.

  1. Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis muris metacercariae in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung-Jong; Woo, Ho-Chun; Lee, Soo-Ung; Huh, Sun

    1999-01-01

    Plagiorchis muris has been found in both house and field rats as well as in humans. The infection status of the second intermediate hosts of P. muris is prerequisite in understanding their biological features in an ecosystem. Six species of dragonflies were caught in a wide range of areas in Korea; and they were Sympetrum darwinianum, S. eroticum, S. pedomontanum, S. infuscatum, Pantala flavoscens, Calopteryx atrata, and Orthetrum albistylum speciosum. The occurrence of P. muris metacercariae...

  2. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.;

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  3. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Nak Yoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum i...

  4. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  5. ANTI- MICROBAL EFFICACY OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS (C. PHLOMIDIS USED IN FOLKARIC MEDICINES IN ARID ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahal Jasvinder Kaur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of different extracts (Methanol, Benzene and Aqueous of Clerodendrum phlomidis plants parts. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of various extracts of Clerodendrum phlomidis was assessed by disc diffusion method against Gram positive - Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 Gram negative- Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Psedomaonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and fungal strains Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404, Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 9807, Candida albicans (ATCC 5027 and Candida glabrata (ATCC 66032. The methanol leaf extract exhibited highest zone of inhibition against the bacterial stain in S. aureus (15.6±0.6mm with low MIC values (0.078 mg/ml and in the case of fungal strains C. albicans (14.0±0.0mm with low MIC values (0.156 mg/ml.However, none of activity is shown by aqueous extract against pathogenic bacteria. Result of the present investigation indicates that Clerodendrum phlomidis possess compounds with antimicrobial properties and hence can be exploited for future natural plant based antimicrobial agents.

  6. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  7. Historical textual criticism of Plumbago zeylanica L.%白花丹的历史考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 刘圆; 孟庆艳; 高泽文

    2006-01-01

    通过历代本草记载情况和历史文献对白花丹Plumbago zeylanica L.进行了查阅,结果表明:入药最早载于中;民国以前的本草均无记载,建国后才有一些应用,属于南部一些省区的地方药材;因其别名较多,常与白花藤、菊科植物千里及(千里光)Senecio scandens Buc.-Han.、苦郎树Clerodendrum inerme L.相混淆.

  8. Remarkable findings of mosses from the Orthotrichaceae family in the Muránska planina National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents recent findings of epiphytic bryophytes from the Orthotrichaceae family in the Muránska planina National Park. Field surveys were carried out between 2008 and 2016. In total, 111 localities were visited. Altogether, 19 taxa from the Orthotrichaceae family were recorded - 8 of them are new for the territory of the National Park (Dorcadion affine var. bohemicum, D. rupestre, Orthotrichum diaphanum, O. patens, O. scanicum, O. stramineum, Pulvigera lyellii, and Ulota bruchii and 1 as new for Slovakia (Dorcadion affine var. bohemicum. Eleven species are listed on the Red list of bryophytes of Slovakia – EX: Orthotrichum rogeri; CR: Nyholmiella gymnostoma, Orthotrichum patens, O. scanicum; VU: Dorcadion striatum, Ulota bruchii; NT: Dorcadion speciosum, Orthotrichum pallens, Pulvigera lyellii, Ulota crispa; DD: Orthotrichum stramineum. The most interesting findings are briefly discussed.

  9. Development and characterization of 27 microsatellite markers for the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum (Pteridaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Mori, Gustavo Maruyama; Cruz, Mariana Vargas; Shinmura, Yoshimi; Wee, Alison K. S.; Takayama, Koji; Asakawa, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Takeru; Suleiman, Monica; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Webb, Edward L.; Watano, Yasuyuki; Kajita, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty-seven nuclear microsatellite markers were developed for the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum (Pteridaceae), to investigate the genetic structure and demographic history of the only pantropical mangrove plant. Methods and Results: Fifty-six A. aureum individuals from three populations were sampled and genotyped to characterize the 27 loci. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from one to 15 and 0.000 to 0.893, respectively. Across the 26 polymorphic loci, the Malaysian population showed much higher levels of polymorphism compared to the other two populations in Guam and Brazil. Cross-amplification tests in the other two species from the genus determined that seven and six loci were amplifiable in A. danaeifolium and A. speciosum, respectively. Conclusions: The 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful for future studies investigating the genetic structure and demographic history of of A. aureum, which has the widest distributional range of all mangrove plants. PMID:27672519

  10. Flora Diversity from Kersik Luway Nature Monument, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI HARTINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kersik Luway is one area in Padang Luway Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan which have some potential plants. Ornamental plants are can be found in this area, which several of them are attractive and useful. The aims of the research were to inventory interesting flora diversity in Kersik Luway. The method used in this research were explorative method at the place. The result showed that there were approximately 18 species of interesting flora in Kersik Luway. The plants are Vaccinium varingiaefolium, Ficus deltoideus, Eugenia zeylanica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosus, Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Nepenthes reinwardtiana. Hown eoricrcoea. Coelngyne pandurata, Coelogyne foerstermannii, Renanthera elongata, Grammatophyllum .speciosum, Cymbidium finlaysonianum, Stenochlaena palustris, Nephrolepis hirsutula, Davallia denticulata, Schizaea dichotoma, Psilotum nudum, and Lygodium microphyllum. The botanical information of each species is presented in this paper.

  11. AVANCES EN LA EVALUACION DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE DIEZ ESPECIES DE LA FAMILIA STERCULIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sotero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo, se presentan los resultados de evaluación de la actividad antioxidante de diez especies de la familia Sterculiaceae, y que comprende en algunos casos a la corteza, raíz y hojas. La determinación de la actividad antioxidante se realizó mediante secuestro de radicales libres del DPPH a 250000 μg/ml  y 3000 μg/ml. Los resultados indican que las mejores actividades en cortezas fueron T. obovatum con y T. subincanum, alcanzando 37,34 y 22,9% de inhibición, en hojas: H. swietenoides con 17,5%  de inhibición, en raíces  T. subincanum y T. obovatum con 68,3% y 13,81% de inhibición. Se pude deducir que en términos generales los compuestos fenólicos participan activamente en la actividad antioxidante. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en cortezas, las mejores concentraciones la presentan H. swietenoides (43,72%,  T. obovatum (37,88 μg/g, T.subincanum (19,89 μg/g y T. speciosum (19,78 μg/g. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en hojas se observa que H. swietenoides, S. frondosa, T.subincanum y T. speciosum, presentan concentraciones  entre 14,08 y 66-05 μg/g. La concentración de polifenoles en hojas para  T.subincanum,  S. frondosa, S. apeibophylia y T.obovatum, varió entre 10,80 a 59,92 μg/g.

  12. Conservation and reintroduction of native orchids of Singapore – the next phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W. Yam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 226 species of native orchids have been recorded in Singapore. However, of these 178 are considered to be extinct, and only five are common. The orchid conservation programme aims to monitor existing species, explore ways to conserve their germplasm, and increase their number for subsequent re-introduction into appropriate habitats, including roadside trees, parks and nature areas. From 1999 to 2008, we carried out experiments and have successfully propagated and re-introduced 5 species of native orchids, namely Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. and Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb. More than 80% of the plants are growing well and all that have survived have flowered. From 2009 to 2012, we expanded our reintroduction efforts by planting fifteen species: Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Bulbophyllum purpurascens (T. and B. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f., Coelogyne rochussenii De Vr., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl., Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume Rchb.f., Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. Rchb.f., Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Phalaenopsis cornu cervi (Breda Bl. and Rchb.f., Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb, Thrixspermum amplexicaule Rchb.f., and Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. is scheduled to be planted. One of our goals is that the reintroduced species would act as catalysts for the restoration of at least part of the original ecosystem. For example, pollinators may be attracted to sites where orchids have been re-introduced. Subsequently, orchid seeds that are produced from naturally pollinated flowers may be blown to the safe sites where appropriate mycorrhizal fungi are present; thus making germination and subsequent establishment of natural populations in

  13. Ethnomedicinal plants of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan used in herbal and folk remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jodhpur district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. The medicinal plants of this region have great potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people, tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Saharia and Meena communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Ten ethnomedicinal plants like Cleome gynandra Linn., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Leucas aspera (Willd. Spreng., Mimosa hamata Willd., Moringa oleifera Lamk., Pedalium murex Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Sida cordifolia Linn. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Poor correlation between the removal or deposition of pollen grains and frequency of pollinator contact with sex organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryota L.; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Pollinators deposit pollen grains on stigmas and remove pollen grains from anthers. The mechanics of these transfers can now be quantified with the use of high-speed video. We videoed hawkmoths, carpenter bees, and swallowtail butterflies pollinating Clerodendrum trichotomum. The number of grains deposited on stigmas did not vary significantly with the number of times pollinators contacted stigmas. In contrast, pollen removal from the anthers increased significantly with the number of contacts to anthers. Pollen removal varied among the three types of pollinators. Also, the three types carried pollen on different parts of their bodies. In hawkmoths and carpenter bees, a large number of contacted body part with anthers differed significantly from the body part that attached a large number of pollen grains. Our results indicate that a large number of contacts by pollinators does not increase either the male or female reproductive success of plants compared to a small number of contacts during a visit.

  15. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  16. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, S.; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S.; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes

  17. Essential oils from Leptospermums of the Sunshine Coast and Northern Rivers Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Sarah Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the turn of this century, the oil yield and chemical composition of Australian Leptospermum species was analysed. Since that time, research has been focused on their use as phytomedicines. The oil yield and composition of essential oils from Australian Leptospermum species directly impacts their commercialisation for medicinal use. Results The essential oils from Leptospermum (L. juniperinum, L. laevigatum, L. liversidgei, L. polygalifolium, L. semibaccatum, L. speciosum, L. trinervium and L. whitei have been examined from specimens in the Sunshine Coast (Queensland and Northern Rivers (New South Wales Regions. Both chemotypes of L. liversidgei were observed. However, only chemotype II of L. semibaccatum and chemotype I of L. trinervium were identified. The only subspecies observed of L. polygalifolium was L. polygalifolium wallum. Conclusions L. liversidgei chemotypes I and II have the potential for phytomedical use as antibacterial or anti-inflammatory agents. Chemotype I has the potential for use as an insect repellent and chemotype II may provide antifungal activity.

  18. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific.

  19. Discrimination of mangrove species in Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak using in-situ measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Beh Boon; Keat, Sim Chong; Syahreza, Saumi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; San, Lim Hwee

    2015-04-01

    Studies of mangrove species's reflectance characteristic are important in order to have a deep understanding of mangrove vegetation. In this paper, the significant wavelengths which can be used to separate the six mangrove species at Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR), Perak were examined. The investigated mangrove species comprise of Rhizophora apiculata, Acrostichum aurem, Acrostichum speciosum, Acanthus ilicifolius, Ceriops tagal and Sonneratia ovata. In-situ spectral reflectance data of six mangrove species's leaf were obtained using ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer and were statistically tested using SPSS program. First, wavelengths which exhibited significant differences (P value<0.05) among the mean reflectance of six mangrove species were identified using a series of one way ANOVA. Second, the identified wavelengths were further analyzed using canonical stepwise discriminant analysis and 26 significant wavelengths were obtained which can be utilized to distinguish among the six mangrove species. In conclusion, each mangrove species in MMFR have it own unique reflectance properties and these characteristic enable the mangrove species can be discriminated among each other under proper analysis and data extraction.

  20. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50 of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65 against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results

  1. Leaf and floral heating in cold climates: do sub-Antarctic megaherbs resemble tropical alpine giants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Little

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High latitude and altitude floras are characterized by low-statured, small, wind-pollinated plants, which mainly reproduce by self-pollination or asexual reproduction. However, at odds with this are some sub-Antarctic islands that have plant species with giant growth forms and large, brightly coloured flowers which require insect visitation for pollination. The size, colour and shape of the inflorescences and leaves of these megaherbs suggest thermal benefits similar to giant tropical alpine plants of equatorial Africa, South America and Hawaii. We evaluated whether heating occurs in sub-Antarctic megaherbs, and to what extent it is related to environmental variables. We measured leaf and inflorescence temperature in six sub-Antarctic megaherb species on Campbell Island, latitude 52.3°S, New Zealand Biological Region. Using thermal imaging techniques, in combination with measurement of solar radiation, ambient air temperature, wind speed, wind chill and humidity, we assessed environmental influences on leaf and floral heating. We found that leaf and inflorescence temperatures of all megaherbs were higher than simultaneously measured ambient temperatures. Greatest heating was seen in Pleurophyllum speciosum, with observed leaves 9°C higher, and inflorescences nearly 11°C higher, than ambient temperature. Heating was highly correlated with brief, unpredictable periods of solar radiation, and occurred most rapidly in species with hairy, corrugated leaves and darkly pigmented, densely packed inflorescences. This is the first evidence that floral and leaf heating occurs in sub-Antarctic megaherbs, and suggests that leaf hairiness, flower colour and shape could provide thermal benefits like those seen in tropical alpine megaherbs.

  2. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Barmer District, Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S. Kapoor1* and Sunil Kumar2

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in herbal plant wealth. The herbal plants of this region havegreat potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people,tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields sincelong time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar Langa andManganiars communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines.Ethnomedicinal plants like Aristolochia bracteolata Lamk., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Cardiospermumhalicacabum Linn., Clerodendrum phlomoidis Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Grewia tenax (Forsk. Fiori.,Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Ding Hau., Mollugo Cerviana (Linn. Seringe. Neurada procumbens Linn., Ocimumamericanum Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Pergularia daemia (Forsk Chiov., Portulaca oleracea Linn.,Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb. Voigt. and Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. have been selected for this researchwork.The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and theiruses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  4. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  5. Anti-Malarial Plants of Jonai, India: an Ethnobotanical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonlong WANGPAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available North-East India represents a unique ecosystem with treasured medicinal plant wealth closely related with Folk medicines. A large number of plants having medicinal properties and their folk uses have remained confined to the natives of this region. The tribal community of Jonai, Assam was explored to expose the indigenous herbal remedy for malaria. Sixteen antimalarial plants belonging to 13 families were reported. The analysis revealed highest fidelity level (FL value for Ajuga integrifolia (100% followed by Ricinus communis (94%, Alstonia scholaris (88%, Oroxylum indicum (86% and Achyranthes aspera (82%. The percentage of respondent’s knowledge (PRK about anti-malarial plants showed Alstonia scholaris as the most commonly known antimalarial species (53% within this region. Preference ranking (PR unveiled eight species to be very effective against malarial parasite, which includes Allium sativum, Artemisia indica, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Clerodendrum glandulosum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Oroxylum indicum, Piper longum and Piper nigrum. All medicine preparations are made using water as the medium and are orally administered in the form of crude extract, powder, juice and decoction. Overall analysis suggested Ajuga integrifolia, Achyranthes aspera, Alstonia scholaris, Artemisia indica, Oroxylum indicum and Ricinus communis to be used for the development of novel, economical, effective and ecofriendly herbal formulations for healthcare management.

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  7. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  8. Evaluation of thrombolytic potential of three medicinal plants available in Bangladesh, as a potent source of thrombolytic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants Averrhoa bilimbi (Oxalidiaceae, Clerodendrum viscosum (Verbanaceae and Drynaria quercifolia (Polypodiaceae. Materials and methods: Each the plant was extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extracts (MEF were fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to render pet-ether soluble fraction (PESF, carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction (CTSF, chloroform soluble fraction (CSF and aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF. To observe their thrombolytic potential, a prompt and swift method was involved where streptokinase and water were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Result: Among the three plants, AQSF and PESF of D. quercifolia with CTSF of C. viscosum exhibited highest thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 34.38%, 34.27% and 28.64%, respectively. Among other extracts A. bilimbi, C. viscosun and D.quercifolia showed significant percentage (% of clot lysis compared to standard streptokinase (41.05% while the negative control water revealed 3.31 % lysis of clot. Conclusion: From our findings it is observed that all the plants revealed remarkable thrombolytic activity. Therefore, steps should be taken to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s of these extracts.

  9. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  10. Inhibitory Effect on β -Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  11. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  12. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  13. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  14. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  15. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  16. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  17. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  18. SOME ETHNO-MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE NATIVE PRACTITIONERS OF CHANDEL DISTRICT, MANIPUR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights some ethno-medicinal plants used by the traditional practitioners of Naga community in khangshim bio – region of Chandel district for the treatment of various ailments. A field survey revealed number of plants growing in bio – region at the position 24029'41.3" N, 94000'58.9" E and altitude 779msl are important folklore medicines for various ailments. Among them some important plants were identified viz Zingiber officinale (IBSD/M-1007 as anticough, antifever, antidiabetic, anticancer, Zingiber cassumuar (IBSD/M-1005 as anticough, antidiabetic, Zingiber zerumbet Smith Fam. Zingiberaceae (IBSD/M-1006 as anti cough, anti fever, Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. Fam. Verbenaceae (IBSD/M/1014 as antihypertensive, Oroxylum indicum Vent Fam. Bignoniaceae (IBSD/M/1015 as anti piles, Eupatorium nodiflorum Wallich (IBSD/M/1016 as anti-diarrheal, Anneslea fragrans Wallich Fam. Theaceae (IBSD/M/1017 for treatment of Kidney stone , Prunus persica (L. Batsch (IBSD/M/1019 as antihypertensive etc. about 6 species of plants and their mode of usages are detailed here. With the advent of the western culture and the concurrent modern or allopathic medicines, the rich Indian heritage of TSM (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Tribal and also the Homeopathic System were sidelined and neglected. Resultantly, the village-based wisdom of traditional system of treatment has not been seriously followed, not well documented and passed on properly over generations. In this context our survey on medicinal plants may help in discovery of safe natural remedy for such dreaded ailments and also in sustainable development of ethno-medicinal bioresources. Our further work is initiated on all those plants to confirm traditional claims.

  19. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n=22, 52.3% of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n=9, 21.4%, leaves (n=6, 14.2%, flowers (n=3, 7.1% and petioles (n=2, 4.7%. The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6% in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India. From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  20. Indução de calos em espécies amazônicas do gênero Theobroma Callus induction in amazonian species of the Theobroma genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivana Borges Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vários trabalhos vem sendo desenvolvidos sobre o cultivo in vitro de cacau (T.cacao, mas são raros para a maioria das outras espécies do gênero, como o cupuaçu (T. grandiflorum, cuja a área plantada vem aumentando expressivamente, e outras que poderiam servir de fonte de genes para as espécies economicamente já reconhecidas. Protocolos para obtenção de embriões somáticos in vitro para as espécies T. cacao,T. grandiflorum,T. speciosum e o híbrido T. grandiflorum x T. obovatum foram avaliados a partir de duas fontes de explantes, estaminódios e pétalas (formadas por lígulas e cógulas cultivados em meio de crescimento primário de calo, consistindo de sais DKW, suplementado com 20 g l-1 de sacarose, 250 mg l-1de glutamina, 200 mg l-1de mio-inositol, 0,2 mg l-1 de tiamina-HCl, 0,1 mg l-1 de ácido nicotínico, 0,2 mg l-1 de glicina, 2 mg l-1 de 2,4-D, 2,2 g l-1 de Gelrite® e pH 5,8. A este meio foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de tidiazuron (0, 5 e 10 µg l-1. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 14 dias, à temperatura de 25 ± 2 ºC, e então transferidas para meio de crescimento secundário de calo, constituído de sais WPM, vitaminas de Gamborg, 20 g l-1 de sacarose, 2 mg l-1 de 2,4 D, 0,3 mg l-1 de cinetina, 50 ml l-1 de água de côco, 2,2 g l-1 de Gelrite® e pH 5,8. A formação de calos ocorreu em todas as espécies. Embriões somáticos foram obtidos somente para T. cacao. A calogênese mostrou-se influenciada pelo genótipo e foi maior nos estaminódios.Many works have been done on cocoa (Theobroma cacao in vitro culture, with few studies being published for other species of the same genus, as cupuassu (T. grandiflorum, whose planted area is increasing expressively, and others that could be used as a source of genes for those with recognized economical importance. Protocols to obtain in vitro somatic embryos from T. cacao,T. grandiflorum,T. speciosum and the hybrid T. grandiflorum x T. obovatum from two

  1. Systematic Position of Partial Plants of Verbenaceae Inferred from Sequences of Chloroplast rbcL and matK%基于rbcL和matK序列探讨马鞭草科部分植物的系统学位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金宏; 孔卫青

    2013-01-01

    为探究适用于马鞭草科植物的DNA条形码及该类群的系统分类关系,对豆腐柴(Premna microphylla)的叶绿体基因ycf6-psbM、trnV-atpE、rbcL、trnL-F、psbM-trnD、atpB-rbcL、trnC-ycf6、trnH-psbA、rpl36-infA-rps8和核基因ITS序列进行了PCR扩增和测序,结果表明,仅rbcL、trnl-F、trnH-psbA序列的PCR扩增以及测序效果较好,而ITS不能得到明显的扩增条带,ycf6-psbM不能成功测序,其它序列存在有部分双峰或噪值高等问题.根据DNA条形码标准,rbcL序列是所有测试条码中相对最适合的.应用rbcL和matK序列对马鞭草科(Verbenaceae)豆腐柴属、牡荆属(Vitex L.)、马鞭草属(Verbena L.)和大青属(Clerodendrum L.)等4属与唇形科宝盖草属(Lamium L.)、水苏属(Stachys L.)、鼠尾草属(Salvia L.)和香科科属(Teucrium L.)等4属的分类和系统发育关系进行分析,以紫草科Lithospermum multiflorum L.为外类群,最大简约法对2个片段的单独和联合矩阵分别构建系统发育树.豆腐柴属和大青属应从马鞭草科划入唇形科,马鞭草属仍归于马鞭草科,而牡荆属的系统学位置还需更多的证据.

  2. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants in and Around Fiche District, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyu Enyew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in and around Fiche District, North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia from September 2011 to January 2012. Ten kebeles were selected from North to South and East to West directions of Fiche District and its surroundings by purposive sampling method. Six informants including one key informant were selected from each kebele for data collection by using printed data collection sheets containing, semi-structured interview questions, group discussion and guided field walk. The plant specimens were identified by using taxonomic keys in the Floras of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics; informant consensus factor and fidelity level using MS-Excel 2010. Totally, 155 medicinal plants belonging to 128 genera and 65 families were recorded. Most medicinal plants (72.9% were used for human healthcare in which Lamiaceae was dominant (11% in which Ocimum lamiifolium, Otostegia integrifolia and Leonotis ocymifolia were the most common species. Herbs were dominant (43.87% flora followed by shrubs (35.48%. The most frequently used plant parts for remedial preparation were leaves (38.1% followed by roots (14.8% and others. Fresh plant parts were used mostly (47.7% followed by dried (13.5% and the remaining (38.7% either in fresh or dried. Among the preparations, crushing was the dominant (21.3% form followed by squeezing (16.1%. The remedial administration was mostly oral (38.7% followed by dermal (29%. The highest (88% ICF was associated with intestinal parasites followed by emergency diseases (82%. The FL of Actiniopteris semiflabellata, Plantago lanceolata, Capparis tomentosa, and Clerodendrum myricoides was calculated 100% irrespective of diseases. In conclusion, rich diversity of floras were mostly practiced in crude form and to prevent extinction of medicinal plants due to unsustainable anthropogenic activities, local communities need to give attention for in

  3. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  4. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  5. 新疆木灵藓属Orthotrichum Hedw.植物的分类学研究%A Taxonomic Study of Orthotrichum Hedw.in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迪力努尔·艾尼玩; 买买提明·苏来曼; 阿布都拉·巴尔; 热孜玩故·艾则孜

    2013-01-01

    根据历年采自新疆各地区的350号木灵藓属Orthotrichum植物标本,在查阅大量文献的基础上,通过经典分类学方法,对新疆木灵藓属植物进行了整理、鉴定和分类.结果表明:新疆有木灵藓属植物5亚属、17种,包括裸孔亚属subg.Gymnoporus(6种)、直叶亚属subg.Orthophyllum(1种)、疣叶亚属subg.Pulchella(5种)、圆孔亚属subg.Phaneroporum(1种)、木灵藓亚属subg.Orthotrichum(4种),其中高山木灵藓Orthotrichum alpestre Hornsch.ex B.S.G.为中国新记录种;中国木灵藓 O.hookeri Wils.ex Mitt.、东亚木灵藓 O.ibukiense Toy.、短丛木灵藓 O.pumilum Sw.和卷叶木灵藓 O.revolutum C.Muell.为新疆新记录种.通过对新疆新记录种的生境、识别特征、采集地点、地理分布、海拔等信息的整理分析,绘制了4个种的线条图,并编制了新疆木灵藓属植物的分亚属和分种检索表.%In views of the advance of research on the genus Orthotrichum and according to the specimens of 350 packets collected from different parts of Xinjiang, 17 species are reported in this paper. Among them 1 species (O. alpestre Hornsch. ex B. S. G. ) is reported for the first time in China,and 4 species (O. hookeri Wils. ex Mitt. ,O. ibukiense Toy. ,O. pumilum Sw. and O. revolution C. Muell. ) are reported for the first time in Xinjiang. All species are in 5 subgenera,6 species (O. affine Schrad. ex Brid. ,O. dasymitrium Lewinsky in T. Kop. ,O. hookeri Wils. ex Mitt. ,O. sordidum Sull. et Lesq. ,O. speciosum Nees. and O. striatum Hedw. ) in subg. Gymnoporus,1 species ( O. obtusifolium Brid. ) in subg. Orthophyllum,5 species ( O. alpestre Hornsch. ex B. S. G. ,O. crenulatum Mitt. ,O. pal-lens Bruch. ex Brid. , O. pumilum Sw. and O. revolutum C. Muell. ) in subg. Pulchella, 1 species ( O. rupestre Schleicher ex Schwaegr. ) in subg. Phaneroporum, and 4 species ( O. anomalum Hedw. , O. cupulatum Brid. , O. hallii Sull. et Lesq. and O. ibukiense Toy. ) in subg. Orthotrichum

  6. 黄酮3-羟化酶(F3H)的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics analysis of flavanone-3-hydroxylase( F3H)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 王若曦; 王欢

    2015-01-01

    通过生物信息学分析方法,对已经在GenBank上注册的青稞( Hordeum vulgare)、高粱( Sorghum bicolor)、小麦( Triticum aestivum)、玉米( Zea mays)、洋葱( Allium cepa)、花烛( Anthurium andraeanum)和美丽百合( Lilium specio-sum)等7种单子叶植物的F3H核酸以及相应氨基酸序列进行研究,并对其组成成分、理化性质、信号肽、亚细胞定位、跨膜结构、蛋白质二级、三级结构、结构域以及分子进化等方面进行分析与预测. 研究结果表明,除玉米F3 H蛋白定位于过氧化物酶体外,其他植物F3 H均定位于细胞质基质内;所有植物F3 H均为不含信号肽的非分泌型蛋白,且没有跨膜区域的亲水性蛋白;α-螺旋和无规则卷曲是F3 H的主要二级结构元件,而延伸链则散布于整个蛋白中;F3H拥有一个2OG-Fell Oxy super family和一个PLNO3176 super family保守结构域;所构建的F3H系统发育进化关系与形态学上物种发育关系基本吻合.%In this paper, F3H, sequences from Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Allium cepa, An-thurium andraeanum and Lilium speciosum, which were registered in GenBank, were analyzed and predicted by tools of bioinformatics in the following aspects:composition, physical and chemical properties, signal peptide,protein subcellular localization, transmembrane helices in proteins, structure of protein, conserved domain and phylogeny. The results demonstrated Zea mays F3H lies in peroxisome and F3H from other plants locate in cell matrix;F3H is a non-secretory protein without signal peptide and hydrophilic protein without transmembrane area;α-helix and random coil are primary secondary structural components of F3H and extending chain spread in the whole protein;F3H contains a conserved 2OG-Fell Oxy super family domain and a conserved PLNO3176 super family domain; F3H phylogeny is in consistent with morphological species phylogeny in general.

  7. Food plants and foraging behaviors of Xylocopa appendiculata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Luoyang, Henan Province, central China%洛阳地区黄胸木蜂访花植物种类及访花行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺春玲; 李雪萍; 张红晓

    2012-01-01

    [ Aim] For the further development and utilization of the Xylocopa resources, it is necessary to know the food plants and foraging behaviors of X. appendiculata. [ Methods ] From March to October of the past three years (2009 - 2011 ) , the floral resources of X. appendiculata and its foraging behaviors were observed by visual observation and photographing in fields in Luoyang, Henan Province, central China. Characteristics of plant species utilized as its food resources were recorded. The size of holes in the corolla tube chewed by robbers was measured. [ Results ] In natural habitats, there were 52 plant species in 27 different families in Luoyang, Henan Province, central China visited by X appendiculata, and 25 of the species were its major plant resources. The species proportions of Caprifoliaceae and Leguminosae families were dominant ( 17. 31% and 15. 38% of the total plant species visited, respectively). Sixteen of the 43 plant species were robbed by X. appendiculata, accounting for 30.77% of its visited plants. X. appendiculata prefers flowers which are usually medium-sized, zygomorphic, and purple, yellow, or white colored. Significant variations were found in size of robbing holes and flower visiting frequency of X. appendiculata in different species. Size of robbing holes in Clerodendrum bungei were the maximal (9.43 ± 1. 91 mm in diameter), while minimal (3. 46 ±0. 98 mm in diameter) in Kolkwitzia amabilis. Flower visiting frequency in Lagerslroemia indica was the highest, 25. 71 ±2. 36 flowers per minute; and the duration of each visit and interval time of X. appendiculata between two flowers in Althaea rosea were the highest, 5. 89 ± 3. 34 s per flower and 2. 63 ± 2. 04 s between two flowers, respectively. [Conclusion] X. appendiculata foraging is characterized by a wide range of food plants and long seasons of activity. Significant variations exist in its foraging behaviors and foraging frequency on different plants